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Sample records for age smoking habits

  1. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  2. [Smoking habits in chronic schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Fukui, K; Kobayashi, T; Hayakawa, S; Koga, E; Okazaki, S; Kawashima, Y; Kawakami, F; Fukui, Y; Tani, N; Kato, A

    1995-12-01

    The smoking habits of 48 chronic schizophrenics who were inpatients of private psychiatric were examined. Subjects were divided into three groups; non-smokers, moderate smokers and heavy smokers, and tested by Fagerstrom's Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) as a tobacco dependence evaluation, and Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) as a neuropsychological battery. In addition, we used the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) to evaluate the degree of schizophrenic negative symptoms, confirming the correlation between SANS score and the amount of nicotine intake or FTQ item. From the results of FTQ scores and their correlation with SANS scores, the amount of nicotine intake was significantly related to the severity of schizophrenic negative symptoms including affective blunting, poverty of thinking and attention impairment. BGT and BVRT showed disturbances in visual-motor gestalt function, and attention and memory, in chronic schizophrenics who smoked, especially in heavy smokers. These results suggest that smoking behavior in chronic schizophrenics might increase the individual vigilance against negative symptoms, from the perspective of self-medication. PMID:8588752

  3. Smoking habits of the medical students.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Narang, R K; Chandra, S; Chaturvedi, P K; Dubey, A L

    1989-01-01

    Smoking habits of the medical students, both undergraduates and postgraduates, were evaluated by self-administering a predesigned proforma. 854 (66.05%) of the 1293 students responded, of whom, 30.7% of them were smokers. The number of smokers and the intensity of smoking increased with the advancement of their career at college. There were more smokers amongst the married and those with a history of smoking in their family. There was no systematic correlation between the socio-economic or rural/urban background and the smoking habit. PMID:2606551

  4. Age aspects of habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  5. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  6. Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. Methods ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. Results In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. Conclusions S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue. PMID:21982398

  7. Urinary levels of trace elements among primary school-aged children from Italy: The contribution of smoking habits of family members.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Canepari, Silvia; Vitali, Matteo

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study was to investigate the role of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure in domestic environment, the smoking policies adopted at home on urinary excretion of 23 trace elements present in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke (Li, Be, B, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Tl, Pb, Bi, U) among a sample of healthy Italian school-aged children. The levels of monitored trace elements in urine samples from 110 children (5-11years) living in a rural area and recruited in a cross-sectional study were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while information regarding demographic characteristics and ETS exposure of the participants were obtained from questionnaires. Univariate elaborations evidenced that Co and Mn levels increased in children exposed to ETS in domestic environment, but multiple linear regression analyses revealed the independent effect of the habit of cohabitant(s) smoker(s) of smoking at home when children is present on urinary concentrations of Li, Ti, V, Co, Ga and Sr. Besides, we found significant gender- and age-dependency of some monitored elements: females presented higher Cu and Pb levels, but lower Rb levels respect to males, while age displayed a significant negative independent effect on the Cr, Co, Rb, and Sn concentrations, but positive on Ga levels. Finally, u-creatinine was a significant predictor for almost all the analytes, but not for Mn, Cd, Sb, Ga. PMID:27016686

  8. Smoking habits of oil refinery employees

    SciTech Connect

    Van Peenen, P.F.D.; Blanchard, A.G.; Wolkonsky, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies of the mortality of oil refinery workers have reported low Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer and other cancers linked to cigarette smoking. A suggested explanation is that refinery employees do not smoke because of the obvious danger of, and prohibition against, smoking in many refinery areas. To evaluate this hypothesis, data were analyzed from employees of a large petrochemical company, Standard Oil Company (Indiana), and a comparison made of smoking habits of White males who worked in oil refineries with those of nonrefinery White males.

  9. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Linda G; Malak, Malakeh Z

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and to describe the habits, attitudes, and practices related to smoking among students of Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan. Students (n = 650) were recruited in randomly selected, cluster samples drawn from the medical and engineering colleges of JUST. They were made familiar with a modified Arabic version of the World Health Organisation Smoking Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Smoking Questionnaire to study their habits, attitudes, and beliefs in relation to smoking. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 28.6% (50.2% among males and 6.5% among females). Friends, not family, were the main source of the first smoking, and this most often occurred after 15 years of age (82.3%). Males preferred smoking in the cafeteria, females in the bathroom. The main advantage of smoking for males was calming down, while for females it was independence. Non-smokers chose not to smoke because of health and hatred of the habit. The non-smokers had more positive attitudes against smoking and were more aware of the adverse effects of smoking. The reasons smokers gave for starting smoking were pleasure, followed by stress and curiosity. Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit smoking in the future. Some smokers disagreed with some criticisms against smoking, and reasons why they did not want to quit included social attitudes, addiction, and not knowing how to quit. Results of this study may provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program in the university and encourage policy makers to limit smoking in the university by strengthening the policies against smoking. PMID:12379297

  10. A survey on smoking habits and attitudes among adolescents in Greece.

    PubMed

    Piperakis, Stylianos M; Garagouni-Araiou, Fotini; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Piperakis, Alexander S; Iakovidou-Kritsi, Zafiroula; Triga, Anastassia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate smoking habits among 699 secondary school students, along with their attitudes toward smoking and their perceptions on the consequences of tobacco use in their health. Our results indicate that Greek adolescents begin to smoke mainly due to curiosity and for stress reasons. Furthermore, having friends who smoke is highly associated with smoking and intention for smoking. Likewise, paternal smoking seems to reinforce students' intention for smoking. On the contrary, parental disapproval of smoking leads to anti-smoking behavior. Adolescents' attitudes toward smoking are also related to a series of similar factors such as parental educational status, parental smoking, and parental disapproval of smoking, friends who smoke, and, finally, adolescents' age, smoking behavior, and intention for smoking. The impact of tobacco use in human health seems to be understood better by older students. All these factors must be taken into account for a successful implementation of an anti-smoking intervention program. PMID:18540285

  11. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Brooks, N; Kirby, R

    1991-12-01

    Smoking habits and related attitudes were assessed in a sample of 4059 11- to 16-year-olds who also identified their best friends from among their fellow respondents. Subjects' responses were directly collated with those of their friends and indicated a clear covariation of smoking status (controlling for sex and age) as anticipated from previous research in which adolescents have been asked to report on the smoking habits of their friends. Such covariation, however, was not specific to smoking habits, but generalized to related measures of attitude and normative beliefs, alcohol use, health locus of control, school performance, spending habits and socio-economic status. Similarities on these other attributes were much the same, whether or not friends shared each others' smoking habits. It is concluded that these data argue against a simplistic view of unidirectional 'peer group influence' and invite an interpretation of friendship choice based on multiple dimensions of similarity. PMID:1799862

  12. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. PMID:25082709

  13. [Preliminary analysis of smoking habit in firefighters of Wielkopolska region].

    PubMed

    Witt, Magdalena; Romańczukiewicz, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Professional performance of firefighters causes high level of stress. This results in certain activities meant to lower a stress level, some of which are harmful to individuals health per se--smoking is a classical example here. This work was aimed at assessment of prevalence and style of smoking in the group of 69 professional firefighters of Wielkopolska region. Parameters studied were: prevalence, awareness of health-hazard, extent of nicotin addiction, motivation to quit with habit. Motivation to start smoking and further development of smoking habit as well as influence of environment was also studied. Since smoking presents a medical and social problem in this group of professionals, educative measures aimed at reduction of stress level and bad habit fighting should be undertaken. PMID:17288226

  14. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended. PMID:19570279

  16. Smoking: additional burden on aging and death.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823

  17. The Smoking Habits of Children and Staff at Brays Grove Comprehensive School, Harlow, Essex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of smoking habits conducted in a secondary school suggested that most students start smoking as a result of social pressure. Many smokers were aware of health hazards of smoking yet chose to smoke. (PS)

  18. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  19. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  20. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormone replacement therapy, who were not smoking and who had a physically light occupation more often took part in strenuous sports. Women who had been treated for malignancies or with back problems exercised to the same extent as women in the general population. CONCLUSION: About a third of the post-menopausal women exercised on a regular basis, if exercise involved in getting to and from work was not counted. Since regular physical exercise has many health benefits, more women should be encouraged to take part in regular physical exercise. Factors probably associated with level of education and general awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle positively influenced the likelihood of these women to be physically active on a regular basis. A previous malignant disease or current back problems did not prevent women from taking part in exercise on a regular basis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9298557

  1. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. Methods: All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Results: Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. Conclusions: The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking. PMID:26951917

  2. Smoking habits among italian adolescents: what has changed in the last decade?

    PubMed

    Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Borraccino, Alberto; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit. PMID:24860815

  3. Smoking Habits among Italian Adolescents: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Lemma, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002–2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit. PMID:24860815

  4. Comparison of dietary and smoking habit changes in physical fitness improvers and nonimprovers.

    PubMed

    Blair, S N; Goodyear, N N; Wynne, K L; Saunders, R P

    1984-07-01

    Changes in dietary, smoking, and alcohol intake habits of men who voluntarily increased their physical fitness level (n = 532) were compared with men who did not increase physical fitness (n = 390). These men were middle-aged (average age = 43 years), initially sedentary and free of disease, and had been examined twice at a preventive medicine clinic within a 1- to 6-year period. Subjects were retrospectively assigned to two fitness groups--improvers and nonimprovers--based on changes in treadmill performance between baseline and follow-up examinations. Fifteen lifestyle variables were assessed by questionnaire and evaluated for change. At baseline the two groups were similar in demographic variables and diet, differing significantly only in follow-up interval (P less than 0.001), treadmill time (P less than 0.001), whole milk consumption (P less than 0.003), and smoking (P less than 0.001). At follow-up, positive changes in health habits were seen for both groups. Statistically significant differences in health habit change between the groups were seen only for beef (P less than 0.003) and coffee (P less than 0.003) consumption (consumption of both decreasing in more improvers than nonimprovers). Smokers at baseline were less likely to improve their physical fitness. We concluded that individuals who voluntarily increased their physical fitness level were not more likely to change their dietary and alcohol habits than persons who maintained a more sedentary lifestyle. PMID:6504869

  5. The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude.

    PubMed

    Dar-Odeh, Najla S; Abu-Hammad, Osama A

    2011-01-01

    Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking.Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people. PMID:21878112

  6. A Survey of the Smoking Habits and Attitudes of High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    An extensive review of literature on trends in the consumption of tobacco; concern regarding tobacco and health; the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and coronary heart disease; effect of smoking on human tissues; chemistry of tobacco smoke; and the smoking habits of students precedes discussion of an…

  7. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Pyrethroid Exposure & Change In Smoking Habit!

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Kevin; Klair, Jagpal Singh; Johnsrud, Andrew; Meena, Nikhil K

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) in a 29-year-old white woman with recent use of a'flea bomb' (containing pyrethroids) at home while remaining indoors, about 48 hours prior to presentation, and recent change in smoking habit (restarted 2 weeks prior after quitting for 10 years). She presented with two days of worsening fever, shortness of breath, productive cough, developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. She required a PEEP of 20 and 100% FiO2 to maintain oxygenation. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed 36% Eosinophils. She was given IV steroids with dramatic clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report associating AEP with pyrethroid exposure. PMID:27434983

  8. Associations between housing conditions, smoking habits and ventilatory lung function in men with clean jobs.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, F V; Borchsenius, L; Winsløw, J B; Ostergaard, E R

    1978-10-01

    In 218 men, who had minimal occupational exposure to dusts, fumes, temperature variability, or physical exercise, the relation between housing conditions throughout life and lung function was analysed. The number of years spend in dwellings without central heating was significantly inversely associated with the level of FEV1 and MMEF, and significantly directly associated with closing capacity in per cent of TLC, CC%. Significant dose-response relationships between smoking habits and FEV1, MMEF, CC% and slope of the alveolar plateau (phase III) were found, whereas closing volume, CV%, was only correlated to age. The association between dwelling conditions and ventilatory capacity was independent of smoking habits. Tobacco smoking, however, moderated the association in as much as it was strengthened after standardisation for tobacco consumption. These data support the hypothesis that poor dwelling conditions during childhood and adolescence are associated with development of peripheral airways disease and expiratory airflow obstruction at middle age, and that comparisons of lung function between different occupational categories are incomplete and may be misleading if lifelong housing conditions or other factors reflecting socio-economic status are not taken into consideration. PMID:734386

  9. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2). Results The serum triglyceride (TG) levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA. PMID:26616395

  10. The effect of cigarette smoking habits on the outcome of dental implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of smoking habits and other possibly relevant factors on dental implant survival. The study population included all patients who underwent dental implants between the years 1999 and 2008 at a large military dental clinic and were examined in the periodic medical examination center. Correlation between implant characteristics and patients’ smoking habits, as mentioned in the questionnaire answered by patients in the periodic examination, was performed. Besides standard statistical methods, multiple linear regression models were constructed for estimation of the relative influence of some factors on implant survival rate. The long-term results of the implant treatment were good. The study refers to 7,680 implants. 7,359 (95.8%) survived and 321 (4.2%) did not survive. Concerning smoking habits, in a uni-variable analysis, factors found to have an association with implant survival were the smoking status of the patients (smoking/no smoking), the amount of smoking, passive smoking, and the time elapsed in ex-smokers from the time they ceased smoking to the time of implantation. In a multi-variable analysis, factors found to have an association with implant survival were smoking status (smoking/no smoking) and amounts of smoking as expressed in pack years. PMID:25237600

  11. A Survey of Greek Elementary School Students' Smoking Habits and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Karagouni-Areou, Fotini; Triga, Anastasia; Piperakis, Alexander S.; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Thanou, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Basiliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of Greek elementary school students, their attitudes towards smoking, and their perceptions of the health consequences of tobacco use. Data were obtained from 1,092 elementary school students who completed a 24-item questionnaire designed for this study. Results indicated more older…

  12. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  13. [The Fuenlabrada study: smoking habits in children and adolescents. Effect on various cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Calvo, M T; Plaza Pérez, I; Madero Medrano, R; López Martínez, D; Otero de Becerra, J; Hidalgo Vicario, I; Baeza Mínguez, J; Ceñal González-Fierro, M J; Parra Martínez, I; Cobaleda Rodrigo, A

    1989-10-01

    We studied 1,274 healthy children of both sexes from 10 until 18 years of age, in Fuenlabrada, Madrid. We knew the tobacco consumption by means of direct asking to the children, without the presence of their parents. We studied the smoking habit of their parents by means of inquiries. The percentage of smoker children was 30% (24% of them had smoker parents, and 6% did not). We studied the tobacco influence in several parameters of cardiovascular risk; it was found that C-HDL levels in the smoker children were 5 mg/dl lower than the non-smokers, and the ratio C-LDL/C-HDL in the smokers was 1,2 times greater than in the non-smokers. PMID:2697160

  14. The role of anti-smoking legislation on cigarette and alcohol consumption habits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking and drinking habits were investigated in this paper. In 2005, a smoking ban was introduced in Italy, and we exploited this exogenous variation to measure the effect on both smoking participation and intensity and the indirect effect on alcohol consumption. Using data from the Everyday Life Aspects survey, for the period 2001-2007, we show that the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Italy significantly affected smoking behavior. We also document significant indirect effects on alcohol consumption for the main alcoholic beverage categories. A robustness analysis is also performed, to test the extent to which unobservable variables may bias our estimated parameters. Our results are then used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the anti-smoking legislation in Italy. PMID:23642788

  15. Smoking habits and coenzyme Q10 status in healthy European adults

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Onur, Simone; Paulussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipophilic endogenously synthesised antioxidant that is present in nearly all human tissues and plays an important role in mitochondrial energy production. It has been postulated that smoking has a consumptive effect on CoQ10. Material and methods To further define the relation between smoking and the serum CoQ10 status, 276 healthy volunteers aged 19 to 62 years were grouped into non-smokers (n = 113; 77 male, 36 female) and smokers (n = 163; 102 male, 61 female). Serum lipid profile was analysed by standard clinical chemistry. Coenzyme Q10 concentration and redox status were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Male smokers showed higher serum CoQ10 levels than female smokers. This sex-related difference was accounted for when CoQ10 was related to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as the main carrier of CoQ10 in the circulation. Neither LDL-adjusted CoQ10 concentration nor redox status significantly differed when smokers and non-smokers were compared. Regarding the smoking history, the number of cigarettes consumed per day did not significantly affect the CoQ10 status. Interestingly, with increasing time of smoking habit we observed increasing levels of LDL-adjusted serum CoQ10 concentration (Spearman's p < 0.002) and of the reduced form of CoQ10 (Spearman's p < 0.0001). Conclusions As an adaptive response to oxidative stress in long-term smokers an increased demand for antioxidant capacity may be covered by increasing levels of LDL-adjusted CoQ10 serum concentrations and by a concomitantly increased availability of the reduced, active form of CoQ10, possibly by induction of enzymes that are involved in converting CoQ10ox to CoQ10red. PMID:27478450

  16. [Lung neoplasms in the Berne region. Epidemiology and smoking habit, compared to histology].

    PubMed

    Scherrer, M; Zeller, Ch; Christen, H; Bachofen, H; Senn, A; Zimmermann, H

    1976-08-28

    223 lung cancer patients were observed from June 1974 to April 1976. The diagnosis was by histology (after biopsy, operation or autopsy). There were 125 (56%) squamous cell carcinomas (sqcc), 42 (19%) small cell carcinomas (smcc), 27 (12%) large cell carcinomas (lacc) and 29 (13%) adenocarcinomas (adec). There were only 6 women (2.7%) in the series (3adec, 2 smcc and 1 lacc). Heavy and very heavy smokers were common in each group; smoking habits--even of patients with adec - differed markedly (p less than 0.0005) from those of an age and sex matched control group of 90 asthmatic patients with atopy. Sqcc patients were evenly distributed over the rural and urban zones of our region. But smcc, lacc and adec were more often seen coming from urban zones (p less than 0.0025). The whole lung cancer group was divided into a small group of 6 non-smokers (2.7%), into a 6.7% group of 15 pipe smokers, into a large group of 69 cigar smokers (30.9%) and into a final group of 133 (59.6%) cigarette smokers. The cigar smokers usually had sqcc (p less than 0.0005). The cancer of cigar smokers is more often a central lesion than a peripheral one (p less than 0.025). A history of repeated airway infections on the one hand, and severe airway infection at the beginning of lung cancer history on the other, are a more frequent association in cigar smokers than in cigarette smokers (p less than 0.01). Therefore, the lung cancer of cigar smokers is especially difficult to recognize. Cigar smoking appears to be just as important a link in the chain of causative factors leading to lung cancer as cigarette smoking. PMID:1006240

  17. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  18. Association of smoking status, cumulative smoking, duration of smoking cessation, age of starting smoking, and depression in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs) of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98) for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48) for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16) for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54) for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09). No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females. PMID:22938088

  19. Novel Epigenetic Changes Unveiled by Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Smoking Habits

    PubMed Central

    Allione, Alessandra; Marcon, Francesca; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Crebelli, Riccardo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoking affects the epigenome and could increase the risk of developing diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Changes in DNA methylation associated with smoking may help to identify molecular pathways that contribute to disease etiology. Previous studies are not completely concordant in the identification of differentially methylated regions in the DNA of smokers. We performed an epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in a group of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for smoking habits to determine the effect of smoking on DNA methylation. As MZ twins are considered genetically identical, this model allowed us to identify smoking-related DNA methylation changes independent from genetic components. We investigated the whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 20 MZ twin pairs discordant for smoking habits by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified 22 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smoker and non-smoker MZ twins by intra-pair analysis. We confirmed eight loci already described by other groups, located in AHRR, F2RL3, MYOG1 genes, at 2q37.1 and 6p21.33 regions, and also identified several new loci. Moreover, pathway analysis showed an enrichment of genes involved in GTPase regulatory activity. Our study confirmed the evidence of smoking-related DNA methylation changes, emphasizing that well-designed MZ twin models can aid the discovery of novel DNA methylation signals, even in a limited sample population. PMID:26043106

  20. Novel epigenetic changes unveiled by monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Allione, Alessandra; Marcon, Francesca; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Crebelli, Riccardo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoking affects the epigenome and could increase the risk of developing diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Changes in DNA methylation associated with smoking may help to identify molecular pathways that contribute to disease etiology. Previous studies are not completely concordant in the identification of differentially methylated regions in the DNA of smokers. We performed an epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in a group of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for smoking habits to determine the effect of smoking on DNA methylation. As MZ twins are considered genetically identical, this model allowed us to identify smoking-related DNA methylation changes independent from genetic components. We investigated the whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 20 MZ twin pairs discordant for smoking habits by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified 22 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smoker and non-smoker MZ twins by intra-pair analysis. We confirmed eight loci already described by other groups, located in AHRR, F2RL3, MYOG1 genes, at 2q37.1 and 6p21.33 regions, and also identified several new loci. Moreover, pathway analysis showed an enrichment of genes involved in GTPase regulatory activity. Our study confirmed the evidence of smoking-related DNA methylation changes, emphasizing that well-designed MZ twin models can aid the discovery of novel DNA methylation signals, even in a limited sample population. PMID:26043106

  1. Analysis of cancer risk related to longitudinal information on smoking habits

    SciTech Connect

    Akiba, Suminori

    1994-11-01

    Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has followed the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) cohort consisting of atomic bomb survivors and unexposed subjects for more than 40 years. The information on their lifestyles, including smoking habits, has been collected in the past 25 years through two mail surveys of the entire LSS cohort and three interview surveys of a subcohort for the biennial medical examination program. In the present study an attempt was made to consolidate the information on smoking habits obtained from the five serial surveys, and then a risk analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of updating the smoking information on the smoking-related risk estimates for lung cancer. The estimates of smoking-related risk became larger and estimates of dose response became sharper by updating smoking information using all of the data obtained from the five serial surveys. Analyses were also conducted for cancer sites other than lung. The differences in risk estimates between the two approaches were not as evident for the other cancer sites as for lung. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. )

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  3. Clustering of Risk Factors With Smoking Habits Among Adults, Sousse, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Harrabi, Imed; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; al’Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Ghannem, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Tunisia, few studies have assessed the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease (eg, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity). We studied 1,880 adults to determine the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors in Tunisia. Methods This study was part of an assessment of the prevalence of chronic disease risk factors in a community-based trial conducted in 2009 to implement a chronic disease prevention program. The study population was randomly selected from 3 districts of the region of Sousse. The questionnaires were administered by personal interview and included the assessment of tobacco use and other chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthful diet habits and physical inactivity. Results Of the 1,880 study participants, 64% were women. The mean age of the participants was 37.9 (standard deviation, 13.5 y). The prevalence of tobacco use in our population was 50.4% for men and 3.1% for women. Among men, the proportion of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among smokers (25.3% vs 5.7% [P <.001]). Smokers consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and more high-fat, high-salt, and high-sugar foods than did nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between male smokers and nonsmokers regarding physical activity (P = .36). Conclusion Physical activity and dietary characteristics may be important areas for physicians to assess during smoking-cessation interventions. PMID:24355104

  4. Age related changes in age of starting to smoke.

    PubMed

    Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D

    1990-01-01

    The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages. PMID:2303843

  5. Most Americans Support Rise in Legal Smoking Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159148.html Most Americans Support Rise in Legal Smoking Age Survey finds wide support in all regions ... survey finds most Americans support pushing the legal smoking age even higher. Across all regions of the ...

  6. Prevalence and perception of smoking habits among the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Eldalo, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    Background The Gaza Strip is a densely populated place with ~2 million inhabitants in an area of 365 km2. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence in the Gaza Strip and to identify the perception of the Palestinian population on smoking. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories, during the period from June to September 2014. Convenient sampling method was adopted. A structured pretested questionnaire was used. Results A total of 600 adults aged 15 years or older completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 83.3%. The prevalence rate of smoking was 26.3%, with a significantly higher rate among males (31%) than females (6.9%) (P<0.001). The mean starting age was 17.4±3.9 years. The study revealed that influence of friends is the major reason for initiation of smoking and the most influential factor in convincing smokers to quit was the family. Smokers’ knowledge about smoking risks motivates them to try stop smoking (64.9%) or desire to stop smoking (65.2%). Conclusion The study revealed that tobacco use is significantly prevalent in the Gaza Strip. The author recommends rapid antismoking campaigns with stress on the family role and massive intervention programs to encourage young people to change their behavior toward smoking. PMID:27486330

  7. Asbestos exposure, smoking habits, and cancer incidence among production and maintenance workers in an electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Langard, S.A.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of cancer was studied in a cohort of 287 men who were exposed to asbestos at a nitric acid production plant from 1928 onwards. During the observation period from 1953 through 1980 all cancer cases among the cohort members were identified in The Cancer Registry. For the whole cohort 42 cases of cancer were observed versus 30.6 expected. The figures for cancer of the lungs and pleura combined were 17 observed versus 3.7 expected. The corresponding figures for a heavily exposed subcohort were 11 observed and 1.2 expected. In that group there was also an increased incidence of colon cancer with 3 cases observed against 0.8 cases expected. Within the whole cohort four cases of pleural and one case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma were found. There was also an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin with 3 cases observed against 0.6 expected. For cancer cases that were registered as of unknown origin there were 7 cases observed and 1.4 expected. There was no increased rate ratio for cancer at any site before 20 years after the first asbestos exposure. The smoking habits of all cohort members were recorded and the relative rates for lung cancer were calculated in relation to smoking habits. In common with previous studies the results indicate a multiplicative model for the interaction between asbestos exposure and smoking in regard to lung cancer risk.

  8. Lifetime smoking habits among Norwegian men and women born between 1890 and 1994: a cohort analysis using cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Providing lifetime smoking prevalence data and gender-specific cigarette consumption data for use in epidemiological studies of tobacco-induced cancer in Norway. Characterising smoking patterns in birth cohorts is essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control interventions and predicting smoking-related mortality. Setting Norway. Participants Previously analysed annual surveys of smoking habits from 1954 to 1992, and individual lifetime smoking histories collected in 1965 from a sample of people born in 1893–1927, were supplemented with new annual surveys of smoking habits from 1993 to 2013. Age range 15–74 years. Primary outcome measure Current smoking proportions in 5-year gender-and-birth cohorts of people born between 1890 and 1994. Results The proportion of smokers increased in male cohorts until the 1950s, when the highest proportion of male smokers (76–78%) was observed among those born in 1915–1934. Among women, the peak (52%) occurred 20 years later, in women born in 1940–1949. After 1970 smoking has declined in all cohorts of men and women. In the 1890–1894 cohorts, male smoking prevalence was several times higher than female, but the gap declined until no gender difference was present among those born after 1950. Gender-specific per capita consumption was even more skewed, and men have consumed over 70% of all cigarettes since 1930. The incidence of lung cancer for men peaked at around 2000, with the highest incidence rate estimated at ca. 38%. The incidence of lung cancer for women is still increasing, and estimated incidence rate for 2011 was 25.2%. Conclusions In an epidemiological perspective, men have had a longer and more intense exposure to cigarettes than women. The gender-specific incidence of lung cancer reflects the gender difference in consumption over time. PMID:25326209

  9. Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Roh, Ji Won

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers' eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was 23.6 ± 9.2 pg/ml, higher than that of current smokers (20.4 ± 6.1) and individuals who had never smoked (22.4 ± 5.8) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660, β value = -0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827, β value = -0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622, β value = 0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895, β value = 0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are risk

  10. Zinc and smoking habits in the setting of hypertension in a Spanish populations.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Varela, María Morales; Llopis-González, Agustín; González Albert, Verónica; López-Izquierdo, Raúl; González-Manzano, Isabel; Cháves, Javier; Biosca, Vicente Huerta; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between trace and toxic amounts of zinc (Zn) in biological samples (blood and urine) and the smoking habits of hypertensive patients and healthy control subjects in Valladolid (Spain). In order to compare biological samples, the concentrations of these samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limits of detection for Zn in blood plasma ranged between 4.22 and 17.34 μmol l(-1) and were <0.08 μmol g(-1) creatinine in urine. The results of this study indicate that the highest mean values of serum Zn were found in non-hypertensive nonsmokers (13.39±4.35 μmol l(-1)), whereas the highest urine Zn values were observed in hypertensive nonsmokers (2.78±2.13 μmol l(-1)). Higher Zn serum/urine quotient levels were observed in non-hypertensive and nonsmoking women, whereas lower levels were noted in non-hypertensive and smoking women (P=0.012). This study identified a correlation between Zn serum/urine quotients and cotinine levels (a marker of smoking), a correlation that suggests that smoking lowers the Zn serum/urine quotient, which was lower in hypertensive subjects than in control subjects. PMID:25273553

  11. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  12. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  13. Parental bad habits breed bad behaviors in youth: exposure to gestational smoke and child impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Barnett, Tracie A; Pagani, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    In utero exposure to cigarette smoke has been shown to have an adverse effect on healthy brain development in childhood. In the present study, we examine whether fetal exposure to mild and heavy smoking is associated with lower levels of impulsivity and cognitive control at age 10. Using a sample of 2120 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between gestational cigarette smoke exposure and fourth grade teacher reports of impulsivity and classroom engagement which represent behavioral indicators of executive functions. When compared to children of non-smokers, children of mothers who reported smoking heavily during pregnancy (10 or more cigarettes per day) were rated by their fourth grade teachers as displaying higher levels of impulsive behavior, scoring.112 standard deviation units higher than children of non-smokers. Children of mothers who smoked heavily were also less engaged in the classroom, scoring.057 standard deviation units lower than children of women who did not smoke. These analyses were adjusted for many potentially confounding child and family variables. Exposure to perinatal nicotine may compromise subsequent brain development. In particular, fetal nicotine may be associated with impairment in areas recruited for the effortful control of behavior in later childhood, a time when task-orientation and industriousness are imperative for academic success. PMID:23228628

  14. Associations among Healthy Habits, Age, Gender, and Education in a Sample of Retirees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, J. Paul; Fries, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from 1,864 Bank of America retirees to investigate correlations among healthy habits, age, gender, and education. Health habits were strongly and positively associated with each other and negatively associated with unhealthy habits. Age and gender differences were found. Education was significantly associated only with fiber in diet…

  15. Dependence of exhaled breath composition on exogenous factors, smoking habits and exposure to air pollutants*

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, P; Filipiak, A; Bajtarevic, A; Ager, C; Denz, H; Hilbe, W; Jamnig, H; Hackl, M; Dzien, A; Amann, A

    2013-01-01

    particular, VOCs linked to smoking habit or being the results of human exposure should be considered with care for clinical diagnosis since small changes in their concentration profiles (typically in the pptv–ppbv range) revealing that the outbreak of certain disease might be hampered by already high background. PMID:22932429

  16. Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on tobacco use in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, used an interview questionnaire based on World Health Organization guidelines. The study in 2000 included 2120 participants aged 15 to 86 years. More than a quarter (27.2%) were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 3.5% were ex-smokers. Current smokers spent 23.1% of their family income on tobacco. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among men (48.5%) than women (1.5%) and the mean age of initiation of smoking was lower among men (18.1 years) than women (22.6 years). The high prevalence of tobacco use among men is of concern, so too is the likelihood that tobacco use will increase among women. Further research is needed into factors that prevent people from starting smoking and assist them stopping smoking. PMID:15603046

  17. Effects of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption on morningness-eveningness preference and sleep habits by Japanese female students aged 18-29.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Kurotani, Mamiko; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-03-01

    The relationship of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption to circadian typology and sleep health in Japanese female students was studied from an epidemiological point of view. Questionnaires on Morningness-Eveningness by Torsvall and Akerstedt (1980), sleep habits, regularity of meal intake and meal amount, and style of alcohol and cigarette consumption were administered to 800 students aged 18-29 years, attending university or training schools for nutrition specialists (Aichi Prefecture, 35 degrees N). Points from ten questions were totaled to provide estimates of sleep habits given as the Unhealthy Sleep Index (UHSI). The average and standard deviation of Morningness-Eveningness scores were 16.07+/-3.53. Students who had breakfast at regular times showed significantly higher Morningness-Eveningness scores than those who ate at irregular times. Based on an integrated analysis (ANOVA) on the effect of regularity of breakfast intake on sleep health, regular breakfast intake may link to sleep health positively via the shifting to morning-type (i.e., the phase-advance of the circadian clock). However, a similar analysis promoted the hypothesis that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking relate to sleep health negatively and directly, rather than via the shifting to evening-type (i.e., the phase-delaying of the circadian clock). In the case of young women, getting a good quality and quantity of sleep in normal life seems to be important for promoting their mental health, which may fluctuate throughout the menstruation cycle accompanied by mental symptoms as a part of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:19346668

  18. Treating Smoking Behavior by Discussion and Hypnosis: Destroying the Myths of Habit, Addiction, and Willpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Ferris

    1987-01-01

    Describes an innovative procedure which uses discussion and hypnosis to help smokers lose their desire to smoke. The smoker is asked to reevaluate the validity of beliefs concerning smoking and urged to see destructive effects from poisonous tobacco smoke on mind and body. With hypnosuggestion the client is helped to implement abstinence from…

  19. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  20. Dietary habits and risk of lung cancer death in a large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan by sex and smoking habit.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Watanabe, Y; Ito, Y; Suzuki, K; Tamakoshi, A; Seki, N; Nishino, Y; Kondo, T; Wakai, K; Ando, M; Ohno, Y

    2001-12-01

    Lung cancer has increased and is the leading cause of cancer death among Japanese males. The associations of dietary habits with the risk of lung cancer death were evaluated by sex and smoking habits in this study. In the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study, a cohort established in 1988 - 90 and consisting of 42 940 males and 55 308 females was observed for lung cancer deaths up to the end of 1997. During the observation period, 446 males and 126 females died of lung cancer. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used as the baseline survey. Hazard ratios for dietary factors were calculated by Cox's proportional hazards model. Among males, a high intake of ham and sausages, cheese, green-leafy vegetables, oranges, and other fruits significantly and dose-dependently decreased the risk of lung cancer death. Among females, a high intake of miso-soup, ham and sausages, and liver significantly and almost dose-dependently increased the risk. Vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidative and carcinogenic agents reduced the risk of lung cancer deaths among male smokers more than among female nonsmokers. The results among female nonsmokers were partially consistent with the hypothesis that high fat consumption increases the risk of lung cancer, especially that of adenocarcinoma. PMID:11749690

  1. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  2. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. Aim: To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. Results: All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high. PMID:26236164

  3. Differences in hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide in the general population with respect to dietary intake, smoking habits and gender.

    PubMed

    Hagmar, Lars; Wirfält, Elisabet; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2005-02-01

    The variation in dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) has been studied through measurement of hemoglobin adduct levels from AA, as a measurement of internal dose, in a sample from the blood bank of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort (n=28,098). The blood donors are well characterised with regard to their food habits, and 142 individuals were selected to obtain highest possible variation in the adduct levels from AA (none, random or high intake of coffee, fried potato, crisp bread and snacks, food items estimated to have high levels of AA). Among 70 non-smokers the AA-adduct levels varied by a factor of 5, and ranged between 0.02 and 0.1 nmol/g, with considerable overlap in AA-adduct levels between the different dietary groups. There was a significant difference between men with high dietary exposure to AA compared to men with low dietary exposure (P=0.04). No such difference was found for women. As expected a higher level (range: 0.03-0.43 nmol/g) of the AA-adduct, due to AA in tobacco smoke, was found in smokers. Smoking women with high dietary exposure to AA had significantly higher AA-adduct levels compared to smoking women with low dietary exposure (P=0.01). No such significant difference was found in smoking men. The median hemoglobin (Hb) adduct level in the randomly selected group of non-smokers was compatible with earlier studies (0.031 nmol/g). The variation in the average internal dose, measured as Hb adducts, was somewhat smaller than estimated for daily intake by food consumption questionnaires in other studies. Thus, the observed relatively narrow inter-individual variation in AA-adduct levels means that estimates of individual dietary AA intake have to be very precise if they should be useful in future cancer epidemiology. PMID:15668117

  4. Smoking and intermediate alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and lung function in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, C; Eriksson, S; Dirksen, H

    1977-01-01

    Lung function was evaluated in a representative population sample of 50-year-0ld men living in one Swedish city. Twenty-four smoking and 15 non-smoking men heterozygous for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency--that is, with the protease-inhibitor (Pi1 phenotype MZ--were carefully matched for weight and smoking habit with Pi M controls. The pulmonary function of non-smoking Pi MZ subjects did not differ from that of non-smoking Pi M controls. In contrast, smoking heterozygotes showed a significant loss of elastic recoil, enlarged residual volumes, and increased closing capacity but no signs of obstructive ventilatory impairment. Most smoking Pi MZ individuals reported mild exertional dyspnoea. PMID:303135

  5. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Methods Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox’s discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors. Results Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time. Conclusions Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions. PMID:27163286

  6. Sleep and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr a day at the TV or the computer, being tired in school, and having difficulties both in waking up and in sleeping. Discussing sleep and media habits with schoolchildren and their parents regarding matters of optimal sleep and of how media habits affect sleep and learning is seen to be an important task of the school health service. PMID:22472633

  7. A growing fire hazard concern in communities: home oxygen therapy and continued smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Catherine J; Markkanen, Pia K; Fantasia, Linda M; Gore, Rebecca J; Sama, Susan R; Quinn, Margaret M

    2015-02-01

    The Safe Home Care Project investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively a range of occupational safety and health hazards, as well as injury and illness prevention practices, among home care aides in Massachusetts. This article reports on a hazard identified by aides during the study's initial focus groups: smoking by home care clients on long-term oxygen therapy. Following the qualitative phase we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,249 aides and found that medical oxygen was present in 9 percent of aide visits (314 of aides' 3,484 recent client visits) and that 25 percent of clients on oxygen therapy were described as smokers. Based on our findings, the Board of Health in a local town conducted a pilot study to address fire hazards related to medical oxygen. Medical oxygen combined with smoking or other sources of ignition is a serious fire and explosion hazard that threatens not only workers who visit homes but also communities. PMID:25816169

  8. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: biochemical mechanisms and patient support.

    PubMed

    Willeford, Kevin T; Rapp, Jerry

    2012-11-01

    A small percentage of the population associates smoking with ocular disease. Most optometrists do not stress the importance of smoking cessation to their patients, and the centrality of smoking regarding the risk for ocular disease is not emphasized in optometric education. Age-related macular degeneration has strong epidemiological associations with smoking, and so serves as an appropriate model for the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the eye. This article aims to provide basic scientific information to optometrists and optometry students so that they can better understand the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and provide education and support to their patients wishing to stop smoking. PMID:23034338

  9. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  10. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk.To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71-1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92-1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results.Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with never-smokers in

  11. Circulating B-Vitamins and Smoking Habits Are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Patients with Suspected Coronary Heart Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R.; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K.; Svingen, Gard F. T.; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M.; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman’s rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. PMID:26039046

  12. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  13. Changes in tooth mortality between 1990 and 2002 among adults in Västerbotten County, Sweden: influence of socioeconomic factors, general health, smoking, and dental care habits on tooth mortality.

    PubMed

    Pihlgren, Karin; Forsberg, Hans; Sjödin, Lars; Lundgren, Per; Wänman, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyse changes in tooth mortality among adults in Västerbotten County, Sweden, between 1990 and 2002 and determine whether socioeconomic factors, general health, smoking, and dental care habits influenced tooth mortality. The study was based on samples drawn from the adult population in Västerbotten County in 1990 and 2002. The studied age groups were 35-, 50-, and 65-year-olds. In 2002 75-year-olds were included. The surveys comprised a clinical examination and a questionnaire.The latter focused on oro-facial symptoms, socioeconomic factors, general health, smoking, and dental care habits. Complete data were obtained from 715 individuals in 1990 and from 768 individuals in 2002.Variables used to depict tooth mortality were edentulousness, occlusal supporting zones (Eichner index), and number of teeth. The prevalence of edentulousness in Västerbotten County decreased from 12.7% in 1990 to 3.7% in 2002 (P < 0.001). The mean number of teeth increased in all age groups between 1990 and 2002, and so did the number of individuals with tooth contact in all occlusal supporting zones and no gaps between teeth. Low educational level, weak economic status, smoking, and irregular visits to the dental clinic were all significantly related to increased tooth mortality. Between 1990 and 2002 tooth mortality decreased significantly in the adult population of Västerbotten County, Sweden. Cross-sectional analysis identified socioeconomic factors, smoking, and irregular use of dental care services as being related to tooth mortality in both 1990 and 2002. PMID:21827017

  14. Effects of aging on morningness-eveningness and sleep habits in Korean and Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Park, Y M; Matsumoto, K; Seo, Y J; Shinkoda, H; Park, K P

    1998-04-01

    The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Life Habits Inventory were given to Korean and Japanese workers. The distributions of scores on the questionnaire for these two groups were normal and its mean slightly moved to the Morning type with aging. It is noteworthy, however, that the mean scores of Korean workers was lower than those of the Japanese workers. The self-reported waking times and bedtimes for the two groups gradually became earlier with aging. From these results it could be said that aging was an factor that led to the difference of circadian phase. PMID:9628176

  15. Evaluation of different smoking habits during music festivals through wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Grabic, Roman; Gál, Marián; Gál, Miroslav; Birošová, Lucia; Bodík, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater analysis is a powerful method that can provide useful information about the abuse of legal and illicit drugs. The aim of our study was to determine nicotine consumption during four different music festivals and to find a connection between smoking and preferences for specific music styles using wastewater analysis. The amount of the nicotine metabolite cotinine was monitored in wastewater at the influent of three waste water treatment plants WWTPs in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the festivals took place. Urinary bio-markers of nicotine utilization were analyzed by LC-HRMS. More than 80,000 festival participants were monitored during our study from June to September 2014. A significant increase of nicotine consumption was observed in wastewaters during music festivals. The nicotine ingestion level was back-calculated and expressed as mass of pure drug consumed per day and per 1000 inhabitants for selected cities of both countries. The highest differences between typical levels of cotinine in wastewaters and the levels during music festivals were detected in Piešťany: 4 g/L/1000 inhabitants during non-festival days compared to 8 g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Topfest pop-rock festival and 6g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Grape dance festival. No significant increase of the amounts of cotinine in wastewater was recorded for the Country and Folk festivals. PMID:26606646

  16. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity. PMID:16295466

  17. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  18. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  19. The effect of aging on smoke optical properties and scavenging characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Aging of smoke in dense smoke plumes is known to alter its size distribution and scavenging characteristics. In this paper, I review data pertaining to these processes and compare them to model simulations of the coagulation of smoke. Model simulations of the degree of smoke coagulation in the first few days after a nuclear war are summarized. The predicted size of smoke particles after several days of coagulation is found to be larger than that of any data pertaining to the absorption properties of smoke. Thus, it is suggested that more relevant data on the absorption properties of smoke is needed. I also review aging experiments pertaining to the number of cloud condensation nuclei in a smoke sample. I show that the fraction of smoke particles which act as CCN after aging depends on the number of particles initially present in the aging chamber. Smoke from an acetylene flame can quickly coagulate to sizes wherein nearly all of the particles act as CCN. On the other hand, only 10% of the smoke particles from an outdoor fire of gasoline and diesel fuel became CCN after 30 hours of aging. The development of CCN concentrations in this experiment may have been quenched by low initial concentrations in the aging chamber. Both experiments are consistent with particles as small as 0.08 micron in radius (and perhaps even smaller) acting as CCN. Model simulations of the coagulation of smoke particles above a large, intense fire show that coagulation would allow approximately 50% of the particles to become larger than 0.08 micron before the plume reaches cloud base. Furthermore, aging over several days time would transform nearly all the particles into the scavengable size range.

  20. [Dietary habits and the state of the human oral cavity in the prehistoric age].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1990-06-01

    This is an age-by-age summation of literature on over 100 sites (of more than 250 excavated prehistoric ruins on the Korean Peninsula: about 160 places in South Korea--Paleolithic Age 15, Neolithic Age 21, Bronze Age 90 and Iron Age 35--and about 90 places in North Korea) which produced dietary-habit-related devices such as hunting tools, fishing instruments, farming equipments, tools of daily life, and human bones and teeth. 1) Various dietary-habit-related Old Stone-Age tools, instruments and other items were found. Among them were stone axes, stone hand axes, fish spears and hooks made of bone or horn, stone blades, stone scrapers and stone drills believed to have been used in daily life, and charcoal and sites of furnaces used for cooking. Furthermore, it was found that there were severe dental abrasions and dental caries among the inhabitants of the Korean Peninsula in the Old Stone Age. 2) Some evidences were found which lead us to believe that hunting was practiced with stone arrowheads in the New Stone Age. Stone net sinkers, which is the evidence of the use of fish nets, were also found. In addition, farming stone tools and charred cereals, both of which date back to the latter part of this period, were unearthed. Millstones, which began to be used in this age, and livestock bones were found. Where these items were discovered, 23 maxillae and mandibles with teeth and a total of 231 separate teeth of Neolithic period human beings were reported. However, there are no records indicating dental caries, but some records describe severe abrasion. PMID:2130134

  1. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494

  2. Combined effects of isothiocyanate intake, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and risk habits for age of oral squamous cell carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Karen-Ng, Lee Peng; Marhazlinda, Jamaludin; Rahman, Zainal Arif Abdul; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Jalil, Norma; Cheong, Sok Ching; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2011-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables (Brassica spp.) has been reported to reduce cancer risk by inducing phase II conjugating enzymes, in particular glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This case-control study was aimed at determining associations between dietary ITCs, GSTs polymorphisms and risk habits (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel-quid chewing) with oral cancer in 115 cases and 116 controls. Information on dietary ITC intake from cruciferous vegetables was collected via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained for genotyping of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 using PCR multiplex and PCR-RFLP. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to determine the association of ITC and GSTs polymorphism and risk of oral cancer. When dietary ITC was categorized into high (greater than/equal to median) and low (less than median) intake, there was no significant difference between cases and control group. Logistic regression yielding odd ratios resulted in no significant association between dietary ITC intake, GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 genotypes with oral cancer risk overall. However, GSTP1 wild-type genotype was associated with later disease onset in women above 55 years of age (p= 0.017). Among the men above 45 years of age, there was clinical significant difference of 17 years in the age of onset of oral cancer between GSTP1 wild-type + low ITC intake and GSTP1 polymorphism + high ITC intake (p= 0.001). Similar conditions were also seen among men above 45 years of age with risk habits like drinking and chewing as the earlier disease onset associated with GSTP1 polymorphism and high ITC intake (p< 0.001). This study suggests that combination effects between dietary ITCs, GSTP1 polymorphism and risk habits may be associated with the risk of oral cancer and modulate the age of disease onset. PMID:21875259

  3. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  4. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption. PMID:18592966

  5. Coffee Consumption Habits and the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Panza, Francesco; Imbimbo, Bruno P; D'Introno, Alessia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Misciagna, Giovanni; Guerra, Vito; Osella, Alberto; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Sabbá, Carlo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Scafato, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to ±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (<1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.08). Finally, there was no significant association between subjects with higher levels of coffee consumption (>2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI. PMID:26401769

  6. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178

  7. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

  8. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other ... you quit, the greater the benefit. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  9. Does passive smoking in early pregnancy increase the risk of small-for-gestational-age infants?

    PubMed Central

    Dejin-Karlsson, E; Hanson, B S; Ostergren, P O; Sjöberg, N O; Marsal, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants are more often exposed to passive smoking at home or at work. METHODS: Among a 1-year cohort of nulliparous women in the city of Malmö, Sweden 872 (87.7%) women completed a questionnaire during their first prenatal visit. The study was carried out among women whose pregnancies resulted in a singleton live birth (n = 826), 6.7% of infants were classified as small for their gestational age. RESULTS: Passive smoking in early pregnancy was shown to double a woman's risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant, independent of potential confounding factors such as age, height, weight, nationality, educational level, and the mother's own active smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7). A stratified analysis indicated interactional effects of maternal smoking and passive smoking on relative small-for-gestational-age risk. CONCLUSIONS: Based on an attributable risk estimate, a considerable reduction in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births could be reached if pregnant women were not exposed to passive smoking. PMID:9772856

  10. The anthropometry of children and adolescents may be influenced by the prenatal smoking habits of their grandmothers: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Gregory, Steven; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previously, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we have shown different sex-specific birth anthropometric measurements contingent upon whether or not prenatal smoking was undertaken by paternal grandmother (PGM±), maternal grandmother (MGM±), and the study mother (M±). The findings raised the question as to whether there were long-term associations on the growth of the study children over time. Methods Measures of weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, lean mass, and fat mass of children in the ALSPAC study from 7 to 17 years of age were used. We compared growth in four categories at each age: PGM+M− with PGM−M−; MGM+M− with MGM−M−; PGM+M+ with PGM−M+; MGM+M+ with MGM−M+; and adjusted for housing tenure, maternal education, parity, and paternal smoking at the start of the study pregnancy. Results We found that if the PGM had, but the study mother had not, smoked in pregnancy, the girls were taller and both genders had greater bone and lean mass. However, if the MGM had smoked prenatally but the mother had not (MGM+M−), the boys became heavier than expected with increasing age—an association that was particularly due to lean rather than fat mass, reflected in increased strength and fitness. When both the maternal grandmother and the mother had smoked (MGM+M+) girls had reduced height, weight, and fat/lean/bone mass when compared with girls born to smoking mothers whose own mothers had not smoked (MGM−M+). Conclusions This study indicates that smoking in humans can have sex-specific transgenerational effects. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:731–739, 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25130101

  11. Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837

  12. Correlation of Smoking and Myocardial Infarction Among Sudanese Male Patients Above 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Elkhader, Bahaaedin A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Ali Omer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To find an association between smoking and the development of myocardial infarction in male patients above forty years of age presenting at the echocardiology department of Sudan heart center Khartoum. A prospective cohort study was carried out at the echocardiography department of Sudan Heart Center in Khartoum-Sudan between July 2012 and June 2014. The study population comprised a total of 168 adult male patients who underwent cardiac ultrasound scanning. Out of a total of 144 cases, 65% (94) of patients were smokers, 74% of the 94 cases smoked for more than 10 years, and 26% of the 94 cases smoked for less than 10 years. With this study it was concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction. This study showed that patients with myocardial infarction are more likely to have a past history of smoking. PMID:27081418

  13. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5.

    PubMed

    Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. PMID:23316364

  14. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  15. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  16. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents. PMID:24935397

  18. Development trends of first cigarette smoking experience of children: the Bogalusa heart study.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, J G; Hunter, S M; Webber, L S; Berenson, G S

    1982-01-01

    During one school year a health habits survey investigated cigarette smoking behavior in a total biracial population of children, ages 8 to 17 years old. Information was collected concerning each child's first smoking experience. Over 60 per cent of the children reported they were given their first cigarettes. Half of those starting before age 12 smoked their first cigarettes with a family member or an older fried. The smoking habit appears to have become established by age 14, with a two-year gap between initiation and maintenance. PMID:7114342

  19. Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

    2010-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

  20. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  1. Aging--Let's Look Before We Leap: The Effects of Physical Activity on Smoking and Drinking Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.; Mulhall, Peter F.

    1981-01-01

    Drinking and smoking habits of a group of college students did not change after a 15-week period of exercises. Results indicate a conscious commitment to changing life-styles may be an important factor and should be considered before physical activites are added to drug and alcohol abuse programs. (Author/JAC)

  2. The Association of Smoking and Surgery in Inflammatory Bowel Disease is Modified by Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Frolkis, Alexandra D; de Bruyn, Jennifer; Jette, Nathalie; Lowerison, Mark; Engbers, Jordan; Ghali, William; Lewis, James D; Vallerand, Isabelle; Patten, Scott; Eksteen, Bertus; Barnabe, Cheryl; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed the association of smoking at diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the need for an intestinal resection. Methods: The Health Improvement Network was used to identify an inception cohort of Crohn's disease (n=1519) and ulcerative colitis (n=3600) patients from 1999–2009. Poisson regression explored temporal trends for the proportion of newly diagnosed IBD patients who never smoked before their diagnosis and the risk of surgery within 3 years of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association between smoking and surgery, and effect modification was explored for age at diagnosis. Results: The rate of never smokers increased by 3% per year for newly diagnosed Crohn's disease patients (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.05), but not for ulcerative colitis. The rate of surgery decreased among Crohn's disease patients aged 17–40 years (IRR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93–0.98), but not for ulcerative colitis. Smoking at diagnosis increased the risk of surgery for Crohn's disease patients diagnosed after the age of 40 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99; 95% CI: 1.52–5.92), but not for those diagnosed before age 40. Ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between the ages of 17 and 40 years and who quit smoking before their diagnosis were more likely to undergo a colectomy (ex-smoker vs. never smoker: HR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.04–2.66). The age-specific findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses for Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: In this study, the association of smoking and surgical resection was dependent on the age at diagnosis of IBD. PMID:27101004

  3. Cigarette Smoking and the Natural History of Age-related Macular Degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Gangnon, Ronald; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of current cigarette smoking and pack-years smoked to the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to examine the interactions of current smoking and pack-years smoked with Complement Factor H (CFH, rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, rs10490924) genotype. Design A longitudinal population-based study of AMD in a representative American community. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. Participants 4439 participants in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods AMD status was determined from grading retinal photographs. Multi-state models were used to model the relationship of current smoking and pack-years smoked and interactions with CFH and ARMS2 to the incidence and progression of AMD over the entire age range. Main Outcome Measures Incidence and progression of AMD over a 20-year period and interactions between current smoking and pack-years smoked with CFH and ARMS2 genotype. Results The incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 24.4% and the incidence of late AMD was 4.5%. Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from minimal to moderate early AMD. A greater number of pack-years smoked was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no AMD to minimal early AMD and from severe early AMD to late AMD. Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked were associated with an increased risk of death. There were no statistically significant multiplicative interactions between current smoking or pack-years smoked and CFH or ARMS2 genotype. Conclusions Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked increase the risk of the progression of AMD. This has important health care implications because smoking is a modifiable behavior. PMID:24953792

  4. Role of Temperament, Personality Traits and Onset Age of Smoking in Predicting Opiate Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712

  5. Red Dwarf Stars: Ages, Rotation, Magnetic Dynamo Activity and the Habitability of Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    We report on our continued efforts to understand and delineate the magnetic dynamo-induced behavior/variability of red dwarf (K5 V - M6 V) stars over their long lifetimes. These properties include: rotation, light variations (from star spots), coronal-chromospheric XUV activity and flares. This study is being carried out as part of the NSF-sponsored Living with a Red Dwarf program. The Living with a Red Dwarf program's database of dM stars with photometrically determined rotation rates (from starspot modulations) continues to expand, as does the inventory of archival XUV observations. Recently, the photometric properties of several hundred dM stars from the Kepler database are being analyzed to determine the rotation rates, starspot areal coverage/distributions and stellar flare rates. When all data setsare combined with ages from cluster/population memberships and kinematics, the determination of Age-Rotation-Activity relationships is possible. Such relationships have broad impacts not only on the studies of magnetic dynamo theory and angular momentum loss of low-mass stars with deep convective zones, but also on the suitability of planets hosted by red dwarfs to support life. With intrinsically low luminosities (L< 0.02L⊙), the liquid water habitable zones (HZs) for hosted planets are very close to their host stars - typically at ˜0.1 AU < HZ < 0.4 AU. Planets located close to their host stars risk damage and atmospheric loss from coronal & chromospheric XUV radiation, flares and plasma blasts via strong winds and coronal mass ejections. In addition, our relationships permit the stellar ages to be determined through measures of either the stars' rotation periods (best way) or XUV activity levels. This also permits a determination of the ages of their hosted planets. We illustrate this with examples of age determinations of the exoplanet systems: GJ 581 and HD 85512 (both with large Earth-size planets within the host star's HZ), GJ 1214 (hot, close

  6. Interaction of asbestos, age, and cigarette smoking in producing radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Lilis, R.; Anderson, H.A.; Miller, A.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    The study of 3,472 chest x-rays from four populations with different levels of exposure to asbestos and with different cigarette smoking histories shows that smoking in the general population does not produce pulmonary fibrosis recognizable on chest radiography. In the general population of Michigan, the prevalence of a radiographic pattern of fibrosis was 0.5 percent in men and 0.0 percent in women. In a Long Beach, California census tract population, the prevalences were 3.7 percent for men and 0.6 percent for women. Similarly, cigarette smoking does not enhance fibrosis when the exposure to asbestos has been as light as that in households of shipyard workers. Asbestosis was recognized in 6.6 percent of 137 shipyard workers' wives who have never smoked and 7.6 percent of 132 who had ever smoked. Cigarette smoking and asbestos appear to be synergistic in those occupationally exposed to asbestos (as insulators), since 7.2 percent of 97 nonsmokers and 20.5 percent of 316 ever-smokers showed fibrosis. This apparent synergy was also found in shipyard workers up to age 70 with 31 percent of nonsmokers and 43.3 percent of ever-smokers having fibrosis. There were increases of approximately 10 percent in the prevalence of fibrosis in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers for each decade after age 40.

  7. Leukotriene E(4) in urine in patients with asthma and COPD--the effect of smoking habit.

    PubMed

    Gaki, E; Papatheodorou, G; Ischaki, E; Grammenou, V; Papa, I; Loukides, S

    2007-04-01

    Leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) is implicated in asthma pathophysiology and possibly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as one of the causes of persistent bronchoconstriction and mucus hypersecretion. Cigarette smoking stimulates cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production. We investigated whether LTE(4) is equally increased in asthma and COPD and whether smoking significantly affects LTE(4) levels. Secondary outcomes involved correlations with inflammatory and functional parameters. We studied 40 patients with COPD [20 smokers], 40 asthmatics [20 smokers] and 30 healthy subjects [15 smokers]. Spirometry (FEV(1)% pred., FEV(1)/FVC) was performed, urine was collected for measurement of LTE(4) and creatinine, induced sputum was collected for differential cell counts and serum for ECP. LTE(4)/creatinine levels (pg/mg) [mean (sd)] were increased in asthmatic patients compared to COPD and controls, [125.6(54.5) vs. 54.5(19) vs. 55.9(18.9)pg/mg, respectively, P<0.0001 for asthma]. Smoking significantly affects LTE(4) levels only in asthmatic patients [164 (48) vs. 87 (26.3), P<0.0001 for smokers]. The only significant correlation was between eosinophils in induced sputum and LTE(4)/creatinine levels in asthmatics. In conclusion, patients with asthma presented higher LTE(4) values compared to normals and patients with COPD. Smoking significantly affects LTE(4) values only in asthmatics indicating a different underlying CysLTs inflammatory process in this condition. PMID:16965907

  8. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health.

  9. Habitable Trinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new concept of a habitable environment in the search for life beyond Earth that goes beyond the follow-the-water paradigm, newly named Habitable Trinity. Habitable Trinity is the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients). It is the minimum requirement for the beginning of life to satisfy (1) formation of membrane, (2) metabolism, and (3) self-replication as we know it. A habitable planet, which has largely been defined as having an adequate climate, a sufficient atmosphere, and the presence of liquid water on its surface, is insufficient to meet the requirements to bear life. Also, material circulation driven by the Sun must be maintained with Habitable Trinity to continue the supply of elements necessary to sustain organic radical reactions that is the basis of life. The Sun is the major engine that links the three components primarily through hydrological cycling, including weathering, erosion, and transport of nutrient-enriched landmass materials to the ocean via far-reaching river systems. Habitable Trinity can be applied to other planets and moons to discuss the presence of extraterrestrial life. Mars is considered to be the best target to test the hypothesis of whether life exists elsewhere in our solar system, as it records an ancient Habitable Trinity (i.e., lakes and oceans which interacted with a landmass (cratered southern highlands) and an atmosphere). Other terrestrial planets, as well as satellites of the gaseous giants such as Europa and Titan, have little chance to harbor life as we know it because they lack Habitable Trinity. Going beyond 'the-follow-the-water-approach', the Habitable-Trinity concept provides an index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies beyond our solar system as the reconnaissance systems become increasingly autonomous and at higher resolution, affording greater perspective during this golden age of international and

  10. The age, growth, and feeding habits of the whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchell), of Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Deason, Hilary J.

    1939-01-01

    This study is based on 120 whitefish collected in northern Lake Champlain (Missisquoi Bay) in 1930 and on 175 whitefish taken in southern Lake Champlain in 1931. Since the whitefish population had not been exploited commercially after 1912 in United States waters and after 1915 in Canadian waters, its study should be of interest in showing the characteristics of a population practically untouched by man. Data have been presented on length frequencies, age composition, growth, coefficient of condition, sex ratio, standard length-total length relationship, and feeding habits. The data indicated that the Missisquoi Bay population was disturbed (probably by the early fall seining of 1930) before our samples were taken so that the original length distributions no longer existed. The southern Lake Champlain material, however, showed a consistency which indicated that the population had not been exploited to any extensive degree, if at all. When the northern population was compared with the southern the former was found to differ from the latter in the following respects, which differences pointed to some disturbance of the northern stock in the lake 1. By possession of lower modes and smaller grand averages of length. 2. By absence of very old individuals. 3. By absence of a series of equally abundant age groups or, in other words, by the presence of a decided dominance of one or two age groups. 4. By a radical disagreement between the sexes in their age-frequency distribution. 5. By a disagreement between the sexes with respect to maximum lengths attained. All of the differences between the two collections could, however, not be attributed to exploitation. The following characteristics indicated the presence of two distinct populations in the lake 1. Presence of a spawning ground at each end of the lake. 2. Differences in calculated lengths and increments of length (growth rates). 3. Differences in the actual lengths and weights of corresponding age groups at capture. 4

  11. Cigarette Smoking Among Students at the University of Tuzla

    PubMed Central

    Ibisevic, Merima; Avdic, Azra; Osmanovic, Enes; Kadric, Nedzad; Avdic, Sevleta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking among students is greatly widespread. Smoking prevalence ranges from 28% to 67% for students, respectively, from 19% to 34% for female students. Aim: The aim of this survey was to investigate the smoking habits of students, who are studying at three faculties at the University of Tuzla in academic Year 2012/2013 and to investigate whether there is a difference in smoking habits of students from different faculties and observed by gender. Patients and Methods: The study included a total of 254 students, 170 females (66.93%) and 84 male patients (33.07%). A representative sample consisted of students of three faculties of the University of Tuzla. Results: The conducted analyzes have shown that in this sample 22.8% of current smokers, and 7.8% are former smokers who now no longer smoke. Due to the adopted smoking habits, which some students began to adopt in the age of 13, in 47.5% part of students occasionally was observed some symptoms (cough, etc.) which are attributed to smoking. The analysis showed no statistically significant gender difference in smoking habits. Although the trend of smoking in the population students progression, one and the same quantity was well as male colleagues. We did not find any statistically significant difference in onset of adopting smoking habits. Conclusion: The analyzes have shown that in this sample 22.8% of current smokers, and 7.8% were former smokers who now no longer smoke. The analysis showed no statistically significant gender difference in smoking habits of all students. There were no statistically significant differences in the daily consumption of cigarettes between faculty. PMID:26005265

  12. Prenatal and childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Tehranifar, Parisa; Mayne, Susan T; Terry, Mary Beth

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the association between age at menarche and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, both prenatally and during early childhood; however, few studies have had data available during both time periods. The present study examined whether exposure to prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) via maternal smoking during pregnancy or childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was associated with age at menarche in a multi-ethnic birth cohort. With the uniquely available prospectively collected data on body size and growth at birth and in early life, we further examined whether the association between PTS and ETS exposure and age at menarche was mediated by these variables. From 2001 to 2006, we recruited 262 women born between 1959 and 1963 who were enrolled previously in a New York City site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Mothers who smoked during pregnancy vs. those who did not were more likely to be White, younger, have more education and have lower birthweight babies. Daughters with heavy PTS exposure (≥ 20 cigarettes per day) had a later age at menarche (>12 years vs. ≤ 12 years), odds ratio (OR) =2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 5.0] compared with daughters with no PTS. Daughters exposed to only childhood ETS had a later age at menarche, OR=2.1 [95% CI 1.0, 4.3], and those exposed to PTS and ETS combined had a statistically significant later age at menarche, OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 4.6] compared with daughters with no PTS and no ETS. These results did not change after further adjustment for birthweight and postnatal growth suggesting that exposure to PTS and ETS is associated with later age at menarche even after considering possible relationships with growth. PMID:20955229

  13. Exposure to secondhand smoke among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-05-25

    Breathing secondhand smoke (SHS) causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults and increased risks for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle-ear disease, worsened asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children. No risk-free level of exposure to SHS exists. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Canadian Public Health Association, and CDC includes questions related to tobacco use, including exposure to SHS. This report examines data collected from 137 jurisdictions (i.e., countries and territories) during 2000-2007, presents estimates of exposure to SHS at home and in places other than the home among students aged 13-15 years who had never smoked, and examines the association between exposure to SHS and susceptibility to initiating smoking. GYTS data indicated that nearly half of never smokers were exposed to SHS at home (46.8%), and a similar percentage were exposed in places other than the home (47.8%). Never smokers exposed to SHS at home were 1.4-2.1 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. Students exposed to SHS in places other than the home were 1.3-1.8 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. As part of their comprehensive tobacco-control programs, countries should take measures to create smoke-free environments in all indoor public places and workplaces. PMID:17522587

  14. Attitudes and practices for smoking cessation counseling by provider type and patient age.

    PubMed

    Kviz, F J; Clark, M A; Prohaska, T R; Slezak, J A; Crittenden, K S; Freels, S; Campbell, R T

    1995-03-01

    Attitudes and self-reported practices for smoking cessation counseling among 145 providers at a health maintenance organization were compared among two provider groups, physicians/nurse practitioners and registered/licensed practical nurses, and across three patient age groups, < 50, 50-64, and > or = 65. Smoking cessation attitudes did not differ by provider type but they did differ by patient age, especially among the registered/licensed practical nurses, whose attitudes were least favorable for the oldest smokers (> or = 65). While smoking cessation practices did not differ by patient age, they did differ by provider type. Self-reported performance of the 4 As of smoking cessation practice (Ask, Advise, Assist, Arrange) was more frequent among the physicians/nurse practitioners than among the registered/licensed practical nurses. However, among both groups, asking and advising practices were reported more often than were assisting and arranging. In all cases, different attitudes were correlated with different practice behaviors for the two provider groups. Also, there were more significant correlations between age-specific attitudes and practices among the registered/licensed practical nurses than among the physicians/nurse practitioners. This was true especially regarding the oldest patients. The findings suggest a need for provider education, especially among registered/licensed practical nurses, about the benefits of smoking cessation for patients of all ages and the potential effectiveness of provider-based intervention strategies that are targeted toward specific age groups. The findings also suggest that assisting and arranging practices in particular need improvement among all types of providers. PMID:7597023

  15. Observations of Smoke Aerosol from Biomass Burning in Mexico: Effect of Particle Aging on Radiative Forcing and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Bruintjes, Roelof; Holben, Brent N.; Christopher, Sundar

    1999-01-01

    We take advantage of the May 1998 biomass burning event in Southern Mexico to test the global applicability of a smoke aerosol size model developed from data observed in South America. The Mexican event is an unique opportunity to observe well-aged, residual smoke. Observations of smoke aerosol size distribution made from vertical profiles of airborne in situ measurements show an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size that suggests the aging process continues more than a week after the smoke is separated from its fire sources. The ground-based radiometer retrievals show that the column-averaged, aged, Mexican smoke particles are larger (diameter = 0.28 - 0.33 micrometers) than the mean smoke particles in South America (diameter = 0.22 - 0.30 micrometers). However, the difference (delta - 0.06 micrometer) translates into differences in backscattering coefficient of only 4-7% and an increase of direct radiative forcing of only 10%.

  16. Thirty minute-exposure to aged cigarette smoke increases nasal congestion in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Schick, Suzaynn F; van den Vossenberg, Glenn; Luo, Andy; Whitlatch, Aaron; Jacob, Peyton; Balmes, John; Shusterman, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of short exposures to experimentally aged cigarette smoke on the nose and upper airways. This crossover study compared the effects of 30-min exposures to (1) experimentally aged cigarette smoke at 1 mg/m³ particulate matter (PM)/14 ppm carbon monoxide (CO) and (2) conditioned filtered air on urinary metabolites of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Subjective nasal symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, objective nasal congestion was assessed by anterior rhinomanometry and nasal nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Experimentally aged cigarette smoke is a validated model for secondhand smoke (SHS). Twenty-six healthy nonsmokers (10 normal, 7 atopic/nonrhinitic, 7 atopic rhinitic, 2 nonatopic/rhinitic) were studied. A 30-min exposure to SHS increased nasal resistance in healthy nonsmokers. The rise in nasal resistance was most pronounced in rhinitic subjects. Significant increases were not noted when atopic subjects were considered independent of rhinitis status. Secondhand smoke exposure also elevated subjective nasal symptoms and urinary concentrations of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and trans-3´-hydroxycotinine) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines [(4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)] in all subgroups of subjects. Exposure-related, subjective nasal symptoms were significantly higher in rhinitic than in normal subjects. Significant changes in nasal NO concentrations were not detected. Data indicate a 30-min exposure to secondhand smoke at 1 mg/m³ PM increases subjective upper respiratory symptoms, increases urinary cotinine and NNAL, and produces objective nasal airflow obstruction in human subjects. PMID:23859154

  17. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Turiano, Nicholas A.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043

  18. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, p<0.01); however, spirometric lung ages significantly deteriorated in the failure group (70.5±25.5 vs. 73.7±26.9, p<0.01). The effect sizes (Cohen's d) of spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. The post-hoc statistical power of the spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups was 0.83 and 0.91, respectively. According to a multiple regression analysis, success in smoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that successful smoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  19. Age distribution types of bladder cancers and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Aliramaji, Arsalan; Kaseean, Aliakbar; Yousefnia Pasha, Yousef Reza; Shafi, Hamid; Kamali, Sekineh; Safari, Mohsen; Moudi, Emaduddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of the predisposing factors of bladder cancer is very important and provides possible prevention measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the types, distribution of bladder tumors and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking in patients who referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, all patients diagnosed with bladder cancer who underwent surgery during 2001-2012 were enrolled. The subjects of the control group were selected among the patients who underwent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) for gallstone and had no tumors and genitourinary problems. Data regarding demographic, pathology reports and tumor type, smoking status, history of opium consumption and its duration were collected. Patients and controls were compared using t-test and chi-square test. SPSS software Version 20 was used for analysis. Results: In this study, 175 patients with an average age of 63.30±15.29 years and 175 age- matched controls were studied. A significant association was observed between smoking and opium consumption with bladder cancer (P=0.001 for both). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that opium consumption and smoking are associated with bladder cancer PMID:26221505

  20. Influence of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Low Concentrations of Polychlorobiphenyls and a Smoking Habit on the Urinary Excretion of Corticosteroid Hormones.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Lovreglio, Piero; Drago, Ignazio; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject. PCBs were significantly higher in the exposed workers than controls, and were correlated with age. Both the urinary concentrations of the total 17-KS and pregnanes, and those of some single steroids and their glucuronidated compounds, were significantly lower in the exposed workers than controls, but higher in smokers than the non-smokers + ex-smokers. Two-way analysis of variance showed a negative association between serum PCBs and both total glucuronidated 17-KS and total and glucuronidated pregnanes, and a positive association between cigarette smoking and both total and glucuronidated 17-KS. PCBs seem to act as endocrine disruptors by reducing the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones, particularly of the glucuronidated fraction. Cigarette smoking could boost these effects of PCBs in smokers. PMID:27023579

  1. Influence of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Low Concentrations of Polychlorobiphenyls and a Smoking Habit on the Urinary Excretion of Corticosteroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Maria Nicolà; Lovreglio, Piero; Drago, Ignazio; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject. PCBs were significantly higher in the exposed workers than controls, and were correlated with age. Both the urinary concentrations of the total 17-KS and pregnanes, and those of some single steroids and their glucuronidated compounds, were significantly lower in the exposed workers than controls, but higher in smokers than the non-smokers + ex-smokers. Two-way analysis of variance showed a negative association between serum PCBs and both total glucuronidated 17-KS and total and glucuronidated pregnanes, and a positive association between cigarette smoking and both total and glucuronidated 17-KS. PCBs seem to act as endocrine disruptors by reducing the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones, particularly of the glucuronidated fraction. Cigarette smoking could boost these effects of PCBs in smokers. PMID:27023579

  2. Cadmium in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas from Swedish autopsies. Estimation of biological half time in kidney cortex, considering calorie intake and smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Lind, B; Kjellström, T; Linnman, L; Friberg, L

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc have been analyzed in tissues from 292 persons autopsied in Stockholm. In kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas the individual cadmium levels are distributed in a lognormal way. In kidney cortex there is a continuous accumulation of cadmium with age up to 50 years, followed by a decrease. Smokers show a higher cadmium accumulation. For nonsmokers, the biological half time of cadmium in kidney cortex is estimated at 30 years, with an average concentration at age 50 of 11 mug/g wet weight. When smokers are included, the average cadmium concentration at age 50 is 22 mug/g wet weight. Based on the more pronounced cadmium accumulation among smokers than nonsmokers, the respiratory absorption rate of cadmium from tobacco smoke is estimated to be approximately 50%. PMID:999342

  3. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein)-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757) were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C) (rs2073342), ECP562(G>C) (rs2233860) and ECP c.-38(A>C) (rs2233859) were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C) and ECP562(G>C) genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C) genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma. PMID:20534163

  4. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  5. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  6. Long term smoking with age builds up excessive oxidative stress in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, K; Betsuyaku, T; Kondo, T; Nasuhara, Y; Nishimura, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial lining fluid plays a critical role in protecting the lung from oxidative stress, in which the oxidised status may change by ageing, smoking history, and pulmonary emphysema. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 109 young and older subjects with various smoking histories. The protein carbonyls, total and oxidised glutathione were examined in BAL fluid. Results By Western blot analysis, the major carbonylated protein in the BAL fluid was sized at 68 kDa, corresponding to albumin. The amount of carbonylated albumin per mg total albumin in BAL fluid was four times higher in older current smokers and three times higher in older former smokers than in age matched non‐smokers (p<0.0001, p = 0.0003, respectively), but not in young smokers. Total glutathione in BAL fluid was significantly increased both in young (p = 0.006) and older current smokers (p = 0.0003) compared with age matched non‐smokers. In contrast, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione was significantly raised (72%) only in older current smokers compared with the other groups. There was no significant difference in these parameters between older smokers with and without mild emphysema. Conclusions Oxidised glutathione associated with excessive protein carbonylation accumulates in the lung of older smokers with long term smoking histories even in the absence of lung diseases, but they are not significantly enhanced in smokers with mild emphysema. PMID:16537669

  7. Determinants of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among Non Smoking Adolescents (Aged 11–17 Years Old) in Greece: Results from the 2004–2005 GYTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S.; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11–17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  8. Determinants of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among non smoking adolescents (aged 11-17 years old) in Greece: results from the 2004-2005 GYTS Study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent's exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445

  9. Respiratory impairment induced by smoking in children in secondary schools.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, L; Lonsdale, D; Robinson, M; Rawbone, R; Guz, A

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out from 1975 to 1979 in a cohort of 405 secondary school children. At yearly intervals they underwent a series of tests of pulmonary function designed to monitor lung development; some of these tests are relatively sensitive indicators of early abnormalities. A self administered questionnaire provided details of smoking habits and respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of smoking increased with age; most of those smoking at 16 had already been smoking, at least experimentally, at 13. Taking up smoking was clearly associated with the early onset of cough, production of phlegm, and shortness of breath on exertion. After two years of smoking more than a few cigarettes a day the children who smoked appeared considerably less healthy than their non-smoking peers and showed some evidence of early obstruction of the airways. PMID:6423130

  10. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  11. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  12. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  13. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  14. Is age-related decline in lean mass and physical function accelerated by Obstructive Lung Disease or smoking?

    PubMed Central

    van den Borst, Bram; Koster, Annemarie; Yu, Binbing; Gosker, Harry R.; Meibohm, Bernd; Bauer, Douglas C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cross-sectional studies suggest that Obstructive Lung Disease (OLD) and smoking affect lean mass and mobility. We aimed to investigate whether OLD and smoking accelerate aging-related decline in lean mass and physical functioning. Methods 260 persons with OLD (FEV1 63±18 %predicted), 157 smoking controls (FEV1 95±16 %predicted), 866 formerly smoking controls (FEV1 100±16 %predicted) and 891 never-smoking controls (FEV1 104±17 %predicted) participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) Study were studied. At baseline, the mean age was 74±3 y and participants reported no functional limitations. Baseline and seven-year longitudinal data were investigated of body composition (by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (by hand and leg dynamometry) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results Compared to never-smoking controls, OLD persons and smoking controls had a significantly lower weight, fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral content (BMC) at baseline (p<0.05). While the loss of weight, fat mass, lean mass and strength was comparable between OLD persons and never-smoking controls, the SPPB declined 0.12 points/yr faster in OLD men (p=0.01) and BMC 4 g/yr faster in OLD women (p=0.02). In smoking controls, only lean mass declined 0.1 kg/yr faster in women (p=0.03) and BMC 8 g/yr faster in men (p=0.02) compared to never-smoking controls. Conclusions Initially well-functioning older adults with mild-to-moderate OLD and smokers without OLD have a comparable compromised baseline profile of body composition and physical functioning, while seven-year longitudinal trajectories are to a large extent comparable to those observed in never-smokers without OLD. This suggests a common insult earlier in life related to smoking. 3 PMID:21724748

  15. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  16. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  17. [Hearing loss associated with smoking in male workers].

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasumitsu

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effect of smoking habit on hearing loss at 1000 and 4000 Hz in the workplace. Among 1,875 male workers, including 287 subjects with occupational noise exposure, the ratio of the number with hearing loss at 1000 or 4000 Hz increased with smoking habits and that relation at 4000 Hz was statistically significant. These hearing losses showed a significant relation with age but not with working- duration under occupational noise exposure by multiple regression analysis. The amount of smoking showed a weak but significant association with hearing loss at 4000 Hz. However, among the 287 male subjects with occupational noise exposure, there was no significant relation between smoking habits and hearing loss. Therefore, both hearing loss induced by occupational noise exposure and that related with smoking habit were well controlled in this workplace. These results indicate that hearing check-ups and education to prevent noise-induced hearing impairment in the workplace might be useful to prevent the hearing loss associated with smoking habit among male workers. PMID:21438339

  18. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  19. Overweight and television and computer habits in Swedish school-age children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23796145

  20. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans. PMID:25929677

  1. Changes of sleep or waking habits by age and sex in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Man; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Seo, Yoo Jin; Kang, Min Jeong; Nagashima, Hidetoshi

    2002-06-01

    We analyzed the effects of age and sex on habitual sleep/wake rhythm and Morningness-Eveningness scores of 2,252 subjects (6-89 years) randomly selected in Shimonoseki, Japan. Subjects were divided into 21 age groups with a matching number of men and women in each age group. The most common sleep parameter patterns by age showed a v- or inverted v-pattern with a turning point in young adulthood or at the period of puberty. During the period between 6 yr. of age to puberty or young adulthood, the bedtimes on weekdays and weekends and the waking times on weekends were delayed, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to the evening type, and sleep length on weekdays decreased. After that period, across groups of increasing age, bedtime and waking time on weekdays and weekends became earlier, sleep length on weekdays and sleep latency increased, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to morning type, and the number of awakenings increased. The number of daytime naps increased in the 16-19 yr. group, decreased slightly after that age group, but increased again in older groups. The weekday bedtimes of women above 40 yr. of age was significantly later and their sleep lengths significantly shorter than those of men of the same age. Average sleep latency was longer for women than men. The number of awakenings was larger in women above 50 yr. of age than men of the same age group. The turning point of age, gained from the two linear regressions on data for subjects that have a minimum sum of squared error, was between 16 and 25 yr. of age. Average phase of sleep/wake rhythm shifted backward and sleep length decreased in groups from age 6 to puberty or young adulthood. After early adolescence, the average phase of the sleep/wake rhythm shifted forward, sleep latency became longer, and daytime napping increased. Number of awakenings increased rapidly for women's groups over 40 yr. of age and for men's groups after 50 yr. of age. Sex differences in our research are in apparent

  2. Placental DNA methylation alterations associated with maternal tobacco smoking at the RUNX3 gene are also associated with gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877

  3. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  4. Distal and proximal family predictors of adolescents' smoking initiation and development: A longitudinal latent curve model analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents' socioeconomic status (SES) is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB), in which participants were followed from the age of 13 to 30. We analysed data from the first 5 waves, covering the age span from 13 to 18, with latent curve modeling (LCM). Results Smoking rates increased from 3% to 31% from age 13 to age 18. Participants' smoking was strongly associated with their best friends' smoking. Parental SES, parents' smoking and older siblings' smoking predicted adolescents' initial level of smoking. Furthermore, the same variables predicted the development of smoking behaviour from age 13 to 18. Parents' and siblings' smoking behaviours acted as mediators of parents' SES on the smoking habits of adolescents. Conclusions Parents' SES was significantly associated, directly and indirectly, with both smoking initiation and development. Parental and older siblings' smoking behaviours were positively associated with both initiation and development of smoking behaviour in adolescents. There were no significant gender differences in these associations. PMID:22152017

  5. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  6. Middle-aged and older Chinese men and women in Singapore who smoke have less healthy diets and lifestyles than nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Can-Lan; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2005-10-01

    Although studies in Western populations have shown that smokers have decreased dietary intakes of antioxidants and other health-related nutrients, this has not been established in oriental populations. This study aimed to identify differences in dietary and lifestyle characteristics between current, former, and never-smokers among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. The subjects, 45-74 y old, were participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort that enrolled 63,257 (27,959 men and 35,298 women) Chinese in Singapore between 1993 and 1998. Data on current dietary habits (using a validated, semiquantitative FFQ) and other lifestyle factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. Mean daily intakes of various nutrients were estimated using a food composition table that was specifically developed for this population. The current smoking rates were 36% in men and 6% in women; an additional 22% of men and 3% of women were former smokers. In both sexes, current smokers were less educated, had lower BMI, led a more sedentary lifestyle, and drank more alcohol and coffee than those who never smoked. Current smokers had dose-dependent decreases in the intakes of a wide range of antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, and calcium, but increases in the intakes of cholesterol and nitrosamines compared with people who never smoked. Former smokers had dietary intakes that either were similar to never-smokers or intermediate between current and never-smokers. Our results are consistent with findings among Western populations, and suggest that the unhealthy diet and lifestyle in smokers occur across diverse cultures. PMID:16177215

  7. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0

  8. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Olaf; Arbter, Peter; Hartmann, Peter; Mayr, Christoph; Buhk, Thomas; Schalk, Horst; Brath, Helmut; Ernst Dorner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND), and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points), 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points) and 47.1% a high (5–10 points) dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least one session) was

  9. Eating habits and appetite control in the elderly: the anorexia of aging.

    PubMed

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Savina, Claudia; Cannella, Carlo

    2003-03-01

    Although a high prevalence of overweight is present in elderly people, the main concern in the elderly is the reported decline in food intake and the loss of the motivation to eat. This suggests the presence of problems associated with the regulation of energy balance and the control of food intake. A reduced energy intake causing body weight loss may be caused by social or physiological factors, or a combination of both. Poverty, loneliness, and social isolation are the predominant social factors that contribute to decreased food intake in the elderly. Depression, often associated with loss or deterioration of social networks, is a common psychological problem in the elderly and a significant cause of loss of appetite. The reduction in food intake may be due to the reduced drive to eat (hunger) resulting from a lower need state, or it arises because of more rapidly acting or more potent inhibitory (satiety) signals. The early satiation appears to be predominantly due to a decrease in adaptive relaxation of the stomach fundus resulting in early antral filling, while increased levels and effectiveness of cholecystokinin play a role in the anorexia of aging. The central feeding drive (both the opioid and the neuropeptide Y effects) appears to decline with age. Physical factors such as poor dentition and ill-fitting dentures or age-associated changes in taste and smell may influence food choice and limit the type and quantity of food eaten in older people. Common medical conditions in the elderly such as gastrointestinal disease, malabsorption syndromes, acute and chronic infections, and hypermetabolism often cause anorexia, micronutrient deficiencies, and increased energy and protein requirements. Furthermore, the elderly are major users of prescription medications, a number of which can cause malabsorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal symptoms, and loss of appetite. There is now good evidence that, although age-related reduction in energy intake is largely a

  10. EFFECTS OF ANISOMYCIN ON RETENTION OF THE PASSIVE-AVOIDANCE HABIT AS A FUNCTION OF AGE

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Kinkade, Patrick T.; Bennett, Edward L.

    1980-09-01

    Three age groups of male Swiss albino CD-1 mice (2-3 mo, 6-7 mo, and 14-15 mo) were treated with a 120 mg/kg dose of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin or with an equal volume of saline at various times before and after training (20 min pretraining, 0, 10, 30, and 180 min posttraining) in a shock motivated passive-avoidance task. Young (2-3 mo) and intermediate-aged (6-7 mo) mice treated with anisomycin before or immediately after training demonstrated impaired retention at a 7 day test, but retention was normal for mice injected 10, 30, or 180 min posttraining. The older mice (14-15 mo) showed similar results, with one exception: Those older mice injected with anisomycin 10 min posttraining were significantly impared in retention as compared to older saline controls and to identically treated young or intermediate-aged mice. The prolonged gradient of retrograde amnesia demonstrated by older mice could not be accounted for by impaired acquisition, impaired short-term memory, altered spontaneous locomotor activity, or differential inhibition of brain protein synthesis.

  11. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  12. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  13. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Instrument for Measuring Sleep Length and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Nyberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop a new instrument for measuring length of sleep as well as television and computer habits in school-age children. A questionnaire was constructed for use when children visit the school health care unit. Three aspects of the validity of the questionnaire were examined: its face validity, content validity, and construct…

  14. Smoking and women: tragedy of the majority.

    PubMed

    Fielding, J E

    1987-11-19

    An increasing number of women are becoming victims of their smoking habit. A broader cross-section of women, other than the very rich and the "indecent," began to smoke in the 1920s, and over the past 50 years tobacco advertising has linked smoking with women's emancipation and achievement of equality with men. The marketing efforts directed to women include special packaging for feminine appeal, "designer" cigarettes, and offering discounted women's products with the purchase of a particular brand of cigarettes. Sponsorship of sporting events coupled with sports themes in cigarette advertisements associates smoking with enhanced physical capacity--a deception. The marketing experts promote smoking as a way of remaining slim in a culture obsessed with thinness. The woman who smokes today is a heavier smoker, on average, with the percentage of women smoking more than 25 cigarettes/day almost doubling from 13% in 1965 to 23% in 1985. Women start smoking at younger and younger ages. 84% of women smokers who are now 28-37 years began to smoke before age 20 as compared with 42% of those now 58-67 years. Today more young women than young men smoke. In addition to the risk of lung cancer, women who smoke also have sex-specific risks, such as those pertaining to a women's reproductive organs and processes. When smoking is of long duration, it appears to increase the risks of intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix and of invasive cervical cancer. An antiestrogen effect of smoking may provide the explanation for why smoking women reach menopause 1-2 years earlier than nonsmokers. The same mechanism, which has been supported by several case-control studies, may increase postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures, particularly among nonobese women. Possibly the worst consequences of smoking by women are its effects on reproduction and on children. Both a dose-response depressant effect of smoking on fetal development and birth weight have been confirmed. Smoking also reduces

  15. Simulation of the Intercontinental Transport, Aging, and Removal of a Boreal Fire Smoke Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghan, S. J.; Chapman, E. G.; Easter, R. C.; Reid, J. S.; Justice, C.

    2003-12-01

    Back trajectories suggest that an elevated absorbing aerosol plume observed over Oklahoma in May 2003 can be traced to intense forest fires in Siberia two weeks earlier. The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) product is used to estimate smoke emissions from those fires. The Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Model Exchanges (MIRAGE) is used to simulate the transport, aging, radiative properties, and removal of the aerosol. The simulated aerosol optical depth is compared with satellite retrievals, and the vertical structure of the plume is compared with in situ measurements. Sensitivity experiments are performed to determine the sensitivity of the simulated plume to uncertainty in the emissions vertical profile, mass flux, size distribution, and composition.

  16. Smoking and choroidal thickness in patients over 65 with early-atrophic age-related macular degeneration and normals

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, E J; Randolph, J C; Calzada, J I; Charles, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare macular choroidal thickness between cigarette smokers, those with a history of smoking, and nonsmokers in patients over 65 years of age with early-atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and normals. Methods Prospective, consecutive, observational case series. Enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography 12-line radial scans were performed and choroidal thickness manually quantified at 84 points in the central 3 mm of the macula. Data of normals, soft drusen alone, and soft drusen with additional features of early AMD were compared. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model, controlling for age, was constructed to evaluate the effect of smoking history and AMD features on choroidal thickness. Results A history of smoking was significantly associated with a thinner choroid across all patients via logistic regression (P=0.004; O.R.=12.4). Mean macular choroidal thickness was thinner for smokers (148±63 μm) than for nonsmokers (181±65 μm) among all diagnosis categories (P=0.003). Subgroup analysis of patients with AMD features revealed a similar decreased choroidal thickness in smokers (121±41 μm) compared with nonsmokers (146±46 μm, P=0.006). Bivariate analysis revealed an association between increased pack-years of smoking and a thin choroid across all patients (P<0.001) and among patients with features of early AMD (P<0.001). Both the presence of features of macular degeneration (P<0.001) and a history of smoking (P=0.024) were associated with decreased choroidal thickness in a MANOVA model. Conclusion Chronic cigarette smoke exposure may be associated with decreased choroidal thickness. There may be an anatomic sequelae to chronic tobacco smoke exposure that underlies previously reported AMD risk. PMID:24833184

  17. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study results indicate that: (1) cigarette smoke allowed to accumulate in a poorly ventilated enclosure significantly increases heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; (2) the smoking environment's effect upon the children is similar to the cigarette smoke's effect upon the smoker but on a reduced scale; and (3) the male and female…

  18. Smoking and Youth

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  19. Using Twitter for prenatal health promotion: encouraging a multivitamin habit among college-aged females.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Kim, Eunice; Guadagmo, Marie; Donovan-Kicken, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Half of the pregnancies in the United States are unplanned and the highest rate of these unplanned pregnancies occurs in young women aged 18-24y. Serious birth defects, such as those that affect the neural tube, occur early in pregnancy, most of the time before a woman knows she is pregnant. These neural tube defects can be reduced by 50-72% with an adequate daily intake of folic acid. In continuing the research on how to effectively communicate the important benefits of folic acid to young women, this study sought to investigate the use of social media as a tool for health promotion. Young women are considered the 'power users' of social media and the current study uses Twitter as a vehicle for multivitamin promotion messages due to the ability to quickly share content and the potential to attract viral attention through re-tweets. PMID:23138084

  20. Successful aging, dietary habits and health status of elderly individuals: a k-dimensional approach within the multi-national MEDIS study.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2014-12-01

    The definition and determinants of successful aging is still controversial. Although dietary habits have long been associated with aging, eating habits and behaviors have rarely been included in various proposed indices of successful aging. The aim of this work was to evaluate determinants of successful aging together with assessment of dietary habits in relation to healthcare facility use among elders living in the Mediterranean basin. During 2005-2011, 2663 elderly (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled in the study. A successful aging index ranging from a score of 0 to a score of 10 was constructed using 10 attributes, i.e., education, financial status, physical activity, body mass index, depression, participation in social activities with friends and family, number of yearly excursions, number of cardiovascular disease risk factors and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The applied factor analysis on the components of the index extracted three main components for successful aging: psychosocial-economic, bioclinical and lifestyle; confirming the multiple dimensions of aging. After adjusting for confounders, a 1/10-unit increase in the successful aging index was associated with 0.8 less annual visits to healthcare centers (95% CI -1.3 to-0.2). Stratified analysis by gender revealed heterogeneity of factors predicting successful aging. These findings suggest that successful aging is a multidimensional and complex concept that exhibits gender heterogeneity. Annual use of health care services by the elders was found to be related to level of successful aging. PMID:25240688

  1. Schooling and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1995-01-01

    Estimates schooling's effect on the odds that men and women smoke for five age cohorts, using 1989 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services data. Schooling reduces the odds that men (ages 25 to 54) and women (ages 25 to 44) smoke. Schooling does not affect whether men (ages 55 to 64) or women (ages 45 to 64) smoke. (MLH)

  2. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  3. Smoking in pregnancy and children's mental and motor development at age 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Trasti, N; Vik, T; Jacobsen, G; Bakketeig, L S

    1999-06-01

    We used data from a Scandinavian prospective multicenter study to investigate if smoking in pregnancy may have an adverse effect on the child's mental and motor abilities. Eligible for enrolment were para I and 2 women with a singleton pregnancy, who resided in one of the study areas and could be registered before the 20th gestational week. Women were classified as 'smokers' or 'non-smokers' at study start. At 13 months, 376 children (124 children of smokers) were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. At this age, children of smokers and non-smokers performed equally well. At 5 years, 369 children (132 children of smokers) were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-R), and 362 children with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a WPPSI-R score below the median value of the population (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3), but the risk was reduced when we adjusted for maternal education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.7). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a test score below the median population value on the subscale 'balance' from PDMS (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). Thus, we found that smoking in pregnancy was associated with a small, but demonstrable adverse effect on the child's balance at 5 years, whereas the negative effect on cognitive function did not reach statistical significance, when we adjusted for the mother's level of education. PMID:10390089

  4. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke exposure in a reconstructed Viking Age house.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation. PMID:24889798

  5. Alcohol, Smoking and Drug Use among Inuit Women of Childbearing Age during Pregnancy and the Risk to Children

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531

  6. Psycho-social study of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tandon, A K; Chaturvedi, P K; Dubey, A L; Narang, R K; Singh, S K; Chandra, S

    1990-04-01

    The present study has been carried out to assess the smoking habit among medical students and its relationship to demographic, social and psychological characteristics. Prevalence of smoking was found to be 30.79% in 854 students who responded to the questionnaire adequately. Smoking habit was more common among student who were married hailed from rural areas and the intensity of smoking increased with advancement in the career in medical profession. A strong association was observed between the habit and family history of smoking. The psychological factors associated with smoking were worry about examination unhappiness without justified cause and failure in friendship. PMID:21927445

  7. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite

  8. Smoke aerosol properties and ageing effects for Northern temperate and boreal regions derived from AERONET source and age attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for

  9. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702

  10. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  11. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  12. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p < 0.05). There was suggestive evidence of higher sperm motility and percent of sperm with normal morphology in the spring than in the other seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  13. Blood and plasma glutathione measured in healthy subjects by HPLC: relation to sex, aging, biological variables, and life habits.

    PubMed

    Michelet, F; Gueguen, R; Leroy, P; Wellman, M; Nicolas, A; Siest, G

    1995-10-01

    We report an HPLC method for measuring the concentrations of reduced (GSH) and total (GSHt) free glutathione in human plasma and whole blood. The chromatographic step was coupled with a postcolumn derivatization reaction and fluorometric detection. The linear range was 0.81-13.02 mumol/L, and the detection limit was 0.13 mumol/L. In healthy adults (ages 18-73 years), mean concentrations were 941 +/- 155 mumol/L for GSHt and 849 +/- 63 mumol/L for GSH in blood (107 men, 94 women), and 3.39 +/- 1.04 mumol/L for GSH in plasma (66 men, 58 women). Blood GSHt but not GSH was significantly lower in children (32 boys, 32 girls: 872 +/- 157 mumol/L) than in adults. Blood GSHt and GSH appeared to be correlated positively with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the regular practice of physical exercise, and negatively with alcohol abstinence. We observed positive correlations between blood GSHt and cholesterol and calcium concentrations, and between blood GSH and cholesterol concentration. PMID:7586526

  14. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  15. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  16. Dose-response relations between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Li, LiXia; Gao, Yanhui; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi; Chen, Sidong

    2015-09-30

    A growing body of evidence indicates a strong association between smoking and depression. However, little is known about the possible effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on depression. This study aimed to examine the potential dose-response relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among non-smoking middle-aged women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a stratified three-stage sampling method. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a cut-off point of 16. Self-reported SHS exposure was defined as non-smokers׳ inhalation of the smoke exhaled from smokers on at least one day a week. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was completed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 1280 middle-aged women, 19.4% were classified as having depressive symptoms. There was a 104% increased odds of depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in general (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48-2.79) using no exposure as reference. There were significant positive relations between SHS exposure in general and depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner. These significant trends were observed consistently whether SHS exposure occurred in homes or workplaces. Our findings suggest that long-term and regular SHS exposure is associated with a significant, dose-dependent increase in risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:26231582

  17. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M.; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  18. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations depend on smoking habit in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background-Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and concentrations are modulated by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking. Objective- To assess whether the association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  19. [Smoking among nursing students].

    PubMed

    Kolleck, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    Smoking as a major public-health concern is still a widespread habit among nurses and young students of nursing. The hypothesis however, that professional environment positively influences smoking habit, could not be supported: smoking is less influenced by vocational training and practice than by the social environment of the students. The results of the survey also show, that a great part of the smokers have a critical attitude towards their habit and would agree to counteractions. Nursing schools could play an important role therein. The conception of nursing as a responsible health profession would demand to take over a more active part in considering the consequences, in smoking prevention and in supporting cessation. PMID:15137673

  20. Rhesus Factor Modulation of Effects of Smoking and Age on Psychomotor Performance, Intelligence, Personality Profile, and Health in Czech Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID

  1. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  2. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  3. Social influences approach to smoking prevention: the effects of videotape delivery with and without same-age peer leader participation.

    PubMed

    Telch, M J; Miller, L M; Killen, J D; Cooke, S; Maccoby, N

    1990-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking adoption among adolescents could be suppressed by providing school-based videotape instruction for resisting social influences to smoke. The utilization of same-age peer leaders was also varied to test whether their participation in the classroom would enhance program effects. Seventh grade students (N = 540) from one junior high school in Southern California were randomly assigned by classrooms (N = 15) to: (a) videotape instruction, (b) videotape instruction plus peer leader involvement, or (c) survey-only. Seventh grade students (N = 234) in a second junior high school served as a measurement-only control. Assessments were conducted at the beginning and end of the academic year. Results revealed a marked suppression in the onset of both experimental and regular smoking among those students exposed to the pressure resistance training with peer leader involvement. Pressure resistance training without peer leader involvement produced a more variable and less powerful effect on students' smoking behavior. Data collected on students' use of alcohol and marijuana revealed a generalized suppression effect, albeit weaker than for tobacco, among those students exposed to the social resistance training with peer leader involvement. Results provide further encouraging support for the use of peer-led pressure resistance training in preventing adolescent drug use. PMID:2316409

  4. A Cross-Age Study of Elementary Student Teachers' Scientific Habits of Mind Concerning Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çalik, Muammer; Turan, Burçin; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated elementary student teachers' scientific habits of mind for a series of socioscientific issues, and compared their views with respect to academic performance and type of programme. The sample consisted of 1,600 student teachers from science education, mathematics education, primary teacher education and social…

  5. Perceptions of School Toilets as a Cause for Irregular Toilet Habits among Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 16 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundblad, Barbro; Hellstrom, Anna-Lena

    2005-01-01

    Irregular bladder and bowel habits can contribute to urinary and bowel problems. Schoolchildren undergoing treatment for these problems often do not follow the recommendation of regular toilet visits at school, claiming negative perceptions of school toilets. This study examined 6- to 16-year-old schoolchildren's perceptions of school toilets and…

  6. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  7. Onset of Smoking Behaviors and Participation in Leisure Physical Activities of Turkish Adolescents Attending Vocational Health Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Feryal; Hey, William; Mumcu, Gonca; Koksal, Leyla; Luleci, Emel; Sur, Haydar

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of examining the relationships between smoking behavior and leisure physical activity habits of adolescents (n=170, 85F & 85M, mean age= 15.42 [plus or minus] 0.58, age range=15-17 years) attending vocational health schools in Turkey. Participants were randomly selected from four provinces of…

  8. Prevalence of smoking restrictions and child exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and homes: a repeated cross-sectional survey of children aged 10–11 years in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Littlecott, Hannah J; Ahmed, Nilufar; Lewis, Sophia; Sulley, Gillian; Jones, Elen; Holliday, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Small increases in smoking restrictions in cars and homes were reported after legislation prohibiting smoking in public places. Few studies examine whether these changes continued in the longer term. This study examines changes in restrictions on smoking in cars and homes, and child exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these locations, since 2008 postlegislation surveys in Wales. Setting State-maintained primary schools in Wales (n=75). Participants Children aged 10–11 years (year 6) completed CHETS (CHild exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Wales surveys in 2007 (n=1612) and 2008 (n=1605). A replication survey (CHETS Wales 2) was conducted in 2014, including 1601 children. Primary outcome variable Children's reports of whether smoking was allowed in their car or home and exposure to SHS in a car or home the previous day. Results The percentage of children who reported that smoking was allowed in their family vehicle fell from 18% to 9% in 2014 (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54). The percentage living in homes where smoking was allowed decreased from 37% to 26% (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43). Among children with a parent who smoked, one in five and one in two continued to report that smoking was allowed in their car and home. The percentage reporting SHS exposure in a car (OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) or home (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.53) the previous day also fell. Children from poorer families remained less likely to report smoking restrictions. Conclusions Smoking in cars and homes has continued to decline. Substantial numbers of children continue to report that smoking is allowed in cars and homes, particularly children from poorer families. A growing number of countries have legislated, or plan to legislate, banning smoking in cars carrying children. Attention is needed to the impact of legislation on child health and health inequalities, and reducing smoking in homes. PMID:25636793

  9. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  10. Are The Predictors of Hookah Smoking Differ From Those of Cigarette Smoking? Report of a population-based study in Shiraz, Iran, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahifard, Gholamreza; Vakili, Veda; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad; Romito, Laura; Palenik, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and effect of lifestyle factors on cigarette and hookah use among adult residents of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In 2010, 1,000 participants were recruited in a multistage, random sampling cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Response rate was 98%. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.7%. Among cigarette users, 12.6% reported smoking <1 year; 13.4% smoked 1-2 years and 73.9% smoked>2 years. Almost half of those surveyed (48.9%) smoked <10 cigarettes per day (cpd); 28.4% smoked 10-15 cpd; 14.8% smoked 16-19 cpd, and 8%>20 cpd. Almost a quarter (20.4%) of the cigarette smokers tried to quit in the past year. Being male, married, aged 37-54, having higher perceived levels of stress, a non-manual occupation, and sedentary lifestyle were positively associated with cigarette smoking. Manual labor occupations, housewife/jobless status, and going frequently to restaurants were positive predictors of hookah smoking. Conclusions: Compared to cigarettes, hookah smoking was more prevalent among Iranian adults. Approximately, the prevalence of hookah smoking in women is the same as men, whereas cigarette use was 31 times more common in men. Cigarette and hookah smoking were associated with less healthy lifestyle habits in both men and women. PMID:23671779

  11. [SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RISK FOR THE SMOKING- RELATED LOSS OF HEALTH OF THE POPULATION OF THE KRASNOIARSK KRAĬ].

    PubMed

    Goryaev, D V; Tikhonova, I V; Dogadin, F V

    2015-01-01

    There are presented data on the consumption of tobacco in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the context of age-sex and social groups. Representatives of the workers specialties, students were shown to smoke more frequently, men smoke 2 times more often than women. For the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory there were evaluated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the loss of health, related with the factor of tobacco smoking. The significant portion of residents was established to accept tobacco smoking. The lack of a purposeful policy on the formation of the image of a non-smoker does as not only increase the interest in this bad habit from the part of young people as well determined the early age of the beginning of smoking, but also stimulates the continuation of smoking in an older age. The measures aimed at the reduction or cessation of smoking: education the population and informing about the dangers of smoking, promotion of healthy lifestyles; offensive disciplinary, civil, administrative responsibility; measures aimed on the increase in the cost, the provision of (free) medical care aimed at the treatment of tobacco dependence. PMID:26155638

  12. Association of tobacco habits, including bidi smoking, with overall and site-specific cancer incidence: results from the Mumbai cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Yeole, Balkrishna B.; Hébert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bidis are hand-rolled cigarettes commonly smoked in South Asia and are marketed to Western populations as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. This study examined the association between bidis and other forms of tobacco use and cancer incidence in an urban developing country population. Methods Using data from the large, well-characterized Mumbai cohort study, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from Cox proportional hazards regression models in order to compare the relative effect of various forms of tobacco use on cancer incidence. Results During 649,228 person-years of follow-up 1,267 incident cancers occurred in 87,222 male cohort members. Incident oral cancer in bidi smokers (HR = 3.55; 95% CI = 2.40,5.24) was 42% higher than in cigarette smokers (HR = 2.50;95% CI = 1.65,3.78). For all respiratory and intrathoracic organs combined, the increase was 69% (HR = 5.54; 95% CI = 3.46,8.87 vs. HR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.99,5.39); for lung and larynx, the increases were 35 and 112%, respectively. Smokeless tobacco use was associated with cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, digestive, respiratory, and intrathoracic organs. Conclusions Despite marketing claims to the contrary, we found that smokeless tobacco use and bidi smoking are at least as harmful as cigarette smoking for all incident cancers and are associated with increased risk of oral and respiratory/intrathoracic cancers. PMID:21431915

  13. Astrobiology through the ages of Mars: the study of terrestrial analogues to understand the habitability of Mars.

    PubMed

    Fairén, Alberto G; Davila, Alfonso F; Lim, Darlene; Bramall, Nathan; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Zavaleta, Jhony; Uceda, Esther R; Stoker, Carol; Wierzchos, Jacek; Dohm, James M; Amils, Ricardo; Andersen, Dale; McKay, Christopher P

    2010-10-01

    Mars has undergone three main climatic stages throughout its geological history, beginning with a water-rich epoch, followed by a cold and semi-arid era, and transitioning into present-day arid and very cold desert conditions. These global climatic eras also represent three different stages of planetary habitability: an early, potentially habitable stage when the basic requisites for life as we know it were present (liquid water and energy); an intermediate extreme stage, when liquid solutions became scarce or very challenging for life; and the most recent stage during which conditions on the surface have been largely uninhabitable, except perhaps in some isolated niches. Our understanding of the evolution of Mars is now sufficient to assign specific terrestrial environments to each of these periods. Through the study of Mars terrestrial analogues, we have assessed and constrained the habitability conditions for each of these stages, the geochemistry of the surface, and the likelihood for the preservation of organic and inorganic biosignatures. The study of these analog environments provides important information to better understand past and current mission results as well as to support the design and selection of instruments and the planning for future exploratory missions to Mars. PMID:21087162

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Smoking-Related and Total Cancer Mortality in Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Do.; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking-related, nonsmoking-related, and total cancer mortality, following 25,892 men age 30-87 years who had a preventive medical evaluation that included a maximal exercise test and self-reported health habits. Results indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness may have provided…

  15. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time. PMID:25131273

  16. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  17. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nearly 80% of all smokers live in low to middle income countries. Previous research has suggested that smoking rates vary by occupation, with relatively low rates commonly seen among educators. Despite this fact, little is known about the smoking habits of teachers in Botswana. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school teachers in Botswana. Results The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Botswana was found to be relatively low. Of the 1732 participants in the study, only 3.2% reported being current smokers, 5.3% were ex-smokers and 91.5% had never smoked. Smoking was more common among male teachers when compared to females, being 10.8% and 0.4%, respectively. Factors such as school level, marital status and body mass index were found to be positively associated with tobacco smoking, whereas age, length of employment and weekly working hours were not. Conclusion This study suggests that Botswana school teachers have a low prevalence of tobacco smoking. While this result may be attributed to tobacco control measures that have been put in place, there is still need to put in place systems to monitor compliance and programs to help those who want to quit smoking. Such protocols would represent a major step forward in further reducing the prevalence of smoking in the education profession. PMID:24283758

  18. Smoking during pregnancy among northwest Native Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R L; Helgerson, S D; Waller, P

    1992-01-01

    There is little available information on the smoking habits of Native Americans. The authors used data from the Washington State birth certificate to determine the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy among Native American mothers in Washington State. From 1984 through 1988, 39.8 percent of all Native Americans smoked during their pregnancy. Smoking patterns during pregnancy differed markedly between Native Americans and whites according to maternal age and marital status. The smoking prevalence in Native Americans, adjusted for maternal age and marital status, was 1.3 times higher than that found in Washington State white women. This is the first analysis of statewide smoking rates during pregnancy among Native Americans. The birth certificate can serve as a readily accessible and low cost surveillance system for populations such as Native Americans, who are otherwise difficult to study. Smoking intervention programs need to be targeted at Native Americans, and how their smoking patterns differ from those of the general population needs to be recognized. PMID:1738811

  19. Urinary cadmium levels and tobacco smoke exposure in women age 20-69 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J A; Shafer, M M; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, J M; Newcomb, P A

    2007-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic, bioaccumulated heavy metal with a half-life of one to four decades in humans (CDC, 2005). Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. In our population-based study, a risk-factor interview was conducted as part of a breast cancer study for 251 randomly selected women living in Wisconsin (USA), aged 20-69 yr, and spot-urine specimens were also obtained. Urine collection kits were carefully designed to minimize trace element contamination during specimen collection and handling in each participant's home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and creatinine levels and specific gravity were also determined. Statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status (never, former, and current respectively) were observed. A difference in mean cadmium levels for nonsmokers who reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood or the recent past (approximately 2 yr prior to the interview) for exposure at home, at work, or in social settings compared to those who reported no exposure was not found. PMID:17885936

  20. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  1. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Juntunen, J.; Asp, S.; Olkinuora, M.; Aärimaa, M.; Strid, L.; Kauttu, K.

    1988-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  2. Tobacco habit in northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Upendra; Bala, Nidhi; Tewar, Varsha; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai

    2006-01-01

    To study tobacco consumption practices in north-Indian population, a community-based, stratified sampling survey using validated interview schedule was performed in rural/urban areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. There were 432 tobacco users (385 men, 47 women; 276 urban, 156 rural) taken as subjects. Tobacco use practices ie, chewing/smoking/rubbing/snuffing, frequency, starting age, supply, place/context of use, quid habit, affect, facilitating conditions/barriers, tobacco users' opinion on control measures were all taken into consideration. Single mode of tobacco use was reported by 277 subjects (64.1%) and the rest had a plethora of tobacco practices. Chewing was prevalent in 322(74.5%), smoking in 256(59.3%), rubbing in 32(7.4%) and snuffing in 4 subjects (0.9%). Of the 10 preparations in the questionnaire, the "top 5" preferences ranked as tobacco-betel, gutka, cigarette, bidi and khaini that remained unchanged between sexes, rural/urban people and age groups. Women significantly (p<0.00001) preferred smokeless tobacco and perceived social barrier for smoking. Gutka consumption was significantly higher in youngsters (<25 yeans; p<0.0001). Most subjects (235; 54.3%) used tobacco 7-24 times/day. Majority (259; 60%) users started consuming tobacco before 21 years of age and about a fifth 95(22%) before 15 years. Majority users (232; 53.6%) did not procure tobacco from a fixed shop. The commonest context of tobacco use was with any refreshment (337; 78.0%). Of the 322 tobacco chewers, about half the subjects (178; 52.2%) rotated the quid in their mouth, 313(97.2%) later spat it out, 9(2.1%) swallowed it and 15(4.7%) admitted to sleep with the quid in mouth. Tobacco along with alcohol was consumed by 82(19%) and with opium by 33 subjects (7.6%). Social barrier to tobacco use was perceived by 231 subjects (53.5%), especially by smokers. Majority users (355; 82.2%) did not have negative feelings or embarrassment in using tobacco. Most users (351; 81.4%) said they would

  3. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knekt, P.; Hakama, M.; Järvinen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Heliövaara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco smoking was studied in relation to colorectal cancer in 56 973 Finnish men and women initially free from cancer. Smoking status was determined by a health questionnaire. During a follow-up period of 28 years, from the baseline in 1966-72 to the end of 1994, 457 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. There was no significant association between baseline smoking status and colorectal cancer risk over the total follow-up period. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of colorectal cancer between smokers and non-smokers was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.33). For follow-up periods of 11-20 years, however, the relative risk was 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.24). In a subgroup in which smoking habits were assessed twice, the relative risk of colorectal cancer among persistent smokers was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.68) compared with others. The results of the present prospective study are consistent with the possibility that smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer after a relatively long induction period. To clarify the role of smoking in colorectal cancer development, further cohort studies are needed with long follow-up periods and allowing for control of dietary and other potential confounding factors. PMID:9662264

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  5. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men. PMID:22171524

  6. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10(14) per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical

  7. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  8. Physical Properties of Known Exoplanet and Host Stars Within Ten Parsecs: X-ray/UV Fluxes, Rotation, Ages, and Potential of Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullberg, Evan; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    We have compiled a catalogue of all exoplanets and their host stars within ten parsecs (32.6 ly) from the Sun. In addition to the physical properties of the exoplanets: estimated mass, orbital period, etc; we have compiled the properties of the host stars. These include: spectral class, effective temperature, luminosity, metallicity, period of rotation, etc. For the stars that have X-Ray observations and UV spectrophotometry, we have measured the X-UV irradiances at the distance of the exoplanets orbiting them. In addition, we estimated the ages of the stellar systems using our Rotation-Age-Activity relationship developed at Villanova over the last ten years. These results were used to evaluate the potential habitability of the exoplanets with particular attention is paid to stars with Super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zones of their host stars. These include GJ 581, GJ 876, Tau Ceti, and HD 20794. We focus on the GJ 581 system, since it contains at least two Super-Earth exoplanets on the inner and outer boundaries of the habitable zone (GJ 581c and GJ 581d respectively), and because the host star has recently been observed with the SWIFT satellite and detected to be an X-Ray source with a log(LX 26.1 erg/s (Vitale and France A&A 2013). We also utilized the recently secured FUV-UV HIST/COS spectrophotometry (France et al. ApJ 2013) to compute X-Ray to UV irradiances at GJ 581c and GJ 581d. In addition to the XUV irradiance studies, we have estimated the age of the GJ 581 system from the: rotational period, Lyman Alpha Emission, Mg-II emission, Ca-II emission; using our Rotation-Age-Activity relationship from our Living with a Red Dwarf program. We calculate an average age determination of 7.5±2 Gyr. We discuss how these results affect the relevance of these stars as potential destinations of interstellar travel in the future. We acknowledge the support for this study from NSF/RUI grant AST-1009903, and NASA/CHANDRA GO1-12024X, GO2-13020X and HST

  9. Cigarette smoking among Chinese PLWHA: An exploration of changes in smoking after being tested HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanhui; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Yan; Shan, Qiao; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    Prevention and cessation of Tobacco use among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a significant challenge for HIV/AIDS patient care in China and across the globe. Awareness of HIV-positive status may alter the likelihood for PLWHA smokers to change their smoking habit. In this study, we tested the risk enhancement and risk reduction hypotheses by assessing changes in cigarette smoking behavior among PLWHA after they received the positive results of their HIV tests. Cross-sectional survey data collected from a random sample of 2973 PLWHA in care in Guangxi, China were analyzed. Changes in cigarette smoking after receiving the HIV-positive test results, as well as the current levels of cigarette smoking were measured. Among the total participants, 1529 (51.7%) were self-identified as cigarette smokers, of whom 436 (28.9%) reduced smoking and 286 (19.0%) quit after receiving their HIV-positive test results. Among the quitters, 210 (73.9%) remained abstinent for a median duration of two years. There were also 124 (8.2%) who increased cigarette smoking. Older age, female gender, more education, and receiving antiretroviral therapy were associated with quitting. In conclusion, our study findings support the risk reduction and risk enhancement hypotheses. A large proportion of smoking PLWHA reduced or quit smoking, while a small proportion increased smoking. Findings of this study suggest that the timing when a person receives his or her HIV-positive test result may be an ideal opportunity for care providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions. Longitudinal studies are indicated to verify the findings of this study and to support smoking cessation intervention among PLWHA in the future. PMID:26457812

  10. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer L; Burgess, John A; Lodge, Caroline J; Johns, David P; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB) in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age. Methods The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583). Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729), from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389) underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relevant associations. Results The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8). Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4]), and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]). Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7]), current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7]), “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9]), and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1]). Conclusion The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 in a rat premature skin aging model.

    PubMed

    Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin aging could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin aging process. PMID:25446104

  12. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  13. Oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of Kenyan children aged 9-15 years in a peri-urban and urban school.

    PubMed

    Kaimenyi, J T; Ndungu, F L; Maina, S W; Chindia, M

    1993-02-01

    The oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of 541 Kenyan children from a peri-urban and urban school and aged 9-15 years, were investigated. 80.2% of the urban children and 43.1% of the peri-urban children had visited a dentist before. 12.4% of the urban children and 9.2% of the peri-urban children knew that bacteria cause dental caries. Over 87% of the children from either school knew that dental caries and periodontitis can be prevented. The main reason for visiting a dentist was to have tooth extraction. Failure to brush teeth was believed to be the cause of gingival bleeding by 38.9% of the peri-urban children and 37.6% of the urban children. 67.2% of the peri-urban children and 39.5% of the urban children brushed their teeth thrice daily. 21.1% of the peri-urban children and 2% of the urban children used a chewing stick to brush their teeth. More urban children (96.5%) used a toothbrush than peri-urban children (64.8%). None of the children from either school admitted using traditional cleaning aids such as the finger and charcoal. It is concluded that there were no consistent differences in oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness between peri-urban and urban children. PMID:8513743

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    PubMed

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  15. Associations Between Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Externalized Behaviors at School Age Among Inuit Children Exposed to Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943

  16. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  17. The Predictive Impact of Biological and Sociocultural Factors on Executive Processing: The Role of Age, Education, and Frequency of Reading and Writing Habits.

    PubMed

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura D; Cardoso, Caroline O; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth I; Fonseca, Rochele P

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of education and age on executive functions (EF) has been widely studied, the influence of daily cognitive stimulation on EF has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the age, education, and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH) of healthy adults could predict their performance on measures of inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Inhibition speed, inhibitory control, and set shifting were assessed using speed, accuracy, and discrepancy scores on the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and Hayling Test. Demographic characteristics and the FRWH were assessed using specialized questionnaires. Regression analyses showed that age and the FRWH predicted speed and accuracy on the TMT. The FRWH predicted both speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test, for which speed and accuracy scores were also partly explained by age and education, respectively. Surprisingly, only the FRWH was associated with Hayling Test discrepancy scores, considered one of the purest EF measures. This highlights the importance of regular cognitive stimulation over the number of years of formal education on EF tasks. Further studies are required to investigate the role of the FRWH so as to better comprehend its relationship with EF and general cognition. PMID:26111081

  18. Joint Effects of Smoking and Gene Variants Involved in Sex Steroid Metabolism on Hot Flashes in Late Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Queen, Kaila; Lin, Hui; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although smoking has a known association with hot flashes, the factors distinguishing smokers at greatest risk for menopausal symptoms have not been well delineated. Recent evidence supports a relationship between menopausal symptoms and variants in several genes encoding enzymes that metabolize substrates such as sex steriods, xenobiotics, and catechols. It is currently not known whether the impact of smoking on hot flashes is modified by the presence of such variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and hot flash occurrence as a function of genetic variation in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Penn Ovarian Aging study, an ongoing population-based cohort of late reproductive-aged women, was performed. Smoking behavior was characterized. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes were investigated: COMT Val158Met (rs4680), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), CYP1B1*4 (Asn452Ser, rs1800440), CYP1B1*3 (Leu432Val, rs1056836), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574). Results: Compared with nonsmokers, European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked had increased odds of hot flashes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–28.78)]; European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked heavily had more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmokers (AOR 13.7, 95% CI 1.2–154.9). European-American CYP 1B1*3 double-variant carriers who smoked described more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmoking (AOR 20.6, 95% CI 1.64–257.93) and never-smoking (AOR 20.59, 95% CI 1.39–304.68) carriers, respectively. African-American single-variant CYP 1A2 carriers who smoked were more likely to report hot flashes than the nonsmoking carriers (AOR 6.16, 95% CI 1.11–33.91). Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the effects of smoking within the strata of gene variants involved in sex

  19. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  20. Cadmium intake and systemic exposure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2012-11-01

    Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969

  1. Effect of cigarette smoke from the mother on bronchial responsiveness and severity of symptoms in children with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.B.; Morrison, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    The effect of parental smoking was assessed in 94 consecutively observed children, aged 7 to 17 years, who had a history of asthmatic wheezing. The 24 children whose mothers smoked, when they were compared with children whose mothers did not smoke, had 47% more symptoms, a 13% lower mean FEV1 percent, a 23% lower mean FEF25-75%, and fourfold greater responsiveness to aerosolized histamine. A dose response was evident. There was a highly significant correlation between the results of the tests and the number of cigarettes the mother smoked while she was in the house. The differences between the children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were greater in older than in younger subjects. The smoking habits of the father were not correlated with the severity of the child's asthma.

  2. A discrete-time analysis of the effects of more prolonged exposure to neighborhood poverty on the risk of smoking initiation by age 25.

    PubMed

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults. PMID:26685707

  3. The Effect of Habitual Smoking on VO2max

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker S.; Randles, Anthony M.; Arenare, Brian; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    VO2max is associated with many factors, including age, gender, physical activity, and body composition. It is popularly believed that habitual smoking lowers aerobic fitness. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of habitual smoking on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, activity and BMI. METHODS: 2374 men and 375 women employed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER>=1.1), activity by the 11 point (0-10) NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), BMI and smoking pack-yrs (packs day*y of smoking). Age was recorded in years and gender was coded as M=1, W=0. Pack.y was made a categorical variable consisting of four levels as follows: Never Smoked (0), Light (1-10), Regular (11-20), Heavy (>20). Group differences were verified by ANOVA. A General Linear Models (GLM) was used to develop two models to examine the relationship of smoking behavior on VO2max. GLM #1(without smoking) determined the combined effects of age, gender, PASS and BMI on VO2max. GLM #2 (with smoking) determined the added effects of smoking (pack.y groupings) on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, PASS and BMI. Constant errors (CE) were calculated to compare the accuracy of the two models for estimating the VO2max of the smoking subgroups. RESULTS: ANOVA affirmed the mean VO2max of each pack.y grouping decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the level of smoking exposure increased. GLM #1 showed that age, gender, PASS and BMI were independently related with VO2max (R2 = 0.642, SEE = 4.90, p<0.001). The added pack.y variables in GLM #2 were statistically significant (R2 change = 0.7%, p<0.01). Post hoc analysis showed that compared to Never Smoked, the effects on VO2max from Light and Regular smoking habits were -0.83 and -0.85 ml.kg- 1.min-1 respectively (p<0.05). The effect of Heavy smoking on VO2max was -2.56 ml.kg- 1.min-1 (p<0.001). The CE s of each smoking group in GLM #2 was smaller than the CE s of the smoking group counterparts in GLM #1

  4. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  5. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.

    2010-01-15

    Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS

  6. Age, Growth and Feeding Habits of the Brown Comber Serranus hepatus(Linnaeus, 1758) on the Cretan Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labropoulou, M.; Tserpes, G.; Tsimenides, N.

    1998-05-01

    Forty-five samples of the brown comber Serranus hepatuswere collected during experimental surveys carried out on a monthly basis (August 1990 to August 1992) along the Cretan continental shelf. A total of 1268 specimens 31-140 mm in total length were analysed. Growth was well described by both standard and seasonalized forms of the von Bertalanffy growth model and the computed parameters were L∞;=152 mm, k=0·36, t0=-0·57. Feeding intensity was high throughout the study period and varied significantly among the age classes of fish examined. Stomach content analysis revealed that S. hepatusis carnivorous, feeding mainly on decapods. Diets did not vary seasonally; decapods were the most important prey throughout the year. However, the composition of the prey consumed varied considerably with predator age coupled with differences in mean prey sizes utilized by each age class. The mean weight of stomach contents increased significantly for older specimens, while the mean number of prey items decreased. Age-specific dietary selection was primarily a function of body size of the predator and appears to reduce intra-specific competition among the members of the different age classes. The results suggest that S. hepatusplays an important trophic role as a macrophagic carnivorous species on the Cretan continental shelf.

  7. Relationship between smoking and periodontal probing pocket depth profile.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lottie; Modin, Carolina; Friskopp, Johan; Jansson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the periodontal probing pocket depth profile differs significantly between smokers and non-smokers as well as within the smoking group. Subjects born 1940-1943 were collected from a computer database at a specialist clinic of periodontology. The patients included consisted of 293 individuals between 57 and 64years of age examined by nine periodontists. The periodontal probing depth at site level, age, gender and smoking habits were collected from the database. Former smokers and patients with an uncertain history of smoking habits were excluded. The smokers were stratified into three groups according to the daily consumption of cigarettes (1-10 cig/day, 11-20 cig/day, > 20 cig/day). The relative frequencies of periodontal probing pocket depths of 4-5 mm and > or = 6 mm were calculated and these two categories were used in the analyses. The partial correlation coefficients between smoking and the percentage share of periodontal pocket depths in different tooth regions were calculated by using multiple regression analyses. The smokers had significantly deeper periodontal pockets compared to the nonsmokers. The correlation between smoking and the percentage share of palatal periodontal pockets > or = 6 mm was significant. The percentage share of palatal pockets > or = 6 mm was significantly increased for subjects who smoked > 20 cigarettes per day (25%) compared to non-smokers as well as compared to subjects with a daily consumption of 1-20 cigarettes per day. This difference was significant within all tooth groups in the upper jaw. The results support the hypothesis that smoking has a local effect on periodontal pocket depth beside the systemic effect. PMID:19172916

  8. Of goals and habits: age-related and individual differences in goal-directed decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Ben; Walter, Maik; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working memory (WM) capacity? Third, can model-based behavior be affected by manipulating the distinctiveness of the reward value of choice options? To answer these questions we used a two-stage Markov decision task in in combination with computational modeling to dissociate model-based and model-free decision mechanisms. To affect model-based behavior in this task we manipulated the distinctiveness of reward probabilities of choice options. The results show age-related deficits in model-based decision-making, which are particularly pronounced if unexpected reward indicates the need for a shift in decision strategy. In this situation younger adults explore the task structure, whereas older adults show perseverative behavior. Consistent with previous findings, these results indicate that older adults have deficits in the representation and updating of expected reward value. We also observed substantial individual differences in model-based behavior. In younger adults high WM capacity is associated with greater model-based behavior and this effect is further elevated when reward probabilities are more distinct. However, in older adults we found no effect of WM capacity. Moreover, age differences in model-based behavior remained statistically significant, even after controlling for WM capacity. Thus, factors other than decline in WM, such as deficits in the in the integration of expected reward value into strategic decisions may contribute to the observed impairments in model-based behavior in older adults. PMID:24399925

  9. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Richard; Peto, Richard; Boreham, Jillian; Sutherland, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the hazards of cigarette smoking in men who formed their habits at different periods, and the extent of the reduction in risk when cigarette smoking is stopped at different ages. Design Prospective study that has continued from 1951 to 2001. Setting United Kingdom. Participants 34 439 male British doctors. Information about their smoking habits was obtained in 1951, and periodically thereafter; cause specific mortality was monitored for 50 years. Main outcome measures Overall mortality by smoking habit, considering separately men born in different periods. Results The excess mortality associated with smoking chiefly involved vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases that can be caused by smoking. Men born in 1900-1930 who smoked only cigarettes and continued smoking died on average about 10 years younger than lifelong non-smokers. Cessation at age 60, 50, 40, or 30 years gained, respectively, about 3, 6, 9, or 10 years of life expectancy. The excess mortality associated with cigarette smoking was less for men born in the 19th century and was greatest for men born in the 1920s. The cigarette smoker versus non-smoker probabilities of dying in middle age (35-69) were 42% ν 24% (a twofold death rate ratio) for those born in 1900-1909, but were 43% ν 15% (a threefold death rate ratio) for those born in the 1920s. At older ages, the cigarette smoker versus non-smoker probabilities of surviving from age 70 to 90 were 10% ν 12% at the death rates of the 1950s (that is, among men born around the 1870s) but were 7% ν 33% (again a threefold death rate ratio) at the death rates of the 1990s (that is, among men born around the 1910s). Conclusion A substantial progressive decrease in the mortality rates among non-smokers over the past half century (due to prevention and improved treatment of disease) has been wholly outweighed, among cigarette smokers, by a progressive increase in the smoker ν non-smoker death rate ratio due to earlier and more

  10. Martian Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the reported Mars surface environmental conditions (Klein, 1978) (oxidative stress, high UV radiation levels, etc.) the possibility for life development in the surface of the red planet is very small. The identification of water-ice on the subsurface on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard of the Mars Odyssey (Kieffer and Titus, 2001) and from the High Energy Neutron Detector (Litvak, et al., 2006) has important astrobiological connotations, because in addition to be a potential source for water, these locations are shielding habitats against the harsh conditions existing on the planet, like UV radiation (Gomez, et al., 2007; Gomez, et al., 2012). Martian habitability potential could change in particular located micro-niches. Salt deliquescence and hard environmental parameters modification could be relevant for life under protected niches. An example could be endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. Similar acidic salts deposits are located in Río Tinto extreme environment with shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical Astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification. Here we will report some experiments of bacteria exposition to Martian surface conditions in Mars Simulation chamber. Bacteria were shelter and exposed included in simulated salty endolithic micro niches. High percentage of bacteria resistance and adaptation to harsh extreme those conditions was reported (Gómez, F. et al., 2010). These results were used to develop and implement a Habitability Index to study Martian habitability during the next MSL mission to Mars landed on August 2012 on the surface of the red planet.

  11. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be

  12. Exoplanet habitability.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world. PMID:23641111

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Male Adolescents’ Smoking in Iran: An Explanation Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Heidarnia, Ali Reza; Hajizadeh, Ibrahim; Montazeri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking problem has still remained as a public health concern, but factors that attributing to the initiation of adolescent smoking are not well known in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking, and its associations among high school male adolescents in Iran, in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving male adolescent students (high school) in the city of Zarandieh, Iran. A multiple-stage sampling protocol was used. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, and self-report questionnaire. Prevalence was estimated, and demographic variables, psychological factors, and the theory of planned behavior components were used to indicate factors contributing to adolescents’ cigarette smoking. Results In all, 365 students were entered the study. The mean age of respondents was 16.49 ± 1.11 years. The prevalence of current smoking was 15.1%. The result obtained from logistic regression analysis revealed that all theory of planned behavior (TPB) components [knowledge (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.59-0.97), attitude (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.65-0.86), self-efficacy (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: (0.71-0.95), subjective norms (OR = 0.84; 95% CI: (0.72-0.98)] were significant predating factors for adolescents smoking habits. In addition, having parents who smoke (OR = 4.75; 95% CI: (1.38-12.35), smoking friends (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: (1.20-11.76), and smoking siblings (OR = 4.21; 95% CI: (1.17-11.16) were significant contributing factors to adolescents’ cigarette smoking behavior. Conclusions The results showed that the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adolescents was high, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were significant predictors of cigarette smoking. It seems that interventions targeting adolescents’ smoking habits might benefit using the TPB model. PMID:23983996

  14. Influence of cigarette smoking on the overall perception of dental health among adults aged 20-79 years, United States, 1988-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Nathalie M.; Dye, Bruce A.; Hooper, Tomoko I.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigation into the relationship between lifestyle factors (particularly cigarette smoking) and perceived oral health has been limited. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1988-1994, were used to explore this relationship in a large sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: This study used data on 13,357 dentate participants in NHANES III aged 20-79 years. In NHANES III, information on perceived dental health, sociodemographic attributes, smoking status, frequency of dental visits, dental insurance, and general health perception were collected during a home interview, and oral health status was assessed at a mobile examination center. RESULTS: Overall, 34.4% of individuals in the study sample reported having an unfavorable perception of their dental health by qualifying it as "fair" or "poor." Furthermore, 46.6% of smokers had an unfavorable dental health perception, compared to 28.3% of non-smokers. An interaction between smoking and race/ethnicity was found in logistic regression modeling. Stratified results show that cigarette smoking was not a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among individuals who self-identified as Mexican American, but smoking was a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among those who identified as non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the effects of smoking on dental health perception while controlling for examined oral health status. Because perceived dental health is a potential indicator for dental care utilization, a better knowledge of the factors that influence dental health perception is not only important for dental services planning, but also for understanding oral health-related quality of life issues. Additionally, given that smoking may negatively affect dental health perception, these findings have potential implications for smoking cessation activities conducted by

  15. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  16. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000–2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health. PMID:19440285

  17. 'If I don't smoke, I'm not a real man'--Indonesian teenage boys' views about smoking.

    PubMed

    Ng, Nawi; Weinehall, L; Ohman, A

    2007-12-01

    With a lack of tobacco control and regulation at the national level, Indonesia has been targeted by many national and transnational tobacco companies. The prevalence of youth smokers in Indonesia in 2005 was 38% among boys and 5.3% among girls. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse beliefs, norms and values about smoking among teenage boys in a rural setting in Java, Indonesia. Six focus group discussions with boys aged 13-17 years were conducted using a thematic discussion guide. Four themes were derived from the descriptive content analysis: (i) smoking as a culturally internalized habit, (ii) striving to become a man, (iii) the way we smoke is not dangerous and (iv) the struggle against dependency. Cultural resistance against women smoking in Indonesia remains strong. The use of tobacco in the construction of masculinity underlines the importance of gender-specific intervention. National tobacco control policy should emphasize a smoking-free society as the norm, especially among boys and men, and regulations regarding the banning of smoking should be enforced at all levels and areas of community. A comprehensive community intervention programme on smoking prevention and cessation should be a major focus of tobacco control policies in Indonesia. PMID:16987943

  18. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  20. [Smoking cessation: practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Borgne, A

    2002-09-01

    Smoking is a habit sustained and amplified by dependency on nicotine. Despite knowing the risks to their health, smokers have great difficulty in stopping. The syndrome of nicotine withdrawal and the related complications when stopping smoking: depression, weight gain, are adequate justifications of the many failures to stop smoking. However, we have now come out of the empiricism, effective treatment is available and scientifically validated international recommendations have been established. They involve: the practice of minimal advice which consists of questioning every patient about smoking habits and encouraging them to stop; the treatments of nicotine substitution, patch, chewing gum, tablets or inhaler, used at effective dosage and sometimes in association with each other; more recently, Bupropion (Zyban, LP), a psychotropic inhibitor of Dobutamine and Noradrenalin recapture; behavioural and cognitive therapies, alone or in association with pharmacological therapy. The measurement of the score of tobacco dependency with the Fagerström test enables definition of a therapeutic strategy. Of course, these treatments are only effective in smokers motivated to stop smoking. The decision to stop smoking should only be taken after a period of reflection during which the role of information and advice given by all health professionals is primordial. Also, the long-term follow-up and counsel are essential to prevent relapse, especially during the first year. PMID:12407795

  1. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Melike; Karadeniz, Gulistan; Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Kaya, Halide; Yenibertiz, Derya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sen, Velat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 ± 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001). The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit. PMID:26785961

  2. Smoking by adolescents: large revenue but little for prevention.

    PubMed

    Girgis, A; Doran, C M; Sanson-Fisher, R W; Walsh, R A

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the government revenue gained from the sale of cigarettes to minors and the proportion of this revenue that is spent on attempting to prevent adolescents from taking up this habit. Prevalence of smoking by minors was extrapolated for the individual states using Australian prevalence data; estimates of annual cigarette consumption were coupled with the respective cost of cigarettes in each state to derive an estimate of the total revenue accumulating from cigarette consumption by minors. From our analysis, approximately 211,000 Australian children under the legal age to purchase cigarettes consumed approximately 11.5 million packets of cigarettes in 1990. The estimated tax revenues to the federal and state governments from these sales were $8.42 million and $12.78 million respectively. While the average state revenue from cigarette consumption by minors during 1990 was just over $60 per under-age smoker, only $0.11 per under-age smoker was spent on anti-smoking campaigns in 1990. This is equivalent to approximately 0.002 per cent of state revenue from cigarette smoking by those under the legal purchase age being spent on discouraging adolescents from taking up this habit. Clearly, there is an inequitable expenditure on antismoking activities, given the enormous resources obtained from sales to minors. PMID:7734589

  3. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubison, M. J.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Farmer, D. K.; Day, D.; Lechner, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Apel, E.; Diskin, G. S.; Fisher, J. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hecobian, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Mikoviny, T.; Riemer, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Sessions, W.; Weber, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ± 0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass) = -0.01 to ~0.05, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~19%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~8 ± 7 Tg OA yr-1 is estimated, of the order of 5 % of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a focus of future research in order to better constrain this potentially important contribution to the OA burden.

  4. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and lab studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubison, M. J.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Farmer, D. K.; Day, D.; Lechner, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Apel, E.; Diskin, G. S.; Fisher, J. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hecobian, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Mikoviny, T.; Riemer, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Sessions, W.; Weber, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-04-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ±0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass) =-0.01 to ~0.07, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~25%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~9 Tg OA yr-1 is estimated, of the order of 5% of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a focus of future research in order to better constrain this potentially important contribution to the OA burden.

  5. Smoking after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Botha, P; Peaston, R; White, K; Forty, J; Dark, J H; Parry, G

    2008-04-01

    Although smoking cessation is a prerequisite prior to listing for cardiac transplantation, some patients return to smoking after recovery. We have covertly assessed the smoking habits of our cardiac transplant recipients (with ethical approval) since 1993 by measuring urinary cotinine: a level of >500 ng/mL signifying continued tobacco use. We retrospectively analyzed survival, causes of death and the development of graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) with respect to the number of positive and negative cotinine levels. One hundred four of 380 (27.4%) patients tested positive for active smoking at some point posttransplant, and 57 (15.0%) tested positive repeatedly. Smokers suffered significantly more deaths due to GCAD (21.2% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.05), and due to malignancy (16.3% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, smoking after heart transplantation shortened median survival from 16.28 years to 11.89 years. After correcting for the effects of pretransplant smoking in time-dependent multivariate analysis, posttransplant smoking remained the most significant determinant of overall mortality (p < 0.00001). We conclude that tobacco smoking after cardiac transplantation significantly impacts survival by accelerating the development of graft vasculopathy and malignancy. We hope that this information will deter cardiac transplant recipients from relapsing, and intensify efforts in improving cessation rates. PMID:18324978

  6. Optimisation and validation of a HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS method for analysis of carbonyl volatile compounds as biomarkers in human urine: Application in a pilot study to discriminate individuals with smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Calejo, Isabel; Moreira, Nathalie; Araújo, Ana Margarida; Carvalho, Márcia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; de Pinho, Paula Guedes

    2016-02-01

    biomarkers to identify smoking habits. PMID:26653476

  7. Cannabis smoke can be a major risk factor for early-age laryngeal cancer--a molecular signaling-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mandal, Syamsundar; Banerjee, Samir; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Bhowmick, Anup Kumar; Murmu, Nabendu

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream elements are overexpressed in most cases of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study investigated the expression pattern of key proteins linked to the EGFR pathway in laryngeal carcinoma patients with a history of cannabis smoking. We selected 83 male glottic cancer patients, aged between 45 to 75 years with three distinct populations-nonsmoker, cigarette smoker, and cannabis smoker. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-КB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) followed by boolean scoring for statistical analysis. Experimental data showed upregulation of the selected EGFR cascade in tumor cells, stromal expression of EGFR, and nuclear localization of COX-2 in metaplastic gland cells of laryngeal cancer tissue sample. Statistical analyses indicated that overexpression of the EGFR cascade is significantly correlated to cannabis smoking. Cannabis smokers had higher expression (p < 0.01) of these onco-proteins with respect to both nonsmokers as well as cigarette smokers. Risk factor analysis showed high risk of these proteins expression in age <60 years (odds ratio (OR) > 1.5) as the lower age group had relatively higher number of cannabis smokers. This study provides evidence for a direct association between cannabis smoking and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Higher expression of the EGFR cascade in cannabis smokers revealed that cannabis smoking may be a major cause for the early onset of aggressive laryngeal cancer. PMID:25736926

  8. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh Cong Tu; And Others

    This primer, intended for use during the child's first year in elementary school in Vietnam, relates the story of the daily lives of Hong, age 10, and her brother Lac, age 7, at home and at school. The 64 lessons are divided into four chapters: (1) Good Habits (personal hygiene, grooming, dressing, obedience, truthfulness); (2) At Home: Father and…

  9. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465

  10. A general practice based survey of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and its relation to symptoms, sex, age, atopy, and smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, C J; Bennett, J B; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; D'Souza, M F; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence and associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated in a general practice population. The sample was obtained by using every 12th patient on the practice age-sex register, replacing non-responders with corresponding age and sex matched individuals from up to two further 1 in 12 samples. The response rate was 43%; 366 patients were studied. Doubling concentrations of methacholine were given to a maximum of 32 mg/ml or until a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred (provocation concentration, PC20FEV1). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was defined arbitrarily as a PC20FEV1 of 2 mg/ml or less (or 11 mumol cumulative dose, PD20FEV1). The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was 23%. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not associated with age but was more prevalent in women than men (31%:13%). It was also more common in those who had ever wheezed (39%) and in those who had had an attack of rhinitis in the preceding month (45%, p less than 0.1), in atopic individuals (30%), and in smokers (32%), but it was not associated with cough or dyspnoea. There was a positive correlation between PC20FEV1 and resting FEV1 (r = 0.288) and a negative correlation between PC20FEV1 and mean daily peak flow variability (r = -0.356). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed significant independent effects on PC20FEV1 for mean daily peak flow variability, gender, number of positive skin test responses, resting FEV1, and mean histamine skin weal area, but no relation with smoking or mean allergen weal area. The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was much higher than the prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the practice in 1984 (4.9%). Analysis of case notes of 169 individuals showed that those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness had not attended the practice more frequently for respiratory complaints during the previous five years. Images PMID:2256016

  11. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  12. The association between smoking and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis aged 30 to 49 years

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking may exacerbate and cause psoriasis. Moreover, smokers are more likely to develop insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim To assess the prevalence of MS and its components in patients with psoriasis, who smoke, compared with the general Polish population of smokers. Material and methods We studied 29 patients with psoriasis (female = 9, male = 20), smokers, aged 30 to 49 years. Metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using the IDF definition and compared to the results obtained in a representative sample of adult Poles in the NATPOL 2011 study in the same age group, including smokers. Results The results have shown that patients with psoriasis are more likely to be smokers (p < 0.0034) and the frequency of smoking in men is approximately 25% higher than in males of the control group (p < 0.0017). The prevalence of MS in patients with psoriasis who smoke was 27.58% and in the control group 25.2% (p > 0.05). Mean body mass index was 26.07 kg/m2 in psoriasis patients and 25.59 kg/m2 in the control group (p > 0.05), and abdominal obesity was 88.82 cm and 90.02 cm (p > 0.05), respectively. There were no differences in hypertension (34.48% vs. 31.6%, p < 0.05) and mean HOMA-IR (1.80 vs. 1.77, p > 0.05). In lipid parameters, the differences were observed only in women with psoriasis – higher levels of HDL, triglycerides and ApoB/ApoA1 index compared with addicted women in the control group. Conclusions Men with psoriasis are more often addicted to smoking. Women with psoriasis who smoke have often disturbances of the lipid profile. PMID:26759540

  13. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001. PMID:20687040

  14. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  15. Trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate, perchlorate, and nitrate by age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke over 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2005-2012 were used to study the trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate (u-SCN), perchlorate (u-P8), and nitrate (u-NO3) by gender, race/ethnicity, active smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home for those aged 12-19 and ≥20years old. For those aged ≥20years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 (i) were lower for males than females (p<0.01), and (ii) were higher for non-Hispanic white (NHW) than non-Hispanic black (NHB) (p<0.01). Also, for those aged ≥20years NHB had higher adjusted levels than Mexican American (MA) for u-SCN (p<0.01) but NHB had lower adjusted levels than MA for u-P8 (p<0.01) and u-NO3 (p<0.01). For those aged 12-19years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 did not vary by gender (p>0.05), and adjusted levels of u-P8 and u-NO3 for NHB were lower than for NHW (p<0.01) as well as higher for NHB than MA for u-SCN (p<0.01) and lower for NHB than MA (p<0.01) for u-P8 and u-NO3. Among those aged ≥20years, active smoking was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner and active smoking was associated with lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner. Exposure to ETS was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p=0.02) and lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) among ≥20years old. Adjusted levels of u-P8 decreased over 2005-2012 among both 12-19 (p<0.01) and ≥20years old (p=0.04). There was borderline increase in the adjusted levels of u-NO3 for those aged ≥20years (p=0.05) over 2005-2012. PMID:26994809

  16. Measurements of Trace Gases and Particles in Fresh and Aged Smoke from a Chaparral Fire in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Alvarado, M. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Coe, H.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    On November 17th 2009 we used a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, Licor CO2 analyzer, and a chemiluminescence ozone instrument to measure the initial emissions from a 100 hectare prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, U.S.A. We also measured the post emission chemical changes in the isolated downwind plume for a distance corresponding to about 4.5 hours of smoke aging. The light scattering to CO2 ratio increased by a factor of ~2.7 over 4 hours: similar to observations in a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of organic aerosol (OA) was confirmed by AMS. However, in the California plume, a decrease in OA was observed by AMS along with a concurrent increase in the fraction of thickly coated particles as measured by the SP2. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/coating may be explained by a combination of coagulation and evaporation processes. The latter may have been promoted in the California plume because it diluted in a “clean,” low relative humidity (11-26%) environment compared to the Mexican plume. AFTIR measured significant changes in gas phase constituents. The molar ratio of O3 to CO increased from approximately zero to 0.102 in 4.5 hours. Large growth factors for organic acids were also observed over the same aging period: acetic acid and formic acid increased by factors of 1.68 and 7.13, respectively. Inorganic species measured by the AMS also increased with plume aging. While the mass ratio of NH4+ to CO2 increased by ~2.3 x 10-4 in about 4 hours, the NH3/CO2 decreased by ~4.1 x 10-4, with ammonium accounting for ~55% of the gaseous ammonia lost (by mass). Conversion of NOx to PAN was observed coincident with formation of particle nitrate. A rapid decay in C2H4 was consistent with an in-plume average OH of ~5.40 x 106 molecules

  17. Incorporating age at onset of smoking into genetic models for nicotine dependence: Evidence for interaction with multiple genes

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Johnson, Eric O.; Krueger, Robert F.; Breslau, Naomi; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Derringer, Jaime; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Micheal; Bierut, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3,369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes, and investigated whether incorporation of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we incorporated the interaction between allele count and age-at-onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence, and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence, and 811 non-nicotine dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main-effect models, SNP x AOS interaction models resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs, and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus model. Some SNPs previously documented in main-effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint-analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al, PLOS Genetics, 4: e1000125, 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main-effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (p=1.5 × 10−5), which encodes a subunit of the NMDA receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance-use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation, and constitutes a promising avenue for gene-discovery. PMID:20624154

  18. Lymphocyte cAMP and ageing: significance of subset composition, plasma noradrenaline, regular physical training and long-term smoking.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J H; Gustafsson, F; Toft, J; Christensen, N J

    1996-11-01

    1. We studied 37 healthy men at rest in the supine. position to examine the effect of ageing, smoking and physical training of beta 2-adrenoceptor function, plasma catecholamines and the proportions of various lymphocyte subsets. 2. In 14 young subjects the proportion of natural killer cells was correlated with cAMP production in lymphocytes and inversely correlated with plasma noradrenaline level. 3. In 16 elderly non-smokers plasma noradrenaline was negatively correlated with the natural killer cell subset CD3-CD16+. Lymphocyte cAMP responses did not differ between young and elderly non-smokers, whereas plasma noradrenaline increased slightly but significantly with age. Physical training did not influence either plasma noradrenaline or adrenaline at rest or cAMP in lymphocytes. 4. In seven elderly long-term smokers cAMP production and the viability of lymphocytes were reduced. Plasma noradrenaline attained its highest values in long-term smokers. 5. It is concluded that cAMP production and plasma noradrenaline are related to lymphocyte subset composition. The greater the proportion of natural killer cells and related subsets, the higher is cAMP production and the lower is plasma noradrenaline. Thus, the inverse correlation between lymphocyte cAMP and plasma noradrenaline is indirect and most likely mediated by variability in lymphocyte subset composition. In elderly subjects, reduced cAMP production was observed in long-term smokers, and this abnormality was probably due to a reduced viability of lymphocytes and especially of natural killer cells. The negative correlation between the proportion of natural killer cells and plasma noradrenaline at rest contracts with a well-known mobilizing effect of adrenaline on natural killer cells. PMID:8942401

  19. Bedtime habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 12 months may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). YOUR INFANT (3 TO 12 MONTHS) AND SLEEP ... months of age may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). YOUR TODDLER (1 TO 3 YEARS) ...

  20. Polymorphisms of metabolic enzyme genes, living habits and prostate cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Hong-fei; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Min; Hua, Li-xin; Sui, Yuan-geng; Zhang, Zheng-dong; Zhou, Jian-wei; Wang, Xin-Ru; Zou, Changping; Qian, Li-xin

    2006-01-01

    In this report, genetic polymorphism of phase I and II metabolic enzyme (CYP2E1, CYP17, GSTM1 and GSTT1) genes, living habits, and risk of prostate cancer (PCa) was studied in 163 patients with prostate carcinoma of Han nationality in Southern China and 202 age-matched controls. The genotypic polymorphism of CYP2E1, CYP17, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was analyzed by PCR-RFLP assay using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. The significant risk factors for PCa included long-term exposure to toxicant (OR=2.27, 95%CI: 1.26-4.09), the tumor history of lineal consanguinity (OR=2.19, 95%CI: 1.30-3.67), sexual history before age 30 of no more than 8 times per month (OR=1.85, 95%CI: 1.22-2.81), deep inhalation of cigarette smoke (OR=2.01, 95%CI: 1.20-3.37) or heavy smoking (OR=1.67,95%CI: 1.01-2.76). Among individuals with long-term heavy smoking without tea-drinking habit, the risk increased significantly (OR=4.27, 95%CI: 1.62-11.24 and OR), 2.76, 95%CI: 1.20-6.32). CYP2E1 C1/C1 genotype significantly increased the risk for PCa (OR=1.61, 95%CI: 1.04-2.49) with an apparent interaction with alcohol (OR=2.07, 95%CI: 1.07-4.00). However, stratification by the amount of accumulative smoking revealed that among people with a heavy smoking history, the individuals with the CYP2E1 C1/C1 genotype (OR=2.55, 95%CI: 1.20-5.43) and the individuals with GSTT1 null genotype (OR=2.23, 95%CI: 1.09-4.57) showed a significantly increased risk. Any other significant results with GSTM1 or CYP17 genes were not observed in this research. Individuals with more sensitive genotypes (from one to four) were at an increased risk. The data show that, in the development of PCa, there are many interactions among predisposing genotypes and genetic polymorphisms and unhealthy living habits. Individuals with more susceptible genotypes and unhealthy habits such as prolonged exposure to smoking are at an increased risk. PMID:16720291

  1. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P < 0.01 and aRR = 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P = 0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P < 0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts. PMID:25665487

  2. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    PubMed

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children. PMID:20306864

  3. On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pershagen, G; Wall, S; Taube, A; Linnman, L

    1981-12-01

    The interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and tobacco smoking and its relationship to lung cancer mortality among 228 deceased Swedish copper smelter workers was studied with the case-referent technique. Arsenic exposure was assessed via detailed company records, and information on smoking habits was gathered from the next of kin. The age standardized rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for arsenic-exposed nonsmokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational arsenic exposure in relation to nonarsenic-exposed nonsmokers. For arsenic-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect of the two exposures. Eighty-five percent of all deaths from long cancer among the smelter workers could be "explained" by arsenic exposure and/or smoking. The interaction between arsenic and smoking suggests that a strong preventive effect on lung cancer incidence could be obtained by decreasing either one of the exposures or by disaggregating them. PMID:7347915

  4. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Wheatley, K.; Gray, R.; Sutherland, I.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the hazards associated with long term use of tobacco. DESIGN--Prospective study of mortality in relation to smoking habits assessed in 1951 and again from time to time thereafter, with causes sought of deaths over 40 years (to 1991). Continuation of a study that was last reported after 20 years' follow up (1951-71). SUBJECTS--34,439 British male doctors who replied to a postal questionnaire in 1951, of whom 10,000 had died during the first 20 years and another 10,000 have died during the second 20 years. RESULTS--Excess mortality associated with smoking was about twice as extreme during the second half of the study as it had been during the first half. The death rate ratios during 1971-91 (comparing continuing cigarette smokers with life-long non-smokers) were approximately threefold at ages 45-64 and twofold at ages 65-84. The excess mortality was chiefly from diseases that can be caused by smoking. Positive associations with smoking were confirmed for death from cancers of the mouth, oesophagus, pharynx, larynx, lung, pancreas, and bladder; from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory diseases; from vascular diseases; from peptic ulcer; and (perhaps because of confounding by personality and alcohol use) from cirrhosis, suicide, and poisoning. A negative association was confirmed with death from Parkinson's disease. Those who stopped smoking before middle age subsequently avoided almost all of the excess risk that they would otherwise have suffered, but even those who stopped smoking in middle age were subsequently at substantially less risk than those who continued to smoke. CONCLUSION--Results from the first 20 years of this study, and of other studies at that time, substantially underestimated the hazards of long term use of tobacco. It now seems that about half of all regular cigarette smokers will eventually be killed by their habit. PMID:7755693

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  6. The effect of smoking on the olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Katotomichelakis, Michael; Balatsouras, Dimitrios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Davris, Spiros; Maroudias, Nikolaos; Danielides, Vassilios; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2007-12-01

    Although smoking is a widely spread habit, its effect on olfaction has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory function, using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test. Sixty-five smokers were studied, with a median period of smoking of 10 years (range: 1-45 years) and a median number of 15 cigarettes smoked per day (range: 5-20). Forty-nine non-smokers were used as controls. Olfactory function was evaluated using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test, which consists of odour threshold (OT), odour discrimination (OD) and odour identification (OI) and its overall results may be presented as a composite threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) score. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. All OT, OD, OI and TDI scores were statistically significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers, even when controlled for gender and age. Low OT, OD, OI and TDI scores were more prevalent among smokers than non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted for gender and age, revealed that smoking remained a strong independent risk factor for low OT, OD, OI and TDI scores. Among smokers, statistically significant negative relationships were found between pack-years and OT, OD, OI and TDI, controlling for age. In conclusion, smoking was found to be adversely associated with the olfactory ability in a dose-related manner. Smokers were found to be nearly six times as likely to evidence an olfactory deficit as non smokers, depending on the duration and the amount of cigarettes smoked. PMID:18085020

  7. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Risk Factors Among Medical Professionals in Hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Mubashir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality in developed countries where at least one in four adults smoke cigarettes. Healthcare providers who smoke are less likely to advise patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study is to find out the frequency of tobacco smoking among medical professionals in tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, and to identify the common factors responsible for the continuation of smoking among healthcare providers. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at public and private tertiary Care Hospitals/Institutes at Karachi. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 180 subjects. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Prevalence of smoking was 29%. High prevalence of smoking was among male doctors as compared to female doctors. Sixty-eight per cent of smokers started smoking between 20 to 30 years of age. Age less than 35 years, male and public sectors hospitals were more likely OR 1.23, CI (0.98-2.41), 6.40 CI (4.48-10.52) and 2.61 CI (2.20-3.78) respectively. Conclusions: The Result of the study suggests that while healthcare smoking habits appear to be high, they are not uniformly low when compared from an international perspective. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. PMID:24829733

  8. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Dentition among Schoolchildren Aged 10–12 Years: A Zero-Inflated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    ALMASI, Afshin; RAHIMIFOROUSHANI, Abbas; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; PASDAR, Yahya; TARRAHI, Mohammad Javad; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas; AHMADI JOUYBARI, Touraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression model. Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.51) times more likely than boys (P=0.041). Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.19–1.63) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18–1.37) times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively. Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. PMID:27141498

  9. Predicting the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Age of Onset through Modelling Genetic Risk Variants with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ian C.; Seegobin, Seth D.; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P.; Lewis, Cathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971

  10. Bedtime habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... up at night to eat, keep the room dark and quiet. Sleeping with a baby younger than 12 months may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). YOUR INFANT (3 TO 12 MONTHS) AND SLEEP By age 4 months, your child might sleep for up ...

  11. Methods of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine

  12. Family roles and smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:2787160

  13. Quit smoking for life--social marketing strategy for youth: a case for Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Liaquat Ali; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nayani, Parvez; Jessani, Saleem; Khowaja, Malika Parveen; Khowaja, Saima

    2010-12-01

    Smoking is the single most avoidable risk factor for cancers. Majority of smokers know about this fact but it is difficult for them to give it up mainly in the face of widespread smoking advertisements by the tobacco industries. To reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated cancers, immediate actions are required by public health authorities. Social marketing is an effective strategy to promote healthy attitudes and influence people to make real, sustained health behavior change by transiting through different stages which include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Social marketing can influence smokers to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon their smoking behavior. In Pakistan, the smoking prevalence has been increasing, necessitating effective measures. The trend of its usage has been going upwards and, according to the World Health Organization, in Pakistan, the usage of cigarette smoking is increased by 30% compared to 1998 figures. The Pakistan Pediatrics Association has estimated 1,000 to 1,200 school-going children between the ages of 6 and 16 years take up smoking every day. In Pakistan, ex-smokers in the low socioeconomic group reported spending 25% of the total household income on this habit. This paper focuses on the antismoking social marketing strategy in Pakistan with an aim to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among the youth. PMID:20238199

  14. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  15. Dietary habits and risk of urothelial cancer death in a large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakauchi, Fumio; Mori, Mitsuru; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Kyohei; Miki, Tsuneharu; Nakao, Masahiro; Mikami, Kazuya; Ito, Yoshinori; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the associations of dietary habits with the risk of urothelial cancer death were evaluated taking into consideration sex, age, and smoking habits. The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study was established in 1988-1990 and consisted of 47,997 men and 66,520 women observed until the end of 1999. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used as a baseline survey. Hazard ratios for dietary factors were calculated by Cox's proportional hazards model. During the observation period, 63 men and 25 women died of urothelial cancer. Increasing age, male gender, and history of smoking were all significantly associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer death. A high intake of milk and fruits other than oranges reduced the risk significantly and dose dependently, in particular among subjects with smoking history. However, consumption of butter and yogurt had no associations with the risk. Intakes of cabbage, lettuce, green leafy vegetables, carrots, squash, tomatoes, and oranges were not significantly associated with the risk. It was suggested that urothelial cancer death could be potentially preventable by smoking cessation and regular intake of milk and fruit. PMID:15572295

  16. Smoking-specific communication and children's smoking onset: an extension of the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Marieke; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno C P; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether maternal smoking-specific communication and parental smoking related to smoking cognitions (i.e. attitude, self-efficacy and social norm) derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour in association with smoking onset during preadolescence. A total of 1478 pairs of mothers and children participated (mean age: 10.11; standard deviation = 0.78). Structural equation models in Mplus were used to examine whether smoking-specific communication influences children's smoking cognitions, which in turn, affect smoking onset. A positive association was found between pro-smoking attitudes and smoking onset. Smoking-specific communication and parental smoking were related to smoking cognitions. Specifically, frequency of communication was negatively associated with pro-smoking attitudes, social norms of mother and best friend. Quality of communication related negatively to pro-smoking attitudes and positively to self-efficacy and norms of friends. Parental smoking was positively associated with pro-smoking attitudes and norms of mother and (best) friends. Additionally, more frequent communication and higher levels of parental smoking were associated with higher smoking onset. In conclusion, smoking-specific communication and parental smoking were associated with smoking cognitions and smoking onset. Already during preadolescence, parents contribute to shaping the smoking cognitions of their children, which may be predictive of smoking later in life. PMID:22519750

  17. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  18. Infection and smoking are associated with decreased plasma concentration of the anti-aging protein, soluble α-klotho

    PubMed Central

    Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of soluble α-klotho are different between women with microbial invasion of the intra-amniotic cavity (MIAC) and those without MIAC among preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups:1) PTL with MIAC (n=14); 2) PTL without MIAC (n=79); 3) pPROM with MIAC (n=30); and 4) pPROM without MIAC (n=33). MIAC was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms (aerobic/anaerobic bacteria or genital mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid samples were obtained within 48 hours from maternal blood collection. Plasma concentration of soluble α-klotho was determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho was significantly lower in patients with MIAC than in those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1117.8; p <0.001); 2) Among patients with PTL, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho than those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1138.9; p=0.007); 3) Among patients with pPROM, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho than those without MIAC (766.4 vs. 1001.6; p=0.045); 4) There was no significant difference in the median plasma concentration of soluble α-klotho between PPROM without MIAC and PTL without MIAC (1001.6 pg/mL vs. 1138.9 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.5); 5) After adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, tobacco use, gestational age at venipuncture), soluble α-klotho remained significantly associated with MIAC (p= 0.02); and 6) Among patients without MIAC, smoking was significantly associated with a lower median plasma concentration soluble α-klotho than in non-smokers (794.2 pg/mL vs. 1382.0 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.001); however, this difference was not observed in patients with MIAC. Conclusions Intra-amniotic infection

  19. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  20. Smoking and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  1. Limiting youth access to tobacco: comparing the long-term health impacts of increasing cigarette excise taxes and raising the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2007-03-01

    Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes. PMID:16698112

  2. Smoking and lung cancer: current trends in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Waldhör, Thomas; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hackl, Monika; Vutuc, Christian; Haidinger, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Despite a recent decline in smoking behavior in many European countries, lung cancer rates remain high, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper aims to describe trends in smoking behavior and lung cancer incidence and mortality, including histopathological classification of lung cancer, in a Central European country: Austria. Methods Using data from the Austrian Central Cancer Registry, we calculated age-standardized incidence, histopathology-specific incidence, and age-standardized and birth cohort-specific mortality rates for all lung cancer cases in Austria. Using national survey data, we estimated prevalence of smoking in the Austrian population. Our analysis covers the time period from 1970 to 2009. Results In 2009, lung cancer incidence rates were 41.3/100,000 and 18.5/100,000 and mortality rates were 36.3/100,000 and14.5/100,000, for males and females, respectively. Male lung cancer rates declined but increased steadily in females over the past three decades. In 2009, the most common histological type is adenocarcinoma, which reflects a shift from predominantly squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma in the mid 1980s. In 2009, 27 % of men and 19 % of women were smokers, which represent a rise of smoking rates in women, especially in younger women, and a decline in the men. Conclusions While in Austrian men the lung cancer rates, in accordance with their decreasing prevalence of smoking, declined over the past 30 years, the increasing smoking prevalence and lung cancer rates in women remain a public health concern. Antismoking laws and public health initiatives to curtail smoking habits are needed in Austria, especially targeting younger women. PMID:22815002

  3. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  4. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  5. Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of intentions to quit smoking in a community sample of Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, in whom smoking prevalence is slow to decline. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey involved 121 Aboriginal smokers, aged 18–45 years from January to May 2014, interviewed at community events on the Mid-North Coast NSW. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on smoking and quitting attitudes, behaviours and home smoking rules. Perceived efficacy for quitting, and perceived threat from smoking, were uniquely assessed with a validated Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale. Main outcome measures Logistic regression explored the impact of perceived efficacy, perceived threat and consulting previously with a doctor or health professional (HP) on self-reported intentions to quit smoking, controlling for potential confounders, that is, protection responses and fear control responses, home smoking rules, gender and age. Participants’ comments regarding smoking and quitting were investigated via inductive analysis, with the assistance of Aboriginal researchers. Results Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit within 3 months. Perceived efficacy (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.78 to 12.93) and consulting previously with a doctor/HP about quitting (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.43 to 10.2) were significant predictors of intentions to quit. ‘Smoking is not doing harm right now’ was inversely associated with quit intentions (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.8). Among those who reported making a quit attempt, after consulting with a doctor/HP, 40% (22/60) rated the professional support received as low (0–2/10). Qualitative themes were: the negatives of smoking (ie, disgust, regret, dependence and stigma), health effects and awareness, quitting, denial, ‘smoking helps me cope’ and social aspects of smoking. Conclusions Perceived efficacy and consulting with a doctor/HP about quitting may be important predictors of intentions to quit

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74–8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49–17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30–9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46–7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91–0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits. PMID:26919722

  7. [Dietary habits as an environmental factor of overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Karczewski, Jan; Szwarc, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to assess chosen environmental factors contributing to body weight increase, with special regard to dietary habits. The questionnaire survey involved 68 women and 42 men. Based on BMI, the subjects were divided into those with normal body weight, with overweight and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Weight at the age of 18 was found to be most correlated with the current body weight. Other major factors included the time of life when overweight began, alcohol consumption and earlier smoking. The dietary factors analysed: such as having something additional to eat, type of eaten snacks, night eating, no control of the caloricity value of meals in the current study may have a significant effect on the occurrence of overweight and obesity. PMID:17711127

  8. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  9. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  10. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... People who have insomnia are often worried about getting enough sleep. The more they try to sleep, the more frustrated and upset they ...

  11. Psychology of Habit.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors. PMID:26361052

  12. Domiciliary oxygen and smoking: an explosive combination.

    PubMed

    Muehlberger, T; Smith, M A; Wong, L

    1998-11-01

    Home oxygen therapy has been used to provide symptomatic relief of breathlessness for more than 20 yr. Continuous low-flow oxygen can improve exercise tolerance and decrease pulmonary hypertension in patients suffering from chronic obstructive airway disease. The majority of these patients have been long-time smokers. Despite routine warnings about potential dangers, a considerable number of patients will continue to smoke whilst on oxygen. The incidence of burn injuries related to this practice is not known. Reports of such incidents are, however, very rare. Twenty-one patients who sustained head and neck burn injuries secondary to cigarette related ignition of their oxygen delivery system were admitted to our burn unit over a 7-yr period (1990-1997). All patients (mean age 60.4 yr) had been informed about the associated risks but did not shut off their supplemental oxygen system during smoking. The mean size of their burn injuries was 2% of the total body surface, mainly affecting the face, ears, and neck. The average duration of the hospital stay was 3.6 days. Two patients required split-thickness skin grafting. Whether chronically ill patients on domiciliary oxygen who continue to smoke covertly are amenable to medical advice to abandon this habit is questionable. A more aggressive education about the explosive nature of their activity should help to prevent them from using tobacco and oxygen at the same time. PMID:9882067

  13. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  14. Comparison of Physical Fitness Status between Middle-aged and Elderly Male Laborers According to Lifestyle Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Mi-hyun; Shin, Joong-il; Yang, Dong-joo; Yang, Yeong-ae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We sought to examine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and physical fitness in middle-aged and elderly laborers. [Subjects] In total, 2,469 male laborers between 45 and 64 years of age residing in eight cities in South Korea were studied between January and December 2007. [Methods] Age, height, and weight were evaluated as general characteristics. Lifestyle behavior items included exercise, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours. Physical fitness was assessed by measuring muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and agility. [Results] In terms of physical fitness status, all items except handgrip strength showed significant changes according to exercise frequency. Dietary habits were associated with significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. Smoking and drinking were associated with significant differences in sit-ups between subgroups. Sleeping hours demonstrated significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. [Conclusion] Although there were differences according to physical fitness status, exercise frequency, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours showed significant associations with physical fitness. Thus, healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise, regular dietary habits, not smoking, moderate drinking, and adequate sleep, are important for physical fitness management and work capacity improvement in middle-aged and elderly laborers. PMID:25540509

  15. Age plays an important role in the relationship between smoking status and obesity risk: a large scale cross-sectional study of Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pu; Hong, Liu; Sun, Hang; Zhao, Yi Fan; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of age plays in the relationship between smoking status and obesity in both Chinese men and women. Methods: From Chinese Physical and Psychological Database, participants were divided into non-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat percentage, fat mass, and fat free mass were measured. The mean, standard deviation and frequency of these indicators were calculated for each age bracket. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc test analyses were used to detect the difference among these three groups. Results: In men, from 19 to 24 years old, BMI, WC and fat free mass of current smokers were higher than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). However, fat mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers but higher than that of former smokers (P<0.01). From 25 to 34 years old, BMI and fat mass of former smokers were higher than non-smokers and current smokers (P<0.01). In addition, WC and fat free mass of non-smokers were lower than that of current smokers and former smokers (P<0.01). From 45 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of former smokers were higher than that of current smokers (P<0.01). From 55 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). In women, smoking status might not be significantly related to obesity (P>0.05). Conclusion: For young men, smoking might have an effect on increasing fat free mass, BMI and WC, and decreasing fat mass and fat percentage. For middle and older men, smoking might have an effect on decreasing fat free mass, fat mass, BMI, WC, and fat percentage. Obesity risk should be paid more attention in smoking cessation programs for those former smokers. PMID:26770514

  16. Effects of smoking and oral contraception on plasma beta-carotene levels in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Palan, P R; Romney, S L; Vermund, S H; Mikhail, M G; Basu, J

    1989-10-01

    Oral contraceptive use and smoking have been known to affect plasma vitamin levels. Total carotenoids have been studied with spectrophotometry, a relatively insensitive technique. In this study plasma concentrations of beta-carotene and retinol were measured in coded samples by sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatography in a cross-sectional study of 149 normal healthy women attending a family planning clinic. At the time of recruitment in the morning, a general health questionnaire was administered for patient age, methods of contraception, smoking habits, and food intake at breakfast. Of the 149 enrolled volunteers, 88 were oral contraceptive users and 61 were not users. Among users, 21 smoked cigarettes, and there were 18 smokers among nonusers. Oral contraceptive users had significantly lower plasma concentrations of beta-carotene (p less than 0.001) and higher retinol levels (p less than 0.0001). Plasma beta-carotene or retinol levels did not differ among users of intrauterine contraceptive devices or barrier methods of contraception. No association was noted between the plasma levels of these two micronutrients and age greater than or less than 30 years. Cigarette smoking alone was associated with significantly reduced plasma beta-carotene levels in nonusers (p less than 0.001). Combined cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive usage were associated with low plasma beta-carotene levels; the results appear to be additive. These findings suggest a possible synergistic effect on plasma beta-carotene levels from the use of both cigarette smoking and oral contraception. PMID:2801833

  17. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis in a never-smoking, normotensive, non-obese, normal-glucose-tolerant middle-aged woman.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro; Oda, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Higashi, Keishi; Katsurada, Yuka; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tamai, Seiichi; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2012-10-01

    A 53-year-old woman with a history of dyslipidemia presented with medium-grade proteinuria and several years of progressive renal dysfunction. Renal biopsy showed diffuse and global Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodule like nodular mesangial sclerosis, but she had no history of diabetes mellitus, no diabetic retinopathy and normal oral glucose tolerance. Congo red staining was negative, and immunofluorescence staining showed no immunoglobulin deposition including kappa or lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed no electron dense deposits or organized deposits. Thus, we diagnosed idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING). ING is a recently established clinicopathologic disease entity linked to longstanding cigarette smoking and hypertension. Obesity is also listed as a contributing factor. However, none of these factors was documented in this case. This is a valuable case of ING that suggests the existence of as-yet unknown causative factors of ING other than smoking, hypertention or obesity. PMID:26019825

  18. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  19. Who smokes in smoke-free public places in China? Findings from a 21 city survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R

    2016-02-01

    Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through multi-stage sampling conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The reported smoking prevalence in smoke-free public places was 41.2%. Of those who smoked in smoke-free public places, 45.9% had been advised to stop smoking. Participants stated that no-smoking warnings/signs with 'please' in the statement had a better likelihood of gaining compliance and preventing smoking in public spaces. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, education, occupation, type of smoking, age of smoking initiation, smoking situation, stress, household smoking restrictions and city population were all associated with smoking in smoke-free public places. Interestingly local smoke-free regulations were not associated with smoking in public places. The findings underscore that efforts to restrict smoking in public places in China should emphasize strong enforcement, while simultaneously raising public awareness of the perils of second hand smoke. PMID:26546594

  20. Fathers’ intelligence measured at age 18–20 years is associated with offspring smoking: linking the Swedish 1969 conscription cohort to the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Background An association between lower IQ of parents, measured early in life, and smoking among their offspring has been reported. The extent to which other background factors account for this association is unknown. Methods Data on IQ, smoking, mental health, social class, parental divorce and social problems in a cohort of men born during 1949–1951 and conscripted for military service in 1969 were linked to smoking data on 682 offspring interviewed in the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions 1984–2009. Results In an age-adjusted model, a one-step decrease on a stanine scale was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.35) for offspring smoking. Adjusting for father's socioeconomic background and smoking, mental illness and social problems in youth only marginally lowered the OR's. Conclusions Lower IQ among fathers measured at ages 18–20 years was associated with smoking in their offspring. The association was not explained by father's social class in childhood or a higher prevalence of mental illness, social problems or smoking measured among the fathers in their late adolescence. PMID:26515987

  1. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  2. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites. PMID:26282484

  3. Differences in CYP2C9 Genotype and Enzyme Activity Between Swedes and Koreans of Relevance for Personalized Medicine: Role of Ethnicity, Genotype, Smoking, Age, and Sex.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Lundblad, Mia; Ramsjo, Margareta; Kang, Ju-Hee; Roh, Hyung-Keun; Bertilsson, Leif; Eliasson, Erik; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    Global personalized medicine demands the characterization of person-to-person and between-population differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CYP2C9 pharmacokinetic pathway is subject to modulation by both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9 genotype-based dose recommendations (e.g., for warfarin) is advocated. However, the overall contribution of genotype for variation in enzyme activity may differ between populations. We evaluated the importance of ethnicity, genotype, smoking, body weight, age, and sex for CYP2C9 enzyme activity. CYP2C9 genotype and phenotype was determined in 148 Swedes and 146 Koreans using losartan as a probe. CYP2C9 enzyme activity was assessed using urinary losartan/metabolite E-3174 ratio. The frequency of CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (*2 and *3) was significantly higher in Swedes (10.8% and 12.5%) than in Koreans (0% and 5.8%). In matched genotypes, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was significantly lower in Swedes compared to Koreans (p<0.0001). In a univariate analysis, age, weight, ethnicity, genotype, and smoking were significant predictors of CYP2C9 phenotype. A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated ethnicity, genotype, and smoking remained as significant predictors of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, accounting for 50% of the total variance. In both study populations, CYP2C9 genotype was a significant predictor of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, but its contribution in explaining the total variance was lower in Koreans (26.6%) than Swedes (40%). In conclusion, we report significantly lower CYP2C9 enzyme activity in Swedes compared to Koreans, partly but not exclusively due to CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variations. Ethnicity and environment factors need to be considered together with genotype for population-specific dose optimization and global personalized medicine. PMID:25977991

  4. Ten years of anti-smoking programs in Italy: a review.

    PubMed

    Arciti, C; Pistone, M; Persici, P; Barbieri, A; Santi, L

    1995-01-01

    A diverse anti-smoking program for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases has been ongoing in Italy since 1981, coordinated by the National Cancer Institute of Genoa and the Italian League Against Cancer of Genoa. The program includes several initiatives addressed to different target groups; schoolchildren and teachers, military personnel, doctors and nurses, and women. A preliminary inquiry on the attitudes and habits towards smoking was implemented by the distribution of questionnaires to the various groups involved in the program. An annual school-based anti-smoking program involves about 10,000 students aged four to 18 and their teachers. Meetings are delivered by experts to groups of 20 to 40 students with the aid of specific audiovisual material, which are periodically updated. Additional informative material, leaflets, and posters are distributed to both schoolchildren and teachers. Another educational program on primary prevention of smoking-related health hazards is addressed to military recruits, career soldiers, and medical officers. It consists of several initiatives: training of military doctors and nurses, lectures to military recruits, and distribution of informative material in the barracks. An annual meeting is organized to discuss program implementation and results. Surveys are carried out by distributing an anonymous questionnaire to health professionals in several Italian hospitals to assess the smoking habits of doctors and their attitudes and practices towards counseling patients against smoking. The results show marked differences in smoking habits in the cities under study. Annually since 1983, an updated course is organized and addressed to teachers of primary and secondary schools in Genoa. The aim of the course is to train school personnel and to help them to implement prevention programs in the schools, with the aid of experts in the field of prevention. A series of initiatives are addressed to women at different ages to

  5. Preliminary Study of the GSTM1 Null Polymorphism and History of Tobacco Smoking among Oral Cancer Patients in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Phuthong, Sophida; Ishida, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Risks with GSTM1 genotypes and potential roles of smoking in the susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied in Northeastern Thailand. Study subjects were 79 histologically-confirmed OSCC cases (31 men, 48 women) and 79 age- and sex-matched healthy controls ranging in age from 25 to 84 years. GSTM1 genotyping was achieved by two independent PCR assays. The GSTM1 null allele and the homozygous genotype did not increase risk of OSCC vs the wild type allele and the remaining genotypes. When the focus was on the smoking habit, male subjects who smoked ≥10 or ≥35 years were at significantly increased risk for OSCC with adjusted ORs of 4.88 [95%CI, 1.41-16.87, p=0.012] or 4.94 [95%CI, 1.62-15.12, p=0.005], respectively. A higher risk for OSCC was found for smoking amount; those who smoked >5 or >10 pack-years were at a higher risk with adjusted OR of 4.46 [95%CI; 1.45-13.74, p=0.009] or 3.89 [95%CI; 1.34-11.28, p=0.012], respectively. There are certain smoking patterns that give greater risks and thus both smoking duration and pack-years should be taken into consideration in tobacco related cancer prevention. PMID:26925672

  6. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  7. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  8. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... or car Making sure people looking after your children (e.g., nannies, babysitters, day care) do not smoke Choosing smokefree restaurants Avoiding indoor public places that allow smoking Teaching ...

  9. Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older

    PubMed Central

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' perception of parents' and peers' smoking approval influences adolescent smoking intention, and how age affects this influence in a Swiss sample of adolescents. To know the influence of age can help to develop specific prevention programs tailored to the age groups needs. Method in a cross sectional survey, students aged between 11 and 14 from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) answered questions on smoking habits, parents' and peers' approval and intention to smoke. Results peers' and parents' approval significantly influence students' smoking intention, and students' age significantly moderates this relation: the effect of parents' approval decreases for older adolescents, while the effect of peers' approval increases with age. No difference is found between girls and boys, while non-Swiss are more likely to smoke than Swiss students. Conclusions as literature suggests, results evidence the role parents play during early adolescence. Prevention programs targeting parent-child communication in early adolescence for preventing children's tobacco consumption are strongly supported. PMID:24991921

  10. The Relationship of Diabetes and Smoking Status to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Hsieh; Lu, Chia-Wen; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Hung, Shou-Hung; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship of diabetes and smoking status to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality is not clear. We aimed to investigate the association of smoking cessation relative to diabetes status with subsequent deaths from HCC. We followed up 51,164 participants (aged 44–94 years) without chronic hepatitis B or C from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2008 enrolled from nationwide health screening units in a prospective cohort study. The primary outcomes were deaths from HCC. During the study period, there were 253 deaths from HCC. History of diabetes was associated with deaths from HCC for both total participants (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08–4.23) and ever smokers with current or past smoking habits (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.10–3.34). Both never smokers (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.32–0.65) and quitters (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39–0.97) had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths compared with current smokers. Among all ever smokers with current or past smoking habits, as compared with diabetic smokers, only quitters without diabetes had a lower adjusted risk of HCC deaths (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18–0.78). However, quitters with diabetes were observed to have a similar risk of deaths from HCC when compared with smokers with diabetes. Regarding the interaction between diabetes and smoking status on adjusted HCC-related deaths, with the exception of quitters without history of diabetes, all groups had significantly higher HRs than nondiabetic never smokers. There was also a significant multiplicative interaction between diabetes and smoking status on risk of dying from HCC (P = 0.033). We suggest clinicians should promote diabetes prevention and never smoking to associate with reduced subsequent HCC mortality even in adults without chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:26871803

  11. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  12. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  13. Water pipe (Sisha) smoking in cafes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Israel, Ebenezer; El-Setouhy, Maged; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Aoun, El Saeed Ali; Mikhail, Nabiel; Mohamed, Mostafa K

    2003-12-01

    Shisha café patrons in Cairo, Egypt were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding smoking and health. The median age of initiation of Shisha smoking is 20 years. Shisha smokers know about the hazards of smoking and believe that Shisha smoking is less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Over half the Shisha smokers have tried to quit in the past year. The younger adults who smoke Shisha also tend to smoke more often with friends, smoke cigarettes in addition to Shisha and prefer fruit flavored tobacco as compared to tobacco mixed with molasses favored by Shisha smokers who are older. Heavy Shisha smoking was not related to age. PMID:15119471

  14. [Tobacco smoking is addictive--do not start smoking].

    PubMed

    Kałucka, Sylwia

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is addictive- do not start smoking, do not start smoking, each person buying a package of cigarettes can read this inscription. But does he really read it? Every year all over the world one million people try to stop smoking, but only for a few percent this attempt is successful. Giving up the habit of smoking is hard because it leads to biological and psychogenic addiction. The aim of this paper was to check which factors most motivated smokers to stop smoking? 50 active smokers, among them 5 former smokers, who have smoked at least 15 cigarettes a day for 15 years were classified to the preliminary study. Among them there were 23 women, which is 46% of the subjects and 27 men, which is 54% of the subjects. The average number of smoked cigarettes among present smokers was 18.4 pieces, and the former smokers smoked the average of 19 pieces daily. Present smokers smoke 8 years longer, i.e. 26.3 years than former smokers. Inscription placed on cigarette packages concerning the loss of health definitely influence smokers to make another attempt to stop smoking. This important concerns the appearance of lung cancer, the differences were statistically significant between former and present smokers (p < 0.03), women are afraid of lung cancer twice more often than men (p<0.02), also women more often were afraid of cardiovascular system diseases (chi2 = 2.013, p < 0.03) and painful death (chi2 = 7.729, p < 0.006). Over 80% of smokers declared that the raise of the price of cigarette package has a significant influence on further attempt to stop smoking. Among the subjects 20% declared that ad spots on TV positively influence giving up smoking. Other factors such as: chewing gum (only 11.1% willing to try again), tablets (only 8.9%), appearing cough (2.2%), unpleasant tobacco smell (2.2%), the loss of taste (0.0%), the improvement of life comfort (4.4%) at minimum extent motivated smokers to stop smoking. Unsuccessful attempt of giving up smoking should not

  15. Changes in Co-Occurrence of Smoking and Harmful Drinking among Youth: a Study from the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System in Vietnam, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Duc, Duong Minh; Vui, Le Thi; Quynh, Nguyen Thuy; Minh, Hoang Van

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and harmful drinking dramatically increase health risks but little is known about their cooccurrence and factors that influence this co-habit, limiting development and implementation of appropriately targeted prevention interventions. This study was conducted among youth aged 10-24 years old in the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHILILAB DESS). The total numbers in the first, second and third rounds in 2006, 2009 and 2013 were 12,406, 10,211, and 7,654, respectively. A random-effects logit model controlling for both time-variant and time-invariant variables was applied to explore factors associated with current smoking, harmful drinking, and occurrence of smoking and harmful drinking together. We found dramatically increasing trends in current smoking, harmful drinking and co-occurrence among youth. Our results indicate similar health problems among youth in peri-urban areas in Vietnam. Demographic characteristics (older age, being male, being unmarried, and having informal work) appeared to be predictors for smoking and drinking behaviour. Besides, peer and family members had significant influence on smoking, whereas having a close-friend who was smoking was the most important variable. The results suggested that smoking and harmful drinking should not be solved with separate, stand-alone interventions but rather with integrated efforts. PMID:27087184

  16. Habitability: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies. PMID:26741054

  17. Smoking Lung Cancer Patients and Tobacco Cessation - Is the Current Treatment in Germany Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, K; Thielke, L; Deter, A; Riemer, T; Eggeling, S; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most preventable neoplastic disease for men and women. The incidence rate per year is 14.000 in Germany. Smoking is the main risk factor for the onset of lung cancer and for a share of 90% of cases, lung cancer is associated with smoking. Recent studies have shown that the time slot of diagnosing lung cancer is a teachable moment for tobacco cessation interventions. The therapy that was rated most effective was a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy (e. g. NRT, Bupropion, Varenicline). We examined the smoking status of all patients undergoing lung cancer surgery in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in this study. A retrospective semi structured interview via telephone was conducted regarding smoking habits and current quality of life. 131 patients (36.6% female, average age of 68.7 years) of an urban German hospital were included.Results showed a relapse rate of 22.3%, while 86.2% used to be highly addicted smokers; A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated a significant overall impact of smoking status on quality of life with a medium effect size, controlled for age, gender, living conditions, tumor stage, duration of smoking abstinence, type of cancer therapy, type of resection method, and the time period between the date of surgery and of the survey. Two thirds of all smokers did not see an association between their habit and their disease.So far motivation to quit and long term abstinence rates are not sufficiently established even among seriously sick patients in Germany; further initiatives should focus on new and more intense interventions and educational strategies. PMID:26398407

  18. Smoking in Pregnancy May Be Under-Reported

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ohio between 2014 and 2015. In Ohio, such records include pregnant women's self-reported smoking habits during their last trimester. These self-reports were cross-referenced with urine samples taken from the same women. Those samples are ...

  19. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  20. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  1. Motives for Smoking in Movies Affect Future Smoking Risk in Middle School Students: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven; Setodji, Claude; Haviland, Amelia; Primack, Brian; Scharf, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked to adolescent smoking uptake. However, beyond linking amount of exposure to smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, whether the way that smoking is portrayed in movies matters for influencing adolescent smoking has not been investigated. This study experimentally examined how motivation for smoking depicted in movies affects self-reported future smoking risk (a composite measure with items that assess smoking refusal self-efficacy and smoking intentions) among early adolescents. Methods A randomized laboratory experiment was used. Adolescents were exposed to movie scenes depicting one of three movie smoking motives: social smoking motive (characters smoked to facilitate social interaction); relaxation smoking motive (characters smoked to relax); or no smoking motive (characters smoked with no apparent motive, i.e., in neutral contexts and/or with neutral affect). Responses to these movie scenes were contrasted (within subjects) to participants’ responses to control movie scenes in which no smoking was present; these control scenes matched to the smoking scenes with the same characters in similar situations but where no smoking was present. A total of 358 adolescents, aged 11–14 years, participated. Results Compared with participants exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking with no clear motive, adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for social motives and adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for relaxation motives had significantly greater chances of having increases in their future smoking risk. Conclusions Exposure to movies that portray smoking motives places adolescents at particular risk for future smoking. PMID:22074766

  2. [3-nitrotyrosine determination as nitrosative stress marker and health attitudes of medical students considering exposure to environmental tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Tyrpień, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Negative attitudes in health such as cigarette smoking and imbalanced diet play important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the main sources of exposure to cancerogenic and procancerogenic xenobiotics among adults as well as among young people. Many studies have proven that cigarettes smokers more frequently follow less varied diet in comparison to non-smokers. Despite increasing knowledge of Poles regarding harmful effects of cigarettes smoking and numerous antinicotine campaigns, still high number of women and men smoke and the smoking percentage among young people remains high and has not decreased in the recent years. The ongoing research shows that free radicals -the man cause of exposure to oxidative stress- play the seminal role in pathogenesis of civilisation diseases and physiological cell aging processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in cigarette smoke due to induced toxic compounds formation, are closely connected with observed increased risk of cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and arteriosclerosis incidents. Malondialdehyde is one of the most studied product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. However, 3-nitrotyrosine is one of the most promising biomarkers regarding changes caused by oxidative stress in living organisms. The presence of 3-nitrotyrosine was observed in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. The aim of the study was the evaluation of free radical processes increase related to tobacco smoke exposure and chosen diet habits by determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma samples collected from the group of medicine students. In our investigation we used an author's questionnaire which served to estimate the exposure to tobacco smoke among medicine students. It took also into account the knowledge of the exposure to other xenobiotics and unhealthy habits/behaviours. The investigated group included 150 students of 1

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from Northeastern Brazil: association with disease activity, nephritis, smoking, and age.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marta Maria das Chagas; Xavier de Oliveira, Ídila Mont'Alverne; Ribeiro, Ádilla Thaysa Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune inflammatory disease, is associated with an increased prevalence of accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a set of cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients, which may lead to a proinflammatory condition and increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS in a cohort of SLE patients versus healthy controls, and to analyze the association of clinical and demographic factors. SLE patients (n = 146) treated at a Northeast Brazilian university hospital were evaluated with regard to demographic, clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric parameters and compared to controls (n = 101). MetS was diagnosed according to the definition of 2005 NCEP/ATP III. The average age of SLE patients was 41.7 ± 12.5 years, and 91.8 % were female. MetS was significantly more prevalent in SLE patients (45.2 %) than in controls (32.7 %; p = 0.04). The MetS components such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly more prevalent in SLE. In the univariate analysis, MetS in SLE patients was associated with age, disease duration, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index, smoking, menopause, nephritis, cyclophosphamide use, prednisone dose, and chloroquine use, which appeared to have a protective effect. In the logistic regression analysis, age, disease activity, nephritis, and smoking were statistically significant. The prevalence of MetS observed in our cohort of SLE patients from Northeastern Brazil is higher than controls. MetS components should be routinely investigated to minimize the occurrence of MetS and associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26149124

  4. The Effects of Smoking on Ultrasonographic Thickness and Elastosonographic Strain Ratio Measurements of Distal Femoral Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Harun R.; Agladioglu, Kadir; Akkaya, Nuray; Akkaya, Semih; Ok, Nusret; Ozçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of smoking on bone health are all well known, data on how smoking interacts with cartilage structure in otherwise healthy individuals remains conflicting. Here, we ascertain the effects of cigarette smoking on sonoelastographic properties of distal femoral cartilage in asymptomatic adults. Demographic characteristics and smoking habits (packets/year) of healthy volunteers were recorded. Medial, intercondylar, and lateral distal femoral cartilage thicknesses and strain ratios on the dominant extremity were measured with ultrasonography (US) and real time US elastography. A total of 88 subjects (71 M, 17 F; aged 18–56 years, N = 43 smokers and N = 45 nonsmokers) were evaluated. Mean amount of cigarette smoking was 10.3 ± 8.9 (1–45) packets/year. Medial, intercondylar and lateral cartilage were thicker in smokers than nonsmokers (p = 0.002, p = 0.017, and p = 0.004, respectively). Medial distal femoral cartilage strain ratio was lower in smokers (p = 0.003). The amount of smoking was positively correlated with cartilage thicknesses and negatively correlated with medial cartilage strain ratios (p < 0.05). Femoral cartilage is thicker in smokers but has less strain ratio representing harder cartilage on the medial side. Future studies are needed to understand how these structural changes in the knee cartilage should be interpreted with regard to the development of knee osteoarthritis in smokers. PMID:27110800

  5. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins.

  6. Effects of primary grades health curriculum project on student and parent smoking attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Andrews, R L; Hearne, J T

    1984-01-01

    Family values regarding appropriate attitudes and behaviors are communicated to children from birth. Society's values begin to affect the child at an early age and as these change, so do children's beliefs and attitudes. A change in society's values toward smoking has been evidenced in the last decade by increased social sanctions against smoking and increased militancy of nonsmokers. This longitudinal Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project investigates the relationship between an activity-centered experiential health education program and: 1) positive health attitudes; 2) experimentation use and future expectancy to engage in cigarette smoking; and 3) changes in smoking behavior among the children's parents. Six hundred students in two New York school districts were pretested in their kindergarten year in 1977 on entry level of knowledge and attitudes about health. The results reported here from data collected at the end of third grade indicate that the experimental group possessed more positive attitudes about health, showed less exposure to experimentation with alcohol among their friends and less engagement in smoking cigarettes. A significant number of parents of experimental group students reported that they had changed their smoking habits since their child had entered school as a result of their children's health program. PMID:6560127

  7. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  8. Smoking and older age associated with mumps in an outbreak in a group of highly-vaccinated individuals attending a youth club party, the Netherlands, 2012.

    PubMed

    Ladbury, G; Ostendorf, S; Waegemaekers, T; van Binnendijk, R; Boot, H; Hahne, S

    2014-01-01

    We describe a mumps outbreak in a highly-vaccinated population attending a party at a youth club. In a retrospective cohort study with 60 of approximately 100 participants responding, vaccination status was verified for 58/59 respondents, of whom 54 were vaccinated twice and four once. The attack rate was 22% (13 cases, all vaccinated), with smoking at the party (risk ratio (RR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–6.0, p=0.001) and age ≥21 years (RR 4.7; 95% CI: 2.1–10.2, p<0.0001) as risk factors for disease in the binominal regression analysis. Mild upper respiratory illness was also highly prevalent in those who did not meet the mumps case definition (n=46) after the party, suggesting that mumps virus infection may cause mild disease in vaccinated individuals. Our investigation adds toevidence that crowded social events and smoking may facilitate spread of mumps virus among vaccinated populations, with waning immunity playing a role. The suggestion that mumps virus infection in vaccinated individuals may manifest as mild upper respiratory illness could have implications for transmission and warrants further investigation. PMID:24786261

  9. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8). PMID:27087182

  10. Comparative Study of Genotoxicity in Different Tobacco Related Habits using Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Jose, Maji; Saxena, Kartikay; K, Deepa; Prabhu, Vishnudas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most debilitating diseases afflicting mankind. Consumption of tobacco in various forms constitutes one of the most important etiological factors in initiation of oral cancer. When the focus of today’s research is to determine early genotoxic changes in human cells, micronucleus (MN) assay provides a simple, yet reliable indicator of genotoxic damage. Aims and Objectives: To identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa in individuals with different tobacco related habits and control group, to compare the genotoxicity of different tobacco related habits between each group and also with that of control group. Patients and Methods: In the present study buccal smears of 135 individuals with different tobacco related habits & buccal smears of 45 age and sex matched controls were obtained, stained using Giemsa stain and then observed under 100X magnification in order to identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa. Results: The mean Micronucleus (MN) count in individuals having smoking habit were 3.11 while the count was 0.50, 2.13, and 1.67 in normal control, smoking with beetle quid and smokeless tobacco habit respectively. MN count in smokers group was 2.6 times more compared to normal controls. MN count was more even in other groups when compared to normal control but to a lesser extent. Conclusion: From our study we concluded that tobacco in any form is genotoxic especially smokers are of higher risk and micronucleus assay can be used as a simple yet reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation. PMID:24995238

  11. Anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking among 19,643 adolescents in South Asia: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescents, are more susceptible to smoking epidemic and its consequences. Therefore, it is important to identify the association between anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking status in order to design effective interventions to curtail the smoking epidemic in this region. Methods This is a secondary analysis of national data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Pakistan (year 2003), India (year 2006), Bangladesh (year 2007), and Nepal (year 2007). GYTS is a school-based survey of students targeting adolescents of age 13–15 years. We examined the association of different ways of delivering anti-smoking messages with students’ current smoking status. Results A total of 19,643 schoolchildren were included in this study. The prevalence of current smoking was 5.4% with male predominance. No exposure to school teachings, family discussions regarding smoking hazards, and anti-smoking media messages was significantly associated with current smoking among male students. Participants who were deprived of family discussion regarding smoking hazards (girls: odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–2.89, p value 0.152; boys: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04–1.80, p value 0.025), those who had not seen media messages (girls: OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.58–5.28, p value <0.001; boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.91–1.88, p value 0.134), and those who were not taught the harmful effects of smoking at school (girls: OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.95–4.21, p value 0.066; boys: OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.44–2.48, p value <0.001) had higher odds of being current smokers after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion School-going adolescents in South Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) who were not exposed to anti-tobacco media messages or were not taught about the

  12. Smoking and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace. PMID:3539634

  13. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets in order to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4 × 1010M⊙. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way-type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expect that ~1.4 ×109 planets similar to present-day Earth have existed so far in our galaxy.

  14. Lifetime Smoking History and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Cohort Study with 43 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marike

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, smoking increases the risk of mortality. However, it is less clear how the relative risk varies by cause of death. The exact impact of changes in smoking habits throughout life on different mortality risks is less studied. Methods We studied the impact of baseline and lifetime smoking habits, and duration of smoking on the risk of all-cause mortality, mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), any cancer and of the four most common types of cancer (lung, colorectal, prostate, and breast cancer) in a cohort study (Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen 1965–1990, with a follow-up on mortality status until 2009, n = 8,645). We used Cox regression models adjusted for age, BMI, sex, and place of residence. Since previous studies suggested a potential effect modification of sex, we additionally stratified by sex and tested for interactions. In addition, to determine which cause of death carried the highest risk we performed competing-risk analyses on mortality due to CVD, cancer, COPD and other causes. Results Current smoking (light, moderate, and heavy cigarette smoking) and lifetime persistent smoking were associated with an increased risk of all-cause, CVD, COPD, any cancer, and lung cancer mortality. Higher numbers of pack years at baseline were associated with an increased risk of all-cause, CVD, COPD, any cancer, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer mortality. Males who were lifetime persistent pipe/cigar smokers had a higher risk of lung cancer [HR (95% CI) = 7.72 (1.72–34.75)] as well as all-cause and any cancer mortality. A longer duration of smoking was associated with a higher risk of COPD, any and lung cancer [HR (95% CI) = 1.06 (1.00–1.12), 1.03 (1.00–1.06) and 1.10 (1.03–1.17) respectively], but not with other mortality causes. The competing risk analyses showed that ex- and current smokers had a higher risk of cancer, CVD, and COPD mortality compared to all other mortality causes. In

  15. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  16. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; p<0.0001) and having ever smoked (AOR4v1=2.42; p<0.0001). Data from never-smokers (n=2098) were analyzed to determine associations between film-smoking exposure and psychological antecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khubaib, Mohammad U; Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  19. Financial incentives in wellness plans aimed at reducing insurance costs by helping workers shed unhealthy habits.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-01-20

    Employers are using financial incentives in hopes of boosting worker participation in wellness programs and in turn trimming their healthcare costs. For example, one company offers a free health risk appraisal that analyzes workers' habits regarding diet, smoking and exercise. The company then offers rewards for changing harmful habits. PMID:10115828

  20. Effect of self-reported home smoking restriction on smoking initiation among adolescents in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Luh, Dih-Ling; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of home smoking restriction (HSR) and the modified effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation among adolescents. Design Prospective Cohort Study. Setting Junior high school in Keelung City, Taiwan. Participants This study collected and evaluated primary data from the Adolescent Smoking and Other Health-Related Behaviour Survey conducted in Keelung City, which aimed to investigate smoking and health-related behaviours in junior high school students (2008–2009). Data on students free of smoking in 2008 and following them until 2009 (n=901) to ascertain whether they had started smoking were analysed with logistic regression mode to examine the proposed postulates. Main outcome measure The outcome variable was smoking initiation, which was defined as smoking status (yes/no) in the 2009 follow-up questionnaire. The main independent variable was HSR obtained from an adolescent self-reported questionnaire. Information on parental smoking was measured by adolescents self-reporting the smoking behaviour of their father and mother. Results The rate of HSR was 29.79% among 7th grade adolescents. The effect of HSR on smoking initiation in adolescents was statistically significantly modified by paternal smoking (p=0.04) but not by maternal smoking (p=0.54). The effect of HSR on smoking initiation was small for fathers with the habit of smoking (OR=0.89, 95% CI (0.42 to 1.88)), but the corresponding effect size was 3.2-fold (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.81) for fathers without the habit of smoking. Conclusions Paternal smoking behaviour may play an interactive role with HSR in preventing smoking initiation among Taiwanese adolescents. PMID:26116613

  1. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  2. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  3. Significant elevation of tumour-associated isoforms of soluble CD44 in serum of normal individuals caused by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Ruckser, R; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Hinterberger, W; Bauer, K

    1997-02-01

    While performing a prospective study on sCD44 variant isoforms as tumour markers in certain malignancies, we detected relevant differences in the control group between non-smokers and smokers. For a detailed evaluation of these findings, serum levels of sCD44 variant proteins, including sequences encoded by exon v5 and exon v6, respectively, were adjusted to sex, age and smoking habit. We were able to demonstrate a significant elevation of serum levels of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 in normal individuals due to cigarette smoking (non-smokers to smokers: sCD44v5: 33 +/- 11 microg/l to 62 +/- 30 microg/l; sCD44v6: 142 +/- 34 microg/l to 232 +/- 86 microg/l). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the concentrations of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 on the possible influence factors sex, age and smoking habit revealed cigarette smoking as the only factor influencing these isoforms (both p < 0.001). Further investigations have to elucidate a possible clinical importance of these findings in smokers. However, in patients with suspected or proven malignancy the diagnostic specifity of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 is diminished due to this observation. PMID:9056747

  4. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen Smoking Is a Form of Tobacco Marketing Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents’ exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Effect of Smoking in Movies on New Zealand Youth Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents’ likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05). The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand’s smokefree 2025 goal. PMID:26960189

  5. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  6. A Special Need to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Children (n=665, ages 12-15) with moderate learning difficulties or emotional and behavioral difficulties in the United Kingdom were interviewed concerning smoking behaviors, and 109 teachers completed questionnaires. Findings revealed that children with emotional and behavioral difficulties had high smoking rates, over 60% of subjects' parents…

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds of those chemicals are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children ...

  8. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  9. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Habitability design concepts for the Shuttle Orbiter Program are provided for MSC. A variety of creative solutions for the stated tasks are presented. Sketches, mock-ups, mechanicals and models are included for establishing a foundation for future development.

  10. Habitability design for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Habitability is understood to mean those spacecraft design elements that involve a degree of comfort, quality or necessities to support man in space. These elements are environment, architecture, mobility, clothing, housekeeping, food and drink, personal hygiene, off-duty activities, each of which plays a substantial part in the success of a mission. Habitability design for past space flights is discussed relative to the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab spacecraft, with special emphasis on an examination of the Shuttle Orbiter cabin design from a habitability standpoint. Future projects must consider the duration and mission objectives to meet their habitability requirements. Larger ward rooms, improved sleeping quarters and more complete hygiene facilities must be provided for future prolonged space flights

  11. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.

  12. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  13. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  14. A Multifactoral Analysis of 1452 Patients for Smoking Sensation. An Outpatient Lab Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouda, Theodora; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Petridis, Dimitris; Pezirkianidis, Nikolaos; Kioumis, Ioannis; Yarmus, Lonny; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Pitsiou, Georgia; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Kyriazis, George; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Smoking habit is held responsible for several respiratory and metabolic diseases. Data from 1452 patients were recorded from our outpatient laboratory. The following parameters were recorded within several follow ups of our patients; smoking habit, respiratory functions, smoking cessation questionnaires, and administered drugs. The treatment administered to smokers throughout the period of inspection seems to also have a significant effect on dependence. In fact, varelicline causes a 50% reduction in smoking dependence in regards to nicotine substitutes (odds ratio: 0.48 (0.31-0,74), p=0.001) so displaying a substantial preponderance on the choice to fight smoking dependence. PMID:24847384

  15. [A need to implement new tools for diagnosing tobacco-addition syndrome and readiness/motivation to quit smoking in the working-age population in Poland].

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    High rates of tobacco use is still observed in working-age population in Poland. The present level of the state tobacco control has been achieved through adopting legal regulations and population-based interventions. In Poland a sufficient contribution of health professionals to the diagnosis of the tobacco-addition syndrome (TAS) and the application of the 5A's (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange follow-up) brief intervention, has not been confirmed by explicit research results. Systemic solutions of the health care system of the professional control, specialist health care, health professional trainings and reference centres have not as yet been elaborated. The tools for diagnosing tobacco dependence and motivation to quit smoking, developed over 30 years ago and recommended by experts to be used in clinical and research practice, have not met the current addiction criteria. In this paper other tools than those previously recommended - tests developed in the first decade of the 21st century (including Cigarette Dependence Scale and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale), reflecting modern concepts of nicotine dependence are presented. In the literature on the readiness/motivation to change health behaviors, a new approach dominates. The motivational interviewing (MI) by Miller and Rollnick concentrates on a smoking person and his or her internal motivation. Motivational interviewing is recommended by the World Health Organization as a 5R's (relevance, risks, rewards, roadblocks, repetition) brief motivational advice, addressed to tobacco users who are unwilling to make a quit attempt. In Poland new research studies on the implementation of new diagnostic tools and updating of binding guidelines should be undertaken, to strengthen primary health care in treating tobacco dependence, and to incorporate MI and 5R's into trainings in TAS diagnosing and treating addressed to health professionals. PMID:27044722

  16. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  17. ADHD as a Serious Risk Factor for Early Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthies, Swantje; Holzner, Sebastian; Feige, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco smoking and ADHD frequently co-occur. So far, the bulk of research on the ADHD-smoking comorbidity has been done in children with ADHD and nonclinical adult samples. To assess smoking habits in adults with ADHD, the authors used the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Method: In 60 adult outpatients, with an ADHD…

  18. Faculty Members' Attitudes toward Students Who Smoke: The Last Permitted Type of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outten, Rebecca; Rowles, Peggy; Chambliss, Catherine

    The present study assessed high school and college faculty members perceptions of students who smoke and students who do not smoke. Respondents included 37 college faculty members and 35 high school faculty members. Respondents completed a one-page survey consisting of items pertaining to current and previous personal smoking habits, motivations…

  19. The methylation of the LEPR/LEPROT genotype at the promoter and body regions influence concentrations of leptin in girls and BMI at age 18 years if their mother smoked during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, Hasan; Holloway, John W

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of the leptin receptor genotype (LEPR/LEPROT) links gestational smoking and leptin serum levels and BMI later in life, we focused on female offspring, 18 years of age, from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IOWBC). Leptin binds to the leptin receptor encoded by the LEPR/LEPROT genotype. Using general linear models, we tested a two-stage model. First, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) acting as methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) depending on gestational smoking were related to differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. In stage 2, we tested whether the selected CpG sites, in interaction with other SNPs (modifiable genetic variants, modGV), are associated with serum leptin and BMI (stage 2). Children from the IOWBC were followed from birth to age 18. Information on gestational smoking was gathered upon delivery. SNPs tagging LEPR and LEPROT genes were genotyped. Data on LEPR/LEPROT DNA-M and leptin were obtained from blood samples drawn at age 18; to determine BMI, height and weight were ascertained. Blood samples were provided by 238 girls. Of the 21 CpG sites, interactions between gestational smoking and SNPs were detected for 16 CpGs. Methylation of seven of the 16 CpGs were, in interaction with modGVs, associated with leptin levels at age 18 years. Two CpGs survived a multiple testing penalty and were also associated with BMI. This two-stage model may explain why maternal smoking has a long-term effect on leptin levels and BMI in girls at age 18 years. PMID:23875062

  20. Oklahoma Researchers Go to the Source for Valuable Information on Teen Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Vicki L.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Tall Chief, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Focus group discussions with Native-American adolescents aged 11 to 17 in Oklahoma examined why teen smokers started smoking, family and peer influences on smoking, reasons for continuing to smoke, reasons not to smoke, effectiveness of strategies to prevent adolescents from smoking, and awareness of the health risks of smoking. (SV)

  1. The Subject Is Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Presents a guide to direct teachers of all grade levels to antismoking resources on the Internet. The paper discusses the importance of basic knowledge and facts about smoking and health risks, beginning at an early age; tobacco marketing awareness; and social action to reinforce knowledge. (SM)

  2. Understanding the links between education and smoking.

    PubMed

    Maralani, Vida

    2014-11-01

    This study extends the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between education and smoking by focusing on the life course links between experiences from adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood. Differences in smoking by completed education are apparent at ages 12-18, long before that education is acquired. I use characteristics from the teenage years, including social networks, future expectations, and school experiences measured before the start of smoking regularly to predict smoking in adulthood. Results show that school policies, peers, and youths' mortality expectations predict smoking in adulthood but that college aspirations and analytical skills do not. I also show that smoking status at age 16 predicts both completed education and adult smoking, controlling for an extensive set of covariates. Overall, educational inequalities in smoking are better understood as a bundling of advantageous statuses that develops in childhood, rather than the effect of education producing better health. PMID:25131272

  3. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn’s Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chivese, Tawanda; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Basson, Abigail Raffner

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits. Methods A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location) was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as ‘complicated’ or ‘uncomplicated’, using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0–5, 6–10, and 11–18 years. Results One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3) disease (RRR = 3.63; 95%CI, 1.32–9.98, p = 0.012) and ileal (L1) disease (RRR = 3.54; 95%CI, 1.06–11.83, p = 0.040) compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0–5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95%CI, 1.16–391.55, p = 0.040). No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as ‘complicated’ vs ‘uncomplicated’, was observed. Conclusion Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3) and ileal (L1) disease at time of diagnosis in

  4. Smoking and stroke: the more you smoke the more you stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Reena S; Cole, John W

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for all forms of stroke. While both the general public and the global healthcare system are aware of the vascular risks associated with smoking, the prevalence of tobacco use has remained largely unchanged over the last quarter of a century. Approximately one in five US adults are classified as regular smokers, with the initiation of smoking typically occurring during the teenage years. Although the increased risk of stroke associated with smoking is generally acknowledged, it is less well recognized that considerable scientific evidence implicates a strong dose–response relationship between smoking and stroke risk. In this article, we summarize the literature regarding smoking-related stroke risk, the dose–response relationship, and the costs of this detrimental habit to both the individual and society as a whole. PMID:20602553

  5. Characterization of trace organic compounds associated with aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in a controlled atmosphere—volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Jenkins, Roger A.

    In this study, a wide range of volatile organic constituents of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke (ADSS) were determined in a controlled atmosphere, where ADSS is the sole source of target compounds. The ADSS was generated in a 30 m 3 environmental test chamber using a variety of cigarettes, including the Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarette and eight commercial brands, and a total of 24 experimental runs were conducted. Target analytes were divided into three groups, i.e. vapor and particulate phase markers for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), volatile organic compounds (VOC) including carbonyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The VOC samples were collected on triple sorbent traps, and then analyzed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), while the carbonyl compounds were sampled on DNPH cartridges, being analyzed by HPLC. ETS particles in the chamber were collected by high volume sampling, and then used for the determination of PAHs by GC/MS. Among more than 30 target VOCs, acetaldehyde appeared to be the most abundant compound, followed by 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde. The results from the chamber study were further used to generate characterized ratios of selected VOCs to 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP), a vapor phase ETS marker. The ratios appeared to be in generally good agreement with published values in the literature. This suggests that the characteristic ratios may be useful for quantifying the impact of ETS on the VOC concentrations in 'real world' indoor environments, which are affected by a complex mixture of components from multiple sources. The yields of ETS markers from this study are all slightly lower than those estimated by other studies, while VOC yields are in reasonable agreement in many cases with values in the literature. Among 16 target PAHs, chrysene appeared to be most abundant, followed by benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The average contents of BaP and

  6. Tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chenshu; Tang, Rongrui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures. Methods: Paired case-control method was used for face-to-face interviews from January 2010 to June 2014. Patients (n=435) with newly osteoporotic hip/femur fracture and 435 controls with the same gender and age (±3) were given questionnaire survey. The survey content included general situation, detailed tea drinking and other diet condition, health-related behavior and family history of fractures, etc. Results: Single factor logistic analysis showed that the habit of drinking tea can significantly reduce the risk of hip/femur fracture. Cumulative year of tea drinking, the cumulative amount of tea and tea concentration (low dose group) have the maximum protection for fracture, while the high dose group is weaker in protection (trend test, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, energy, BMI, education degree, parents’ history of fracture, second hand smoke exposure, calcium supplements, and equivalent energy consumption of physical activity, etc, the above association still showed significant linear trend, but the associated strength was slightly reduced. But stratified analysis found that the effect of tea drinking was only statistically significant in men. And there were no statistically significant differences of people with different education degree. Conclusions: Regular tea drinking can reduce the risk of osteoporotic hip/femur fractures in middle-aged and elderly men. PMID:27182250

  7. Relationship between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee osteoarthritis in Chinese population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Deng, Zhen-Han; Yang, Ye; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-Xing; Wang, Yi-Lun; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate the cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee Osteoarthritis (OA) in Chinese population. A total of 3,789 subjects (1,796 females and 1,993 males) participated in this study. A subject was diagnosed with radiographic knee OA if Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade ≥2 in at least one leg. The smoking status was classified into four levels based on the daily smoking habit: (1) 0/day; (2) 1-10/day; (3) 11-20/day; and (4) >20/day. Linear trend and multivariable logistic regression were conducted for statistical analysis. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA was 28.4 % among the subjects of this study. An inverse association was observed between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee OA in the linear trend test. Such association remained valid after adjusting the factors of age, gender, body mass index, betel quilt chewing status, physical activity, alcohol drinking status, mean total energy intake and educational level in the multivariable logistic regression. This study suggested a negative association between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee OA in the Chinese population. The findings of this study need to be confirmed by further prospective research. PMID:25588371

  8. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  9. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  10. Dietary Habits Prone to Lifestyle-Related Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, M.; Uyama, O.; Kaji, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate relations among dietary habits, bone mineral density (BMD), visceral fat area (VFA), and arterial stiffness and recommend better dietary habits. Methods: One hundred and six men and 381 women (aged 18-84) received a health checkup and answered questionnaires, with subsequent measurements of BMD (speed of sound), VFA…

  11. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     ... 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial complexes caught fire, including facilities in the Port of Sendai ...

  12. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  13. Quit Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Take Action: Stress and Cravings Deal with stress. Manage stress by creating peaceful times in your daily schedule. ... also check out these tips for dealing with stress as you quit . Manage cravings. When you quit smoking, the urge to ...

  14. Smoking among Lebanese medical students: Prevalence and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Chidiac, Amanda; Tamim, Hani; Kanso, Mohamad; Tfayli, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The tobacco epidemic is a major public health threat facing the world. Tobacco dependence is recognized as the greatest preventable cause of disease and death. Medical students are in key position influencing future tobacco cessation programs. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking among medical students across Lebanon and their smoking attitudes. It also investigates their attitude toward smoking, showing where they really stand on this major public health issue. This study helps better tackle anti-smoking campaigns among both physicians and patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to currently enrolled medical students at all seven medical schools in Lebanon. The 32-item questionnaire was used, comprised three sections assessing sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, and attitudes toward smoking among Lebanese medical students. The questionnaire was launched online on Limesurvey to retain anonymity. The data were then transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences for analysis. Data were expressed as percentages for discrete variables and as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-three complete responses remained of the 182 obtained responses. Forty-two of the total 163 students identified themselves as either daily or occasional smokers yielding a prevalence of 25.8%. Smokers were less likely to ask patients about their smoking habit and to counsel them about smoking cessation. Almost one-third of smokers felt that they had no obligations toward the society. CONCLUSION: Approximately 1 in 4 Lebanese medical students is a smoker. Students who smoke are less likely to ask patients about their smoking habits and to counsel them on smoking cessation. This is a major drawback in the fight against tobacco. This calls for better education of our future doctors on smoking cessation to decrease the

  15. Improving Recreational Reading Habits of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Marline; Fordonski, Patricia

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a program for improving the recreational reading habits of elementary students through the use of cross-age tutoring in critical reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of a kindergarten and a fourth-grade class in the growing upper-middle-class community of Geneva, Illinois, located…

  16. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  17. Tobacco use in Northern India–Part 1: The detailed habit

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dwivedi, Varsha; Pandey, Upendra; Bala, Nidhi; Vasandani, Sheela; Singh, Kamlesh; Chaudhry, Kishore

    2012-01-01

    Background The finite details of tobacco consumption practices in north Indian population are hitherto not well described. This study depicts the modes of tobacco use, their relative frequency, demographic and psychosocial determinants. Materials and Methods Random stratified sampling from the list of blocks, villages and urban localities was done. The study was community-based house-to-house survey using interview schedule. Results There were 1607 tobacco users: 1399 male and 208 female; 1195 urban and 412 rural. Single mode of tobacco use was reported by 769 (47.85%). Chewing tobacco was prevalent in 511 (31.80%), smoking in 258 (16.55%) subjects and majority 838 (52.15%) had consistent multiple habit of smoking and chewing. Of the 10 preparations of tobacco use, the ‘top 5’ ranked as tobacco-betel, gutka, cigarette, bidi and khaini. Gutka consumption was significantly higher between age group of 25 years and 55 years (χ2 = 17.2; P<0.000). Majority of users, 576 (35.84%), started tobacco before 25 years of age and about a fifth, 439 (27.32%) before 18 years. Men significantly used tobacco more than women (χ2 = 73.2; P<0.000). Women (χ2 = 73.2; P<0.000) preferred smokeless tobacco and perceived social barrier for smoking. Conclusion Multiple or overlapping tobacco practices and other substances abuse were documented in Lucknow, the capital city of the most populous state Uttar Pradesh where chewing tobacco was the commonest as opposed to smoking. PMID:25756014

  18. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  19. Occupation and smoking as risk determinants of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Teppo, L; Hakulinen, T; Rimpelä, M

    1983-09-01

    The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer was determined for different occupational groups in Finland. The data on all cases of lung cancer diagnosed in Finland in age groups of 35-69 years in 1971-1975 were supplemented by information on occupation from the 1970 census (Central Statistical Office). The expected numbers of cases were based on the sex, age and occupation-specific numbers of person-years computed in the Central Statistical Office, and sex- and age-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the economically active population (as defined 1 January 1971). Compared with the risk of the total economically active population, the relative risk of those not active (SIR) was 1.69 for men and 0.86 for women. Lower than expected relative risks were encountered among highly educated and white-collar male workers (religious, legal, pedagogical, medical, technical and administrative work), in sales work, transport service work and among farmers. High SIRs were found in mining and quarrying, forestry, woodworking (joiners), construction, painting and among unskilled workers. Among women the numbers of cases were small and only one significant SIR was obtained; the risk was lower than expected in farming. Data on the smoking habits of males in different main occupational categories in Finland show that variation between different occupational groups in the prevalence of smoking closely corresponds to that in the SIR for lung cancer (R = 0.96). PMID:6629617

  20. Differences in dietary intake associated with smoking status.

    PubMed

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to identify and describe smoking-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of tobacco-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study which was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products and consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on sex and age (+/- 5 years). Nutritional data were analysed as log-transformed frequencies of thirty food items, nine factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and estimated daily nutrient scores for fat, vitamin A, fibre, and cholesterol. In general, the dietary habits of ex-smokers more closely resembled those of never-smokers than those of current smokers. We found that after controlling for case-control status, education, alcohol consumption, and age, there were many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by smoking status than could be explained merely by chance. For both sexes we observed significantly increased consumption of fruits and higher vitamin A and fibre scores in non-smokers compared to current smokers (for any smoking vs non-smoking comparison the P-value was always less than 0.002, 0.01, and 0.007, respectively). A similar but weaker relationship was observed for high-fat, sweet foods such as ice cream. An inverse association, also of smaller magnitude, was found for other high-fat foods items. Implications for further study and strengths and weaknesses of the current study are discussed. PMID:2369884

  1. Lung cancer, smoking, and environment: a cohort study of the Danish population.

    PubMed Central

    Engholm, G.; Palmgren, F.; Lynge, E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The almost twofold difference in lung cancer incidence between people living in Copenhagen and in rural area of Denmark in the 1980s led to public concern; this study was undertaken to assess the effects of air pollution and occupation on lung cancer in Denmark, with control for smoking habits. DESIGN--Cohort study of national population. SUBJECTS--People aged 30-64 and economically active in 1970 (927,470 men and 486,130 women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative risks for lung cancer estimated with multiplicative Poisson modelling of incidence rates. RESULTS--Differences in smoking habit explained about 60% of the excess lung cancer risk in Copenhagen for men and 90% for women. After control for smoking, workers had double the lung cancer risk of teachers and academics. There was only a small independent effect of region. CONCLUSION--Smoking is the main factor behind the regional differences in lung cancer incidence in Denmark, and occupational risk factors also seem to have an important role. The outdoor air in Copenhagen around 1970 contained on average 50-80 micrograms/m3 of sulphur dioxide, 80-100 micrograms/m3 total suspended particulate matter, and up to 10 ng/m3 benzo(a)pyrene and had peak values of daily smoke of 120 micrograms/m3. Region had only a small effect on incidence of lung cancer int eh present study, which suggests that an influence of outdoor air pollution on lung cancer is identifiable only above this pollution level. PMID:8634614

  2. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

  3. Smoking in Compulsory Schools: Interviews and Improvisations. Reports from the Institute of Education, University of Goteborg, No. 68, September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markland, Ulla

    Smoking is not an issue for children before the 5th or 6th grade except in rare cases. About 80 children in the 3rd, 5th and 7th grades were interviewed about their smoking habits and their views on smoking. Younger students had a strongly negative attitude to smoking but in the middle years toughness is important. Smoking is something which is…

  4. Smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between sensation seeking, peer smoking, and smoking among young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensation seeking is a strong correlate of smoking among adolescents, yet the research on mediators of this association is not well established. The proposed model of the present study includes antecedent variables (sensation seeking), mediators (perceived peer smoking, outcome expectancies including negative consequences, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite-and-weight control), and one outcome variable (smoking cigarettes during the past 30 days). Methods: Self-reported data obtained from Hungarian high-school students (ninth grade, N = 2,565, mean age 15.3 years, SD = 0.56) were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Before testing of the main model, the construct validity of mediators (outcome expectancy scales) was supported with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling. The final model was tested with structural equation modeling, and the goodness-of-fit indices and the proportion of direct and indirect effects were analyzed. Results: Our mediational model had an excellent model fit, and this study supported both the proposed sensation seeking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways and sensation seeking→perceived peer smoking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways. The total indirect effect explains 76% of sensation seeking and smoking association. Results support the notion that positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. Discussion: Results support the notion that perceived peer smoking, positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. PMID:19959571

  5. Smoking and degree of occupational exposure: are internal analyses in cohort studies likely to be confounded by smoking status

    SciTech Connect

    Siemiatycki, J.; Wacholder, S.; Dewar, R.; Wald, L.; Begin, D.; Richardson, L.; Rosenman, K.; Gerin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational cohort studies are usually carried out without the benefit of information on smoking habits of cohort members. One common approach to avoid confounding bias related to smoking habits is to carry out an internal analysis, comparing workers with different degrees of occupational exposure. The premise behind this approach is that within a cohort there is unlikely to be correlation between degree of exposure and smoking habits. If this were untrue, smoking could confound the disease-exposure relationships. Our purpose was to verify the premise. The study sample consisted of 857 French-Canadian men born between 1910 and 1930, with 11 or fewer years of education, and interviewed around 1980 in the context of an occupational cancer case-control study. For each man we had information on smoking habits, job history, and a history of the chemicals he was exposed to in each of his jobs. We computed two indices of the dirtiness of workers' job histories: one based on the job titles held by the man and a second based on the degree of exposures to workplace substances. There was no correlation between these indices of job dirtiness and smoking history. We also examined the smoking-exposure relationship among the subsets of men who had been occupationally exposed to ten especially noticeable substances. Within the subsets, there was no indication of a consistent difference among the smoking subgroups in level or duration of exposure to these index substances. These findings do not support the view that nonsmokers sought out cleaner job environments than smokers; they imply that internal analyses of dose-response in cohort studies are unlikely to be seriously confounded by smoking habits.

  6. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk. PMID:23587277

  7. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  8. The evolution of habit in Tempskya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, C.B.

    1939-01-01

    1. The genus Tempskya Corda, of Upper Cretaceous age in western America, is characterized by a markedly dichotomous solenostelic stem system sheathed in a felt of its own adventitious roots. A composite stemlike structure is thus formed which has been termed a false stem. 2. As primary bases for the discussion, it is assumed that the false stem is a composite "organ" analogous to a true stem in certain respects; that form is influenced by habit, and that lack of perfect correlation is indicative of a structural lag; and that the false stem is much more plastic than the true stem and, in consequence, a close correlation of habit and internal structure is to be expected. 3. Arguments favoring a subterranean and obliquely ascending habit for these false stemmed types are presented. Likewise, arguments suggesting an erect treefern-like habit for the radially symmetrical false stems, and a climbing habit for the dorsiventral ones are given. It is believed that the available evidence favors the erect and the liana-like habits. 4. Assuming a radial Urform, for which there is ample justification both in theoretical morphology and in the Paleozoic record, the dorsiventral morphology of fern stems may be regarded as developed towards the close of the Paleozoic as an adaptation to rigorous climates which are known to have produced striking changes in the organic landscape. 5. From one of these early dorsiventral types with a dichotomous stem system, Tempskya may have been derived through the development of the scandent and tree-climbing habit, aided by the production of a mass of adventitious roots. Thus the false stem could be developed. 6. It follows that the more primitive habit in Tempskya is logically the climbing one reflected by the dorsiventral false stem. Old age of individuals may have been characterized by self-saprophytism and finally epiphytism. 7. The radial forms, it is believed, were developed from these dorsiventral climbing types as a result of the

  9. [Young men's contraceptive habits].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B; Hansen, K; Johansen, J B; Nielsen, M B

    1992-10-01

    A total of 379 men from the greater Copenhagen area were invited to fill out a questionnaire about sexual habits and use of contraception in connection with conscription for military duty. A total of 334 (88%) answered the questionnaire. In the autumn of 1988, a total of 27 men answered the test questionnaire, while in the spring of 1989, when the real study was conducted, 307 men answered it. The median age of 334 participants was 18 years (range of 17-29 years). 33% of the group stated that they had used condoms during first intercourse, while 47% had not. 1 person reported to be exclusively attracted sexually to men, 5 persons were attracted both to men and women, but 97% were exclusively attracted to women. 82% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with women. 1.8% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with men. 8% had no sexual experience, and 8% did not answer the question. Oral contraceptives were used by 60% and the condom by 56%. 10% had used coitus interruptus at one time or another; 15% had used no contraception; 5% used the IUD; and 5% used the diaphragm. Some gave several answers. 1% used spermicidal lotion. 60% thought that it was the responsibility of both men and women to be concerned about contraception, 12% opined that it was exclusively men's duty, and 2% that it was exclusively women's, while 26% did not answer. 68% wanted to use the condom in the future for protection, 24% did not know, but 8% did not want to use it more extensively. 64% did not think that the fear of AIDS would affect their sexual life, but 36% thought it would. Several of the subjects indicated that they would be more careful about choosing a partner, and every 10th suggested that they would use the condom with a new partner. One person (0.3%) was a drug addict, 89% had never injected drugs, but about 11% did not answer about drugs. 97% and 95%, respectively, indicated that the condom provided good protection against pregnancy and venereal diseases. PMID

  10. Physiological basis of dietary prevention of perimenopausal disorders in the context of dietary habits associated with the consumption of water and beverages by women aged 45-65

    PubMed Central

    Remiszewska, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the amount of water and type of beverages consumed by women of perimenopausal age against a background of dietary prevention of perimenopausal disorders. Material and methods This study was conducted in autumn 2012, in Wielkopolska Province (Poland), on 100 women aged from 45 to 65 years, employed as office workers. Information on the diet, beverages consumption and anthropometric data were collected. Results Analysis of the nutritional status of the surveyed women showed that over 50% of them had excess body weight. Analysis of the survey results indicated that the amount of water in the diet of the examined women was appropriate, although the type of drinks consumed was inadequate. The women consumed too much coffee and tea, and simultaneously had a low intake of potable water. More than a half of the surveyed women sweetened coffee and tea. Women with excess body weight did so statistically significantly quite often, and they also used larger amounts of sugar for sweetening. Nearly 60% of the surveyed women added milk, or less frequently cream, to coffee. Milk was statistically significantly more frequently chosen by women with normal body weight, and cream by women with excess body weight. There was a positive correlation between body mass index and the energy value of the consumed fluids. Conclusions The dietary irregularities identified in this study may intensify perimenopausal symptoms and contribute to the development of diet-related chronic diseases. Taking into account the observed irregularities, it seems appropriate to provide perimenopausal women with nutrition education and diet correction, including the amount and type of fluids consumed. PMID:26327836

  11. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  12. Analysis of complex mixtures--cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, Michael; Klus, Hubert

    2005-07-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke is a complex mixture that is inhaled into the respiratory system. The physical characteristics and chemical composition of mainstream smoke are reviewed and briefly compared with that of sidestream smoke. Special attention is paid to ageing effects and artifact formation during the sampling and testing of cigarette smoke, with specific examples of artifact formation during sampling discussed (nitrogen dioxide, methyl nitrite, etc.). Historically, the generation of cigarette smoke for chemical and biological testing has been based on standard smoke generation procedures that are intended for product comparisons. More recently, emerging global regulations have called for alternative smoke generation methods, with emphasis on results relevant to conditions of product use, e.g., estimates of maximum smoke emissions. Strategies for establishing such alternative smoke generation methods are discussed and the potential effects of alternative smoking conditions on analytical accuracy and precision are addressed. Current regulatory requirements that include Hoffmann analyte analysis (i.e., constituents reported to be associated with the risks of cigarette smoking) are also summarized and the potential effect of alternative smoke generation methods on individual constituent yields considered. Finally, a limited critique of emerging regulation that relates to mainstream cigarette smoke measurements, including a discussion of recent WHO recommendations, is offered. PMID:16092717

  13. Spectral Fingerprints of Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, L.; Selsis, F.

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. Are there other worlds like ours? How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 M_Earth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly with dedicated space observatories already in operation (Corot) or in development phase (Kepler, James Webb Space Telescope, Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), Darwin/TPF). Space missions like CoRoT (CNES, Rouan et al. 1998) and Kepler (NASA, Borucki et al. 1997) will give us statistics on the number, size, period and orbital distance of planets, extending to terrestrial planets on the lower mass range end as a first step, while missions like Darwin/TPF are designed to characterize their atmospheres. In this chapter we discuss how we can read a planet's spectral fingerprint and characterize if it is potentially habitable. We discuss the first steps to detect a habitable planet and set biomarker detection in context in Section 1. In Section 2 we focus on biomarkers, their signatures at different wavelengths, abiotic sources and cryptic photosynthesis - using Earth as our primary example - the only habitable planet we know of so far. Section 3 concentrates on planets around different stars, and Section 4 summarizes the chapter.

  14. Crater Floor Fractures: Probes Into Habitable Martian Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Geologic and spectral analysis of martian impact craters reveals the potential for floor-fractures with a aqueous/volcanic genesis to probe into both ancient surface and Hesperian-aged deep habitable environments.

  15. Determinants of environmental tobacco smoke in a population of Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Preston, A M; Rodríguez, C; Rivera, C E; Sahai, H

    2001-02-01

    This study was designed to determine among various personal, socioeconomic, and environmental factors those which had the greatest influence on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a population of children residing in a tropical environment and to compare these results with those obtained in the literature of tobacco exposed children in temperate climates. Urine specimens were collected from 606 healthy Puerto Rican children (2-12 years) living in an industrial area and analyzed for cotinine, a quantitative biomarker for exposure to ETS. Parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and socioeconomic information. Seventy per cent of the children were reported to be exposed to ETS, 50% resulting from exposure to smoke from either or both parents. Major determinants to ETS exposure were found to be presence of smoker, number of smokers, identity of smoker, number of cigarettes smoked in the household and child age with the youngest children suffering twice the exposure of older children. Non-determinants were exposure to smoke other than from the parent, sex of the child, season of the year and several socioeconomic factors including civil and employment status of the mother, mother's age and educational background and whether food stamps were being received. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that our predictors accounted for 40% of cotinine appearing in the urine. Reasons for this relatively low value may be due in part to precision of our analytic method and lower levels of ambient smoke in our population vs. others that reported higher R(2) values. Predictions from questionnaire information for high ETS exposure were not always the same as those indicated by urinary cotinine emphasizing that the bioindicator, which indicates the actual inhalation of ETS, is a better predictor of exposure than responses from a questionnaire. PMID:11260812

  16. Habitable zones in the universe.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2005-12-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review the historical development of the concept of habitable zones and the present state of the research. We also suggest ways to make progress on each of the habitable zones and to unify them into a single concept encompassing the entire universe. PMID:16254692

  17. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  18. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  19. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  20. Predictors of Smoking Cessation and Duration: Implication for Smoking Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Etedali, Farshad; Sereshti, Nafiseh; Sabour, Elnaz; Samani, Marzieh Dehghani; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Piri; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Maracy, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are few articles studding the factors associated with successful smoking cessation in Iranian smokers. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between socio-demographic factors and smoking behavior, such as number of failed smoking cessation and duration of abstinence in Iranian population. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 673 participants was conducted in a local government health-care center. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic information including, age, marital status, education, income, and job. Furthermore, information on smoking cigarettes including number of smoking per day, duration of smoking, cigarettes brand, nicotine concentration, and history of cessation was obtained. Results: Mean ± SD of age and daily cigarette consumption were 39.7 ± 1.1 and 22.1 ± 1.1 respectively. Failure rate of smoking cessation was higher in the lower age group (odds ratios [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1, 7.7) and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3, 4.5) and duration of smoking more than 30 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2, 9.3) and foreign cigarette brand (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.7). Length time of cessation was prominent in participants with lower age group (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.3, 22.1), and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5, 4.9) and lower in smokers with duration of smoking more than 10 and 10-19 years (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.12, 0.89), (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.17, 0.76), respectively. Conclusions: The above results suggest that there are a significant association between socio-demographic factors and smoking-related behaviors in the Iranian population, consistent with previous reports world-wide. These factors should be considered to have appropriate public-health and policy response. PMID:23776723

  1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Insights into Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzo, Michele; Missiroli, Filippo; Borgiani, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Cusumano, Andrea; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ricci, Federico; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old). AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension). In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species) have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2) that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines), immune cells (macrophages), and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:25478207

  2. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  3. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  4. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  5. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing. PMID:26014793

  6. Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

    2001-01-01

    Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

  7. Habitable zones and UV habitable zones around host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpo; Zhang, Fenghui; Zhang, Xianfei; Han, Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a double-edged sword to life. If it is too strong, the terrestrial biological systems will be damaged. And if it is too weak, the synthesis of many biochemical compounds cannot go along. We try to obtain the continuous ultraviolet habitable zones, and compare the ultraviolet habitable zones with the habitable zones of host stars. Using the boundary ultraviolet radiation of ultraviolet habitable zone, we calculate the ultraviolet habitable zones of host stars with masses from 0.08 to 4.00 M ⊙. For the host stars with effective temperatures lower than 4,600 K, the ultraviolet habitable zones are closer than the habitable zones. For the host stars with effective temperatures higher than 7,137 K, the ultraviolet habitable zones are farther than the habitable zones. For a hot subdwarf as a host star, the distance of the ultraviolet habitable zone is about ten times more than that of the habitable zone, which is not suitable for the existence of life.

  8. Cadmium in hair of school children living in Tarragona Province, Spain. Relationship to age, sex, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bosque, M A; Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1991-02-01

    Cadmium concentrations were determined in the hair of 226 school children in an industrial and in a rural area of Tarragona Province (NE Spain). The influence of sex, age, hair color, smoking habits of the household members, and parents' occupation on the children's hair cadmium levels was also evaluated. Children living in the industrial area had much more cadmium in their hair than those living in the rural area (median: 0.327 vs 0.002; arithmetic mean: 0.401 vs 0.119 micrograms/g). Girls had more cadmium in their hair than boys, and cadmium levels decreased with the age independently of the sex. Smoking habits and parents' occupation also influenced the hair cadmium content in the children examined. In contrast, hair color has no influence on hair cadmium values. PMID:1709030

  9. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  10. The Effect of the Teacher and Three Different Classroom Approaches on Seventh Grade Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs About Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Robert P.

    The premise, that cigarette smoking is hazardous to health, is the basis of this study. The purpose of the study was to cause a shift in behavior from the "presmoker" or "smoking experimenter" toward the "nonsmoker" rather than the smoker. The general concept, the cigarette smoking habit is a health hazard of sufficient importance for youth to…

  11. Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.

    1984-08-01

    The long-term inhalation of cigarette smoke is associated with the appearance of diffuse small irregular opacities of mild profusion on chest roentogenograms of some subjects in a limited number of reports. Human histologic and experimental animal studies have shown the presence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. The radiographic abnormalities may be explained by interstitial fibrosis, although bronchiolar wall thickening may also be involved. Because asbestos causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, the literature was reviewed for evidence concerning an interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos in the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis. A majority of 14 prevalence studies and 7 cohort studies of asbestos workers with information on smoking habits have shown a positive interaction between the 2 agents. The interaction appears to be additive rather than synergistic. Smoking may exert an effect on the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis by increasing the effective fiber dose retained in the lungs through interference with clearance.

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  13. Khat Chewing Habit among School Students of Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis) in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. Objective This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. Methodology A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. Result The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27–21.79). The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16–35.08), than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39–5.31) (P<0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends’ smoking and Khat chewing, and students’ smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing (P<0.001 for all). The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students’ smoking status (OR = 13.02, P<0.001), friends’ use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P<0.001), gender (OR = 4.62, P<0.001), and friend’s use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P<0.001). Conclusion A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences. PMID:23776490

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... about exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these places: At work The workplace is a major source of SHS ... the only way to prevent SHS exposure at work. Separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning ... public places Everyone can be exposed to SHS in public ...

  15. Trajectories of Martian Habitability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Beginning from two plausible starting points—an uninhabited or inhabited Mars—this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. Key Words: Mars—Habitability—Liquid water—Planetary science. Astrobiology 14, 182–203. PMID:24506485

  16. Exoplanets, extremophiles and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.; Bernardes, L.

    2012-09-01

    Estimates of the average surface temperature and CO2 partial atmospheric pressure of already discovered exoplanets supposed to be in their Habitable Zone of their stars were surveyed from the Exoplanet Encyclopedia database. Moreover, since planetary surface temperature strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions, we have been feeding exoplanetary data into a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere to get better estimations. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets capable of harbour dynamic stability and to retain atmospheric layers and keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Collected information on biological data of micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell in many of them. We thus propose an extension of the more astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically "Extremophile Zone", taking into account other refined parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms.

  17. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. PMID:24506485

  18. Effective Physics Study Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  19. Choosing Stars to Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    M-dwarf stars are excellent targets for planet searches because the signal of an orbiting planet is relatively larger (and therefore easier to detect!) around small, dim M dwarfs, compared to Sun-like stars. But are there better or worse stars to target within this category when searching for habitable, Earth-like planets?Confusing the SignalRadial velocity campaigns search for planets by looking for signatures in a stars spectra that indicate the star is wobbling due to the gravitational pull of an orbiting planet. Unfortunately, stellar activity can mimic the signal of an orbiting planet in a stars spectrum something that is particularly problematic for M dwarfs, which can remain magnetically active for billions of years. To successfully detect planets that orbit in their stars habitable zones, we have to account for this problem.In a recent study led by Elisabeth Newton (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors use literature measurements to examine the rotation periods for main-sequence, M-type stars. They focus on three factors that are important for detecting and characterizing habitable planets around M dwarfs:Whether the habitable-zone orbital periods coincide with the stellar rotationFalse planet detections caused by stellar activity often appear as a planet with an orbital period thats a multiple of the stellar rotation period. If a stars rotation period coincides with the range of orbital periods corresponding to its habitable zone, its therefore possible to obtain false detections of habitable planets.How long stellar activity and rapid rotation last in the starAll stars become less magnetically active and rotate more slowly as they age, but the rate of this decay depends on their mass: lower-mass stars stay magnetically active for longer and take longer to spin down.Whether detailed atmospheric characterization will be possibleIts ideal to be able to follow up on potentially habitable exoplanets, and search for biosignatures such as

  20. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Lassen, Christina F.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether being able to quit smoking is an early marker of Parkinson disease (PD) onset rather than tobacco being “neuroprotective,” we analyzed information about ease of quitting and nicotine substitute use. Methods: For this case-control study, we identified 1,808 patients with PD diagnosed between 1996 and 2009 from Danish registries, matched 1,876 population controls on sex and year of birth, and collected lifestyle information. We estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with logistic regression adjusting for matching factors and confounders. Results: Fewer patients with PD than controls ever established a smoking habit. Among former smokers, those with greater difficulty quitting or using nicotine substitutes were less likely to develop PD, with the risk being lowest among those reporting “extremely difficult to quit” compared with “easy to quit.” Nicotine substitute usage was strongly associated with quitting difficulty and duration of smoking, i.e., most strongly among current smokers, followed by former smokers who had used nicotine substitutes, and less strongly among former smokers who never used substitutes. Conclusions: Our data support the notion that patients with PD are able to quit smoking more easily than controls. These findings are compatible with a decreased responsiveness to nicotine during the prodromal phase of PD. We propose that ease of smoking cessation is an aspect of premanifest PD similar to olfactory dysfunction, REM sleep disorders, or constipation and suggests that the apparent “neuroprotective” effect of smoking observed in epidemiologic studies is due to reverse causation. PMID:25217056

  1. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports participation, exposure to peer smoking, and smoking behavior. The primary outcome was smoking status (never smoked, tried smoking, experimental/current smoker). Ordinal logistic regression was used separately for non-Hispanic White (n = 122) and non-White (n = 189; 70.4% Black, 14.3% Hispanic, and 15.3% other) adolescents. Among White adolescents, sports participants had significantly lower odds of smoking than non-sports participants, independent of age, gender, and peer smoking. For non-Whites, the adjusted effect of sports participation on smoking depended upon exposure to peers who smoke. Compared with non-sport participants with no exposure to peer smoking, sports participants with no exposure to peer smoking had significantly lower odds of smoking, whereas sports participants with exposure to peer smoking had significantly higher odds of smoking. Sports appear to be protective against smoking among non-Hispanic White adolescents, but among non-White adolescents exposure to peer smoking influences this protection. Interventions incorporating sports to prevent smoking should consider these racial/ethnic differences to address disparities in smoking-related disease. PMID:22698897

  2. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

    1990-01-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry. PMID:2169860

  3. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  4. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  5. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  6. Better view on attitudes and perceived parental reactions behind waterpipe smoking among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kasaei, Zahra; Heidari, Kamal; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Naji, Mojtaba; Jaberifar, Morid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of the increasing usage of waterpipe globally, we need to know more about the different factors related to waterpipe and cigarette smoking. Therefore, the present study aims at gaining more insight on waterpipe and cigarette smoking based on perceived parental reaction and appeal and repellent of smoking among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey entitled “Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program” (ITUPP) was conducted among 5,500 adolescents in Isfahan Province, Iran in 2010 using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Demographic factors, cigarette and waterpipe smoking status, appeal and repellent of smoking, perceived parental reactions, and the main reasons behind the increase in waterpipe smoking were measured. Chi-square, univariate logistic regression, and multiple logistic regression were used. For all analyses, we defined statistical significance a priori with a two-tailed alpha of 0.05. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: 50% of the sample was female and 89% lived in urban areas. The average age of the respondents was 14.37 ± 1. 70 years. While a majority of cigarette smokers (70.9%) were waterpipe smokers, only 35.7% of waterpipe smokers smoked cigarettes. The incidence of smoking was high in those who expected less extensive parental reaction with odds ratio (OR) = 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.63] (P < 0.001) among cigarette smokers and OR = 2.75 (95% CI: 2.16-3.50) (P < 0.001) among waterpipe smokers. “Taste” was rated the most attractive feature by waterpipe and cigarette smokers 2.83-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 3.90) (P < 0.001). Most waterpipe smokers compared to nonsmokers believed that the main reason behind waterpipe popularity was habit. Conclusion: The factors related to waterpipe smoking were different from those in cigarette smoking; so we need to implement different interventions to overcome the

  7. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  8. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  9. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  10. Cigaret Smoking and Lifestyle Modification: Patients' Views on Physicians' Roles

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Linda; Vanderheyden, Debbie

    1986-01-01

    Six hundred and twenty-eight patients completed a Health Habits Questionnaire in family practice waiting rooms. The questions covered lifestyle and health habits, how to improve health, and what the family physician could do to help. Current smokers believed they should quit smoking, and some thought the physician could help by providing advice and encouragement. Physicians should continue to educate their patients about the health risks of smoking, to advise patients repeatedly, if necessary, to quit and to reinforce abstinence on a continuing basis. More research is needed, however, to assess the effectiveness of these recommendations in relation to long-term abstinence from cigarets. PMID:21267206

  11. Association of Root Caries with Oral Habits in Older Individuals Attending a Rural Health Centre of a Dental Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Kokila, Ganganna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many risk factors can compromise an older adult’s systemic health. Among the oral ailments in the elderly, root caries is a significant one which causes tooth loss in them. Hence, there is a need to have a baseline data for understanding problem of root caries in elderly population and factors which affect its prevalence. Aims: a)To asses the prevalence of root caries in older individuals in a rural health centre in India. b) To asses the relationship of oral habits with root caries. Materials and Methods: The study included 210 elderly dentate and consenting individuals (123-females, 87-males) aged 55 to 75 y and above. Demographic and health behaviour data were collected through personal interviews. The subjects were examined for root caries. Statistical analyses of the data were done using chi-square and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of all, 94.76% of elderly patients examined had gingival recession in one or more teeth. The prevalence of root caries was 41.9%. The prevalence of root caries was significantly associated with age, perceived dryness of mouth, smoking, smoking and tobacco chewing and tobacco chewing only (p<0.05). There was significantly higher root caries in the age group of 75 years and above (OR-3.67). Conclusion: It was evident from our study that root caries prevalence was high in elderly population. Age, root surfaces with recession, deleterious oral habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, and dryness of mouth had a definite effect on the prevalence of root caries. PMID:25584324

  12. [The effect of the length of exposure and smoking on respiratory function in workers exposed to asbestos-cement dust].

    PubMed

    Milardović-Sunjara, B; Kanceljak-Macan, B; Dujmov, I

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory function tests were performed in 110 workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos-cement dust in the period from 7 to 34 years. Due to the results obtained, the following groups of patients were analysed according to years of asbestos-cement exposure and the habit of cigarette smoking. The analysis of the years of exposure to asbestos-cement dust revealed that the workers with the exposure longer than 16 years had significantly lower FVC and FEV1 (P less than 0.001) than the workers whose exposure was less than 16 years. In view of increasing age this deterioration proved to be significantly higher than it had been expected. Of all the subjects included in this study 7% of them were found to have a partial respiratory insufficiency. The phenomenon could not be explained either by the length of exposure or by the habit of cigarette smoking. In the smoking subjects with the longest exposure, a markedly lower SaHbO2 was found as compared to the smokers with the shortest exposure (P less than 0.05). PMID:1766985

  13. Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Peto, Richard; Darby, Sarah; Deo, Harz; Silcocks, Paul; Whitley, Elise; Doll, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Objective and design To relate UK national trends since 1950 in smoking, in smoking cessation, and in lung cancer to the contrasting results from two large case-control studies centred around 1950 and 1990. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Hospital patients under 75 years of age with and without lung cancer in 1950 and 1990, plus, in 1990, a matched sample of the local population: 1465 case-control pairs in the 1950 study, and 982 cases plus 3185 controls in the 1990 study. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence and lung cancer. Results For men in early middle age in the United Kingdom the prevalence of smoking halved between 1950 and 1990 but the death rate from lung cancer at ages 35-54 fell even more rapidly, indicating some reduction in the risk among continuing smokers. In contrast, women and older men who were still current smokers in 1990 were more likely than those in 1950 to have been persistent cigarette smokers throughout adult life and so had higher lung cancer rates than current smokers in 1950. The cumulative risk of death from lung cancer by age 75 (in the absence of other causes of death) rose from 6% at 1950 rates to 16% at 1990 rates in male cigarette smokers, and from 1% to 10% in female cigarette smokers. Among both men and women in 1990, however, the former smokers had only a fraction of the lung cancer rate of continuing smokers, and this fraction fell steeply with time since stopping. By 1990 cessation had almost halved the number of lung cancers that would have been expected if the former smokers had continued. For men who stopped at ages 60, 50, 40, and 30 the cumulative risks of lung cancer by age 75 were 10%, 6%, 3%, and 2%. Conclusions People who stop smoking, even well into middle age, avoid most of their subsequent risk of lung cancer, and stopping before middle age avoids more than 90% of the risk attributable to tobacco. Mortality in the near future and throughout the first half of the 21st century could be substantially

  14. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and DNA-Methylation in Children at Age 5.5 Years: Epigenome-Wide-Analysis in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP)-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rzehak, Peter; Saffery, Richard; Reischl, Eva; Covic, Marcela; Wahl, Simone; Grote, Veit; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence links prenatal exposure to maternal tobacco smoking with disruption of DNA methylation (DNAm) profile in the blood of infants. However, data on the postnatal stability of such DNAm signatures in childhood, as assessed by Epigenome Wide Association Studies (EWAS), are scarce. Objectives of this study were to investigate DNAm signatures associated with in utero tobacco smoke exposure beyond the 12th week of gestation in whole blood of children at age 5.5 years, to replicate previous findings in young European and American children and to assess their biological role by exploring databases and enrichment analysis. DNA methylation was measured in blood of 366 children of the multicentre European Childhood Obesity Project Study using the Illumina Infinium HM450 Beadchip (HM450K). An EWAS was conducted using linear regression of methylation values at each CpG site against in utero smoke exposure, adjusted for study characteristics, biological and technical effects. Methylation levels at five HM450K probes in MYO1G (cg12803068, cg22132788, cg19089201), CNTNAP2 (cg25949550), and FRMD4A (cg11813497) showed differential methylation that reached epigenome-wide significance according to the false-discovery-rate (FDR) criteria (q-value<0.05). Whereas cg25949550 showed decreased methylation (-2% DNAm ß-value), increased methylation was observed for the other probes (9%: cg12803068; 5%: cg22132788; 4%: cg19089201 and 4%: cg11813497) in exposed relative to non-exposed subjects. This study thus replicates previous findings in children ages 3 to 5, 7 and 17 and confirms the postnatal stability of MYO1G, CNTNAP2 and FRMD4A differential methylation. The role of this differential methylation in mediating childhood phenotypes, previously associated with maternal smoking, requires further investigation. PMID:27171005

  15. Chronic illness and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, David; Larson, Celia; Wang, Hong; Brown, Anne; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is among the leading causes of premature mortality and preventable death in the United States. Although smoking contributes to the probability of developing chronic illness, little is known about the relationship between quitting smoking and the presence of chronic illness. The present study investigated the association between diagnoses of one or more chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol) and smoking status (former or current smoker). Methods The data analyzed were a subset of questions from a 155-item telephone-administered community survey that assessed smoking status, demographic characteristics, and presence of chronic disease. The study sample consisted of 3,802 randomly selected participants. Results Participants with diabetes were more likely to report being former smokers, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, whereas having hypertension or high cholesterol was not associated significantly with smoking status. The likelihood of being a former smoker did not increase as number of diagnosed chronic diseases increased. Participants who were women, older (aged 65+), or single were significantly less likely to be former smokers. Participants with at least a college degree, those with incomes of US$50,000+, and those who were underweight or obese were more likely to be former smokers. Discussion These findings were inconsistent with research that has suggested that having a chronic illness or experiencing a serious medical event increases the odds of smoking cessation. Supporting prior research, we found that being male, having a higher income, and being obese were associated with greater likelihood of being a former smoker. PMID:19516050

  16. Circumbinary habitability niches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2015-07-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the Galaxy. Although counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favour of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than the Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high-quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operates only for certain combinations of period and eccentricity. Binaries having a solar-type primary seem to be quite well-suited niches having wide and distant habitable zones with plentiful water and sufficient light for photosynthetic life. We speculate that, as a direct result of BHM, conditions may be suitable for life on several planets and possibly even moons of giant planets orbiting some binaries. Lower mass combinations, while more restrictive in parameter space, provide niches lasting many billions of years and are rich suppliers of photosynthetic photons. We provide a publicly available web-site (http://bit.ly/BHM-calculator or http://bit.ly/BHM-calculator-mirror), which calculates the BHM effects presented in this paper.

  17. Aging and DNA damage in humans: a meta-analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Cortinhas, António; Bento, Teresa; Leitão, José Carlos; Collins, Andrew R.; Gaivã, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2014-01-01

    Age-related DNA damage is regarded as one of the possible explanations of aging. Although a generalized idea about the accumulation of DNA damage with age exists, results found in the literature are inconsistent. To better understand the question of age-related DNA damage in humans and to identify possible moderator variables, a meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic databases and bibliographies for studies published since 2004 were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-related DNA damage were calculated in a random-effects model. A total of 76 correlations from 36 studies with 4676 participants were included. Based on our analysis, a correlation between age and DNA damage was found (r = 0.230, p = 0.000; 95% confidence interval = 0.111 - 0.342). The test for heterogeneity of variance indicates that the study´s results are significantly high (Q (75) = 1754.831, p = 0.000). Moderator variables such as smoking habits, technique used, and the tissue/sample analyzed, are shown to influence age-related DNA damage (p=0.026; p=0.000; p=0.000, respectively). Nevertheless, sex did not show any influence on this relation (p=0.114). In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed an association between age and DNA damage in humans. It was also found that smoking habits, the technique used, and tissue/sample analyzed, are important moderator variables in age-related DNA damage. PMID:25140379

  18. Smoke and autoimmunity: The fire behind the disease.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Versini, Mathilde; Ben-Ami, Dana; Gertel, Smadar; Watad, Abdulla; Segel, Michael J; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Conti, Fabrizio; Cantarini, Luca; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Antonelli, Alessandro; Amital, Howard; Valesini, Guido; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    The association between smoke habit and autoimmunity has been hypothesized a long time ago. Smoke has been found to play a pathogenic role in certain autoimmune disease as it may trigger the development of autoantibodies and act on pathogenic mechanism possibly related with an imbalance of the immune system. Indeed, both epidemiological studies and animal models have showed the potential deleterious effect caused by smoke. For instance, smoke, by provoking oxidative stress, may contribute to lupus disease by dysregulating DNA demethylation, upregulating immune genes, thereby leading to autoreactivity. Moreover, it can alter the lung microenvironment, facilitating infections, which, in turn, may trigger the development of an autoimmune condition. This, in turn, may result in a dysregulation of immune system leading to autoimmune phenomena. Not only cigarette smoke but also air pollution has been reported as being responsible for the development of autoimmunity. Large epidemiological studies are needed to further explore the accountability of smoking effect in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26772647

  19. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  20. The correlation between smoking status of family members and concentrations of toxic trace elements in the hair of children.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Muhittin A; Akin, Beril S; Razi, Cem; Akin, Okhan; Tokgoz, Serhat; Kenar, Levent; Aykut, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Hair analysis is a promising tool for routine clinical screening and diagnosis of heavy metal exposure and essential trace element status in the human body. Systemic intoxications have been identified by anomalously high values of toxins in hair samples. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between smoking habit of the family members and the levels of toxic and nontoxic trace elements in hair samples of children. The randomized cross-sectional controlled study comprised of 95 children (41 girls and 54 boys) between the ages of 1 and 6 years. After written informed consent was obtained, a face-to-face interview was conducted with the families about educational background, total income of the family, and smoking habits of family members. The mineral elements considered in this study were Zn, Se, B, V, Co, Mo, Mn, iron (Fe), Be, aluminum (Al), As, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), Hg, chromium (Cr), Ag, Be, nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), Sn, and antimony (Sb). Hair mineral contents were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Sb, Fe, and Al in hair samples of children whose parents smoked were significantly higher than those whose parents were nonsmokers. The number of smokers and the frequency of smoking at home were positively correlated with Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Sb levels found. At the same time, it was found that there was no correlation between toxic element concentrations and family income or educational background excluding the levels of Cd. A correlation was observed between the smoking status of family members and levels of toxic trace elements in hair where this correlation was more significant with the levels of Pb and Cd. High socioeconomic status and the level of education of family members did not have any effect on toxic trace levels in hair samples of children. PMID:22322881

  1. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  2. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age 11 years were not…

  3. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. PMID:26093070

  4. Flares and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Cortón, Eduardo; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2012-07-01

    At present, dwarf M stars are being considered as potential hosts for habitable planets. However, an important fraction of these stars are flare stars, which among other kind of radiation, emit large amounts of UV radiation during flares, and it is unknown how this events can affect life, since biological systems are particularly vulnerable to UV. In this work we evaluate a well known dMe star, EV Lacertae (GJ 873) as a potential host for the emergence and evolution of life, focusing on the effects of the UV emission associated with flare activity. Since UV-C is particularly harmful for living organisms, we studied the effect of UV-C radiation on halophile archaea cultures. The halophile archaea or haloarchaea are extremophile microorganisms, which inhabit in hypersaline environments and which show several mechanisms to cope with UV radiation since they are naturally exposed to intense solar UV radiation on Earth. To select the irradiance to be tested, we considered a moderate flare on this star. We obtained the mean value for the UV-C irradiance integrating the IUE spectrum in the impulsive phase, and considering a hypothetical planet in the center of the liquid water habitability zone. To select the irradiation times we took the most frequent duration of flares on this star which is from 9 to 27 minutes. Our results show that even after considerable UV damage, the haloarchaeal cells survive at the tested doses, showing that this kind of life could survive in a relatively hostile UV environment.

  5. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets." PMID:16225431

  6. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Guido; Milioni, Michela; Enea, Domenico; Ceccanti, Mauro; Nencini, Paolo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS), defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i) relapse after quitting smoking and (ii) the desire to smoke again. All participants (481) had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010). They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3 ± 10.08, 52% female) and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0 ± 9.63; 63.5% female). The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy), gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking. PMID:24967403

  7. Planetary evolution and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, T.

    2008-09-01

    Planetary habitability is usually thought to require water on (or near) the surface, a magnetic field to protect life against cosmic radiation, and transport mechanisms for nutrients. A magnetic field also serves to protect an existing atmosphere against erosion by the solar wind and thus helps to stabilize the presence of water and habitability. Magnetic fields are generated in the cores of the terrestrial planets and thus habitability is linked to the evolution of the interior. Moreover, the interior is a potential source and sink for water and CO2 and may interact with the surface and atmosphere reservoirs through volcanic activity and recycling. On the Earth, water is stabilized by complex interactions between the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the crust, and the deep interior. On geological timescales, the anorganic CO2 cycle is most important. The most efficient known mechanism for recycling is plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is known to operate, at present, only on the Earth, although Mars may have had a phase of plate tectonics as may have Venus. Single-plate tectonics associated with stagnant lid convection can transfer water and CO2 from the interior but a simple recycling mechanism is lacking for this tectonic style. Stagnant lid convection will evolve to thicken the lid and increasingly frustrate volcanic activity and degassing. (This can keep the interior from running completely dry.) Plate tectonics supports the generation of magnetic fields by effectively cooling the deep interior. In addition, plate tectonics rejuvenates nutrients on the surface and generates granitic cratons. For Venus it is likely that a present-day magnetic field would require plate tectonics to operate. The chemistry of the Martian core likely precludes the growth of an inner core and thus a present-day dynamo. An early field is possible for both planets even with stagnant lid convection but the dynamos will have operated less than about a billion years on Mars and a

  8. Smoking Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bernard H., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The youth smoking problem is discussed and assistance is provided for teachers in developing smoking prevention and cessation programs. Four chapters serve as guides to understanding and working with the youth smoking problem. "Teenage Smoking in America" reviews trends in teenage smoking behavior and the factors that influence the initiation of…

  9. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  10. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union-Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  11. Longitudinal predictors of stopping smoking in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to describe the longitudinal individual and environmental predictors of stopping smoking among a group of young adult smokers. Methods From a longitudinal population-based cohort of midwestern youth, semi-annual surveys were analyzed when study participants were between the ages of 18 and 21. Using data from 2001–2008, analyses were restricted to individuals who, at age 18, reported smoking between 1 and 30 days in the previous month (n=1,022). Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to analyze demographic, attitudinal, and social-environmental predictors of stopping smoking over time. Results After adjusting for smoking frequency at baseline, demographic and attitudinal factors that were associated with stopping smoking over time included increased age and attending college; male gender, smoking frequency and agreeing that cigarettes are calming were significantly associated with continued smoking. Social-environmental factors associated with stopping smoking over time included a household ban on smoking and living in a state with a clean indoor air policy; factors associated with continued smoking included living with a smoker and having close friends who smoke. Conclusions Both individual and social-environmental factors can serve as risk and protective factors for stopping smoking between ages 18 and 21. These factors should be used to refine more effective smoking cessation and prevention interventions in young adults. PMID:23763963

  12. Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Passive Smoking on Hearing Impairment: Data from a Population–Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiwon; Ryou, Namhyung; Jun, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Soon Young; Song, Jae-Jun; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of both active and passive smoking on the prevalence of the hearing impairment and the hearing thresholds in different age groups through the analysis of data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Study Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods The KNHANES is an ongoing population study that started in 1998. We included a total of 12,935 participants aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES, from 2010 to 2012, in the present study. Pure-tone audiometric (PTA) testing was conducted and the frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Smoking status was categorized into three groups; current smoking group, passive smoking group and non-smoking group. Results In the current smoking group, the prevalence of speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment was increased in ages of 40−69, and the rate of high frequency bilateral hearing impairment was elevated in ages of 30−79. When we investigated the impact of smoking on hearing thresholds, we found that the current smoking group had significantly increased hearing thresholds compared to the passive smoking group and non-smoking groups, across all ages in both speech-relevant and high frequencies. The passive smoking group did not have an elevated prevalence of either speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment or high frequency bilateral hearing impairment, except in ages of 40s. However, the passive smoking group had higher hearing thresholds than the non-smoking group in the 30s and 40s age groups. Conclusion Current smoking was associated with hearing impairment in both speech-relevant frequency and high frequency across all ages. However, except in the ages of 40s, passive smoking was not related to hearing impairment in either speech-relevant or high frequencies. PMID:26756932

  13. The Effect of Smoke-Free Air Law in Bars on Smoking Initiation and Relapse among Teenagers and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA) laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders. Methods: The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997–2009 was linked to state-level scores for the strength of SFA laws in order to carry out the analysis. Results and Conclusion: We find that SFA laws in bars with exemptions significantly reduce (p ≤ 0.01) the probability of smoking initiation (one-puff, daily, and heavy smoking initiation). The 100% SFA law in bars without exemption significantly deters smoking relapse from abstinence into daily smoking (p ≤ 0.05) or relapse from abstinence into heavy smoking (p ≤ 0.01) among people age 21 or older. The reduction of one-puff and daily smoking initiation is larger among ages 20 or younger than ages 21 or older, while the reduction in relapse does not differ by whether respondents reach the drinking age. Results also indicate that higher cigarette taxes significantly reduce daily smoking initiation and relapse into nondaily and light smoking. PMID:25584419

  14. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  15. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

  16. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  17. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  18. When Movies Matter: Exposure to Smoking in Movies and Changes in Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between exposure to smoking in movies and the initiation and progression of adolescent smoking over time among 6,522 U.S. adolescents (between the ages of 10 and 14 years, at baseline) in a nationally representative, 4-wave random-digit-dial telephone survey. They conducted a hazard (survival) analysis testing whether exposure to movie smoking and demographic, personality, social, and structural factors predict (a) earlier smoking onset and (b) faster transition to experimental (1–99 cigarettes/lifetime) and established smoking (>100 cigarettes/lifetime). Results suggest that higher exposure to movie smoking is associated with less time to trying cigarettes for the first time (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI [1.37, 2.01]) but not with faster escalation of smoking behavior following initiation (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI [0.84, 2.79]). In contrast, age, peer smoking, parenting style, and availability of cigarettes in the home were predictors of earlier onset and faster transition to established smoking. Thus, the authors concluded that the effect of exposure to mass-mediated images of smoking in movies may decline once adolescents have started to smoke, whereas peers and access to tobacco remain influential. PMID:22085232

  19. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  20. Smoking Prevention Program for Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oei, Tian P. S.; Fea, Annette

    1987-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding factors associated with children's initiation into smoking and examines efficacy of health education programs in preventing smoking in children. Though using peer leaders as health educators has been successful, parent-implemented health prevention programs aiming at children at younger ages may be more effective in…

  1. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  2. Why May Teenage Girls Persist in Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Arthur; Sedgwick, Philip; Halek, Christine; Joughin, Neil; Humphrey, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Considers evidence for an association between body-weight/shape concerns and smoking in females. Gathers evidence from studies of a female eating-disordered population, teenage females, and middle-aged women in the general population. Teenage female data analysis reveals links between smoking and body-weight/shape concerns. Proposes that…

  3. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khashan, Hesham I.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.; Al Nasser, Hifa S.; Al Buraidi, Ahmed A.; Al Awad, Ahmed D.; Horaib, Ghalib B.; Al Obaikan, AlJoharah H.; Mishriky, Adel M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%), and the southern region the lowest (27.5%). Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%), and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%). Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective) factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit. PMID:25374464

  4. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H M; Callcott, R; Dobson, A J; Hardes, G R; Lloyd, D M; O'Connell, D L; Leeder, S R

    1983-03-01

    Factors associated with changes in the smoking behaviour of approximately 6000 schoolchildren (two cohorts aged between 10 and 12 years in 1979) over 12 months are described. They were measured twice as part of a randomized controlled trial of a smoking prevention programme. Four groups were defined: (a) those who became smokers (adopters); (b) those who remained non-smokers; (c) those who became non-smokers (quitters), and, (d) those who remained smokers. Personal and social variables were ordered using a logistic regression model according to the strength of their association with adopting and quitting smoking. Factors distinguishing adopters from children who remained nonsmokers were, being a member of the older cohort, having friends who smoke, having siblings who smoke, approving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively large amount of money to spend each week. Factors distinguishing quitters from children who continued to smoke were, having siblings who do not smoke, being a member of the younger cohort, disapproving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively small amount of money to spend each week. Initial attitude scores were indicative of future smoking behaviour and where smoking behaviour changed, attitudes also changed so that the two remained congruent. The younger cohort improved their knowledge of smoking hazards over the year irrespective of their smoking behaviour. The older cohort showed significant differences in knowledge which were dependent upon smoking category, with 1980 smokers having lower knowledge scores than non-smokers and showing an apparent decrement in their previous knowledge. PMID:6341272

  5. The importance of social networks on smoking: perspectives of women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Stephanie N; Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R

    2012-08-01

    While up to 45% of women quit smoking during pregnancy, nearly 80% return to smoking within a year after delivery. Interventions to prevent relapse have had limited success. The study objective was to understand what influences return to smoking after pregnancy among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, with a focus on the role of social networks. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during the postpartum hospital stay with women who quit smoking while pregnant. Over 300 pages of transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common themes. Respondents [n = 24] were predominately white (63%), had at least some college education (54%) and a mean age of 26 years (range = 18-36). When reflecting on the experience of being a smoker who quit smoking during pregnancy, all participants emphasized the importance of their relationships with other smokers and the changes in these relationships that ensued once they quit smoking. Three common themes were: (1) being enmeshed in social networks with prominent smoking norms (2) being tempted to smoke by members of their social networks, and (3) changing relationships with the smokers in their social networks as a result of their non-smoking status. We found that women who quit smoking during pregnancy found themselves confronted by a change in their social network since most of those in their social network were smokers. For this reason, smoking cessation interventions may be most successful if they help women consider restructuring or reframing their social network. PMID:21989676

  6. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  7. Smoking and asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

  8. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... there harmful chemicals in cigar smoke? Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? What if I don’t ... to yourself and others, stop smoking. Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer ...

  9. Smoking and surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000437.htm Smoking and surgery To use the sharing features on ... you succeed. There Are Many Reasons to Quit Smoking Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can ...

  10. [Cigarette smoking in medical personnel and evaluation of this problem by smoking and non-smoking patients].

    PubMed

    Pirogowicz, Iwona; Szerszeń, Małgorzata; Gwiazda, Elzbieta; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a problem in all environments, including health service workers. It increases the number of ill people and accelerates death. The aim of this study was to diagnose the problem of smoking in medical staff and evaluation of this problem by patients. Research was made in hospitals and out-patient clinics in Opole by using an anonimous questionnaire. Along years there has been a decrease of smoking initiation age: 60-years-old-women had their first cigarette in 70% after them finished 18 years old, while most 30-year-old-women had it before. Every year the level of education in medical staff grows up, but the number of smokers in them does not fall down. It is still common to smoke in non-smokers and pregnant woman presence in spite of knowledge about passive smoking. Also pregnancy is not always strong argument to complete quit smoking, among medical staff as well. Smoking medical personnel has definitely negative evaluation by non-smoking patients (70%), a bit less negative it is seen by smoking patients. As the research showed, promotion of nonsmoking workers by employers could be a motivation to quit smoking. PMID:19189557

  11. What Makes a Habitable Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L.

    2013-04-01

    Space missions help answer one of humanity's most profound questions: Are we alone in the universe? To begin to understand what makes a planet habitable, and thus where to look for life both within and outside of Earth's solar system, scientists need to understand what in planetary formation and what in its subsequent evolution combine to produce a habitable planet.

  12. Factors Effecting on Study Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to find out the impact of Socio-economic Status as well as sex differences on study habits of class VII students (100) of Government Colleges of Amroha District. The effects of two independent variables on study habits of the aforementioned students were assessed by using two Psychological tests…

  13. How Common are Habitable Planets?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is teeming with life, which, occupies a diverse array of environments; other bodies in our Solar System offer fewer, if any, niches which are habitable by life as we know it. Nonetheless, astronomical studies suggest that a large number of habitable planets-are likely to be present within our Galaxy.

  14. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  15. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  16. Cigarette smoking and thinning of the brain's cortex.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Ducharme, S; Corley, J; Chouinard-Decorte, F; Starr, J M; Wardlaw, J M; Bastin, M E; Deary, I J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but the extent of the association between smoking and structural brain changes remains unclear. Importantly, it is unknown whether smoking-related brain changes are reversible after smoking cessation. We analyzed data on 504 subjects with recall of lifetime smoking data and a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at age 73 years from which measures of cortical thickness were extracted. Multiple regression analyses were performed controlling for gender and exact age at scanning. To determine dose-response relationships, the association between smoking pack-years and cortical thickness was tested and then repeated, while controlling for a comprehensive list of covariates including, among others, cognitive ability before starting smoking. Further, we tested associations between cortical thickness and number of years since last cigarette, while controlling for lifetim