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Sample records for age social status

  1. Subjective evaluation of health in old age: the role of immigration status and social environment.

    PubMed

    Carmel, S

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the role of immigration status on self-rated health, general health, and well-being among elderly persons by comparing two groups of elderly persons who immigrated from Eastern European countries to Israel-veterans and new immigrants. It also examined the factors that explain self-rated health in both groups. Data for this study (n = 784) were taken from a study based on structured home interviews of a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70+) conducted in 1994. The results show that the new immigrants are younger and have higher education than the veterans, but their economic status is lower and they have a lower percentage of men and married persons. The new immigrants also rank themselves lower than the veterans on a variety of measures of health and psycho-social well-being. It is suggested that the stress caused by immigration and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin outweigh the relative advantage that the new immigrants have, in terms of age and education, in influencing their health and well-being. Self-rated health among the new immigrants is explained mainly by objective measures of health, economic status and a feeling of control over life, while among the veterans it is explained by these variables as well as by other psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings suggest careful analyses of subjective evaluations of health in different socio-cultural subgroups in society for theoretical reasons and for purposes of planning interventions directed to promote health and psycho-social well-being of elderly persons on the community level.

  2. Social-Economic Status and Cognitive Performance among Chinese Aged 50 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Ma, Wenjun; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous population-based studies have suggested that socio-economic status (SES) is associated with cognitive performance, but few nationally representative epidemiological studies on cognitive performance with a large sample of older adults are available in China. And many studies explore the factors associated with cognitive performance, mainly focusing on individual level and more rarely on multiple levels that include the individual and community. Methods This study uses SAGE-China Wave 1 data which consisted of 13,157 adults aged 50 years and older to explore socioeconomic inequalities in the cognitive performance from a multilevel perspective (individual and community levels). The overall cognition score was based on the seven separate components of the cognition tests, including the four verbal recall trials, the verbal fluency test, the forward digit span test and the backward digit span test. Factor analysis was applied to evaluate and generate a single overall score. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used to evaluate the association between SES at these two levels and the overall cognition score adjusted for age, sex and marital status. Results At individual level, years of education was significantly associated with overall cognition score for both urban and rural dwellers. At the community level, a positive association was obtained between median household income and median years of education and overall cognition score among urban participants. Conclusion A significant association between SES at both individual-level and community-level (only for urban area) and cognitive performance were found in this study of a national sample of 13,157 Chinese aged 50 years and older, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Identifying community-based SES variables that are associated with cognitive performance in the older population provides further evidence for the need to address community characteristics associated with

  3. Hyperostosis frontalis interna - a marker of social status? Evidence from the Bronze-Age "high society" of Qatna, Syria.

    PubMed

    Flohr, S; Witzel, C

    2011-02-01

    In 1719 Morgagni described a condition, today known as hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), as one sign within a triad consisting of HFI, virilism, and obesity. Today, HFI is predominantly found in older women. Although the etiology of HFI has not yet been determined precisely, the condition has been linked to metabolic disorders. HFI is reported to be rare in the archaeological record and the frequency of the condition is thought to have increased during the 19th and 20th centuries. We present preliminary results on the occurrence of HFI in the commingled human bone assemblage from "tomb VII" discovered underneath the Bronze Age royal palace of the ancient city of Qatna, Syria. A preliminary minimal number of individuals of 70 has been estimated for the as yet not fully analyzed skeletal remains. Skull fragments of nine individuals exhibit endocranial bone formations consistent with HFI. Rarity of stress indicators in the skeletons, the rich grave goods, and the burial place within the area of the Royal palace are suggestive of a high social status and an economically favorable situation of the buried individuals. Assuming that their life style included a high calorie diet in combination with little physical activity, acquired metabolic disorders may have been present in many individuals. The comparatively high number of individuals presenting HFI in the studied sample might therefore be viewed as being related to their high social status. Multiple occurrences of HFI in archaeological skeletal assemblages might serve as a proxy for social status.

  4. Syllable Type Consistency is Related to Age, Social Status, and Reproductive Success in the Tropical Mockingbird.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Rossman, Rachel J; Caro, Lina M; Stenzler, Laura M; Lovette, Irby J; De Kort, Selvino R; Vehrencamp, Sandra L

    2009-03-01

    Many animals repeat standardized displays multiple times while attracting a mate or deterring a rival. In such contexts it is possible that the ability to perform each display or signal type in a consistent fashion is under direct selection. Studies on sexual selection on song learning in birds have focused on differences in repertoire size with less attention to the potential importance of being able to perform each song/syllable type with high consistency. We present evidence that tropical mockingbirds decrease the variation between renditions of each syllable type as they grow older (i.e., become more consistent) and that more consistent males in this species tend to have higher dominance status and reproductive success. These findings stress the importance of consistency in the performance of sexual displays and suggest that this parameter may be very relevant even in species that are selected for high vocal diversity (i.e., large repertoires). In addition to signalling dominance status and age, we hypothesize that syllable type consistency may also be an indicator of the integrity of brain function in birds analogous to the tests used for neuropsychological assessment in humans.

  5. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women.

  6. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  7. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  8. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Meyer, Jordana M; Putman, Sarah B; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission-fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  9. Mental representations of social status.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y; Bordeaux, Andrew R; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-09-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers that were semantically farther apart relative to those more closely related. In Study 2, we examined the semantic distance effect for a social status category, for which participants have as much knowledge of, as with numbers. We asked 15 US Navy Midshipmen to compare the social status associated with different ranks in the Navy as well as compare number magnitudes. Participants were fastest when comparing ranks far in status relative to ranks close in status. These findings reveal that humans have mental representations of social status that share properties with that of number.

  10. Status homogamy in the preindustrial marriage market: partner selection according to age, social origin, and place of birth in nineteenth-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer

    2009-10-01

    This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.

  11. Adolescents' social status goals: relationships to social status insecurity, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wright, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Peer status is an important aspect of adolescents' social lives and is pursued actively by them. Although extensive research has examined how social behaviors are related to peer status (e.g., social preference, popularity), little attention has been given to adolescents' social goals to obtain a desired peer status. Thus, this study examined two types of social status goals, popularity goal and social preference goal, and their relationships to social status insecurity and social behaviors among 405 ethnically diverse early adolescents (267 girls; M age = 12.92 years; age range = 11-15 years). After accounting for adolescents' attained peer statuses (popularity and social preference), both social status goals were related distinctly to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as measured by self reports and peer nominations. Specifically, higher endorsement of the popularity goal was related to more self-reported relational aggression, but less peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In contrast, higher endorsement of the social preference goal was linked to less self-reported overt and relational aggression, but more self-reported and peer-nominated prosocial behavior. In addition, this study reveals that adolescents' social status insecurity was related positively to both social status goals and had an indirect effect on adolescents' social behaviors through the mediation of popularity goal endorsement. There were variations in goal endorsement as shown by groups of adolescents endorsing different levels of each goal. The group comparison results on social behaviors were largely consistent with the correlational findings. This study provides new insights into adolescents' social cognitive processes about peer status and the implications of the two social status goals on adolescents' behavioral development.

  12. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Milani, Silvano; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Viteri, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    The community mobilization and social marketing program promoting a preventive approach of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age improved iron status of non-pregnant women in Vietnam. Three to six months of weekly pre-pregnancy supplementation and regular weekly intake of supplements during pregnancy allowed women to achieve good iron and hemoglobin status during the two first trimesters of pregnancy. In the third trimester, iron deficiency and anemia were notably present but low birth weight prevalence was low. This demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of the preventive approach as implemented here to prevent and control iron deficiency and anemia in women of reproductive age before and during pregnancy.

  13. Social status gates social attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Pavan, Giulia; Castelli, Luigi; Galfano, Giovanni

    2012-06-23

    Humans tend to shift attention in response to the averted gaze of a face they are fixating, a phenomenon known as gaze cuing. In the present paper, we aimed to address whether the social status of the cuing face modulates this phenomenon. Participants were asked to look at the faces of 16 individuals and read fictive curriculum vitae associated with each of them that could describe the person as having a high or low social status. The association between each specific face and either high or low social status was counterbalanced between participants. The same faces were then used as stimuli in a gaze-cuing task. The results showed a greater gaze-cuing effect for high-status faces than for low-status faces, independently of the specific identity of the face. These findings confirm previous evidence regarding the important role of social factors in shaping social attention and show that a modulation of gaze cuing can be observed even when knowledge about social status is acquired through episodic learning.

  14. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  15. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  16. Ownership as a Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  17. Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

  18. Teacher Reports of Social Behavior and Peer Acceptance in Early Childhood: Sex and Social Status Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sue

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between sex, social status and social behavior in a sample of Australian preschool-aged children. Social behavior has emerged as an important predictor of social status for children in middle childhood however, although early childhood may be an optimum period for implementation of…

  19. Social Carrying Capacity as Status Group Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patrick C.

    A sociological study investigating the relationship between perception of crowding and social status was conducted in a rural camping setting. Results indicate that higher social status groups and groups aspiring to higher social status are more likely to perceive crowding than are lower status groups, but more research is suggested prior to the…

  20. Social goals, social behavior, and social status in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rodkin, Philip C; Ryan, Allison M; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-06-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and aggressive behavior, and peer nominations of social status (preference, popularity) were examined over the course of an academic year among 980 3rd- to 5th-grade children. Findings support dual-component expectations. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the expected 3-factor structure of social goals and 2-factor structure of social status. Structural equation modeling (SEM) found that (a) social development goals were associated with prosocial behavior and increased preference, and (b) demonstration-approach goals were associated with aggressive behavior and increased popularity. Demonstration-avoid goals were associated with a popularity decrease. SEMs were invariant across grade, gender, and ethnicity. Discussion concerns the potential risks of high social status, extensions to the dual-component model, and the generality of an achievement goal approach to child social development.

  1. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs. PMID:26743684

  2. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-08

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs.

  3. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs.

  4. Social Support in Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne Martin

    1984-01-01

    The role of social support in helping elderly people deal with stressful life events is quite complex. This complexity exists because it is difficult to define exactly what social support is, and because the experiences of `normal' aging vary. This article uses the example of adaptation to widowhood to examine the relationship between normal aging and sources, types, and patterns of social support. These factors influence the extent to which support lessens the impact of age-related stressful events. The physician has a role in primary social support, and also in facilitating the supportive functions of family and others. PMID:21279087

  5. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  6. [Validation of food security and social support scales in an Afro-Colombian community: application on a prevalence study of nutritional status in children aged 6 to 18 months].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Delisle, Helene

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on 193 mothers of children 6 to 18 months of age in an African-Colombian community, with the objectives: (1) to adapt and validate the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project scale, the DUKE-UNC-11 social support scale, and the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) partner support scale, and (2) to identify any existent relationship between nutritional status in infancy and both food insecurity and social support. We determined construct validity using factor analysis and theoretical models-based non-parametric correlations. Length-for-age and weight-for-length Z-results were calculated. Factor analyses reduced the hunger scale to one factor, the DUKE-UNC-11 scale to two factors, and the QLSCD scale to one factor. The Cronbach's alpha test ranged between 0.70 and 0.90. Both food insecurity and social support scales were correlated with mother's social conditions, and social support was positively associated with social networks and mother's self-perceived health status. Food insecurity, emotional-social support, and partner's negative support were associated with lower height-to-age and therefore a higher ratio of chronic malnutrition. The study supports the appropriateness of the instruments to measure the expressed concepts.

  7. Low grandparental social support combined with low parental socioeconomic status is closely associated with obesity in preschool-aged children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, L; Ek, A; Nyman, J; Marcus, C; Ulijaszek, S; Nowicka, P

    2016-08-01

    While the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES) on children's weight status is well known, the impact of other family-related aspects such as parental and grandparental social support is less understood. This study investigates the importance of parents' SES and social support (functional and structural) for weight status in a clinical sample of preschoolers 4-6 years old with obesity (n = 39, 56% girls; 73% of parents were overweight/obese, 50% were of non-Swedish origin). Linear regression analyses, simple and multiple, were performed on SES and social support with child BMI SDS (body mass index standard deviation score) as the dependent variable. The results show that parents' income and low emotional support from paternal grandparents were significantly associated with more severe obesity. The association between parental income and the child's BMI SDS was stronger among parents who had low emotional support from their own parents. In conclusion, grandparental social support may be protective against childhood obesity.

  8. Masculinity, Educational Achievement and Social Status: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes…

  9. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  10. Social class, dementia and the fourth age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees

    2017-02-01

    Research addressing social class and dementia has largely focused on measures of socioeconomic status as causal risk factors for dementia and in observed differences in diagnosis, treatment and care. This large body of work has produced important insights but also contains numerous problems and weaknesses. Research needs to take account of the ways in which ageing and social class have been transformed in tandem with the economic, social and cultural coordinates of late modernity. These changes have particular consequences for individual identities and social relations. With this in mind this article adopts a critical gaze on research that considers interactions between dementia and social class in three key areas: (i) epidemiological approaches to inequalities in risk (ii) the role of social class in diagnosis and treatment and (iii) class in the framing of care and access to care. Following this, the article considers studies of dementia and social class that focus on lay understandings and biographical accounts. Sociological insights in this field come from the view that dementia and social class are embedded in social relations. Thus, forms of distinction based on class relations may still play an important role in the lived experience of dementia.

  11. DOES LOWER SUBJECTIVE SOCIAL STATUS YIELD RISKIER BIOMARKER PROFILES?

    PubMed

    Gersten, Omer; Timiras, Paola S; Boyce, W Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Both objective and, more recently, subjective measures of low social status have been linked to poor health outcomes. It is unclear, however, through which precise physiological mechanisms such standing may influence health, although it has been proposed that those of lower status may have biomarker profiles that are more dysregulated (and hence pose a greater risk for poorer health). The main objective of this study was to investigate whether lower subjective social standing is associated with riskier neuroendocrine biomarker profiles. Data were from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS), a nationally representative survey of Taiwanese men and women (ages 54-91) conducted in Taiwan in 2000. Five neuroendocrine markers (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine) were analysed both separately and collectively in an index termed neuroendocrine allostatic load (NAL) in relation to status - both self-reported and as measured through objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators. For the biomarker DHEAS, some connection was found between its levels and the measures of status, but for the other markers and the NAL index almost no connection was found. The overall negative finding of this paper would be further supported with more and different measures of neuroendocrine system function and a reordering of the subjective social status questions in the survey such that the one probing about status in the community (that has no prompt) was asked before the one probing about status in all of Taiwan (which has a SES prompt).

  12. Social Status Attainment during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Camillia K.; Chung, Paul J.; Wallace, Steven P.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents’ and one’s own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n=8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3% females and 70.2% Whites, 15.3% Blacks, 11.0% Hispanics, and 3.5% Asians ages 12 to 18 at Wave 1 and 25 to 31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents’ social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period. PMID:24129883

  13. Social status attainment during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Wallace, Steven P; Aneshensel, Carol S

    2014-07-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents' and one's own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n = 8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3 % females and 70.2 % Whites, 15.3 % Blacks, 11.0 % Hispanics, and 3.5 % Asians ages 12-18 at Wave 1 and 25-31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents' social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period.

  14. Social Status Profiles among First Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Laine, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    The focus of our study is social status among first graders. In particular, we will consider the relationship between acceptance and rejection, and how these are connected to three social behavioral traits: bullying, victimization, and social withdrawal. The data set is from peer nominations of 748 children from 49 classrooms in the southwest of…

  15. Status of Women in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure.…

  16. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Graves, H.L. III

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  17. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  18. A Social Status Hierarchy: Reading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ann

    1981-01-01

    A study was done to determine the social status and hierarchy attached to reading achievement in a first grade class. In addition to learning to read, children are tacitly learning that reading is the most important subject to be mastered in school and that both group and individual status is determined by the reading group to which one belongs.…

  19. Cultivating Social Work Leadership in Health Promotion and Aging: Strategies for Active Aging Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Victor W.; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the…

  20. Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163679.html Staying Socially Active Nourishes the Aging Brain Researchers suggest making friends of all ages ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Healthy Aging Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Healthy ...

  1. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  2. Pathways From Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    PubMed Central

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers. These pathways were investigated in independent samples of youth at two developmental stages: middle childhood (2nd – 4th grade) and early adolescence (5th – 7th grade). In both Study 1 (M age = 7.97, SD = .37; 338 girls, 298 boys) and Study 2 (M age = 11.74, SD = .68; 305 girls, 300 boys), youth and their teachers completed questionnaires at three waves. Multi-group comparison path analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the models. Consistent with expectations, two pathways emerged through which depressive symptoms undermined subsequent social status. Support was not found for the reverse direction of effect nor for developmental or sex differences in the pathways with one exception: In early adolescence, neglect directly predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest specificity but also heterogeneity in the effects of depressive symptoms on social status, and identify behaviors that may be targeted for preventing the persistence of depression and its interpersonal consequences. PMID:22945342

  3. Social context, stress, and plasticity of aging.

    PubMed

    Amdam, Gro V

    2011-02-01

    Positive social contact is an important factor in healthy aging, but our understanding of how social interactions influence senescence is incomplete. As life expectancy continues to increase because of reduced death rates among elderly, the beneficial role of social relationships is emerging as a cross-cutting theme in research on aging and healthspan. There is a need to improve knowledge on how behavior shapes, and is shaped by, the social environment, as well as needs to identify and study biological mechanisms that can translate differences in the social aspects of behavioral efforts, relationships, and stress reactivity (the general physiological and behavioral response-pattern to harmful, dangerous or unpleasant situations) into variation in aging. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a genetic model in sociobiology, behavioral neuroscience, and gerontology that is uniquely sensitive to social exchange. Different behavioral contact between these social insects can shorten or extend lifespan more than 10-fold, and some aspects of their senescence are reversed by social cues that trigger aged individuals to express youthful repertoires of behavior. Here, I summarize how variation in social interactions contributes to this plasticity of aging and explain how beneficial and detrimental roles of social relationships can be traced from environmental and biological effects on honey bee physiology and behavior, to the expression of recovery-related plasticity, stress reactivity, and survival during old age. This system provides intriguing opportunities for research on aging.

  4. Predicting Adolescents' Bullying Participation from Developmental Trajectories of Social Status and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Salmivalli, Christina; Saarento, Silja; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine how trajectory clusters of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and behavior (direct aggression and prosocial behavior) from age 9 to age 14 predicted adolescents' bullying participant roles at age 16 and 17 (n = 266). Clusters were identified with multivariate growth mixture modeling (GMM). The findings showed that participants' developmental trajectories of social status and social behavior across childhood and early adolescence predicted their bullying participant role involvement in adolescence. Practical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  5. Social support, stress and the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M

    2016-07-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress.

  6. Online social activity reflects economic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  7. Social inappropriateness, executive control, and aging.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Baynes, Kate

    2009-03-01

    Age-related deficits in executive control might lead to socially inappropriate behavior if they compromise the ability to withhold inappropriate responses. Consistent with this possibility, older adults in the current study showed greater social inappropriateness than younger adults--as rated by their peers--and this effect was mediated by deficits in executive control as well as deficits in general cognitive ability. Older adults also responded with greater social inappropriateness to a provocative event in the laboratory, but this effect was unrelated to executive functioning or general cognitive ability. These findings suggest that changes in both social and cognitive factors are important in understanding age-related changes in social behavior.

  8. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed. PMID:27034910

  9. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-02-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Health Insurance, Social Connectedness, and Subjective Social Status among Residents of O‘ahu

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai‘i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O‘ahu residents in 2011–12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β −0.40; P<.05), those who had not completed high-school (β −0.51; P<.01), adults of working age (27–64 years) (β −0.59; P<.01), and Native Hawaiians (β −0.57; P<.05) ranked themselves lower on the SSS ladder. Social connectedness was highly valued, with over 30% of participants stating strong community and family ties as one of Hawai‘i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai‘i. PMID:27920942

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Health Insurance, Social Connectedness, and Subjective Social Status among Residents of O'ahu.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O'ahu residents in 2011-12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β -0.40; P<.05), those who had not completed high-school (β -0.51; P<.01), adults of working age (27-64 years) (β -0.59; P<.01), and Native Hawaiians (β -0.57; P<.05) ranked themselves lower on the SSS ladder. Social connectedness was highly valued, with over 30% of participants stating strong community and family ties as one of Hawai'i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai'i.

  12. Hunting, social status and biological fitness.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; von Rueden, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Hunting performance may be one of the most important routes to high prestige or social status among men in hunter-gatherer societies. Higher social status based on hunting performance has been linked to higher biological fitness outcomes almost everywhere this relationship has been investigated. This paper explores the proximate pathways underlying the positive correlation between hunting success and fitness, and discusses these in light of recent debates concerning the role of men in hunter-gatherer societies. Meat obtained from hunting directly provisions families and is also distributed to other group members, who may directly or indirectly pay back good hunters with meat, other food, services or favors. The display of hunting abilities may also increase men's fitness through extra-marital reproductive gains. We discuss prior results and provide a novel additional example using data collected among Tsimane horticultural-foragers of Bolivia. Despite the impression that most of the benefits that accrue to good hunters are in the form of extra-marital mating opportunities, we argue instead that most benefits may be gained within rather than outside marital unions.

  13. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  14. Space age management for social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to apply space age management to social problems were plagued with difficulties. Recent experience in the State of Delaware and in New York City, however, indicate new possibilities. Project management as practiced in NASA was applied with promising results in programs dealing with housing and social services. Such applications are feasible, according to recent research, because project management utilizes social and behavioral approaches, as well as advanced management tools, such as PERT, to achieve results.

  15. Aging Issues in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; McAuley, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the treatment of Social Security, civil rights, political power, and population trends in 19 secondary schools' United States history and government textbooks. Found that only Social Security was given adequate treatment. Concluded that the coverage of aging issues in secondary textbooks was generally weak and insufficient. (Author/NB)

  16. Low social status decreases the neural salience of unfairness.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Cao, Yuan; Blue, Philip R; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social hierarchy exists in almost all social species and affects everything from resource allocation to the development of intelligence. Previous studies showed that status within a social hierarchy influences the perceived fairness of income allocation. However, the effect of one's social status on economic decisions is far from clear, as are the neural processes underlying these decisions. In this study, we dynamically manipulated participants' social status and analyzed their behavior as recipients in the ultimatum game (UG), during which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that acceptance rates for offers increased with the fairness level of offers. Importantly, participants were less likely to accept unfair offers when they were endowed with high status than with low status. In addition, cues indicating low status elicited a more positive P2 than cues indicating high status in an earlier time window (170-240 ms), and cues indicating high status elicited a more negative N400 than cues indicating low status in a later time window (350-520 ms). During the actual reception of offers, the late positivity potential (LPP, 400-700 ms) for unfair offers was more positive in the high status condition than in the low status condition, suggesting a decreased arousal for unfair offers during low status. These findings suggest a strong role of social status in modulating individual behavioral and neural responses to fairness.

  17. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  18. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  19. Financial status of the Social Security Program.

    PubMed

    Myers, R J

    1983-03-01

    This study, originally a background paper for the National Commission on Social Security Reform and published as Appendix J in the Commission's Report, outlines the dimensions of the financing problem the Commission addressed. Prepared by Robert J. Myers, the Commission's Executive Director and a former Deputy Commissioner and Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration, it discusses, in turn, the operational and funding procedures of the Social Security Trust Funds, the measures developed to determine the financial soundness of the program, and the financial status of each trust fund in the past, at present, and projected for the future. The author shows how program funding was gradually shifted from a modified-reserve to a pay-as-you-go basis and how the balance between income and outgo was disrupted by adverse economic conditions during 1979-81, when prices rose more rapidly than wages and unemployment was substantially higher than anticipated. Using several different economic assumptions, Myers estimates how extensive the deficits of the program could be over the short run (the remainder of the 1980's) and over the long term (the period 1982-2055).

  20. Social cognition in normal and pathological aging.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Jonathan; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    The concept of social cognition refers to a set of skills and to emotional and social experiences regulating relationships between individuals. This concept is appropriate in order to help us to explain individual human behaviours and behaviours in groups. Social cognition involves social knowledge, perception and processing of social cues, and the representation of mental states. The concept of social cognition thus refers to a multitude of skills. This paper stops on several of them, namely theory of mind, empathy, moral reasoning, emotional processing and emotional regulation. We propose a conceptual approach to each of these skills also stopping on their cerebral underpinnings. We also make an inventory of knowledge about the effects of age and neurodegenerative diseases on social cognition.

  1. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people.

  2. Populism vs. elitism: social consensus and social status as bases of attitude certainty.

    PubMed

    Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.

  3. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  4. Societal Literacy and the Status of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.; Kezis, Mindy

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of status of the aged to societal literacy in a sample of 122 cultures appears spurious because of effects of variables indexing societal complexity. Conclusions are: societal literacy has no independent effect on status of the aged; and the overall relationship between the two appears curvilinear. (Author)

  5. Senior Citizens: Social Dignity, Status and the Right to Representative Freedom of Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Israel, Gideon; Ben-Israel, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Using the concepts of social solidarity and social dignity, proposes the establishment of a legally recognized status conferring a range of socioeconomic rights to senior citizens, nondiscrimination on the basis of age, greater flexibility in pension and retirement systems, and organized representation modeled on trade unionism and collective…

  6. Otter scent signals age, sex, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Kean, Eleanor F; Müller, Carsten T; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Scent is used across taxa to communicate information about signaler identity. Eurasian otters Lutra lutra are mainly solitary and thought to use scent as their primary means of communication. Little is known, however, about what information otters communicate through scent or what social function this performs. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to sample and analyze volatile organic compounds from anal scent gland secretion from 158 otters of differing sex, age, and female reproductive status. Univariate and multivariate differences were clear between adult and juvenile otters. Complex sex differences were apparent in adult otters but not in younger individuals, suggesting the use of this scent secretion in mate attraction. The scent of pregnant and lactating females was highly differentiated from male and juvenile scent, but anecdotal reports suggest females avoid communication during these times.

  7. Social Network Influence and Personal Financial Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Makse, Hernan

    Networks of social ties emerging from individual economic needs display a highly structured architecture. In response to socio-economic demands, people reshape their circle of contacts for maximizing their social status, and ipso facto, the pattern of their interconnections is strongly correlates with their personal financial situation. In this work we transform this qualitative and verbal statement into an operative definition, which allows us to quantify the economic wellness of individuals trough a measure of their collective influence. We consider the network of mobile phone calls made by the Mexican population during three months, in order to study the correlation of person's economic situation with her network location. Notably, we find that rich people tend to be also the most influential nodes, i.e., they self-organize to optimally position themselves in the network. This finding may be also raised at the level of a principle, a fact that would explain the emergence of the phenomenon of collective influence itself as the result of the local optimization of socio-economic interactions. Our method represents a powerful and efficient indicator of socio-economic robustness, which may be applied to maximize the effect of large scale economic intervention and stimulus policies

  8. Audience Design and Social Relations in Aging.

    PubMed

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) Do older adults modify their language based on age of the listener (audience design)? (2) Does social contact affect audience design in older adults? Older adults (n = 34; mean age = 82) engaged in an instructions task with two fictive listeners (a child and an adult) to test these questions. Results show that older adults used a greater total number of propositions and rapport-building devices and a lower type-token ratio when giving instructions to the child compared to the adult listener. Adults with more social interactions used more propositions when talking to a child. In addition, satisfaction with interactions was significantly positively related to task-tracking devices and negatively related to rapport-building devices by older adults. These results suggest that audience design and social relations are worth further study in language maintenance in older age.

  9. Cultivating social work leadership in health promotion and aging: strategies for active aging interventions.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Victor W; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the authors provide a conceptual clarification of the meaning of health and explain how health is a resource for optimal living and not merely the absence of disease. The authors analyze frameworks of health promotion and suggest that the ecological approach provides the ideal framework for devising successful strategies in the area of aging. Finally, using the example of promoting physical activity as a healthy aging strategy, they detail eight ways that social workers can provide leadership in promoting positive health in later life.

  10. Pedagogy, Social Status and Inclusion in Cypriot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted in five primary schools in Cyprus, focusing in detail on one of them. The purpose of the research was to explore the social status of pupils identified as having special educational needs within mainstream settings. One of the key findings was that pedagogy influences the social status of these pupils.…

  11. "Feeling" Hierarchy: The Pathway from Subjective Social Status to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…

  12. Raising the Social Security Entitlement Age.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, Julie; Blaylock, Barbara; Goldman, Dana P; Rowe, John W

    2017-01-01

    An aging America presents challenges but also brings social and economic capital. We quantify public revenues from, and public expenditures on, Americans aged 65 and older, the value of their unpaid, productive activities and financial gifts to family. Using microsimulation, we project the value of these activities, and government revenues and expenditures, under different scenarios of change to the Old Age and Survivors Insurance eligibility age through 2050. We find the value of unpaid productive activities and financial gifts are US$721 billion in 2010, while net (of tax revenues) spending on the 65 years and older is US$984 billion. Five-year delay in the full retirement age decreases federal spending by 10%, while 2-year delay in the early entitlement age increases it by 1.5%. The effect of 5-year delay on unpaid activities and transfers is small: US$4 billion decrease in services and US$4.5 billion increase in bequests and monetary gifts.

  13. Active Ageing: Intergenerational Relationships and Social Generativity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).

  14. Structure Matters: The Role of Clique Hierarchy in the Relationship Between Adolescent Social Status and Aggression and Prosociality.

    PubMed

    Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René

    2015-12-01

    Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.

  15. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    PubMed

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.

  16. Being Admired or Being Liked: Classroom Social Status and Depressive Problems in Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, Rene; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 plus or minus 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to…

  17. Age Discrimination, Social Closure and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Mong, Sherry; Byron, Reginald; Tester, Griff

    2007-01-01

    Age discrimination in employment has received mounting attention over the past two decades, and from various cross-cutting social science disciplines. Findings from survey and experimental analyses have revealed the pervasiveness of ageist stereotypes, while aggregate and life course analyses suggest trends toward downward occupational mobility…

  18. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  19. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  20. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  1. Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526

  2. [Socially significant associations of age(ing) and body: social gerontologically founded theories].

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, Martina

    2008-06-01

    The body is more than a biological basic condition; it is provided with social meanings and used for constructing, defining and describing age(ing) in different contexts. The social significance of the body can, for example, be seen by the fact that it is a bearer of age attributes, serves as a display surface and a knowledge bearer for the "normal" and "natural" aging process. Formal and informal chronological age limits are used to describe, divide etc. ageing, without expatiating that certain interpretations of physical attributes are the basis of this construction. In the scientific discourse and in everyday understanding, dichotomous views on the aging body "old means ill" and "successfully old means active" prevail. After a social constructivism and phenomenology discussion, about these socially significant connections of aging and body they are discussed exemplarily based on two interviews. It excerpts that the body-related significance of ageing turns out to be considerably more differentiated in everyday understanding. Therefore, a first intermediate conclusion for research and practice concerning the social significance of the body in the gerontological field has to be reached.

  3. [Resilience and psychological impairment in adulthood: the impact of age and social inequality].

    PubMed

    Pechmann, C; Petermann, F; Brähler, E; Decker, O; Schmidt, S

    2014-09-01

    In a cross-sectional study the influence of social inequality on resilience and psychological distress was investigated in a sample of N=4 142 adults. A social stratum was created, including education, financial income and job-status, as well as age (≥ 25 years). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed influences of gender, social status and age on resilience (RS-11) and psychological distress: depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-7), life satisfaction (FLZ(M)). In contrast to the most continuous influence of the social background in women across any age-group, older males (≥ 65 years) were not affected by their social background. In both sexes members of the social underclass had the lowest resilience. The results indicate the need for specific intervention as to prevention.

  4. Status of motor operated valves aging assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Motor operated valves (MOVs) have a long history of operational problems in nuclear power plants. Resolution of MOV problems in the past has tended to focus on symptoms rather than root cause. Although there has been more attention focused recently on identifying root causes, problems with valve operational readiness resulting from aging and service wear still persist. In addition, weaknesses in the currently used design equations for sizing of MOVs, identified in tests carried out by industry and confirmed in the recent NRC gate valve blowdown testing, have re-enforced the need for improved in-situ methods for determining the operational readiness of MOVs, whether from aging and service wear or from improper installation and maintenance. The objective of the MOV aging assessment is to evaluate and recommend practical methods for insuring operational readiness of safety-related MOVs under all anticipated operating conditions.

  5. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  6. Social Work Education: Status Quo or Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Karen M.; Dulmus, Catherine N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors believe that Stoesz and Karger did not go far enough in their critique. The struggling state of the profession and of social work education is symptomatic of a much larger and fundamental systemic problem that cannot be addressed solely by fixing the Council on Social Work Education or increasing requirements for Social Science…

  7. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  8. XTX8003 Aging Study Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.; Coleman, K.; Foster, P.; Klassen, S.; Loyola, V.

    1999-03-08

    XTX8003 is an extrudable explosive composed of 80% PETN and 20% Sylgard 182 (polydimethylsiloxane). Knowledge of the aging characteristics of XTX8003 is desired to understand the relationship between chemical and physical changes and performance. This understanding will allow improved assessment of the current state and also projected lifetime of components that contain this material. A literature search revealed few published studies of the aging behavior of XTX8003 or a chemically similar material, LX-13. Two studies showed that detonation velocity had decreased after storage at 70 C for two years. Another study showed a 30% decrease in target penetration by conical shaped charge after 12 weeks of storage at 82 C. Only one study was found which evaluated chemical and physical changes, but no information was available to correlate performance degradation to chemical and physical changes in the material. In summary, the major changes seen in aged XTX8003 are in detonation velocity and particle morphology, but particle morphology does not appear to be the determining factor in the loss of detonation velocity. The study will continue at least 24 months, at which time the data will be evaluated to determine how best to continue with the remaining test samples.

  9. Accuracy of vital status ascertainment using the Social Security Death Master File in a deceased population.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Thomas; Cheung, Lillian; Wokanovicz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Both insurance and clinical studies depend on the Social Security Death Master File (SSDMF) to provide vital status on subjects that are unavailable for direct ascertainment. Using the Gen Re individual life claims data, we analyzed the accuracy of vital status determination in a population known to be deceased. Overall, only 75% of claims appeared in the SSDMF. The detection rate is highly skewed by age of the decedent. This systematically reduced ascertainment of mortality at younger ages could cause misleading conclusions in studies that measure absolute mortality rates, especially when they include a wide age span.

  10. High and Mighty: Implicit Associations between Space and Social Status

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Robin, Cynthia; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2011-01-01

    Figurative language and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land) and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north). Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an implicit association test (Greenwald et al., 1998) when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north), with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions. PMID:22013428

  11. Social Work Leadership and Aging: Meeting the Demographic Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia; Gorin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 nine aging and social work organizations--Council on Social Work Education, NASW, the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work, the Association of Baccalaureate Program Directors, the Society for Social Work and Research, Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research, the Action Network for Social Work…

  12. Social Status and Social Perceptual Abilities of Mildly Handicapped Learners: Methodological and Substantive Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gale M.

    In an examination of the notion of person-environment fit as it applies to the socioempathy-social status for mildly handicapped children in mainstreamed and special class settings, 38 mildly learning handicapped (LH) and 234 nonhandicapped students were administered social status instruments. Results revealed that LH Ss in special placements were…

  13. Charlotte Temple: Mapping Social Status through Gender and Value Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    destroyed her was real. 10 Seduction was an indication of women’s lesser social status, as well as the difficulties which occur when "moral value and social ... responsibility are outweighed by the particular desires of privileged individuals or classes." 31 Charlotte Temole depicts men as the "privileged class

  14. Pathways from Depressive Symptoms to Low Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers.…

  15. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  16. Social, Academic, and Behavioral Competence of Depressed Children: Relationship to Diagnostic Status and Family Interaction Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Elizabeth Burney; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The social adjustment and academic performance of 15 children hospitalized for depression were compared to 14 children with schizophrenia and 20 normal children, ages 7 to 14. Analyses reveal an association between children's adaptive functioning and both diagnostic status and family transactional processes. (SLD)

  17. Social status and personality: stability in social state can promote consistency of behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Favati, Anna; Leimar, Olof; Radesäter, Tommy; Løvlie, Hanne

    2014-01-07

    Stability of 'state' has been suggested as an underlying factor explaining behavioural stability and animal personality (i.e. variation among, and consistency within individuals in behavioural responses), but the possibility that stable social relationships represent such states remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of social status on the expression and consistency of behaviours by experimentally changing social status between repeated personality assays. We used male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a social species that forms relatively stable dominance hierarchies, and showed that behavioural responses were strongly affected by social status, but also by individual characteristics. The level of vigilance, activity and exploration changed with social status, whereas boldness appeared as a stable individual property, independent of status. Furthermore, variation in vocalization predicted future social status, indicating that individual behaviours can both be a predictor and a consequence of social status, depending on the aspect in focus. Our results illustrate that social states contribute to both variation and stability in behavioural responses, and should therefore be taken into account when investigating and interpreting variation in personality.

  18. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    PubMed

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  19. Home Environment, Social Status, and Mental Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The ability of an environmental process measure and socioeconomic status (SES) measures to predict Stanford-Binet IQ at 3 years of age was compared in a separate analysis by sex and race. The environmental process measure predicted IQ as well as a combination of process and status measures, and was superior to SES measures alone. (Author/CP)

  20. Social connectedness, discrimination, and social status as mediators of acculturation/enculturation and well-being.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Hewitt, Amber; Abrams, Matthew; Cleary, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model of acculturation/enculturation and subjective well-being (SWB) by including social connectedness in mainstream society, social connectedness in the ethnic community, perceived discrimination, and expected social status as mediators. Survey data from 273 Asian American college students in the midwest were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the effect of acculturation on SWB was mediated by social connectedness in mainstream and ethnic communities and expected social status, whereas the effect of enculturation on SWB was mediated by social connectedness in the ethnic community and expected social status. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, perceived discrimination did not mediate the relation of acculturation and SWB, but indirectly influenced SWB via a lowered sense of connectedness to mainstream society. Approximately 46% of the variance in SWB was accounted for by the variables included in this model. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

  1. Marital status and age at natural menopause: considering pheromonal influence.

    PubMed

    Sievert, L L; Waddle, D; Canali, K

    2001-01-01

    Married women generally report a later mean age at menopause. The results reported here, from a study carried out in Greene County, New York, are no exception. Married and widowed women report a later mean age at natural menopause compared to single and divorced women (P < 0.05). To better understand the relationship between marital status and age at menopause, possible mechanistic and confounding variables are examined, in particular parity, sexual activity, smoking habits, level of education, and income. Parity and income 10 years prior to interview are significant factors, along with marital status, that explain part of the variation in age at natural menopause. An alternative explanation is the pheromonal influence of a male in the household. This would explain the consistency of results across populations. This pilot study supports further biochemical investigation.

  2. Social Connectedness, Discrimination, and Social Status as Mediators of Acculturation/Enculturation and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Hewitt, Amber; Abrams, Matthew; Cleary, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model of acculturation/enculturation and subjective well-being (SWB) by including social connectedness in mainstream society, social connectedness in the ethnic community, perceived discrimination, and expected social status as mediators. Survey data from 273 Asian American college students in the…

  3. Social status modulates prosocial behavior and egalitarianism in preschool children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Guinote, Ana; Cotzia, Ioanna; Sandhu, Sanpreet; Siwa, Pramila

    2015-01-01

    Humans are a cooperative species, capable of altruism and the creation of shared norms that ensure fairness in society. However, individuals with different educational, cultural, economic, or ethnic backgrounds differ in their levels of social investment and endorsement of egalitarian values. We present four experiments showing that subtle cues to social status (i.e., prestige and reputation in the eyes of others) modulate prosocial orientation. The experiments found that individuals who experienced low status showed more communal and prosocial behavior, and endorsed more egalitarian life goals and values compared with those who experienced high status. Behavioral differences across high- and low-status positions appeared early in human ontogeny (4–5 y of age). PMID:25561527

  4. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders’ problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions. PMID:25598649

  5. Sex, social status and physiological stress in primates: the importance of social and glucocorticoid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Caruso, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Social status has been associated with health consequences, although the mechanisms by which status affects health are relatively unknown. At the physiological level, many studies have investigated the potential relationship between social behaviour/rank and physiological stress, with a particular focus on glucocorticoid (GC) production. GCs are of interest because of their experimentally established influence on health-related processes such as metabolism and immune function. Studies in a variety of species, in both naturalistic and laboratory settings, have led to complex outcomes. This paper reviews findings from primates and rodents and proposes a psychologically and physiologically relevant framework in which to study the relationship between social status and GC function. We (i) compare status-specific GC production between male and female primates, (ii) review the functional significance of different temporal patterns of GC production, (iii) propose ways to assess these temporal dynamics, and (iv) present novel hypotheses about the relationship between social status and GC temporal dynamics, and potential fitness and health implications. To understand whether GC production mediates social status-related fitness disparities, we must consider social contest conditions and the temporal dynamics of GC production. This framework will provide greater insights into the relationship between social status, physiological stress and health. PMID:25870390

  6. Sex, social status and physiological stress in primates: the importance of social and glucocorticoid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Caruso, Michael J

    2015-05-26

    Social status has been associated with health consequences, although the mechanisms by which status affects health are relatively unknown. At the physiological level, many studies have investigated the potential relationship between social behaviour/rank and physiological stress, with a particular focus on glucocorticoid (GC) production. GCs are of interest because of their experimentally established influence on health-related processes such as metabolism and immune function. Studies in a variety of species, in both naturalistic and laboratory settings, have led to complex outcomes. This paper reviews findings from primates and rodents and proposes a psychologically and physiologically relevant framework in which to study the relationship between social status and GC function. We (i) compare status-specific GC production between male and female primates, (ii) review the functional significance of different temporal patterns of GC production, (iii) propose ways to assess these temporal dynamics, and (iv) present novel hypotheses about the relationship between social status and GC temporal dynamics, and potential fitness and health implications. To understand whether GC production mediates social status-related fitness disparities, we must consider social contest conditions and the temporal dynamics of GC production. This framework will provide greater insights into the relationship between social status, physiological stress and health.

  7. Seeing red: How perceptions of social status and worth influence hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression.

    PubMed

    Davis, James R; Reyna, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Within social hierarchies, low social status is associated with increased vigilance, hostile expectations, and reactive aggression. We propose that societal devaluation is common across many low social status groups and produces a sense of threatened social worth. Threatened social worth may lead those of low status to be more vigilant towards social threats, thereby increasing the likelihood of hostile attributions and endorsement of aggression. Integrating theory on belongingness, social rejection, and stigma compensation, two studies test a sequential process model demonstrating that threatened social worth mediates the relationship between status, hostile attributions, and endorsement of aggression. Employing a relative status manipulation, Study 2 reveals a causal effect of status and highlights the importance of perceptions of low social status on threatened social worth. These data demonstrate the role of social worth in explaining the link between status and hostility and have implications for research in the social, health, and developmental domains.

  8. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  9. Social Support and Successful Aging in Assisted Living Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…

  10. Can at-risk young adolescents be popular and anti-social? Sociometric status groups, anti-social behaviour, gender and ethnic background.

    PubMed

    van de Schoot, Rens; van der Velden, Floor; Boom, Jan; Brugman, Daniël

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n = 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of anti-social behaviour were used to distinguish subgroups. These subgroups were created on the basis of anti-social behaviour profile scores, using Latent Class Analysis. Moderator effects of gender and ethnic background were investigated using a log-linear analysis. The main finding was that each sociometric status group consisted of subgroups that differed in terms of prevalence of self-reported anti-social behaviour. At-risk young adolescents who reported involvement in anti-social behaviour appeared in every status group, including the popular group. Implications for school prevention programmes for anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  11. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  13. Social rank and adult male nutritional status: evidence of the social gradient in health from a foraging-farming society.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Victoria; McDade, Thomas W; Molina, Jose Luis; Leonard, William R; Tanner, Susan N; Huanca, Tomas; Godoy, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Research with humans and non-human primate species has found an association between social rank and individual health. Among humans, a robust literature in industrial societies has shown that each step down the rank hierarchy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we present supportive evidence for the social gradient in health drawing on data from 289 men (18+ years of age) from a society of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). We use a measure of social rank that captures the locally perceived position of a man in the hierarchy of important people in a village. In multivariate regression analysis we found a positive and statistically significant association between social rank and three standard indicators of nutritional status: body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference, and the sum of four skinfolds. Results persisted after controlling for material and psychosocial pathways that have been shown to mediate the association between individual socioeconomic status and health in industrial societies. Future research should explore locally-relevant psychosocial factors that may mediate the association between social status and health in non-industrial societies.

  14. Temporal dynamics underlying the modulation of social status on social attention.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Galfano, Giovanni; Coricelli, Carol; Castelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Fixating someone suddenly moving the eyes is known to trigger a corresponding shift of attention in the observer. This phenomenon, known as gaze-cueing effect, can be modulated as a function of the social status of the individual depicted in the cueing face. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying this modulation. To this end, a gaze-cueing paradigm was implemented in which centrally-placed faces depicting high- and low-status individuals suddenly shifted the eyes towards a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with that occupied by a subsequent target stimulus. Social status was manipulated by presenting fictive Curriculum Vitae before the experimental phase. In Experiment 1, in which two temporal intervals (50 ms vs. 900 ms) occurred between the direct-gaze face and the averted-gaze face onsets, a stronger gaze-cueing effect in response to high-status faces than low-status faces was observed, irrespective of the time participants were allowed for extracting social information. In Experiment 2, in which two temporal intervals (200 ms vs. 1000 ms) occurred between the averted-gaze face and target onset, a stronger gaze cueing for high-status faces was observed at the shorter interval only. Taken together, these results suggest that information regarding social status is extracted from faces rapidly (Experiment 1), and that the tendency to selectively attend to the locations gazed by high-status individuals may decay with time (Experiment 2).

  15. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-01-06

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group.

  16. Residence, Kinship and Social Isolation among the Aged Baganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahemow, Nina

    1979-01-01

    Investigated impact of interactions with kin on social integration in old age. A nonrandom sample of aged Baganda in Uganda was interviewed concerning perceptions of loneliness and social isolation. Results show that the majority of subjects did not view old age as a period of loneliness or isolation. (Author)

  17. Social Origins and Attitudinal Effects on Educational Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    Research objectives were to present and analyze a causal model of educational attainment and to include with parental socioeconomic status the number of siblings as an intervening social origin variable impacting on attitudes and attainment. Data were obtained from a three-wave longitudinal study (1966, 1968, and 1972) of 221 white nonmetropolitan…

  18. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  19. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual healthcare for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. Method An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N=962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 yrs.). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Results This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting “other” gender. Conclusions Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs. PMID:25703148

  20. Subjective Social Status and Cardiovascular Reactivity: An Experimental Examination

    PubMed Central

    Pieritz, Karoline; Süssenbach, Philipp; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment examined the causal influence of subjective social status (SSS) on variables related to cardiovascular health [i.e., blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV)]. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions involving a social comparison that either induced a temporary shift toward high SSS or toward low SSS. Cardiovascular variables were measured before (baseline), throughout, and after the manipulation (recovery). Participants in the low SSS condition had a significantly lower HRV during experimental manipulation than at baseline (p = 0.001). They also showed a significantly stronger HRV reactivity compared to participants in the high SSS condition (p = 0.027). Our results suggest that already temporary shifts of one's SSS have measureable effects on cardiovascular variables. They support the notion that social status plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27486426

  1. Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dahlbom, S Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  2. Boldness Predicts Social Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbom, S. Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance. PMID:21858168

  3. Perceived Social Status and Learning Experiences in Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model based on Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) that placed perceived social status as an antecedent of career-related learning experiences, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. Gender was included in the present model and results indicated that gender related as expected to…

  4. The Social Skills and Social Status of Mainstreamed Students with Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral; Carter, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Reports on social skills and social status of 22 Australian students, with mainly moderate intellectual disabilities, who underwent an inclusive preschool intervention. Finds that the students spent more time with developing peers. Discovered differences between students with disabilities and other students in relation to time spent with peers…

  5. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  6. Status homophily, sexual identity, and lesbian social ties.

    PubMed

    Logan, Laura S

    2013-01-01

    The literature on friendship and social networks finds that individuals form social ties with people who are like them--a much studied concept called homophily. However, few studies have explicitly examined sexual identity as a point of homophily. Scholars from multiple disciplines have long argued that sexuality influences the organization of our social worlds, yet most studies of friendship and social networks under-examine or overlook the influence of sexual identity. This study addresses that gap by looking at status homophily among lesbian social ties to examine the influence of sexual identity, as well as gender, race, class, and family, on their personal networks. Using survey data from 544 U.S. lesbian respondents, the findings make visible some of the factors and forces that shape social ties for lesbians. The results point to the importance of sexuality as an organizing element of social life, and suggest that studies that examine social networks or friendships more often make sexual identity, gender, and intersecting social locations a central focus.

  7. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  8. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  9. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Christine; Lee, Aaron; Steinman, Bernard A; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  10. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks. PMID:27478639

  11. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs.

  12. Pathways from depressive symptoms to low social status.

    PubMed

    Agoston, Anna M; Rudolph, Karen D

    2013-02-01

    This research examined two pathways through which depressive symptoms contribute to low social status (i.e., neglect and rejection) within the peer group over time: (a) depressive symptoms promote socially helpless behavior and consequent neglect by peers; and (b) depressive symptoms promote aggressive behavior and consequent rejection by peers. These pathways were investigated in independent samples of youth at two developmental stages: middle childhood (2nd-4th grade) and early adolescence (5th-7th grade). In both Study 1 (M age = 7.97, SD = 0.37; 338 girls, 298 boys) and Study 2 (M age = 11.74, SD = 0.68; 305 girls, 300 boys), youth and their teachers completed questionnaires at three waves. Multi-group comparison path analyses were conducted to examine sex differences in the models. Consistent with expectations, two pathways emerged through which depressive symptoms undermined subsequent social status. Support was not found for the reverse direction of effect nor for developmental or sex differences in the pathways with one exception: In early adolescence, neglect directly predicted depressive symptoms. These findings suggest specificity but also heterogeneity in the effects of depressive symptoms on social status, and identify behaviors that may be targeted for preventing the persistence of depression and its interpersonal consequences.

  13. Status Convergence: A Sociological Investigation of Undocumented Students' Legal and Collegiate Social Statuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Alejandra; Alleman, Nathan F.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the role of college in how undocumented students make meaning of their identity through the concept of status ownership. Using a sociological framework that drew upon Kaufman and Feldman's (2004) work, this study calls attention to the social context in the college experience and offers insight into this student…

  14. Influence of HIV Status and Age on Cognitive Representations of Others

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 studies the postulate that the perception of time left in life influences the ways that people conceptualize social relationships was explored. It was hypothesized that when time is limited, emotional aspects of relationships are highly salient. In Study 1, a card-sort paradigm involving similarity judgments demonstrated, for a sample of persons 18 to 88 years old, that the prominence of affect in the mental representations of prospective social partners is positively associated with age. In Study 2, the same experimental approach was applied to a sample of young gay men similar to one another in age, but notably different in their health status (that is, HIV negative; HIV positive, asymptomatic; and HIV positive, symptomatic). It was found that, with age held constant, increasing closeness to the end of life is also associated with an increasing prominence of affect in the mental representations of social partners. The results suggest that the perception of limited time, rather than chronological age, is the critical variable influencing mental representations of social partners. PMID:9848799

  15. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632

  16. Social and Physical Environmental Correlates of Adults’ Weekend Sitting Time and Moderating Effects of Retirement Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55–65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55–65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = −0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55–65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research. PMID:25243886

  17. Social and physical environmental correlates of adults' weekend sitting time and moderating effects of retirement status and physical health.

    PubMed

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-09-19

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55-65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55-65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = -0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55-65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research.

  18. Marital Status and Reproduction: Associations with Childhood Intelligence and Adult Social Class in the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood intelligence (age 11) and occupational social status at midlife (age 46 to 51) was associated with marital status and reproduction in a sample from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohort study (N = 9614). Male and female divorcees had lower childhood intelligence test scores than their married counterparts, but no meaningful…

  19. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  20. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  1. Social Policies for the Aged: A Parsonian Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Abraham

    1971-01-01

    Social policies for the aged are examined in terms of the five action dilemmas outlined by Talcott Parsons. The study shows that the aged receive basic services, but are deprived of a meaningful place in the family, a measure of social authority, and activities that are functionally valuable and personally satisfying. (Author)

  2. Relationship between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and social status in 2235 Danish men and women.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Kirchhoff, M

    1996-03-01

    The objective was to examine the relationships between serum ferritin, alcohol intake, and socioeconomic factors (school education, occupational education, occupation, income, marital status, cohabitation status, housing, social class) in a population survey performed in Copenhagen County during 1982-1984. The participants were selected at random from the census register and comprised 2235 healthy Danish individuals, non-blood donors (1044 men, 1191 women) in cohorts being 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. The participants gave a detailed social and medical history and had a clinical examination including blood samples. In all age-groups, men had significantly higher serum ferritin and alcohol intake than women. In men, there was no relationship between serum ferritin and social class. Significant relationships were observed between ferritin and occupation (unemployed and self-employed men had higher ferritin than those with other occupations) and ferritin and income (in younger men, ferritin displayed a steady increase with income). None of the social variables were related to the prevalence of iron deficiency or iron overload. Alcohol intake was related to occupation and income, but not to social class. In women, none of the social variables showed any significant relationship to ferritin levels or iron overload. The prevalence of small iron stores (serum ferritin < or = 30 micrograms/l) was lower and the intake of alcohol was higher in women from high social classes. In both men and women, serum ferritin displayed highly significant positive correlations with alcohol intake. Likewise, the prevalence of iron overload (serum ferritin > 90th percentile) was closely correlated to alcohol intake. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors per se had a minor influence on serum ferritin levels and iron status in Danes. The distinct association between alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels should be considered in future iron status surveys.

  3. Glycemia, diabetes status, and cognition in middle aged Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, José A.; Cabral, Rafi; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Teresi, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognition among 600 Hispanics aged 55 to 64 years from Northern Manhattan. Methods Diabetes was ascertained by history or Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and pre-diabetes were ascertained with HbA1c. Memory was assessed with the Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Executive abilities were assessed using the Color trails 1 and 2, and verbal fluency test. The cross-sectional association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognitive performance was examined using linear regression. Results Participants were a mean age of 59.2 ± 2.9 years old, 76.7% were women, and more than 65% had pre-diabetes or diabetes. HbA1C (β = − 0.97; p <0.001) and diabetes (β = − 2.06; p = 0.001) were related with lower SRT total recall after adjustment for demographics, education, and vascular risk factors. Pre-diabetes was associated with worse performance in color trails 2 (β = − 6.45 p = 0.022) after full adjustment. Conclusions Higher glycemia and diabetes are related to worse memory and executive abilities in late middle age, while pre-diabetes is related only to worse executive abilities. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the order and progression of these deficits. PMID:26163818

  4. The Relation of Social Status to the Career Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    2006-01-01

    The relation of social status to individuals' career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and choice certainty was explored using a new, multifaceted measure of social status, the differential status identity scale (DSIS;, Brown, M. T., D'Agruma, H. D., Brown, A., Sia, A., Yamini-Diouf, Y., Porter, S., et al. (2002). Differential status identity:…

  5. Metformin Alleviates Altered Erythrocyte Redox Status During Aging in Rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Metformin, a biguanide drug commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, has been noted to function as a caloric restriction mimetic. Its antidiabetic effect notwithstanding, metformin is currently being considered an antiaging drug candidate, although the molecular mechanisms have not yet been unequivocally established. This study aims to examine whether short-term metformin treatment can provide protective effects against oxidative stress in young and old-age rats. Young (age 4 months) and old (age 24 months) male Wistar rats were treated with metformin (300 mg/kg b.w.) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, an array of biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated, including plasma antioxidant capacity measured in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total plasma thiol (SH), plasma membrane redox system (PMRS), protein carbonyl (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in control and experimental groups. Metformin treatment resulted in an increase in FRAP, GSH, SH, and PMRS activities in both age groups compared to respective controls. On the other hand, treated groups exhibited significant reductions in ROS, MDA, PCO, AOPP, and AGE level. Save for FRAP and protein carbonyl, the effect of metformin on all other parameters was more pronounced in old-aged rats. Metformin caused a significant increase in the PMRS activity in young rats, however, the effect was less pronounced in old rats. These findings provide evidence with respect to restoration of antioxidant status in aged rats after short-term metformin treatment. The findings substantiate the putative antiaging role of metformin.

  6. Age, Social Structure, and Socialization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott; Platt, Gerald M.

    1970-01-01

    Socialization of affective and moral components of the personality is usually conceived of as completed by the end of adolescence. In contrast, this paper analyzes certain aspects of undergraduate college education which constitute a new level of socialization; although to a degree previously extant, it never before involved such a mass population…

  7. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  8. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  9. The highs that bind: school context, social status and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Matt; Rees, Chris E; McCuddy, Timothy; Carson, Dena C

    2015-05-01

    Substance use has been closely linked with the structural characteristics of adolescent social networks. Those who drink, smoke, and use drugs typically enjoy an elevated status among their peers. Rates of substance use vary substantially across schools, and indicators of school structure and climate account for at least part of this variation. Emerging research suggests peer-group processes are contingent on school context, but questions remain regarding the school-level mechanisms which condition the influence of network characteristics on substance use. The present study uses multilevel logistic regression models to examine the moderating influence of school connectedness, school drug culture, and global network density on the association between peer network status and marijuana use. The analyses draw on self, peer, and parental data from a sample of 7,548 high-school aged youth nested within 106 schools participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (mean age = 15.2; % white = 59 %; male = 45 %). The results indicate that school connectedness significantly reduces the effect of social status on marijuana use. This provides evidence that school-level mechanisms can reduce the instrumentality of marijuana consumption in the status attainment process in adolescence.

  10. Aggressive and Prosocial? Examining Latent Profiles of Behavior, Social Status, Machiavellianism, and Empathy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Batanova, Milena; Cance, Jessica Duncan

    2015-12-01

    The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents' likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10-12 years of age; 52% male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships.

  11. Social security, social welfare and the aging population.

    PubMed

    Pecchenino, R A; Utendorf, K R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pay-as-you-go social security programs under various demographic assumptions including physical capital accumulation, education of the youth, support of the elderly, social welfare, and economic growth of the community. An overlapping generations framework in which agents are three-period lived agents are analyzed in this study. Findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between educational attainment and economic growth. However, programs designed to benefit the elderly affect the youth both directly and indirectly. Furthermore, social welfare considerations of the beneficiaries may not be achieved due to the passage of time and adjustments in the plans. Thus, policy-makers must develop a more comprehensive program to promote greater social welfare.

  12. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  13. Physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Salam, A A; Alshekteria, A A; Mohammed, H A A; Al Abar, N M; Al Jhany, M M; Al Flah, F

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence and youth are stages of life that other great opportunities for reduction of future health needs. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending 2 large universities in Benghazi city, Libya, and to determine variables associated with their health status. Stratified sampling was used to select 383 students aged 17-24 years and data were collected by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaires. Major health problems were depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort, and these were suffered by significantly more females than males. Mental health was at the transitional stage in Dabrowski's emotional development theory (spontaneous multilevel disintegration). Females had higher levels of emotional development. Regular physical activity was practised by 34.7% overall (25.8% of women) and 17.2% were smokers. The main social activity was visiting family members.

  14. Bad guys suffer less (social pain): Moral status influences judgements of others' social suffering.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Brambilla, Marco; Vaes, Jeroen

    2016-03-01

    Research on pain judgement has shown that several features of a target influence empathy for others' pain. Considering the pivotal role of morality in social judgement, we investigated whether judgements of others' social and physical suffering vary as a function of the target's moral status. Study 1 manipulated the moral characteristics of an unknown other and found that participants ascribed less social (but not physical) suffering to a target depicted as lacking moral status rather than to a target high in morality. Study 2 added a control condition in which no information about the target's moral qualities was provided, and showed that the effect of morality on social pain judgements was driven by the depiction of the target as lacking moral traits. Study 3 revealed the specific role of morality, as information on another evaluative dimension (i.e., competence) had no effects on pain judgements. Study 4 showed that social targets perceived as lacking moral qualities are thought to experience less social pain than highly moral targets because of their perceived lower level of humanity. Overall, our findings suggest that social (but not physical) pain might represent a capacity that is denied to social targets that are perceived low in morality.

  15. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  16. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  17. Families, social life, and well-being at older ages.

    PubMed

    Waite, Linda; Das, Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    As people age, many aspects of their lives tend to change, including the constellation of people with whom they are connected, their social context, their families, and their health--changes that are often interrelated. Wave I of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) has yielded rich information on intimate ties, especially dyads and families, and on social connections generally. Combined with extensive biological and other health measures, NSHAP enables researchers to address key questions on health and aging. We begin with recent findings on intimate dyads, then move to social participation, and finally to elder mistreatment. Among dyads, we find that whereas sexual activity drops sharply with age for both women and men, gender differences in partner loss as well as psychosocial and normative pressures constrain women's sex more than men's. However, surviving partnerships tend to be emotionally and physically satisfying and are marked by relatively frequent sex. In contrast to sex, nonsexual intimacy is highly prevalent at older ages, especially among women. Older adults are also socially resilient--adapting to the loss of social ties by increasing involvement with community and kin networks. Despite these social assets, older adults remain vulnerable to mistreatment. Overall, these findings yield a mixed picture of gender-differentiated vulnerabilities balanced by proactive adaptation and maintenance of social and dyadic assets.

  18. From Social Structural Factors to Perceptions of Relationship Quality and Loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J.; Masi, Christopher M.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. Methods We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Results Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Discussion Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness. PMID:19092047

  19. Social Class Status and Suicide Characteristics: A Survey among Patients Who Attempted Suicide in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafour; Karami, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is one of the most prominent problems in health care system in current Iran. It could be impacted by various factors such as social, economic, individual and so on. Researchers show that socio-economic factors and suicide has significantly related. The people in low social class may more engage with social problems than higher social class. They may confront to problems such as crime, violence, unemployment, financial hardship, population density, disorder personality, etc. However, these difficulties could be resulted from relationship of inequality socio-economic and mental or physical health. This research attempted to examine social class status and its relationship with parts of suicide characteristics. Methods: This study applied a descriptive approach. In the cross-sectional research 179 patients who attempted suicide and admitted to the toxicology ward of Nour hospital and to the burning ward of Imam Mousa Kazem hospital, in Isfahan, during a period of 6 months in 2010 were recruited. The randomize sampling for patients admitted to toxicology ward and census for burning ward are applied. Data collected through a questionnaire which Chronbagh coefficient’s alpha was calculated (r= 0/72). Data was analyzed in SPSS software. Findings: The data showed that the majority of patients who attempted suicide were young married women who had diploma and under diploma of level education. They were housewife, engaged in education and unemployment. Finding showed that there are no significant relationships between sex, age, marital status, frequency of attempted suicide and their social class. But there is significant relationship between methods of suicide and social class. Similarly, there are significant relationship between social factors (i.e. family friction, betrothal, unemployment, financial problems and so on) effected on suicide and their social classes. Parts of findings were supported by previous studies. PMID:23687462

  20. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  1. Economic and social implications of aging societies.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sarah

    2014-10-31

    The challenge of global population aging has been brought into sharper focus by the financial crisis of 2008. In particular, growing national debt has drawn government attention to two apparently conflicting priorities: the need to sustain public spending on pensions and health care versus the need to reduce budget deficits. A number of countries are consequently reconsidering their pension and health care provisions, which account for up to 40% of all government spending in advanced economies. Yet population aging is a global phenomenon that will continue to affect all regions of the world. By 2050 there will be the same number of old as young in the world, with 2 billion people aged 60 or over and another 2 billion under age 15, each group accounting for 21% of the world's population.

  2. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity…

  3. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  4. Social Status, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment as Predictors of Liberal Social Attitudes and Political Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid; Cheng, Helen; Gale, Catharine R.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective associations between family socio-economic background, childhood intelligence ("g") at age 11, educational and occupational attainment, and social attitudes at age 33 in a large (N = 8804), representative sample of the British population born in 1958. Structural equation Modeling identified a latent trait of…

  5. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  6. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  7. Social Work Professions in an Aging World: Opportunities and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shadi S.; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Sun, Fei; Durkin, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    Given world aging, social workers will be involved in assisting older persons in their home-country and/or abroad in various types of governmental or nongovernmental agencies. This paper identifies potential opportunities for social workers with gerontological backgrounds interested in working in international and cross-cultural settings.…

  8. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

  9. Peer Status in Emerging Adulthood: Associations of Popularity and Preference with Social Roles and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…

  10. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-01-01

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690

  11. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-08-26

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults' preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public 'third' places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.

  12. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  13. Social capital, socio-economic status and psychological distress among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Phongsavan, Philayrath; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick

    2006-11-01

    High levels of social capital may be associated with positive mental health in adults. However, quantifying the various dimensions of social capital has presented a challenge due in part to the diverse definitions and measures used. Data from a representative, population-wide survey of Australian adults aged 16 years and older were used to investigate the links between dimensions of social capital and mental health morbidity. Social capital comprised three constructs and was measured at the individual level: feelings of trust and safety, community participation and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity. Mental health was measured by the 10-item Kessler (K10) instrument and assessed symptoms of psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) over the previous month. Community participation showed a weak, and neighbourhood connections and reciprocity a moderate association with distress. Having higher levels of trust and feeling safe were consistently associated with low levels of psychological distress, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that having trust in people, feeling safe in the community and having social reciprocity are associated with lower risk of mental health distress. The implications for conceptualising and measuring the individual and collective (contextual) dimensions of social capital are discussed. The findings also suggest the importance of examining the interrelationships between socio-economic status, social capital and mental health for community-dwelling adults.

  14. The future financial status of the Social Security program.

    PubMed

    Goss, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of solvency, sustainability, and budget impact are common in discussions of Social Security, but are not well understood. Currently, the Social Security Board of Trustees projects program cost to rise by 2035 so that taxes will be enough to pay for only 75 percent of scheduled benefits. This increase in cost results from population aging, not because we are living longer, but because birth rates dropped from three to two children per woman. Importantly, this shortfall is basically stable after 2035; adjustments to taxes or benefits that offset the effects of the lower birth rate may restore solvency for the Social Security program on a sustainable basis for the foreseeable future. Finally, as Treasury debt securities (trust fund assets) are redeemed in the future, they will just be replaced with public debt. If trust fund assets are exhausted without reform, benefits will necessarily be lowered with no effect on budget deficits.

  15. Inferring Social Status and Rich Club Effects in Enterprise Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels — voice call, short message, and email — to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a “rich club” maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy. PMID:25822343

  16. Inferring social status and rich club effects in enterprise communication networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.

  17. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  18. Order of aging of major human organs or systems and evaluation of health status based on aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengfang; Liu, Chunqing; Gao, Hanboya; Liu, Hui

    2017-03-01

    To determine the functional age of an individual, a quantitative system for the assessment of aging status was developed in the present study. A total of 1579 subjects were selected randomly from patients undergoing physical examination. The index of organic mild impairment (IOMI) and IOMI corrected for age (COMI) were calculated. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the IOMIs of younger and elderly subjects, a cutoff value for COMI of 30% was obtained. About 95% of <30-year-old subjects were healthy. These data suggest that organs and systems reflect the aging status of an individual and may be a useful tool for evaluating health status.

  19. The Social Epidemiology of Accidental Hypothermia among the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rango, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Describes the 1970-1979 incidence of exposure-related hypothermia deaths in the United States. Showed nonwhite men at highest and white women at lowest risk at all ages. Age-related impairment in theromoregulation, functional disability, poverty, and social isolation were found to increase elderly individual's susceptibility to this environmental…

  20. [Research on the aged within the framework of social geography].

    PubMed

    Kempers-Warmerdam, A H

    1985-06-01

    Until now social gerontological research in the Netherlands has primarily been done by psychologists and sociologists. Geographic contributions are subordinate. Nevertheless there are innumerable geographical aspects which influence ageing and human behaviour of the elderly. Several studies on ageing have already been made, considering geographical topics as distribution, migration, housing, mobility and accessibility of provisions. The geographer can supply enhanced contributions in the future.

  1. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  2. Bone age, social deprivation, and single parent families.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T J; Cole, A J

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that deprivation affects bone growth. The study was set up to investigate what aspects of deprivation are of greatest importance. Bone ages of 1593 child trauma patients aged 0-19 years from Middlesbrough General Hospital, Cleveland, were related to local authority ward indices of socioeconomic status (51 wards). After adjustment for chronological age and sex, the mean bone ages in each ward were highly significantly negatively associated with five ward indices of deprivation: the rate of single parent families, low care ownership, unemployment, rented housing, and overcrowding. There was a mean four month deficit in bone age among children living in wards with the highest single parent family rates. The inverse association between deprivation and bone age is unlikely to be causal throughout childhood, as older and younger children were affected to the same extent. However the bone age deficit could be caused by deprivation retarding skeletal maturation during a critical period in early life. PMID:1444529

  3. [Old age for adolescents: a social representations approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaelly Fernandes; de Freitas, Maria Célia; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research, based on the Theory of Social Representations, which aimed to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in a public school and a private on ageing, and to compare them between these two groups. Participants were 60 adolescents, 30 from the private school and 30 from the public school, who responded to semi-structured interviews in the period May-June 2012. The collected data were subjected to content analysis techniques, from which emerged three categories, namely: representations of ageing, the treatment of the elderly, and the recognition of oneself as a subject in the aging process. The adolescents' social representations have showed negative and positive aspects in relation to old age, marked by the influence of socio-cultural aspects.

  4. Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children.

  5. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527

  6. A generational comparison of social networking site use: the influence of age and social identity.

    PubMed

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N=256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer communication, and social compensation. Regardless of age, participants reporting high collective self-esteem and group identity were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications, while those reporting negative collective self-esteem were more likely to use social networking sites for social compensation. The theoretical implications of the strong relationship between social identity gratifications and social compensation are discussed.

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Life-Space Mobility in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Eronen, Johanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2016-10-01

    Life-space mobility describes the extent of community mobility of older persons. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and life-space mobility and to investigate whether associations might be explained by SES-related disparities in health and functioning. The participants (n = 848) were community-dwelling adults aged 75-90. Education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Life-space assessment (range 0-120) was used to indicate distance and frequency of moving and assistance needed in moving. People with low education had lower life-space mobility scores than those with intermediate or high education: marginal means 63.5, 64.8, and 70.0 (p = .003), respectively. SES-related health disparities, i.e., higher body mass index, poorer cognitive capacity, and poorer physical performance explained the association, rendering it nonsignificant (marginal means 65.2, 65.3, and 67.5, p = .390). Low SES and restricted life-space mobility often coexist with overweight, reduced cognition, and poorer physical performance.

  8. Social Support and HIV-Status Disclosure to Friends and Family: Implications for HIV-Positive Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sonia; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Harris, D. Robert; Harper, Gary W.; Ellen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The fear of negative reactions from friends and family members affects many HIV-positive adolescents’ decisions regarding disclosure of their HIV status. The complex relationships and interplay among social support, fear of stigma, and disclosure of HIV status needs to be better understood among youth living with HIV. Methods Social support from friends and family members, and HIV status disclosure were examined among 402 youth, aged 12 to 24 years, living with HIV. Results In separate analyses, 1) HIV positive youth who reported more than one close friend, as well as 2) HIV positive youth who reported that friends and family members continued to socialize with them after disclosure of their HIV diagnosis, had higher levels of perceived social support overall (both p<0.05). Furthermore, perceived social support did not differ significantly between those participants for whom no family member knew their HIV status and those for whom at least one family member knew their status (p=0.13). Race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, education level, and current living situation were not associated with family's knowledge of the participants’ HIV infection status (p>0.07). Conclusion This investigation adds important information concerning youth living with HIV, whose early disclosure experiences may influence their resilience and future coping mechanisms regarding experienced stigma, and thus influence the length of time they conceal their HIV status, their decision to disclose their status, and potentially their decisions regarding treatment. Interventions and support systems to assist youth living with HIV with disclosure, as well as medical care, may improve their overall quality of life. PMID:25940217

  9. Being Admired or Being Liked: Classroom Social Status and Depressive Problems in Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to both achievement-related (being a good learner, being good at sports, being good-looking) and affection-related (being liked, being disliked, being best friend) areas. In boys, depressive problems were most strongly associated with not being good at sports, while in girls the association was strongest for not being liked. The risk of a low status in one area could largely be compensated by a high status in another area. PMID:17265191

  10. Being admired or being liked: classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan

    2007-06-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 +/- 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to both achievement-related (being a good learner, being good at sports, being good-looking) and affection-related (being liked, being disliked, being best friend) areas. In boys, depressive problems were most strongly associated with not being good at sports, while in girls the association was strongest for not being liked. The risk of a low status in one area could largely be compensated by a high status in another area.

  11. Social status drives social relationships in groups of unrelated female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Kohn, Jordan N.; Barreiro, Luis B.; Johnson, Zachary P.; Wilson, Mark E.; Tung, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Strong social relationships confer health and fitness benefits in a number of species, motivating the need to understand the processes through which they arise. In female cercopithecine primates, both kinship and dominance rank are thought to influence rates of affiliative behaviour and social partner preference. Teasing apart the relative importance of these factors has been challenging, however, as female kin often occupy similar positions in the dominance hierarchy. Here, we isolated the specific effects of rank on social relationships in female rhesus macaques by analysing grooming patterns in 18 social groups that did not contain close relatives, and in which dominance ranks were experimentally randomized. We found that grooming was asymmetrically directed towards higher-ranking females and that grooming bouts temporarily decreased the likelihood of aggression between grooming partners, supporting the idea that grooming is associated with social tolerance. Even in the absence of kin, females formed the strongest grooming relationships with females adjacent to them in rank, a pattern that was strongest for the highest-ranking females. Using simulations, we show that three rules for allocating grooming based on dominance rank recapitulated most of the relationships we observed. Finally, we evaluated whether a female's tendency to engage in grooming behaviour was stable across time and social setting. We found that one measure, the rate of grooming females provided to others (but not the rate of grooming females received), exhibited modest stability after accounting for the primary effect of dominance rank. Together, our findings indicate that dominance rank has strong effects on social relationships in the absence of kin, suggesting the importance of considering social status and social connectedness jointly when investigating their health and fitness consequences. PMID:26769983

  12. Social status drives social relationships in groups of unrelated female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Kohn, Jordan N; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Tung, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Strong social relationships confer health and fitness benefits in a number of species, motivating the need to understand the processes through which they arise. In female cercopithecine primates, both kinship and dominance rank are thought to influence rates of affiliative behaviour and social partner preference. Teasing apart the relative importance of these factors has been challenging, however, as female kin often occupy similar positions in the dominance hierarchy. Here, we isolated the specific effects of rank on social relationships in female rhesus macaques by analysing grooming patterns in 18 social groups that did not contain close relatives, and in which dominance ranks were experimentally randomized. We found that grooming was asymmetrically directed towards higher-ranking females and that grooming bouts temporarily decreased the likelihood of aggression between grooming partners, supporting the idea that grooming is associated with social tolerance. Even in the absence of kin, females formed the strongest grooming relationships with females adjacent to them in rank, a pattern that was strongest for the highest-ranking females. Using simulations, we show that three rules for allocating grooming based on dominance rank recapitulated most of the relationships we observed. Finally, we evaluated whether a female's tendency to engage in grooming behaviour was stable across time and social setting. We found that one measure, the rate of grooming females provided to others (but not the rate of grooming females received), exhibited modest stability after accounting for the primary effect of dominance rank. Together, our findings indicate that dominance rank has strong effects on social relationships in the absence of kin, suggesting the importance of considering social status and social connectedness jointly when investigating their health and fitness consequences.

  13. Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Elliot M; Hayney, Mary S; Love, Gayle D; Urry, Heather L; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Davidson, Richard J; Singer, Burton H; Ryff, Carol D

    2005-12-20

    This study examined the interplay of social engagement, sleep quality, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a sample of aging women (n = 74, aged 61-90, M age = 73.4). Social engagement was assessed by questionnaire, sleep was assessed by using the NightCap in-home sleep monitoring system and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and blood samples were obtained for analysis of plasma levels of IL-6. Regarding subjective assessment, poorer sleep (higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was associated with lower positive social relations scores. Multivariate regression analyses showed that lower levels of plasma IL-6 were predicted by greater sleep efficiency (P < 0.001), measured objectively and by more positive social relations (P < 0.05). A significant interaction showed that women with the highest IL-6 levels were those with both poor sleep efficiency and poor social relations (P < 0.05). However, those with low sleep efficiency but compensating good relationships as well as women with poor relationships but compensating high sleep efficiency had IL-6 levels comparable to those with the protective influences of both good social ties and good sleep.

  14. Down syndrome and aging: a leadership and social justice landscape.

    PubMed

    Nevel, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    The growing phenomenon of aging adults with Down syndrome and other intellectual and developmental disabilities and dementia can be traumatic and overwhelming for families and caregivers. The realization is beset with angst and necessitates restructuring policies and programs while exploring the leadership landscape to facilitate a values framework for persons with Down syndrome. This article considers the changing role of the caregiver and the influences of community support networks, social policy, social justice, and quality of life adaptations for aging persons with Down syndrome and dementia. Note: To maintain confidentiality, personal communications noted throughout this article identify the individual using initials rather than surname.

  15. Inequality in social rank and adult nutritional status: evidence from a small-scale society in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Molina, Jose Luis; McDade, Thomas W; Tanner, Susan N; Huanca, Tomas; Leonard, William R

    2009-08-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has highlighted (a) the adverse effects of social inequality on individual health and (b) the association between individual social rank and health. In this paper, we contribute to the growing literature on the health consequences of social inequalities by assessing the association between village level inequality in social rank, a form of non-material inequality, and indicators of nutritional status. We use quantitative survey information from 289 men (18+ years of age) from a society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). We construct village level measures of non-material inequality by using individual measures of men's positions in the village hierarchy according to prestige (or freely conferred deference) and dominance (or social rank obtained through power). We find that village inequality in dominance, but not village inequality in prestige, is associated with short-term indices of individual nutritional status. Doubling the coefficient of variation of dominance in a village would be associated to a 6.7% lower BMI, a 7.9% smaller mid-arm circumference, and a 27.1% smaller sum of four skin folds of men in the village. We also find that once we decouple individual social rank based on dominance from individual social rank based on prestige, only prestige-based social rank is associated with nutritional status. Potential explanations for our findings relate to the differential forms of resource access derived from the two forms of social hierarchies and to the social and psychological benefits associated with prestige versus the social costs and psychological stress generated by dominance.

  16. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  17. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population. PMID:27293889

  18. Social Aspects of Aging. Module A-4. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on social aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Four sections present informative…

  19. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a “phenomenon of decline” and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly. PMID:26150788

  20. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a "phenomenon of decline" and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  1. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  2. Social Roles Contribute to Age and Sex Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara Formaniak; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses drawn from the social role model about the process that people use in deciding what other people are like, focusing on the difference that other people's age, race, and sex make. A sample of non-Latino White students (N=671) ranging in age from 18 to 81 years used the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI)…

  3. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Piccoli, Valentina; Sommacal, Elena; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee’s peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus) was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status) in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee. PMID:27351978

  4. Social Scholarship: Reconsidering Scholarly Practices in the Age of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Christine; Gleason, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual exploration inquires, what is scholarship reconsidered in the age of social media? How ought we to conceptualize "social scholarship"--a new set of practices being discussed in various disciplines? The paper offers a critical examination of the practical and policy implications of reconsidering scholarship in light of…

  5. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning.

  6. Healthy aging rounds: using healthy-aging mentors to teach medical students about physical activity and social support assessment, interviewing, and prescription.

    PubMed

    Mohler, M Jane; D'Huyvetter, Karen; Tomasa, Lynne; O'Neill, Lisa; Fain, Mindy J

    2010-12-01

    Medical students underestimate the health and functional status of community-dwelling older adults and have little experience in health promotion interviewing or prescribing physical activity. The goal was to provide third-year University of Arizona medical students with an opportunity to gain a broader and evidence-based understanding of healthy aging, with specific focus on physical activity and social engagement. Students engaged in one-on-one conversations with healthy older adult mentors and practiced assessment, interviewing and prescription counseling for physical activity and social support. This 2-hour mandatory interactive educational offering improved student attitudes and knowledge about healthy aging and provided hands-on health promotion counseling experience.

  7. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  8. The Role of Sport as a Social Status Determinant for Children: Thirty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa A.; Machida, Moe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport as a social status determinant among racially diverse children. Participants were 1,233 fourth- to seventh-grade children. Results indicated there were gender, grade, and racial differences for the selection of social status determinants. Boys placed more importance than girls on being…

  9. Social Status and Aggressive and Disruptive Behavior in Girls: Individual, Group, and Classroom Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estell, David B.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have found distinct subtypes of aggressive youth, marked by either high social status or social marginalization, and that various measures of status differentially associate with aggression. The majority of these studies, however, focused on boys, adolescents, and/or relational aggression in girls. The current research examined how…

  10. Social Status and the Differential Impacts of Increasing Energy Costs on Families in Mississippi. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel; Smith, James C.

    Research was undertaken to determine how differences in social status among various segments of the population in Mississippi contribute to differences in household energy costs and how socioeconomic differences coupled with social status have impact on energy consumption behavior. Two samples of the state's population were used for comparative…

  11. Physical Attractiveness in Preschoolers: Relationships with Power, Status, Aggression and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…

  12. Maternal social capital and child nutritional status in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Mary J; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Social capital has been shown to be positively associated with a range of health outcomes, yet no studies have explored the association between maternal social capital and child nutritional status. Using data from the Young Lives study comprising 7242 1-year-old children from Peru, Ethiopia, Vietnam and the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, we find significant differences in the levels of, in particular, structural social capital (group membership and citizenship) between countries. While few associations were found between structural measures of social capital, support from individuals and cognitive social capital (e.g. trust, social harmony) displayed fairly consistent positive associations with child nutritional status across countries.

  13. What Do Social Theories of Aging Offer Counselors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchley, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Fry (1992) on social theories of aging. Expresses wish that Fry had not included so many marginally useful or discredited theories and had instead concentrated on more careful treatment of remaining theories, particularly disengagement theory, continuity theory, and socioenvironmental theory. Also wonders about…

  14. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  15. Aging and Heterogeneity: Genetics, Social Structure, and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, John M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that the heterogeneity of human personality characteristics increases with age. Examines reasons for this phenomenon in terms of individual differentiation, social structure/allocation, and behavioral genetics. Develops a model synthesizing various study designs that prevent variation and covariation errors from occurring in life course…

  16. Self-Esteem, Social Phobia and Depression Status in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    KUTLU, Ayşe; GÖKÇE, Gökçen; BÜYÜKBURGAZ, Ülkü; SELEKLER, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. Methods One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21–52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25–60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (p<0.05). Discussion Our results showed that social phobia, lower self-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients’ quality of life.

  17. Effects of "face" consciousness on status consumption among Chinese consumers: perceived social value as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Xin-An; Sun, Gong

    2015-02-01

    Chinese consumers are interested in status consumption, i.e., in striving to enhance their social standings through the consumption of luxury products. This study investigates how face consciousness, one's social self-esteem, and desire to be respected influences status consumption behavior in China. The Consciousness of Social Face Scale, the Social Value Scale, and the Status Consumption Scale were administered to 192 MBA students from a university in east China (117 men, 69 women, 6 unreported sex). The results revealed that face consciousness was positively related to Chinese consumers' status consumption. Moreover, the results showed that the effects of face consciousness on status consumption were partly mediated by consumer social value. The findings highlight the importance of face consciousness in understanding Chinese consumer behaviors.

  18. How Much Does Social Status Matter to Longevity?-Evidence from China's Academician Election.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Kwon, Ohyun; Xue, Xindong; Fleisher, Belton M

    2017-03-01

    We provide evidence for the causal impact of social status on longevity by exploiting a natural experiment in which subjects undergo a shift in their social status without considerable economic impact. We gather data on 4190 scientists who were either nominated for or successfully elected to the Chinese Academy of Science or of Engineering. Being elected as an academician in China is a boost in social status (vice-ministerial level) with negligible direct economic impact (US$30 monthly before 2009). After correcting for two sources of bias, (1) some potential academicians decease too young to be elected, leading to selection bias in favor of academicians and (2) the endogenous relationship between health and social status, we find that the enhanced social status of becoming an academician leads to approximately 1.2 years longer life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  20. [Nutritional status and social determinants of child height in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Menegolla, Ivone Andreatta; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Rodrigues, Inajara Haubert; Schwingel, Lucio Roberto; Scapinello, Elaine; Pedroso, Maisa Beltrame; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho

    2006-02-01

    The nutritional status of under-five children and the association between social conditions and child stature were examined using data from the program to control malnutrition and mortality in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, southern Brazil, 2001-2002. Anthropometric indices were calculated in z-scores of the CDC 2000 reference. At entrance into the program, 34.7% of the children presented stunting, 12.9% low weight for age, 4.2% wasting, and 8.7% overweight. Stunting was most prevalent among boys and children older than one year. Multivariate linear regression showed that, on average, children were shorter when the drinking water was collected directly in the environment (p = 0.046), there was no refrigerator for food preservation (p = 0.021), maternal age was less than 16 years at the birth of the oldest child among the under-fives (p = 0.019), and the mother was illiterate (p = 0.083). Sewage facilities only had an effect on the unadjusted model. There was no evidence that the number of under-five children had an effect on stature. Social inclusion policies and health and social provision which takes these factors into account are potentially relevant for improving health and nutrition in this population.

  1. Why do social insect queens live so long? Approaches to unravel the sociality-aging puzzle.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Social insects are characterized by an apparent reshaping of the fecundity/longevity trade-off with sociality. Currently, we have only sketchy information about the potential underlying causes and mechanisms of aging and senescence which in addition are restricted to few model insect organisms (mainly the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the honey bee Apis mellifera). How can we gain a more thorough understanding how sociality shapes senescence and the fecundity/longevity trade-off? By reviewing available literature, I propose a comparative approach that offers the opportunity to gain fundamental insights into uncovering the basis for this life history trade-off and its reshaping with sociality.

  2. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean

    2016-08-27

    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p < 0.001). Results showed a negative association of full-time employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p < 0.01) and depression (β = -0.028; p < 0.01). Results suggest that optimal impact on mental health could be attained when increasing employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  3. Social Status-Dependent Shift in Neural Circuit Activation Affects Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H; Clements, Katie; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Choongseok; Hye Ji, Eoon; Issa, Fadi A

    2017-02-22

    In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. In vertebrates, little is known of how social status affects the underlying neural mechanisms regulating decision-making circuits that drive competing behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim). We show that socially dominant animals enhance activation of the swim circuit. Conversely, social subordinates display a decreased activation of the swim circuit, but an enhanced activation of the escape circuit. In an effort to understand how social status mediates these effects, we constructed a neurocomputational model of the escape and swim circuits. The model replicates our findings and suggests that social status-related shift in circuit dynamics could be mediated by changes in the relative excitability of the escape and swim networks. Together, our results reveal that changes in the excitabilities of the Mauthner command neuron for escape and the inhibitory interneurons that regulate swimming provide a cellular mechanism for the nervous system to adapt to changes in social conditions by permitting the animal to select a socially appropriate behavioral response.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how social factors influence nervous system function is of great importance. Using zebrafish as a model system, we demonstrate how social experience affects decision making to enable animals to produce socially appropriate behavior. Based on experimental evidence and computational modeling, we show that behavioral decisions reflect the interplay between competing neural circuits whose activation thresholds shift in accordance with social status. We demonstrate this through analysis of the behavior and neural circuit

  4. [Health status and physical activity levels among the elderly who are participants and non-participants in social welfare groups in Florianópolis].

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Borges, Lucélia Justino

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to verify the association between health status and physical activity levels among the elderly who are participants and non-participants in social welfare groups in Florianópolis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The sample included 1,062 elderly people (625 women), mean age 71.9 (± 7.6). The variables analyzed were gender, age, schooling, marital status, physical activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and physical health status information (Brazil Elderly Schedule Questionnaire). Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. The results revealed that 60.6% were classified as physically active (total physical activity level) and 74% of the elderly reported illness. Illness status was more prevalent among social welfare group participants than non-participants. However, a better positive perception of physical health status was observed among social groups participants. For women, participation in social welfare groups was associated with a positive perception of physical health status (p<0.001) and with illness (p=0.005). The conclusion was that participation in social welfare groups contributes to a better perception of physical health status, as well as for the maintenance of adequate physical activity levels.

  5. Behavior problems of clinic children: relation to parental marital status, age and sex of child.

    PubMed

    Brady, C P; Bray, J H; Zeeb, L

    1986-07-01

    Behavior problems of 703 children seen in a clinical setting were examined for interactions between and effects of family type (i.e., parental marital status) and age and sex of child. Significant differences were found based on family type, with children of separated, divorced, and remarried parents having more problems. Expected interactions between marital status and age and sex of child were not obtained, although results support prior research with regard to the effects of age and sex.

  6. The intergenerational continuity of socioeconomic status: Effects of parenting, personality, and age at first romantic partnership.

    PubMed

    Senia, Jennifer M; Neppl, Tricia K; Gudmunson, Clinton G; Donnellan, M Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O

    2016-09-01

    Research has indicated that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to individual health and well-being, and may be transmitted across generations. According to the interactionist model, circumstances in the family of origin and individual characteristics both account for social, economic, and developmental outcomes associated with SES. Thus, for the present investigation, we evaluated continuities in SES across 2 generations (G1, G2) as mediated through G1 maternal positive parenting, G2 personality, and G2 age of first committed romantic partnership. Participants were 432 emerging adults from an ongoing longitudinal study. Consistent with the interactionist model, G1 SES was associated with G2 personality indirectly through G1 maternal positive parenting. G1 SES, G2 personality, and G2 first partnership directly predicted G2 SES. G1 maternal positive parenting was also indirectly associated with G2 age at first partnership through G2 personality. Findings were consistent across 2 broad personality domains-negative emotionality and constraint. However, positive emotionality was not associated with G2 age at partnership. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Relative Importance of Social Status and Physiological Need in Determining Leadership in a Social Forager

    PubMed Central

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that ‘leading according to need’ is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure. PMID:23691258

  8. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    PubMed

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  9. Age-dependent social learning in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of social learning, whereby the actions of an animal facilitate the acquisition of new information by another, is taxonomically biased towards mammals, especially primates, and birds. However, social learning need not be limited to group-living animals because species with less interaction can still benefit from learning about potential predators, food sources, rivals and mates. We trained male skinks (Eulamprus quoyii), a mostly solitary lizard from eastern Australia, in a two-step foraging task. Lizards belonging to 'young' and 'old' age classes were presented with a novel instrumental task (displacing a lid) and an association task (reward under blue lid). We did not find evidence for age-dependent learning of the instrumental task; however, young males in the presence of a demonstrator learnt the association task faster than young males without a demonstrator, whereas old males in both treatments had similar success rates. We present the first evidence of age-dependent social learning in a lizard and suggest that the use of social information for learning may be more widespread than previously believed.

  10. Stand density, tree social status and water stress influence allocation in height and diameter growth of Quercus petraea (Liebl.).

    PubMed

    Trouvé, Raphaël; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Seynave, Ingrid; Collet, Catherine; Lebourgeois, François

    2015-10-01

    Even-aged forest stands are competitive communities where competition for light gives advantages to tall individuals, thereby inducing a race for height. These same individuals must however balance this competitive advantage with height-related mechanical and hydraulic risks. These phenomena may induce variations in height-diameter growth relationships, with primary dependences on stand density and tree social status as proxies for competition pressure and access to light, and on availability of local environmental resources, including water. We aimed to investigate the effects of stand density, tree social status and water stress on the individual height-circumference growth allocation (Δh-Δc), in even-aged stands of Quercus petraea Liebl. (sessile oak). Within-stand Δc was used as surrogate for tree social status. We used an original long-term experimental plot network, set up in the species production area in France, and designed to explore stand dynamics on a maximum density gradient. Growth allocation was modelled statistically by relating the shape of the Δh-Δc relationship to stand density, stand age and water deficit. The shape of the Δh-Δc relationship shifted from linear with a moderate slope in open-grown stands to concave saturating with an initial steep slope in closed stands. Maximum height growth was found to follow a typical mono-modal response to stand age. In open-grown stands, increasing summer soil water deficit was found to decrease height growth relative to radial growth, suggesting hydraulic constraints on height growth. A similar pattern was found in closed stands, the magnitude of the effect however lowering from suppressed to dominant trees. We highlight the high phenotypic plasticity of growth in sessile oak trees that further adapt their allocation scheme to their environment. Stand density and tree social status were major drivers of growth allocation variations, while water stress had a detrimental effect on height in the

  11. [Demographic aging and participation of the elderly in the financing of health and social expenses].

    PubMed

    Rochon, M

    1999-01-01

    The classical indicators typically used to understand the consequences of population aging upon the ability to finance social services fail to consider the active participation of older individuals. But such participation and contribution is not negligible in countries where the financing of social programs is mainly assured through governments¿ general funds. This paper considers the actual and future importance of the participation of the elderly in funding public expenditures in Quebec, Canada. Specifically, the author attempts to determine the contribution of the elderly to the public financing of health and social expenditures taking into account overall government revenues, how that contribution will change over time and which related factors could be influenced, and up to what point can this contribution offset the projected growth in the financial burden of countries caused by an aging population. Governments¿ revenue sources and indexes related to people¿s contributions are discussed with regard to taxation on consumption and income. The contribution of the elderly to the financing of public expenditures is then considered, followed by sections on the contribution of the elderly to government revenues and the financing of social expenses, and future trends in the contribution. Demographic and health factors such as the population¿s health status and the aging of the active population also affect expenditure trends and the ability of a population to finance them.

  12. Questions for future studies: social relationships in old age.

    PubMed

    Troll, L E

    1999-01-01

    It is impressive, not to mention refreshing, to see four careful, weighty studies on social relationships that are not primarily concerned with caregiving. The fact that they are both longitudinal and cross-cultural makes them even more impressive and highlights general issues in the area of social relationships as well as more specific issues of aging. Four issues seem to me to be notable: 1) kinds of relationships, 2) continuity of relationships, 3) functions of relationships, and 4) cultural differences. I will consider each in turn.

  13. The influence of age-age correlations on epidemic spreading in social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of the experimental data concerning interactions between humans the process of epidemic spreading in a social network was investigated. It was found that number of contact and average age of nearest neighbors are highly correlated with age of an individual. The influence of those correlations on the process of epidemic spreading and effectiveness of control measures like mass immunizations campaigns was investigated. It occurs that the magnitude of epidemic is decreased and the effectiveness of target vaccination is increased.

  14. Social status and aggressive and disruptive behavior in girls: individual, group, and classroom influences.

    PubMed

    Estell, David B; Farmer, Thomas W; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found distinct subtypes of aggressive youth, marked by either high social status or social marginalization, and that various measures of status differentially associate with aggression. The majority of these studies, however, focused on boys, adolescents, and/or relational aggression in girls. The current research examined how the kind of status measured and the social ecology affect the association between overt aggression and social status in a sample of 187 3rd grade girls. Cluster analysis uncovered aggressive-popular, aggressive-unpopular, and prosocial-popular configurations. Although likeability was related solely to prosocial behavior, other measures of status co-occurred with both prosocial and aggressive behavior. Peer-group behavior complemented that of individuals, though peer-group and classroom acceptance of aggression were not related to cluster prevalence.

  15. Social network and cognitive functioning in old age : Self-efficacy as a mediator?

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Sonja; Maercker, Andreas; Forstmeier, Simon

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated self-efficacy (self-perceived and rated by an informant) as a mediator of the relationship between social network variables (including network size, frequency of social contacts, satisfaction with social contacts and social support) and cognitive impairment. Participants were 189 adults with a mean age of 75 years, 32 of whom suffered from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 39 from early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 118 who had no cognitive impairment. Binary logistic regression and linear regression models were used to assess the association between the predictor variables and cognitive impairment, controlling for several confounders. Network size was significantly associated with the cognitive status (mini mental status examination; β = 0.15, p < 0.05) and with odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-0.99). General self-efficacy rated by the informant mediated this relationship in both analyses. Possible underlying mechanisms, including neuroendocrine reactivity and health behavior are discussed.

  16. What are the links between maternal social status, hippocampal function, and HPA axis function in children?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized that early stress exposure could result in chronic disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and that this activation could lead to long-term changes. A robust literature in adult animals has demonstrated that chronic HPA axis activation leads to changes in hippocampal structure and function. In the current study, consistent with studies in animals, we observe an association between both maternal self-rated social status and hippocampal activation in children and between maternal self-rated social status and salivary cortisol in children.

  17. Wolf nipple measurements as indices of age and breeding status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Meier, T.J.; Seal, U.S.

    1993-01-01

    We measured nipple sizes of 29 captive wolves (Canis lupus), of known breeding histories, throughout the year and tested distinctions among various known breeding statuses of 20 wild wolves examined in northeastern Minnesota from May through September. For ca. 8 mo of the year only breeders and nonbreeders can be classified. Distinctions between current and former breeders were not reliable.

  18. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  19. The Effects of Social Comparison, Contingency of Reward, and Age of Subject on Self-reinforcement, Self-confidence, and Task Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applefield, James M.

    The present study evaluates the immediate effects of an experimentally manipulated social comparison on the subsequent behavior of lower socioeconomic status black children four to five and seven to eight years of age. The effects of four conditions of social comparison are measured with respect to the children's self-reinforcement,…

  20. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions.

  1. Ageing, Leisure, and Social Connectedness: How could Leisure Help Reduce Social Isolation of Older People?

    PubMed

    Toepoel, Vera

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults.

  2. Social relationships play a role in sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yulian; Ding, Zheyuan; Fei, Ying; Jin, Wen; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zexin; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Zhaopin; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether social relationships were associated with sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in November 2012 at Huzhou Teachers College, China. The questionnaire involved demographic characteristics, personal lifestyle habits, social relationships and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The associations between social relationships and sleep status were analyzed by using regression models after adjustment for potential factors. Poor sleep quality was prevalent among Chinese undergraduate students. Men tended to have better sleep than women. Lower social stress, better management of stress and good social support were correlated with better sleep status, and stress or support from friends, family and classmates were all related with sleep variables. While only weak associations between number of friends and sleep were detected. The results were consistent in men and women. Educators and instructors should be aware of the importance of social relationships as well as healthy sleep in undergraduates.

  3. [Morphofunctional status of gonadotropic cells of the adenohypophysis at early stages of age involution].

    PubMed

    Kozak, M V; Teplyĭ, D L

    2007-01-01

    Action of alpha-tocopherol, emoxipinum on functional status of gonadotropic cells was investigated at deficiency of sexual hormones in male and female rats of Wistar line. The alpha-tocopherol slows down aging of gonadotropic cells after gonadectomy.

  4. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective…

  5. Social network properties and self-rated health in later life: comparisons from the Korean social life, health, and aging project and the national social life, health and aging project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper has two objectives. Firstly, it provides an overview of the social network module, data collection procedures, and measurement of ego-centric and complete-network properties in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP). Secondly, it directly compares the KSHAP structure and results to the ego-centric network structure and results of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), which conducted in-home interviews with 3,005 persons 57 to 85 years of age in the United States. Methods The structure of the complete social network of 814 KSHAP respondents living in Township K was measured and examined at two levels of networks. Ego-centric network properties include network size, composition, volume of contact with network members, density, and bridging potential. Complete-network properties are degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and brokerage role. Results We found that KSHAP respondents with a smaller number of social network members were more likely to be older and tended to have poorer self-rated health. Compared to the NSHAP, the KSHAP respondents maintained a smaller network size with a greater network density among their members and lower bridging potential. Further analysis of the complete network properties of KSHAP respondents revealed that more brokerage roles inside the same neighborhood (Ri) were significantly associated with better self-rated health. Socially isolated respondents identified by network components had the worst self-rated health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the importance of social network analysis for the study of older adults’ health status in Korea. The study also highlights the importance of complete-network data and its ability to reveal mechanisms beyond ego-centric network data. PMID:25217892

  6. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p < 0.001), extreme fear during the hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  7. Defining aging in cyborgs: a bio-techno-social definition of aging.

    PubMed

    Wejbrandt, Anita

    2014-12-01

    Initially the aim of this article was to discuss and define aging at the intersection point between biology and sociology. However, recent biomedical and technological advances are changing the discourse on aging, and against this background the author of this article argues that current definitions of aging should be improved. The author emphasizes that there is a need to update current definitions of aging, or to formulate new multidisciplinary ones. The author suggests that (besides biology, psychology and sociology) the technological discipline should be included in the integrative gerontology model. Finally, in this article a new definition of aging is put forward. According to the author of this article, human bio-techno-social aging is characterized by: (a) a time-bound process of change including, (b) both reversible and irreversible biological processes, (c) social processes forming an irreversible chain of events, and (d) an increasing use of technological artifacts whose purpose is to support or replace damaged biological functions; and/or an increasing use of technological artifacts whose purpose is to facilitate or enable interaction.

  8. Update Status: The State of Social Media Marketing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Caroline Lego; Wood, Natalie T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how the topic of social media has been integrated and executed within academic institutions and marketing courses. An exploratory survey of marketing educators that taught social media in their course(s) was undertaken. The survey addressed how social media was embedded within an institute's curriculum,…

  9. Social and demographic characteristics of young and mature aged nursing students in Australian universities.

    PubMed

    Wright, C M; Frew, T J; Hatcher, D

    1998-02-01

    This national study compares the social and demographic characteristics of direct and delay entry students in a control group of 1551 students in higher education programmes in 1987 and 1990 with the national study group of 2295 students sampled in 1995. Using a specially constructed socioeconomic variable for comparison the analyses demonstrated a significant difference in the socioeconomic level of the household for the younger aged group but not for the mature aged group. There was also a significant difference between males and females in their age of entry patterns. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the location of school attended for most of their secondary education for the younger aged group but not for the mature aged group. For both groups there was a significant difference in the number of siblings, the level of education attained by the mother and the income received by the mother in the households of the control and study groups. Logit analysis revealed that there was a significant interaction between the household variables: socioeconomic status, number of siblings, and income received by the mother of the respondents in the control and study groups for the younger age group but not for the mature age group. This interaction for the younger age group, plus the finding that nursing students were more likely to delay their Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) payment than other university students suggests that politicians need to take great care in any changes to current HECS payments as such changes could upset the delicate social balance that has been achieved in nursing recruitment in Australia.

  10. Social engagement and health in younger, older, and oldest-old adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Walker, Erin Jackson; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Volaufova, Julia; LaMotte, Lynn R; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal; Ellis, Rebecca; Wood, Robert H; Frisard, Madlyn I

    2013-02-01

    Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a life span sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late-life health.

  11. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  12. [Successful Aging and social relations: selection and compensation in social contact behavior].

    PubMed

    Lang, F R; Tesch-Römer, C

    1993-01-01

    The model of selective optimization with compensation (Baltes & Baltes 1989; 1990) offers a theoretical concept of successful aging, that aims at the adaptivity of older persons in the aging process. The present study proposes an empirical operationalization of the model within the domain of social contact behavior, and relates this to self-referent knowledge on daily activities. Older persons with multiple chronic diseases and those in generally good health are compared according to their self-referent knowledge on daily activities and social contact behavior. All participants in the study were socially integrated and well functioning. A total of 35 subjects (mean age = 74.4 years) kept a prestructured dairy about their social contacts for a period of six days. Knowledge on daily activities was assessed in a semi-structured interview. The interviews and diaries were content analyzed (inter-rater reliability estimated via Cohen's Kappa for the interview: M = 0.84; for the diaries: M = 0.93). Results show that the highly social integrated subjects with multiple chronic disease performed significantly better in selective and compensatory strategies than the subjects in good health. Selection was indicated by (a) less family contact and a smaller number of group encounters, (b) more emotional support exchange, and (c) more knowledge on maintenance of daily activities. Compensation was indicated by (d) more frequent use of the telephone and (e) greater knowledge of prosthetic resources. It is concluded that social integration and participation can be optimized through selective and compensatory strategies in the face of chronic diseases in old age.

  13. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.

  14. Changes in self-rated health and subjective social status over time in a cohort of healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mark G; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Naleway, Allison; Thaker, Swathi; Ball, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    As part of a prospective cohort study of 1354 female and 347 male healthcare personnel, we examined the stability of subjective social status over ~7 months and the prospective association between subjective social status and self-rated health status. Most (82%) subjective social status ratings were stable (within ±1 point). Lower baseline subjective social status among healthcare personnel was associated with more subsequent reports of fatigue and headache and worsening global self-rated health status. Healthcare personnel who placed themselves on the bottom half of the subjective social status ladder were four times more likely to experience a decline in global self-rated health status and half as likely to improve to excellent self-rated health status.

  15. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p < .0001) as compared with children in the control group with adequate nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood.

  16. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  17. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Changes of telomere status with aging: An update.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoshi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Matsuda, Yoko; Arai, Tomio; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2016-03-01

    Accumulated data have shown that most human somatic cells or tissues show irreversible telomere shortening with age, and that there are strong associations between telomere attrition and aging-related diseases, including cancers, diabetes and cognitive disorders. Although it has been largely accepted that telomere attrition is one of the major causes of aging-related disorders, critical aspects of telomere biology remain unresolved, especially the lack of standardized methodology for quantification of telomere length. Another frustrating issue is that no potentially promising methods for safe prevention of telomere erosion, or for telomere elongation, have been devised. Here, we review several methods for quantification of telomere length currently utilized worldwide, considering their advantages and drawbacks. We also summarize the results of our recent studies of human cells and tissues, mainly using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern blotting, including those derived from patients with progeria-prone Werner syndrome and trisomy 21, and several strains of induced pluripotent stem cells. We discuss the possible merits of using telomere shortness as an indicator, or a new marker, for diagnosis of precancerous states and aging-related disorders. In addition, we describe newly found factors that are thought to impact telomere dynamics, providing a new avenue for examining the unsolved issues related to telomere restoration and maintenance.

  19. Association between physique characteristics and hand skeletal aging status.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between skeletal aging traits (obtained from evaluation of hand radiographs) and physique characteristics, including indices of obesity, skeletal size, muscular development, and the somatotypes of Heath and Carter (1967) and of Deriabin (1985). To achieve our aims, we used multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's and canonical correlation analyses. The studied population comprised 629 males and 561 females aged 18-90 years, all members of the Chuvasha (Russian Federation). The present study provides evidence for a connection between hand bone aging traits and physique characteristics. The cortical index showed a small but significant correlation with adiposity and the index of overall physique, but bone mineral density (BMD) traits were not correlated with the index of overall physique. Deriabin's set of somatotypes was significantly correlated with BMD, but could explain only 2% of its variation. Significant correlations of the hand osteoarthritis trait were observed with indices of adiposity. Also observed were statistically significant canonical correlations with both sets of somatotypes, which enabled us to predict 2-3% of hand osteoarthritis variation by a combination of somatotype components. Osseometric score evinced statistically significant correlations with most indices of physique as well as with a combination of somatotype components. These findings may prove helpful in epidemiological studies, because they show that body composition is the factor that is statistically significantly associated with skeletal aging.

  20. Social patterning of stress and coping: Does disadvantaged social status confer more stress and fewer coping resources?

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Schwartz, Sharon; Frost, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its centrality to social stress theory, research on the social patterning of stress exposure and coping resources has been sparse and existing research shows conflicting results. We interviewed 396 gay, lesbian and bisexual, and 128 heterosexual people in New York City to examine variability in exposure to stress related to sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity. Multiple linear regression showed clear support for the social stress hypothesis with regard to race/ethnic minority status, somewhat mixed support with regard to sexual orientation, and no support with regard to gender. We discuss this lack of parsimony in social stress explanations for health disparities. PMID:18433961

  1. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  2. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  3. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  4. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  5. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  6. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  7. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  8. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  9. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social work.…

  10. Direct Social Support and Long-term Health Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003–2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change. Results. After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts. PMID:24150176

  11. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  12. School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

  13. Social Prominence and the Heterogeneity of Rejected Status in Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Estell, David B.; Brooks, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of peer rejection was examined as a function of social prominence in fifth grade classrooms. From an overall sample of 3,891 (1,931 girls) students, 721 youth (424 boys) were identified with rejected status. Social prominence was determined from the aggregation of peer nominations for "leader", "athletic", "cool", and "popular".…

  14. Personality and Problem Behaviours as Predictors of Adolescents' Social Status: Academic Track and Gender as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female; M = 15.46 years) attending classrooms in two…

  15. Characteristics of Academically-Influential Children: Achievement Motivation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…

  16. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  17. The Self-Identification of Provincial Young People in the Context of Social-Status Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukin, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    A survey conducted in two provincial areas of Russia provides the basis for an examination of the relation between the self-identification and the social status affiliation of young people. Self-assessments serve as the basis for a model of the social structure and a typology of the younger generation in these regions, in accordance with their…

  18. Psychosocial Empowerment and Social Support Factors Associated with the Employment Status of Immigrant Welfare Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramirez, Manuel; Martinez, Manuel F.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Albar, Maria-Jesus; Dominguez, Eugenia; Santolaya, Francisco J.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the role that psychosocial empowerment and social support factors play in the employment status of immigrants who participate in job-readiness programs financed by the European Social Funds and the Welfare Services of Andalusia, a region in the south of Spain. The goal of these programs is to find new ways to improve immigrants'…

  19. Social status regulates growth rate: consequences for life-history strategies.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, H A; Benson, M E; Fernald, R D

    1999-11-23

    The life-history strategies of organisms are sculpted over evolutionary time by the relative prospects of present and future reproductive success. As a consequence, animals of many species show flexible behavioral responses to environmental and social change. Here we show that disruption of the habitat of a colony of African cichlid fish, Haplochromis burtoni (Günther) caused males to switch social status more frequently than animals kept in a stable environment. H. burtoni males can be either reproductively active, guarding a territory, or reproductively inactive (nonterritorial). Although on average 25-50% of the males are territorial in both the stable and unstable environments, during the 20-week study, nearly two-thirds of the animals became territorial for at least 1 week. Moreover, many fish changed social status several times. Surprisingly, the induced changes in social status caused changes in somatic growth. Nonterritorial males and animals ascending in social rank showed an increased growth rate whereas territorial males and animals descending in social rank slowed their growth rate or even shrank. Similar behavioral and physiological changes are caused by social change in animals kept in stable environmental conditions, although at a lower rate. This suggests that differential growth, in interaction with environmental conditions, is a central mechanism underlying the changes in social status. Such reversible phenotypic plasticity in a crucial life-history trait may have evolved to enable animals to shift resources from reproduction to growth or vice versa, depending on present and future reproductive prospects.

  20. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  1. Teaching Current Events: Its Status in Social Studies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.; Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A study addressed specific topics related to the teaching of current events through a teacher survey asking the more general question: How do social studies teachers who are members of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) teach current events in their classrooms? Questionnaires were mailed to a random, national sample of 598 members…

  2. Employment Status, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, Juan A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of 292 community-living elderly. Findings suggest that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. (RJM)

  3. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  4. Influence of immunologic status on age prediction using signal joint T cell receptor excision circles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sohee; Seo, Hee Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Soong Deok

    2017-02-01

    Age estimation based on quantifying signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) in T cells has been established to be a promising approach in forensic practice and demonstrated in different ethnic groups. Considering that the homeostasis of T cells carrying sjTRECs is closely related to the immunologic status of a person, it is important to investigate the influence of various immunologic statuses on the age estimation model. In this study, quantification of sjTREC contents was performed for groups of people with various immune system statuses, and the result showed less correlation with chronological age (r (2) = 0.424) than in the healthy group (r (2) = 0.648). The simulation model indicated that this influence could increase the range of prediction in the age estimation model, and the mean absolute deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age. Through this study, it was demonstrated that immunologic status is a factor that affects the accuracy of age prediction using sjTREC quantification.

  5. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  6. Association of post stroke depression with social factors, insomnia, and neurological status in Chinese elderly population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingru; Tao, Yong; Chen, Yang; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Huadong; Fu, Xiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of post stroke depression (PSD) with social factors, insomnia, and neurological status among elderly Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. Six hundred and eight patients over 60 years of age, who had suffered from a first episode of ischemic stroke within 7 days, were enrolled into the study. They were divided into PSD and non-PSD groups according to the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) scores. The association of PSD with social factors, insomnia, and neurological status was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Compared with the patients who did not develop PSD, those with PSD reported adverse life events more frequently, and more subjects with PSD lived alone, had left carotid artery infarction and cortical infarction (P < 0.05), history of insomnia, and high National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and low Barthel Index (BI) scores (P < 0.01). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of PSD was associated with a history of insomnia (HR = 1.59, 95 % CI 1.12-2.36, P < 0.01), NIHSS scores (HR = 2.45, 95 % CI 1.42-3.91, P < 0.01) and BI scores (HR = 2.56, 95 % CI 1.39-4.25, P < 0.01). Insomnia and the degree of neurological deficit were associated with PSD in an elderly population of Chinese people.

  7. The importance of social and cultural factors to nursing status.

    PubMed

    Bojtor, Anna

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the authors was to examine nursing staff workload. The examination is based on the workload model of Robert Karasek and on the status integration theory of P. Gibbs and Walter T. Martin. As a means of examination, an open questionnaire consisting of 55 items and 76 variables was given to nurses working in different fields of health care, studying in higher education instead, or to persons with a degree in nursing (n = 465). The main concern of the authors was to attempt to identify the inconsistencies in nursing status which might come from limited decision-making freedom and high workplace requirements. In the process of statistical analysis of the data, considerable deviation was observed regarding some scales of the questionnaire. The authors emphasize that the reasons for the inconsistencies in nursing status might originate either from traditional cultural elements or from increased workload based on unclear competencies which are forced on the nurses.

  8. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  9. Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?

    PubMed

    Reavey, Catherine E; Warnock, Neil D; Garbett, Amy P; Cotter, Sheena C

    2015-10-01

    How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in "staying alive" in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual.

  10. Predictors of C-Reactive Protein in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Wroblewski, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Inflammation plays an important role in many chronic degenerative diseases associated with aging, and social, economic, and behavioral factors that contribute to inflammation may lead to differential burdens of morbidity and mortality in later life. This study examines socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity as predictors of C-reactive protein (CRP) among older adults in the United States and considers the degree to which health behaviors, medical conditions and medication use, and psychosocial factors account for these associations. Methods. Multiple linear regression analysis of survey data for 1,580 participants, 57–85 years of age, in a population-based nationally representative sample of community-residing older adults in the United States. Results. Educational attainment, household wealth, and race/ethnicity were independently associated with CRP, with limited evidence for interactions with age. Health-related behaviors and usage of medications related to inflammation accounted for substantial proportions of these associations. Discussion. These results highlight the fundamental causes of inflammation among older adults and suggest pathways through which social disparities in inflammation may be reduced. PMID:20172904

  11. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  12. The age-crime curve in adolescence and early adulthood is not due to age differences in economic status.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R

    2013-06-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.

  13. Cohort Profile: The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, Jennifer C; Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Li; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Hui; Liu, I-Wen; Liu, Hsia-Yuan; Weinstein, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Taiwanese middle-aged and older adults. It adds the collection of biomarkers and performance assessments to the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA), a nationally representative study of adults aged 60 and over, including the institutionalized population. The TLSA began in 1989, with follow-ups approximately every 3 years; younger refresher cohorts were added in 1996 and 2003. The first wave of SEBAS, based on a sub-sample of respondents from the 1999 TLSA, was conducted in 2000. A total of 1023 respondents completed both a face-to-face home interview and, several weeks later, a hospital-based physical examination. In addition to a 12-h (7 pm–7 am) urine specimen collected the night before and a fasting blood specimen collected during the examination, trained staff measured blood pressure, height, weight and waist and hip circumferences. A second wave of SEBAS was conducted in 2006 using a similar protocol to SEBAS 2000, but with the addition of performance assessments conducted by the interviewers at the end of the home interview. Both waves of SEBAS also included measures of health status (physical, emotional, cognitive), health behaviours, social relationships and exposure to stressors. The SEBAS data, which are publicly available at [http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACDA/studies/3792/version/5], allow researchers to explore the relationships among life challenges, the social environment and health and to examine the antecedents, correlates and consequences of change in biological measures and health. PMID:25205853

  14. Ageing and COPD affect different domains of nutritional status: the ECCE study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Spatafora, M; Paglino, G; Pedone, C; Corsonello, A; Scichilone, N; Antonelli-Incalzi, R; Bellia, V

    2011-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ageing may contribute to malnutrition. We aimed to explore whether COPD and ageing determine malnutrition in different manners. 460 stable COPD outpatients (376 males and 84 females) from the Extrapulmonary Consequences of COPD in the Elderly (ECCE) study database were investigated (age 75.0±5.9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54.7±18.3% predicted). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment® (MNA) questionnaire. From the MNA, three scores exploring the domains of the nutritional status were calculated: body composition, energy intake and body functionality scores. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were negatively correlated with five MNA items exploring mobility, patient's perception of own nutrition and health status, and arm and calf circumferences (lowest Spearman's rho (rs)=-0.011; highest p=0.039). GOLD stages were independently correlated with body composition and body functionality scores (model r2=0.073). Age was negatively correlated with four MNA items exploring loss of appetite, fluid intake, mobility and autonomy in daily life (lowest rs=-0.013; highest p=0.030). Age was independently correlated with body functionality score (model r2=0.037). Severe COPD and ageing are independent and probably concurrent conditions leading to malnutrition. The MNA questionnaire allows a valuable insight into the complexity of components of nutritional status and may provide useful clues for treatment strategies.

  15. Characteristics of the Social Status of Students at Military Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlova, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the motivations of Russian college students in military training centers and military departments, and cadets enrolled in military service academies shows that the first two occupy a marginal position. This is reflected in the ambiguity of their status and the fact that they are at the interface between two cultures, manifested in…

  16. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  17. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359) and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP) was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9). Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339). The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0) and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8). The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%), follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively). In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services. PMID:19930601

  18. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  19. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed.

  20. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  1. Sexuality and Physical Contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Martha K.; Waite, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample. Method. We describe the new measures and compare the distributions of each across gender and age groups, in some cases by partnership status. Results. Two components of sexuality decrease with age among both men and women: frequency of finding an unknown person sexually attractive and receptivity to a partner’s sexual overtures. In contrast, the inclination to make one’s self sexually attractive to others was a more complicated function of partner status, gender, and age: partnered women and unpartnered men made the most effort, with the more effortful gender’s effort decreasing with age. Both men and women find nonsexual physical contact appealing but sexual physical contact is more appealing to men than women. Finally, two fifths of men and women report dissatisfaction with their partner’s frequency of caring behaviors that make later sexual interactions pleasurable, and a fifth of women and a quarter of men who had vaginal sex in the past year report dissatisfaction with amount of foreplay. Discussion. These data offer the opportunity to characterize sexual motivation in older adulthood more precisely and richly and to examine how the context of sexual experience and the nonsexual aspects of physical intimacy correlate with sexual behavior, enjoyment, and problems. PMID:25360027

  2. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  3. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kirsty; Hoey, Leane; Hughes, Catherine F.; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin) in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine) with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications. PMID:27854316

  4. The Association Between Age and Ethics-Related Issues in Using Social Media for HIV Prevention in Peru.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Luis; Young, Sean D

    Little research has focused on the ethical issues around using social media for HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Peru. This study surveyed participants from the HOPE social media HIV intervention HIV intervention in Peru to assess their experiences and perceptions of ethical issues in the study and the impact of age on their experiences and perceptions. This study found that, compared to younger participants, older participants were more likely to express higher levels of understanding of the consent form and trust that other participants were real. Older participants also reported being less likely to benefit in learning about their HIV status. Findings suggest that age plays a role in participants' experiences in a social media-based HIV intervention.

  5. The Association Between Age and Ethics-Related Issues in Using Social Media for HIV Prevention in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, ChingChe J.; Menacho, Luis; Young, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the ethical issues around using social media for HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Peru. This study surveyed participants from the HOPE social media HIV intervention HIV intervention in Peru to assess their experiences and perceptions of ethical issues in the study and the impact of age on their experiences and perceptions. This study found that, compared to younger participants, older participants were more likely to express higher levels of understanding of the consent form and trust that other participants were real. Older participants also reported being less likely to benefit in learning about their HIV status. Findings suggest that age plays a role in participants’ experiences in a social media-based HIV intervention. PMID:27034609

  6. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  7. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  8. Ethnicity and nativity status as determinants of perceived social support: testing the concept of familism.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joanna; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2009-05-01

    Research has demonstrated a protective effect of social support on health. Social support is most often treated as an independent variable. However, as with disease risk factors, which are not randomly distributed, health-promoting resources such as social support are also systematically patterned. For example, in the USA, family support is thought to be high among Latinos, Mexican Americans in particular. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, we explored the relationships between ethnicity/nativity status, socioeconomic status (SES) and perceived social support from family and friends. We also assessed the role of retention of culture-measured as primary language spoken at home-on social support. Finally, we tested whether SES moderated the relationship between ethnicity/nativity status and social support. Foreign and US-born Latinos, most notably, foreign-born Mexicans, reported higher family support compared to non-Latino whites. Primary language spoken at home seems to account for the relationship between ethnicity/nativity and familial social support. Mexican-born and US-born Latino immigrants reported lower social support from family at higher levels of SES. Each ethnic minority group reported lower perception of friend support compared to non-Latino whites. There was a strong SES gradient in subjective support from friends with higher support reported among those with higher SES. This study provides evidence for the notion that Latinos in the USA, specifically foreign-born Mexicans, may rely on family ties for support more than do non-Latino whites. Findings also help identify ethnicity/nativity status, primary language spoken and SES as determinants of social support. Specifically, the higher familial social support found among Latino immigrants may be due to retention of culture. Effect modification by SES suggests that Latinos of lower and higher SES may differ with regard to the traditionally-held value of familism.

  9. Around the Table: Food Insecurity, Socioeconomic Status, and Instrumental Social Support among Women Living in a Rural Kenyan Island Community.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Salmen, Charles R; Hickey, Matthew D; Mattah, Brian; Magerenge, Richard; Milner, Erin M; Weiser, Sheri D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among socioeconomic status, social support, and food insecurity in a rural Kenyan island community. A cross-sectional random sample of 111 female heads of households representing 583 household members were surveyed in Mfangano Island, Kenya from August to October 2010 using adaptations of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. In multiple linear regression models, less instrumental social support, defined as concrete direct ways people help others (B = -0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.45 to -0.17), and decreased ownership scale based on owning material assets (B = -2.93; 95% CI -4.99 to -0.86) were significantly associated with increased food insecurity, controlling for age, education, marital status, and household size. Social support interventions geared at group capacity and resilience may be crucial adjuncts to improve and maintain the long term food security and health of persons living in low-resource regions.

  10. Social status does not predict corticosteroid levels in postdispersal male spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; East, Marion L; Wachter, Bettina; Höner, Oliver P; Möstl, Erich; Hofer, Heribert

    2003-04-01

    In social species with low rates of direct male competition levels of corticosteroids should not correlate with social status. Male spotted hyenas acquire social status by observing strict queuing conventions over many years, and thus levels of male-male aggression are low, and male social status and tenure are closely correlated. In this study, we investigated whether the low rate of direct male competition in spotted hyenas was reflected in fecal corticosteroid levels of adult males in the Serengeti National Park. Also, interactions with dominant females may influence corticosteroid levels of males, and it has been suggested recently that males with a long tenure (high rank) are more stressed by females than males with a short tenure (low rank). We tested whether there is a difference in the likelihood of being aggressively challenged by dominant females between long-tenured and short-tenured males. Short-tenured males were more likely to elicit an aggressive response by females than long-tenured males, but previous work suggests that they also interacted less frequently with females, thus avoiding putting themselves in a potentially stressful situation. Thus, as expected, the comparison of males in three different clans revealed no correlation between social status or tenure and fecal corticosteroid levels. However, males of the largest clan had the highest levels of fecal corticosteroids, possibly reflecting higher rates of social interactions in larger clans.

  11. A cross-sectional exploration of smoking status and social interaction in a large population-based Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Chiew, May; Weber, Marianne F; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-07-01

    We used cross-sectional data to investigate whether current, past and never smokers report different levels of social interaction and whether the level of social interaction varied according to the type of interaction being measured. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from 239,043 men and women aged 45 years or older living in Australia between February 2006 and February 2010. The study participation rate was 18%. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the percentage differences in the mean values of four social interaction outcomes according to smoking status after adjusting for age, place of residence, income, education, health insurance status, physical limitation, psychological distress and exposure to passive smoke: number of times 1) spent with friends/family, 2) spoken on the telephone, 3) attended social meetings in the past week, and 4) number of people outside of home that can be depended upon. 7.6% of males and 6.9% of females were current smokers, 43.6% of males and 28.6% of females were ex-smokers and 48.8% of males and 64.5% of females had never smoked. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported significantly fewer social interactions in the past week and had fewer people outside the home that they could depend on. Men and women current smokers attended 24.0% (95% CI, 20.3, 27.5) and 31.1% (95% CI, 28.1, 34.1) fewer social group meetings on average than never smokers. Smokers exposed to passive smoke reported higher levels of social interaction than those not exposed. Past smokers reported levels of social interaction that were intermediate to those of current and never smokers and the more years they had abstained from smoking, the more social interaction they reported on average. Our data are in line with previous research showing that smokers are not only worse off economically, physically and mentally, but are also less likely to be socially connected.

  12. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  13. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  14. Do Special Programs Affect the Social Status of the Gifted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, William Grant; Campbell, Noma Jo

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between social acceptance, measured by sociometry, and membership in one of three academic groups: gifted, high achievers, and average. Changes in the peer acceptance of the gifted students in a special program were also examined. Subjects were 66 fourth graders. (MP)

  15. Gender Effects in Peer Nominations for Aggression and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Little, Todd D.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2005-01-01

    Little prior research has examined children's interpersonal perceptions of peers from a social relations model framework. This study examines the degree of actor and partner variances, as well as generalised and dyadic reciprocities, in a sample of 351 sixth graders' peer nominations of different forms and functions of aggression and aspects of…

  16. Bullying: Young Children's Roles, Social Status, and Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…

  17. Social status and the pursuit of positive social identity: Systematic domains of intergroup differentiation and discrimination for high- and low- status groups

    PubMed Central

    Oldmeadow, Julian A.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Research on intergroup discrimination has focused on the cognitive and motivational mechanisms involved, but the role of stereotype content has been neglected. Drawing on social identity theory and stereotype content research, the current studies investigated the role of stereotype content in intergroup differentiation and discrimination. Across two studies, students from high- and low-status groups differentiated themselves positively on stereotypes of competence and warmth respectively, and in allocations of resources in domains relevant to competence (academics, research) and warmth (sports, community outreach). Furthermore, there was evidence that discrimination by high- and low-status groups was driven by their respective stereotypes of competence and warmth. It is argued that stereotypes of competence and warmth, derived from status and power relations between groups, define the domains in which groups pursue positively distinct identities. PMID:24319344

  18. The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.

    PubMed

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention.

  19. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  20. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  1. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under AGENCY: Social Security... assigning new SSNs to children age 13 and under. We are requesting information from the public to ensure... an SSN for a child age 13 and under. DATES: To ensure that your comments are considered, we...

  2. Graduates' Perspectives on a National Specialized Program in Social Work and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Shpiegel, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the growing need for social workers with specialized training in aging, the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) has developed as a nationwide initiative to enhance aging education for master's-level social work students. This study presents a content analysis of answers to 2 open-ended questions in a national…

  3. A Social Portrait of Age Cohorts in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beliaeva, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The social changes that have taken place in the past fifteen years have had a powerful effect on the life trajectories and social expectations of people in different age groups in Russia. For the most part there are two terms that are used to identify these groups: age cohort (or age group) and generation. But the use of these terms in…

  4. Evaluation of a Training Program in Aging Research for Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, we have offered a postgraduate training program in aging research for social work faculty from across the country. The overarching goal of the program is to expand the pool of social work faculty engaged in aging research. This, in turn, will reinvigorate participants' teaching; prepare them to update aging-related content in the…

  5. Are neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital protective against depressive mood in old age? A multilevel analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of distinguishing between bonding and bridging social capital is now understood, evidence remains sparse on their contextual effects on health. We examined the associations of neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital with depressive mood among older Japanese. A questionnaire survey of all community residents aged 65 and older in the city of Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan was conducted in July and August 2012. Bonding and bridging social capital were assessed by evaluating individual homogeneous and heterogeneous social networks in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individual responses in each neighborhood were aggregated to create an index of neighborhood-level bonding/bridging social capital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of such social capital with depressive mood using multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 7271 questionnaires distributed, 6416 were analyzed (covering 152 administrative neighborhoods). Approximately 56.8% of respondents were women, and the mean age was 76.2 ± 7.1 years. Neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.94), but neighborhood-level bridging social capital was not. Gender-stratified analysis revealed that neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood in both genders (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96 for men; OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99 for women), while neighborhood-level bridging social capital was positively associated with depressive mood in women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34). There was also a significant interaction between individual- and neighborhood-level bonding social capital, indicating that people with a weaker homogeneous network and living in a neighborhood with weaker bonding social capital were more likely to have depressive mood. Our results suggest that neighborhood social

  6. Marital Status and Depressive Symptoms over Time: Age and Gender Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPierre, Tracey A.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective, this study investigated the contemporaneous and longitudinal relationships between marital status and depressive symptoms for men and women, and examined if age moderates these relationships. Data came from 9,507 individuals who responded to the first two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households.…

  7. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  8. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  9. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F; Rashmi, V H; Weir, Charlene R; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms' exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians.

  10. There is a Positive Correlation Between Socioeconomic Status and Ovarian Reserve in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. Material/Methods A total of 101 married women between 20–35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3–6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2–10 mm in diameter. Results Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). Conclusions A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients. PMID:27847382

  11. The Influence of Chronic and Situational Social Status on Stereotype Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women’s (Experiment 1) and girls’ performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys’ ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations. PMID:26645829

  12. Evaluation of oral health status of retirement-age population in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Vidzis, Aldis; Cema, Ingrida; Krasta, Ingrida; Brinkmane, Anda; Kalnins, Imants

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Latvian government Health care financing regulations do not envisage free dental care in nursing homes. Consequently, in this situation arises need to carry out comparative evaluation of oral health status and quantity indicators of dental prosthodontics among retirement-age population in Latvia. The aim of the study was to estimate oral health and dental prosthodontics indicators among retirement-age population in Latvia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We examinated 465 retirement-age inhabitants in Latvia. We assessed dental status, quantity and quality of the existing complete dental prostheses. We also evaluated the DMF-T index. RESULTS. Oral health indicators among Latvian retirement-age population are better than those for nursing homes residents in the same age group. Complete dental prostheses used by nursing homes residents do not meet denture's quality criteria. Retirement-age patients have oral hygiene problems. CONCLUSIONS. DMF-T index among Latvian retirement-age population is lower than among residents of nursing homes. The major component of DMF-T index is the number of lost teeth. The assessment of dental prostheses among residents of nursing homes showed unsatisfactory results. Retirement-age population in Latvia needs treatment of oral mucosal diseases, improvement of oral hygienic measures and increase of amount of dental prosthodontics.

  13. Social Status Effects on Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Eric

    To determine short-run effects of experimentally imposed leadership roles, a sample of 221 Boy Scouts (aged 10 to 17) was formed into (usually) 4-man teams that competed in 3 skill games. One member of each team was randomly designated as captain, with power to administer and reward. Captains who were leaders in their troops responded to becoming…

  14. Social and psychological well-being in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: the effects of race, gender, age, and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Kertzner, Robert M; Meyer, Ilan H; Frost, David M; Stirratt, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Using a social stress perspective, the authors studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual vs. gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, the authors examined whether LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. The authors found different patterns when looking at social versus psychological well-being and positive versus negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Although no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. The authors conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model.

  15. Social and Psychological Well-being in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals: The Effects of Race, Gender, Age, and Sexual Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kertzner, Robert M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Frost, David M.; Stirratt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Using social stress perspective, we studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African-American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual versus gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, we examined if LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. We found different patterns when looking at social vs. psychological well-being and positive vs. negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Though no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. We conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model. PMID:20099941

  16. Intergroup biases of the intermediate-status group: the effect of stability and instability of social stratification.

    PubMed

    Caricati, Luca; Monacelli, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, the effect of instability of social stratification on intergroup behaviour of the intermediate-status group was investigated. In both studies, participants were categorised in the intermediate-status group. In Study 1, perceived instability was measured. Results show that the more social stratification was perceived as stable, the more intermediate-status group members were biased against the high-status group. Biases against both high- and low-status groups tended to become similar as social stratification was perceived as more unstable. In Study 2, instability was manipulated in upward and downward conditions. Results showed that, in the upwardly unstable condition, intermediate-status group members were more biased against high-status group, while in the downwardly unstable condition they were more biased against the low-status group.

  17. Defense of females, but not social status, predicts plasma androgen levels in male spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; East, Marion L; Hofer, Heribert

    2003-01-01

    A positive correlation between male social status and testosterone levels is expected and often found in social species with high rates of agonistic interactions or when social relationships among males are unstable. In contrast, in species with low rates of agonistic interactions or when social relationships are stable, testosterone levels should not correlate with social status. The "challenge hypothesis" predicts that androgen levels should rise during periods of courtship or mate guarding. We addressed these questions in free-ranging spotted hyenas, a species with low rates and low intensities of aggression among males but where males spend extensive effort to court females. In males, we measured testosterone, its precursor androstenedione, and its metabolite 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. As predicted, testosterone levels were significantly higher and androstenedione levels tended to be higher in males that, at the time of sampling, defended a female, compared with males that did not defend a female. Also, as predicted, there was no correlation between social status and androgen levels in male spotted hyenas.

  18. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  19. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged < 65 yrs and 1,349 aged > or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  20. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  1. Targeting Lynch Victims: Social Marginality or Status Transgressions?*

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate; Tolnay, Stewart E.; Beck, E.M.; Laird, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first evidence yielded by a newly-compiled database of known lynch victims. Using information from the original census enumerators’ manuscripts, we identify the individual- and household-level characteristics of more than 900 black males lynched in ten southern states between 1882 and 1930. First, we use the information gathered for successfully linked cases to present a profile of individual-level and household-level characteristics of a large sample of lynch victims. Second, we compare these characteristics to a randomly-generated sample of black men living in the counties where lynchings occurred. We use our findings from this comparative analysis to assess the empirical support for alternative theoretical perspectives on the selection of individuals as victims of southern mob violence. Third, we consider whether the individual-level risk factors for being targeted as a lynch victim varied substantially over time or across space. Our results demonstrate that victims were generally less embedded within the social and economic fabric of their communities than were other black men, suggesting that social marginality increased the likelihood of being targeted for lynching. These findings were generally consistent across decades, and within different socio-demographic contexts. PMID:25067845

  2. The Association of Lung Age with Smoking Status in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Joo Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung age, calculated from sex, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and height, was developed to illustrate premature changes to the lungs and could be used to motivate smoking cessation. However, this method has not been tested in association with smoking in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of lung age with smoking and other factors in Korean males. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,100 healthy men who visited a health promotion center at Ewha Womans University Medical Center from January 2008 to June 2009. Lung age was calculated from FEV1 and normal predictive values of spirometry according to age in the Korean population. The difference between lung age and chronological age was evaluated in relation to smoking status, weight, body mass index, waist, muscle mass, fat mass, and exercise. Results The age difference was significantly higher in current smokers than in non-smokers (12.47 ± 19.90 vs. 7.30 ± 19.52, P < 0.001). Additionally, the age difference was positively correlated with life time pack-year (β = 0.223; P < 0.001) and fat mass (β = 0.462; P < 0.001). Lung age increased 1 year for 4.48 pack-year increase or for 2.16% increase in fat mass. Conclusion We found a significant relationship between lung age and both smoking status and fat mass in healthy Korean males. Lung age may be a useful tool for motivating cessation of cigarette smoking and management of risk factors related to obesity. PMID:24501668

  3. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  4. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  5. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  6. Community Colleges in Japan and the Social Status of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starobin, Soko S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the history of Japanese postsecondary education systems prior to the American-influenced educational reforms of 1945 and the post-war development of junior colleges. Examines implications for women's social status, based on the development of junior colleges, and makes recommendations for the academic and career advancement of…

  7. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  8. Economic adversity and depressive symptoms in mothers: Do marital status and perceived social support matter?

    PubMed

    Kingston, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that marriage and perhaps other forms of interpersonal support can buffer the negative effects of poverty. The current study tests the hypothesis that marital status, perceived social support and neighborhood collective efficacy can moderate the effects of economic adversity on depressive symptoms among parents. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were 1,957 mothers of minor children. Analysis of main effects revealed associations between neighborhood SES (β = −0.69, SE (0.15), p < .001), family income (β = −0.11, SE (0.05), p = .02) financial strain (β = 0.51, SE (0.18), p = .004), being single (β = 0.63, SE (0.24), p = .009) and perceived social support (β = −0.22, SE (0.03), p < .001) on depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that interpersonal resources can buffer the effects of economic adversity was not supported. There were no significant interactions between marital status and economic adversity. There was a significant interaction between perceived social support and neighborhood level socioeconomic status (β = −0.07, SE (0.03), p = .04) but the effects of social support were weakest in neighborhoods characterized by low socioeconomic status.

  9. Examining Cyberbullying Tendency and Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Status of Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levent, Faruk; Taçgin, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    The teachers have a substantial role for students through consciously the Internet usage and struggle with cyberbullying. The purpose of this study is to investigate cyberbullying tendency and multidimensional perceived social support status of the teacher candidates. The participants of this research have become 412 teacher candidates as…

  10. Communication and Energy Conservation: Social Status in a Tale of Two Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jack; Glynn, Carroll J.; Griffin, Robert J.

    To explore the relationships among three sets of variables--social status, communication, and energy conserving behavior--405 respondents from a highly educated, upper income, largely white collar community and 333 respondents from a predominantly lower-middle and working class city were interviewed over the telephone. Questions were designed to…

  11. Anxiety and Depression in Transgender Individuals: The Roles of Transition Status, Loss, Social Support, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budge, Stephanie L.; Adelson, Jill L.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine facilitative and avoidant coping as mediators between distress and transition status, social support, and loss. Method: A total of 351 transgender individuals (n = 226 transgender women and n = 125 transgender men) participated in this study. Participants completed measures on transgender…

  12. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 3: Status and Social Conditions of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Highlighting the specific as well as common characteristics of different types of parents, this volume, the third of four volumes on parenting specifically deals with parental status and the social conditions of parenting. The volume consists of 17 chapters as follows: (1) "Mothering" (Kathryn E. Barnard and Louise K. Martell); (2)…

  13. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  14. Palliative Care Social Work In India: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ragesh, G; Zacharias, Lithin; Thomas, Priya Treesa

    2017-01-01

    Palliative care (PC) involves total care for persons suffering from life-threatening illnesses and their families. Social work as a profession and an academic discipline is gaining momentum in India for the past few decades. A large number of professional social workers are working with individuals, families, and communities to provide PC in India. Authors have presented the current status of PC social work interventions and discussed the future directions in the practice, research, and training in PC and end-of-life care. PMID:28216870

  15. Person perception and autonomic nervous system response: the costs and benefits of possessing a high social status.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, J; Norman, G J; Li, T; Berntson, G G

    2013-02-01

    This research was designed to investigate the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the perception of social targets varying in social status. Participants varying in subjective financial status were presented with faces assigned with either a low, average, or high financial status. Electrocardiographic and impedance cardiography signals were recorded and measures of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (high frequency heart rate variability; HF HRV) cardiac control were derived. These measures associated with the presentation of each face condition were examined in relation to the subjective status of the perceivers. Participants with high subjective financial status showed reduced sympathetic activity when viewing low- and medium-status targets as compared to high-status targets, and lower parasympathetic response when viewing high- and medium-status targets relative to low-status targets.

  16. Fracture risk prediction: importance of age, BMD and spine fracture status.

    PubMed

    Krege, John H; Wan, Xiaohai; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify factors for a parsimonious fracture risk assessment model considering morphometric spine fracture status, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical risk factors. Using data from 2761 subjects from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged ⩾50 years, we previously reported that a logistic regression model considering age, BMD and spine fracture status provided as much predictive information as a model considering these factors plus the remaining WHO clinical risk factors. The current analysis assesses morphometric vertebral fracture and/or nonvertebral fragility fracture at 5 years using data from an additional 1964 CaMos subjects who have now completed 5 years of follow-up (total N=4725). Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs assessed using quantititative morphometry at baseline and end point. Nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by questionnaire and confirmed using radiographs or medical records; fragility fracture was defined as occurring with minimal or no trauma. In this analysis, a model including age, BMD and spine fracture status provided a gradient of risk per s.d. (GR/s.d.) of 1.88 and captured most of the predictive information of a model including morphometric spine fracture status, BMD and all WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.92). For comparison, this model provided more information than a model considering BMD and the WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.74). These findings confirm the value of age, BMD and spine fracture status for predicting fracture risk.

  17. Fracture risk prediction: importance of age, BMD and spine fracture status

    PubMed Central

    Krege, John H; Wan, Xiaohai; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Godmaire, Suzanne; Dumont, Silvia; Berger, Claudie; Zhou, Wei; Joyce, Carol; Kovacs, Christopher; Sheppard, Emma; Kirkland, Susan; Kaiser, Stephanie; Stanfield, Barbara; Brown, Jacques P; Bessette, Louis; Gendreau, Marc; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Matthews, Barbara; Josse, Bob; Jamal, Sophie; Murray, Tim; Gardner-Bray, Barbara; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Pickard, Laura; Olszynski, Wojciech P.; Davison, K. Shawn; Thingvold, Jola; Hanley, David A.; Allan, Jane; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Patel, Millan; Vigna, Yvette; Andjelic, Nerkeza; Lentle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify factors for a parsimonious fracture risk assessment model considering morphometric spine fracture status, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical risk factors. Using data from 2761 subjects from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged ⩾50 years, we previously reported that a logistic regression model considering age, BMD and spine fracture status provided as much predictive information as a model considering these factors plus the remaining WHO clinical risk factors. The current analysis assesses morphometric vertebral fracture and/or nonvertebral fragility fracture at 5 years using data from an additional 1964 CaMos subjects who have now completed 5 years of follow-up (total N=4725). Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs assessed using quantititative morphometry at baseline and end point. Nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by questionnaire and confirmed using radiographs or medical records; fragility fracture was defined as occurring with minimal or no trauma. In this analysis, a model including age, BMD and spine fracture status provided a gradient of risk per s.d. (GR/s.d.) of 1.88 and captured most of the predictive information of a model including morphometric spine fracture status, BMD and all WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.92). For comparison, this model provided more information than a model considering BMD and the WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.74). These findings confirm the value of age, BMD and spine fracture status for predicting fracture risk. PMID:24228164

  18. [Age(ing) and participative neighbourhood development. Obstacles and perspectives for social sustainability].

    PubMed

    Heite, E; Rüßler, H; Stiel, J

    2015-07-01

    Ageing urban societies face the challenge of enabling a "good" life for older people in their neighbourhood areas. This article focuses on potential obstacles and required preconditions for processes of neighbourhood development, based on results from the research and development project "Quality of life of older people in their neighbourhood" (LiW). Preconditions and obstacles include political and organizational requirements, differing understandings of participation of local experts, as well as the organization of the process and the access to the process. Furthermore, problems and social conflicts, which have to be dealt with on the local level, are examined. An example for such conflicts are statements of group-focused enmity. The paper aims to point out the significials of such processes as well as potential barriers and limits in order to inform academics as well as practitioners and to contribute to the sustainable integration of participative neighbourhood development.

  19. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment.

    PubMed

    Deters, Fenne Große; Mehl, Matthias R

    2013-09-01

    Online social networking is a pervasive but empirically understudied phenomenon. Strong public opinions on its consequences exist but are backed up by little empirical evidence and almost no causally-conclusive, experimental research. The current study tested the psychological effects of posting status updates on Facebook using an experimental design. For one week, participants in the experimental condition were asked to post more than they usually do, whereas participants in the control condition received no instructions. Participants added a lab "Research Profile" as a Facebook friend allowing for the objective documentation of protocol compliance, participants' status updates, and friends' responses. Results revealed (1) that the experimentally-induced increase in status updating activity reduced loneliness, (2) that the decrease in loneliness was due to participants feeling more connected to their friends on a daily basis and (3) that the effect of posting on loneliness was independent of direct social feedback (i.e. responses) by friends.

  1. Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Deters, Fenne große; Mehl, Matthias R.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networking is a pervasive but empirically understudied phenomenon. Strong public opinions on its consequences exist but are backed up by little empirical evidence and almost no causally-conclusive, experimental research. The current study tested the psychological effects of posting status updates on Facebook using an experimental design. For one week, participants in the experimental condition were asked to post more than they usually do, whereas participants in the control condition received no instructions. Participants added a lab “Research Profile” as a Facebook friend allowing for the objective documentation of protocol compliance, participants’ status updates, and friends’ responses. Results revealed (1) that the experimentally-induced increase in status updating activity reduced loneliness, (2) that the decrease in loneliness was due to participants feeling more connected to their friends on a daily basis and (3) that the effect of posting on loneliness was independent of direct social feedback (i.e. responses) by friends. PMID:24224070

  2. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher

  3. Social Pedagogical Work with Different Age Groups in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporkova, Olga; Glebova, Ekaterina; Vysotskaia, Inna V.; Tikhaeva, Victoria V.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of the article is to study, analyze and organize the modern German experience in the sphere of social pedagogical and educational work with socially unprotected adults, including youth and the elderly. The retrospective analysis threw light on the background of work with socially unprotected adults in…

  4. Low-status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups.

    PubMed

    Drea, C M; Wallen, K

    1999-10-26

    Many primates, including humans, live in complex hierarchical societies where social context and status affect daily life. Nevertheless, primate learning studies typically test single animals in limited laboratory settings where the important effects of social interactions and relationships cannot be studied. To investigate the impact of sociality on associative learning, we compared the individual performances of group-tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across various social contexts. We used a traditional discrimination paradigm that measures an animal's ability to form associations between cues and the obtaining of food in choice situations; but we adapted the task for group testing. After training a 55-member colony to separate on command into two subgroups, composed of either high- or low-status families, we exposed animals to two color discrimination problems, one with all monkeys present (combined condition), the other in their "dominant" and "subordinate" cohorts (split condition). Next, we manipulated learning history by testing animals on the same problems, but with the social contexts reversed. Monkeys from dominant families excelled in all conditions, but subordinates performed well in the split condition only, regardless of learning history. Subordinate animals had learned the associations, but expressed their knowledge only when segregated from higher-ranking animals. Because aggressive behavior was rare, performance deficits probably reflected voluntary inhibition. This experimental evidence of rank-related, social modulation of performance calls for greater consideration of social factors when assessing learning and may also have relevance for the evaluation of human scholastic achievement.

  5. Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism.

    PubMed

    Coburn, D

    2000-07-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough attention has been paid to the social context of income inequality--health relationships or to the causes of income inequality itself. In this paper I contend that there is a particular affinity between neo-liberal (market-oriented) political doctrines, income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Neo-liberalism, it is argued, produces both higher income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Part of the negative effect of neo-liberalism on health status is due to its undermining of the welfare state. The welfare state may have direct effects on health as well as being one of the underlying structural causes of social cohesion. The rise of neo-liberalism and the decline of the welfare state are themselves tied to globalization and the changing class structures of the advanced capitalist societies. More attention should be paid to understanding the causes of income inequalities and not just to its effects because income inequalities are neither necessary nor inevitable. Moreover, understanding the contextual causes of inequality may also influence our notion of the causal pathways involved in inequality-health status relationships (and vice versa).

  6. "Are You an African?" The Politics of Self-Construction in Status-Based Social Movements.

    PubMed

    McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason

    2009-05-01

    Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, "pro-black" abolitionism and "conscious" hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop.

  7. SEROTONIN, SOCIAL STATUS AND SEX CHANGE IN THE BLUEBANDED GOBY LYTHRYPNUS DALLI

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Carpenter, Russ E.; Summers, Cliff H.; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    In a variety of vertebrates, highly aggressive individuals tend to have high social status and low serotonergic function. In the sex changing fish Lythrypnus dalli, serotonin (5-HT) may be involved as a mediator between the social environment and the reproductive system because social status is a critical cue in regulating sex change. Subordination inhibits sex change in L. dalli, and it is associated with higher serotonergic activity in other species. We tested the hypothesis that high serotonergic activity has an inhibitory effect on sex change. In a social situation permissive to sex change, we administered to the dominant female implants containing the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). In a social situation not conducive to sex change, we administered either the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist p-MPPI. After three weeks we used HPLC to measure brain levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). We also performed PCPA, p-MPPI and fluoxetine injections in size-matched pairs of females to assess its effect on dominance status. Males and newly sex changed fish showed a trend for higher levels of 5-HIAA and 5-HT/5-HIAA ratio than females. The different implants treatments did not affect the probability of sex change. Interestingly, this species does not seem to fit the pattern seen in other vertebrates where dominant individuals have lower serotonergic activity than subordinates. PMID:19345236

  8. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  9. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  10. Aminergic control of social status in crayfish agonistic encounters.

    PubMed

    Momohara, Yuto; Kanai, Akihiro; Nagayama, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Using pairings of male crayfish Procambarus clarkii with a 3-7% difference in size, we confirmed that physically larger crayfish were more likely to win encounters (winning probability of over 80%). Despite a physical disadvantage, small winners of the first pairings were more likely to win their subsequent conflicts with larger naive animals (winning probability was about 70%). By contrast, the losers of the first pairings rarely won their subsequent conflicts with smaller naive animals (winning probability of 6%). These winner and loser effects were mimicked by injection of serotonin and octopamine. Serotonin-injected naive small crayfish were more likely to win in pairings with untreated larger naive crayfish (winning probability of over 60%), while octopamine-injected naive large animals were beaten by untreated smaller naive animals (winning probability of 20%). Furthermore, the winner effects of dominant crayfish were cancelled by the injection of mianserin, an antagonist of serotonin receptors and were reinforced by the injection of fluoxetin, serotonin reuptake inhibitor, just after the establishment of social order of the first pairings. Injection of octopamine channel blockers, phentolamine and epinastine, by contrast, cancelled the loser effects. These results strongly suggested that serotonin and octopamine were responsible for winner and loser effects, respectively.

  11. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  12. Aging Well Socially through Engagement with Life: Adapting Rowe and Kahn's Model of Successful Aging to Chinese Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Sik Hung; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Chong, Alice M. L.; Woo, Jean; Kwan, Alex Y. H.; Lai, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Although aging well socially (Engagement with Life) is as important as aging well personally (Illness Avoidance and Functioning) (Rowe & Kahn, 1998), it has received less research attention. A Caring (CE) and a Productive (PE) form of Engagement were derived from an analysis of Chinese cultural meanings of engagement, and combined with Illness…

  13. Falls and Wrist Fracture: Relationship to Women's Functional Status after Age 50.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Catherine M; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P M; Farthing, Jonathan P; Crockett, Katie L; Haver, Charlene R A; Johnston, Geoffrey; Basran, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    Women experience a rapid rise in the incidence of wrist fracture after age 50. Accordingly, this study aimed to (1) determine the internal and environmental fall-related circumstances resulting in a wrist fracture, and (2) examine the relationship of functional status to these circumstances. Women aged 50 to 94 years reported on the nature of the injury (n = 99) and underwent testing for physical activity status, balance, strength, and mobility (n = 72). The majority of falls causing wrist fracture occurred outdoors, during winter months, as a result of a slip or trip while walking. Half of these falls resulted in other injuries including head, neck, and spine injuries. Faster walking speed, lower grip strength, and higher balance confidence were significantly associated with outdoor versus indoor falls and slips and trips versus other causes. This study provides insights into potential screening and preventive measures for fall-related wrist fractures in women.

  14. Discounting input from older adults: the role of age salience on partner age effects in the social contagion of memory.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; McNabb, Jaimie C; Lindeman, Meghan I H; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of partner age on the magnitude of socially suggested false memories. Young participants recalled household scenes in collaboration with an implied young or older adult partner who intentionally recalled false items. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with only the age of their partner (low age-salience context); in Experiment 2, participants were presented with the age of their partner along with a photograph and biographical information about their partner (high age-salience context); in Experiment 3, age salience was varied within the same experiment. Across experiments, participants in both the low age-salience and high age-salience contexts incorporated their partners' misleading suggestions into their own subsequent recall and recognition reports, thus demonstrating social contagion with implied partners. Importantly, the effect of partner age differed across conditions. Participants in the high age-salience context were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult partners than from young adult partners, but participants in the low age-salience context were equally likely to incorporate suggestions from young and older adult partners. Participants discount the memory of older adult partners only when age is highly salient.

  15. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  16. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  17. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, A M; Wong, R; Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this 'social gradient' in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico - a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change - conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally representative sample of 39,129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future.

  18. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by household wealth. We conclude that socioeconomic determinants of smoking and obesity in Mexico are complex, with some flat gradients and some strong positive or negative gradients. Higher social status (education and assets) is associated with more smoking and less obesity for urban women. Higher status rural women also smoke more, but obesity for these women has a non-linear relationship to education. For urban men, higher asset levels (but not education) are associated with obesity, whereas education is protective of smoking. Higher status rural men with more assets are more likely to smoke and be obese. As household wealth, education, and urbanisation continue to increase in Mexico, these patterns suggest potential targets for public health intervention now and in the future. PMID:19367478

  19. Ethnicity moderates the influence of perceived social status on subjective sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Burel R; McGuire, Lynanne; Smith, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) influences health and health-related behaviors, and it has been suggested that the adverse impact of low SES on health may be partly mediated by poor sleep quality. The relation between sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES has only been explored in a preliminary manner, providing indirect evidence that associations between SES and health might be explained, in part, by disrupted sleep. However, it remains unclear whether low SES directly affects sleep quality or whether the SES-sleep quality relation varies as a function of ethnicity given robust ethnic disparities across SES-related factors. This study examined the relation between perceived social status (i.e., individuals' perception of their socioeconomic standing) and subjective sleep quality among 149 college students, and examined the moderating effect of ethnicity to determine whether the magnitude or direction of association differed among Caucasian, Asian, and African Americans. Using hierarchical regressions and a dummy-coded ethnicity variable, results demonstrated significant moderation (ΔR₂ = 0.04, p = .02), such that both Asian (p = .04) and African Americans (p = .02) were significantly different from Caucasian Americans. Lower perceived social status was related to greater impairment in sleep quality for Asian Americans (β = -.37, p < .01) and African Americans (β = -.51, p < .01), but not Caucasian Americans (β = -.02, p = .87). These findings provide initial support for the negative impact of low perceived social status on sleep quality for specific subgroups of ethnic minorities.

  20. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  1. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  2. Age and Pubertal Status-Related Changes in Reports of Perception of Personal Odors.

    PubMed

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Havlíček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    As previously suggested, preferences for kin body odor might undergo an adaptive change over the course of puberty in order to avoid potential inbreeding, resulting in aversion to body odor of the opposite-gender kin as individuals mature sexually. However, studies based on mutual body odor aversion are rather inconclusive. We therefore investigated whether children's reports of individuals smelling good or bad differed as a function of age and pubertal status. We asked 219 children (94 male) aged 10 to 15 years to assess their pubertal development using a standardized measure and to name individuals they thought smelled good or bad. Results of the present study show that the older the girls were, the more likely they were to name males than females among nice-smelling people. Further, in both girls and boys alike, children with higher puberty scores were more likely to name children than adults. Neither in girls nor in boys did we observe any concurrent effect of age or pubertal status on children's reports of persons thought to smell bad. Irrespective of whether these changes are driven by age itself or age-related phenomena, these results suggest a shift toward a more general positive attitude to peers rather than active kin avoidance.

  3. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  4. The effect of aging on the mineral status of female SAMP1 and SAMR1.

    PubMed

    Morita, A; Abdireyim, D; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    2001-04-01

    The effect of aging on the status of macrominerals and trace elements in tissues was studied using two strains (SAMP1 and SAMR1) of senescence accelerated mouse. Two-month-old, 6-mo-old, and 10-mo-old female SAMP1 and SAMR1 mice were fed a commercial diet. Iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, and potassium concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, brain, and tibia of the mice were determined. The copper concentration in the brain was significantly increased with age in SAMP1 and SAMR1. In addition, the brain copper levels in SAMP1 were significantly higher than that in SAMR1 at respective ages. The calcium concentration in the kidney was significantly increased with age, but the copper and phosphorus concentrations significantly decreased with age in SAMP1 and SAMR1. In the liver of SAMR1, all minerals measured in this study except for sodium and potassium were significantly decreased with age. In addition, all mineral concentrations in the liver of 2-mo-old mice in SAMR1 except for copper and sodium were markedly higher than those in SAMP1 of the same age. These results suggest that the genetic factor is related to the age-associated mineral changes in tissues.

  5. Social status predicts how sex steroid receptors regulate complex behavior across levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Lauren A; Hofmann, Hans A

    2012-03-01

    Social status strongly affects behavior and physiology, in part mediated by gonadal hormones, although how each sex steroid acts across levels of biological organization is not well understood. We examine the role of sex steroids in modulating social behavior in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) males of a highly social fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We first used agonists and antagonists to each sex steroid receptor and found that androgens and progestins modulate courtship behavior only in DOM, whereas estrogens modulate aggressive behavior independent of social status. We then examined the hormonal and physiological responses to sex steroid receptor antagonist treatment and uncovered substantial changes in circulating steroid hormone levels and gonad size only in SUB, not in DOM. Consistent with status-based physiological sensitivities to drug manipulation, we found that neuropeptide and steroid receptor gene expression in the preoptic area was sensitive only in SUB. However, when we compared the transcriptomes of males that received either vehicle or an estrogen receptor antagonist, 8.25% of all genes examined changed expression in DOM in comparison with only 0.56% in SUB. Finally, we integrate behavior, physiology, and brain gene expression to infer functional modules that underlie steroid receptor regulation of behavior. Our work suggests that environmentally induced changes at one level of biological organization do not simply affect changes of similar magnitude at other levels, but that instead very few key pathways likely serve as conduits for executing plastic responses across multiple levels.

  6. Marital status, social support, and depressive symptoms among lesbian and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Kornblith, Erica; Green, Robert-Jay; Casey, Shannon; Tiet, Quyen

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated social support and relationship status (single, dating-but-not-cohabiting, cohabiting, domestic partnership/civil union, married) as predictors of depressive symptoms among lesbian and heterosexual women. The study aimed to determine whether the documented higher rates of depressive symptoms among lesbians compared to heterosexual women could be accounted for by lesbians' reduced access to, or in many cases exclusion from, legalized relationship statuses. The effect of social support from family and social support from friends on depressive symptoms also was examined. Contrary to expectations, results indicated no difference in levels of depressive symptoms among lesbian compared to heterosexual women in this sample. However, regardless of sexual orientation, married women had lower levels of depressive symptoms than unmarried women. Thus, marriage seems to be associated with less depression in lesbian and heterosexual women alike. The interaction of social support and relationship status added to the prediction of depressive symptoms over and above the predictive power of either variable alone, although this effect was small and should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Migration, social structure and old-age support networks: a comparison of three Indonesian communities

    PubMed Central

    KREAGER, PHILIP

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary trends in population ageing and urbanisation in the developing world imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas coincides with, and is likely to exacerbate, a rise in the older share of the rural population. This paper examines the impact of migration on vulnerability at older ages by drawing on the results of anthropological and demographic field studies in three Indonesian communities. The methodology for identifying vulnerable older people has a progressively sharper focus, beginning first with important differences between the communities, then examining variations by socio-economic strata, and finally the variability of older people's family networks. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between villages. The migrants' contributions are a normal and important component of older people's support, often in combination with those of local family members. Higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of migration opportunities than the less advantaged. Although family networks in the poorer strata may effect some redistribution of the children's incomes, their social networks are smaller and insufficient to overcome their marked disadvantages. Vulnerability thus arises where several factors, including migration histories, result in unusually small networks, and when the migrations are within rural areas. PMID:23750063

  8. Physiological and health consequences of social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Filby, Amy L; Paull, Gregory C; Bartlett, Emily J; Van Look, Katrien J W; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-12-02

    Social status affects access to food, mates and shelter and has consequences for the physiology of individuals and their health status. In the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an emerging model for studies into animal behavior, the possible consequences of social hierarchy to an individual's physiology and health are unknown. To address this, in this species we assessed the effects of social interaction (for periods of 1-5days) on growth, stress, immune function and reproductive condition. Wide-ranging differences in physiology occurred between the social ranks, some of which were sex-related and time-dependent. In both sexes, dominant fish were larger than subordinates and dominant males had a higher growth rate during the trials. Subordinates had higher plasma cortisol and in males higher telencephalic corticotrophin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide y and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Splenic cytokine expression suggested differences in immune status between ranks in both sexes and hematocrit was elevated in subordinate males. In both sexes, dominants and subordinates differed in the expression of genes for various gonadal sex steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes and in dominant females the ovary was larger relative to body mass compared with in subordinates. Dominant males had higher plasma 11-ketotestosterone than subordinates and there was an increase in the number of spermatids in their testes over the duration of the study that was not seen in subordinate males. The wide-ranging physiological differences seen between dominant and subordinate zebrafish as a consequence of their social status suggest negative health impacts for subordinates after prolonged durations in those hierarchies.

  9. Effects of Reproductive Status, Social Rank, Sex and Group Size on Vigilance Patterns in Przewalski's Gazelle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhigang; Li, Linlin; Li, Zhongqiu; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Beauchamp, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantifying vigilance and exploring the underlying mechanisms has been the subject of numerous studies. Less attention has focused on the complex interplay between contributing factors such as reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size. Reproductive status and social rank are of particular interest due to their association with mating behavior. Mating activities in rutting season may interfere with typical patterns of vigilance and possibly interact with social rank. In addition, balancing the tradeoff between vigilance and life maintenance may represent a challenge for gregarious ungulate species rutting under harsh winter conditions. We studied vigilance patterns in the endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) during both the rutting and non-rutting seasons to examine these issues. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations were carried out with focal sampling during rutting and non-rutting season in 2008–2009. Results indicated a complex interplay between reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size in determining vigilance in this species. Vigilance decreased with group size in female but not in male gazelles. Males scanned more frequently and thus spent more time vigilant than females. Compared to non-rutting season, gazelles increased time spent scanning at the expense of bedding in rutting season. During the rutting season, territorial males spent a large proportion of time on rutting activities and were less vigilant than non-territorial males. Although territorial males may share collective risk detection with harem females, we suggest that they are probably more vulnerable to predation because they seemed reluctant to leave rut stands under threats. Conclusions/Significance Vigilance behavior in Przewalski's gazelle was significantly affected by reproductive status, social rank, sex, group size and their complex interactions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying vigilance patterns and

  10. Civil Discourse in the Age of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junco, Reynol; Chickering, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, issues of civil discourse only arose concerning written and oral communication. But now, new technologies for communication and social interaction, particularly social media, have dramatically expanded the potential for human interaction. They generate significant challenges for institutional policies and practices to encourage and…

  11. Scenes: Social Context in an Age of Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Daniel; Clark, Terry Nichols; Yanez, Clemente Jesus Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on an important but underdeveloped social science concept--the "scene" as a cluster of urban amenities--to contribute to social science theory and subspecialties such as urban and rural, class, race and gender studies. Scenes grow more important in less industrial, more expressively-oriented and contingent societies where…

  12. Teacher Professionalization in the Age of Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce; Veletsianos, George

    2015-01-01

    As teacher education students become professionals, they face a number of tensions related to identity, social participation, and work-life balance, which may be further complicated by social networking sites (SNS). This qualitative study sought to articulate tensions that arose between professionalization influences and teacher education student…

  13. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  14. Motivational Shifts in Aging Monkeys and the Origins of Social Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Almeling, Laura; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Freund, Alexandra M; Fischer, Julia

    2016-07-11

    As humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. Whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. Similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. To disentangle a general resource loss and the awareness of decreasing time, we combined field experiments with behavioral observations in a large age-heterogeneous population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at La Forêt des Singes. Novel object tests revealed a loss of interest in the nonsocial environment in early adulthood, which was modulated by the availability of a food reward. Experiments using vocal and visual representations of social partners indicated that monkeys maintained an interest in social stimuli and a preferential interest in friends and socially important individuals into old age. Old females engaged in fewer social interactions, although other group members continued to invest in relationships with them. Consequently, reductions in sociality were not due to a decrease in social interest. In conclusion, some of the motivational shifts observed in aging humans, particularly the increasing focus on social over nonsocial stimuli, may occur in the absence of a limited time perspective and are most likely deeply rooted in primate evolution. Our findings highlight the value of nonhuman primates as valuable models for understanding human aging [8, 9].

  15. Somatic and Functional Status of Boys from Various Social and Environmental Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Ignasiak, Zofia; Slawinska, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness status of adolescent boys from polluted industrial areas. Material and methods: A group of 313 boys aged 11-15 years from 5 villages located in the copper mine area in South-Western Poland were classified by the degree of lead and cadmium pollution (high--very high) and by parents' education…

  16. Social correlates of health status, quality of life, and mood states in patients treated with cannabidiol for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Hansen, Barbara; Bebin, E Martina; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2017-02-21

    Social characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, play a role in the treatment and outcomes of patients with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about how these factors affect patients receiving cannabidiol (CBD) to treat seizures. This exploratory study examined the sociodemographic profile of patients treated with CBD (n=80) and associations between social factors and patient-centered outcomes - overall health status, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) - in this population. Associations were examined using Pearson correlations and multiple ordinary-least-squares regression (alpha=0.1). The sample was predominantly white (96%) and non-Hispanic/Latino (96%); 76% of patients had family incomes of $40,000+/year. Some patients/families reported experiencing food scarcity (13%), not being able to make ends meet (6%), or not being able to afford antiepileptic medications (8%). The patients' health ratings declined with age and income (p≤0.014), and there was a statistically significant interaction (p<0.055) between these variables: for example, a higher-income 10-year-old had a predicted health rating of 3 ("very good"), followed by a higher-income 40-year-old with a rating of 2 ("good"), a low-income 10-year-old with a rating of 1 ("fair"), and a low-income 40-year-old with a rating of 0 ("poor"). This is the first study reporting the social profile of patients taking pharmaceutical grade CBD for the treatment of epilepsy. The results suggest that despite free access to this treatment some patients may not be accessing CBD because of their socioeconomic situation or race/ethnicity. Larger, diverse samples and longitudinal data are needed to more accurately model social factors and patient-centered outcomes in PWE receiving CBD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy".

  17. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Luciane R; Merz, Emily C; He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions.

  18. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  19. Glycosylated Hemoglobin Testing in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, Katie; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.; Huang, Elbert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Longitudinal biomeasures of health are still new in nationally representative social science survey research. Data measuring blood sugar control provide opportunities for understanding the development of diabetes and its complications in older adults, but researchers must be aware that some of the differences across time can be due to variations in measurement procedures. This is a well-recognized issue whenever all samples cannot be assayed at the same time and we sought to present the analytic methods to quantify and adjust for the variation. Method. We collected and analyzed HbA1C, glycated hemoglobin, a biomeasure of average blood sugar concentrations within the past few months. Improvements were made in the collection protocol for Wave 2, and assays were performed by a different lab. Results. The HbA1C data obtained during Wave 1 and Wave 2 are consistent with the expected population distributions for differences by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and diabetes status. Age-adjusted mean HbA1C declined slightly from Wave 1 to Wave 2 by −0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.27, −0.10), and the average longitudinal change was −0.12 (95% CI: −0.18, −0.06). Discussion. Collection of HbA1C in Wave 2 permits researchers to examine the relationship between HbA1C and new health and social measures added in Wave 2, and to identify factors related to the change in HbA1C. Changes in collection protocol and labs between waves may have yielded small systematic differences that require analysts to carefully interpret absolute HbA1C values. We recommend analytic methods for cross wave differences in HbA1C and steps to ensure cross wave comparability in future studies PMID:25360021

  20. Social correlates of term small for gestational age babies in a Russian Arctic setting

    PubMed Central

    Usynina, Anna A.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Krettek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with both short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. Although social risk factors for SGA births have been studied earlier, such data are limited from Northern Russia. Objective We assessed maternal social risk factors for term SGA births based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Design Data on term live-born singleton infants born between 2006 and 2011 in Murmansk County were obtained from the MCBR. We applied the 10th percentile for only birth weight (SGAW) or for both birth weight and birth length (SGAWL). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of independent variables on SGA males and females with adjustment for known risk factors and potential confounders. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the studied risk factors were calculated. Results The proportions of term SGAW and SGAWL births were 9.7 and 4.1%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of term SGA births among less educated, unemployed, unmarried, smoking and underweight women was higher compared with women from the reference groups. Evidence of alcohol abuse was also associated with birth of SGAWL and SGAW boys. Maternal overweight and obesity decreased the risk of SGA. Conclusions Maternal low education, unemployment, unmarried status, smoking, evidence of alcohol abuse and underweight increased the risk of term SGA births in a Russian Arctic setting. This emphasizes the importance of both social and lifestyle factors for pregnancy outcomes. Public health efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption and underweight of pregnant women may therefore promote a decrease in the prevalence of SGA births. PMID:27906118

  1. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  2. [Social inequality and participation in aging urban societies].

    PubMed

    Rüssler, H; Köster, D; Heite, E; Stiel, J

    2013-06-01

    The social and political participation of elderly people is characterized by social inequality. Participation processes normally consolidate and intensify the exclusion of senior citizens having low incomes and low educational qualifications. In the research and development project "Quality of Life of Elderly People in Living Quarters" being conducted by Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts, one of the questions being examined is whether and to what extent socially disadvantaged elderly people in a social space typical of the Ruhr region (reference area Gelsenkirchen-Schalke) can be included in the shaping of their quarter. This paper is based on the results of a quantitative, written survey (cross-section) on the subjects of quality of life and participation, and on a trend analysis measuring the effects of participation processes initiated on the elderly persons involved. The results of the study show that it is possible to involve socially disadvantaged elderly people in participation processes geared to the specific social space. They also indicate that elderly people from different income groups increase their social capital in the context of enabling structures.

  3. HIV status and age at first marriage among women in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Adair, Timothy

    2008-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females.

  4. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender.

  5. Integrating Multiple Social Statuses in Health Disparities Research: The Case of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674

  6. Inventory and Analysis of Definitions of Social Participation Found in the Aging Literature: Proposed Taxonomy of Social Activities

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Raymond, Émilie

    2012-01-01

    Social participation is a key determinant of successful and healthy aging and therefore an important emerging intervention goal for health professionals. Despite the interest shown in the concept of social participation over the last decade, there is no agreement on its definition and underlying dimensions. This paper provides an inventory and content analysis of definitions of social participation in older adults. Based on these results, a taxonomy of social activities is proposed. Four databases (Medline, CINAHL, AgeLine and PsycInfo) were searched with relevant keywords (Aging OR Ageing OR Elderly OR Older OR Seniors AND Community involvement/participation OR Social engagement/involvement/participation) resulting in the identification of 43 definitions. Using content analysis, definitions were deconstructed as a function of who, how, what, where, with whom, when, and why dimensions. Then, using activity analysis, we explored the typical contexts, demands and potential meanings of activities (main dimension). Content analysis showed that social participation definitions (n=43) mostly focused on the person’s involvement in activities providing interactions with others in society or the community. Depending on the main goal of these social activities, six proximal to distal levels of involvement of the individual with others were identified: 1) doing an activity in preparation for connecting with others, 2) being with others, 3) interacting with others without doing a specific activity with them, 4) doing an activity with others, 5) helping others, and 6) contributing to society. These levels are discussed in a continuum that can help distinguish social participation (levels 3 through 6) from parallel but different concepts such as participation (levels 1 through 6) and social engagement (levels 5 and 6). This taxonomy might be useful in pinpointing the focus of future investigations and clarifying dimensions specific to social participation. PMID:21044812

  7. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status.

  8. The role of sport as a social status determinant for children: thirty years later.

    PubMed

    Chase, Melissa A; Machida, Moe

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of sport as a social status determinant among racially diverse children. Participants were 1,233 fourth- to seventh-grade children. Results indicated there were gender, grade, and racial differences for the selection of social status determinants. Boys placed more importance than girls on being good at sports and wealth. Girls placed more importance than boys on getting good grades and being attractive. Fourth- and fifth-grade students ranked getting good grades as most important, while sixth- and seventh-grade students ranked being attractive as most important. Non-Hispanic Caucasian students ranked being good at sports and being attractive as most important, while African American students ranked getting good grades and wealth as most important

  9. Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    DeGarmo, D S; Forgatch, M S; Martinez, C R

    1999-01-01

    Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment.

  10. To What Extent Do Financial Strain and Labour Force Status Explain Social Class Inequalities in Self-Rated Health? Analysis of 20 Countries in the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462

  11. Observational study on external social and lifestyle related factors and their role in pathogenesis of premature ageing and stress.

    PubMed

    Deole, Yogesh S; Thakar, Anup B; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    In the present era of stress, when lifestyle disorders are high on rise, premature ageing is also one of the most prevalent disorders. It is needed to study the external environmental psychological causative factors in premature ageing and stress. An observational study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of lifestyle, occupational and social factors and mental makeup in individuals diagnosed with premature ageing. A total of 108 patients of premature ageing and stress fulfilling the criteria of inclusion as per ageing scale were selected from outpatient Department of Panchakarma and Manasa Roga, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The diagnosed patients of premature ageing were subjected to specialized proforma enlisting all the factors as well as ageing scale, Manasa Bhava Pariksha, and Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha. The method of survey was by a questionnaire about the points regarding the lifestyle causative factors. Maximum patients had shown signs of premature ageing with Mana-Buddhi-Smriti-Bhakti Vibhrama (100% each) and involvement of negative Manasa Bhava. The 78.70% patients in this study felt of having excess responsibility on them in family. The 52.77% patients had average good relationship with their family members, while remaining 47.22% narrated history of disturbed relationship. The center of stress was found to be at personal level in all patients; at family level in 73.14%; at professional or work level in 64.81%. Various external, occupational, social and familial factors play significant role in the pathology of premature ageing by disturbing the overall psychological status. This proves the link of Manasa affecting Sharira and vice versa with reference to modern contemporary concept of psycho-neuro endocrinology.

  12. Observational study on external social and lifestyle related factors and their role in pathogenesis of premature ageing and stress

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Thakar, Anup B.; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present era of stress, when lifestyle disorders are high on rise, premature ageing is also one of the most prevalent disorders. It is needed to study the external environmental psychological causative factors in premature ageing and stress. An observational study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of lifestyle, occupational and social factors and mental makeup in individuals diagnosed with premature ageing. A total of 108 patients of premature ageing and stress fulfilling the criteria of inclusion as per ageing scale were selected from outpatient Department of Panchakarma and Manasa Roga, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The diagnosed patients of premature ageing were subjected to specialized proforma enlisting all the factors as well as ageing scale, Manasa Bhava Pariksha, and Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha. The method of survey was by a questionnaire about the points regarding the lifestyle causative factors. Maximum patients had shown signs of premature ageing with Mana-Buddhi-Smriti-Bhakti Vibhrama (100% each) and involvement of negative Manasa Bhava. The 78.70% patients in this study felt of having excess responsibility on them in family. The 52.77% patients had average good relationship with their family members, while remaining 47.22% narrated history of disturbed relationship. The center of stress was found to be at personal level in all patients; at family level in 73.14%; at professional or work level in 64.81%. Various external, occupational, social and familial factors play significant role in the pathology of premature ageing by disturbing the overall psychological status. This proves the link of Manasa affecting Sharira and vice versa with reference to modern contemporary concept of psycho-neuro endocrinology. PMID:23723645

  13. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  14. The effects of social isolation on steroid hormone levels are modulated by previous social status and context in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, L; Oliveira, R F

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major stressor which impacts the physiology, behaviour and health of individuals in gregarious species. However, depending on conditional and contextual factors, such as social status and group composition, social isolation may be perceived differently by different individuals or even by the same individuals at different times. Here we tested the effects of social status (territorial vs. non-territorial) and previous group composition (i.e. type of social group: mixed sex group with two territorial males, TT vs. mixed sex group with one territorial and one non-territorial male, TnT) on the hormonal response (androgens and cortisol) to social isolation in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The different steroid hormones measured responded differentially to social isolation, and their response was modulated by social factors. Social isolation elicited a decrease of 11-keto formation only in territorial males, whereas non-territorial males present a non-significant trend for increasing KT levels. Testosterone did not respond to social isolation. Cortisol only increased in isolated individuals from TnT groups irrespective of social status (i.e. both in territorials and non-territorials). These results suggest that it is the perception of social isolation and not the objective structure of the situation that triggers the hormonal response to isolation.

  15. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  16. Undocumented Status as a Social Determinant of Occupational Safety and Health: The Workers’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878

  17. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  18. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  19. The Effect of Residence, School Status, Work Status, and Social Influence on the Prevalence of Alcohol Use Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Liu, Danping; Chaurasia, Ashok; Li, Kaigang; Hingson, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The first year after high school is a transitional year, with increased independence from parental supervision, contact with other independent youth, and exposure to new environments, all of which may influence substance use. This article reports longitudinal predictors of change in the prevalence of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among adolescents and environmental correlates (i.e., residence, college attendance, and work status) with drinking the year after high school. Method: A national sample of study participants (N = 2,659; 55% female) in the NEXT Generation Health Study were followed annually from 10th grade (Wave 1) to the year after high school (Wave 4). Longitudinal binary outcomes, including recent (30-day) drinking and two measures of heavy episodic drinking, were examined. Transition models with generalized estimating equations estimated the effect of previous drinking behaviors, social influences, and current residential status and activity (school and/or work) on drinking prevalence. Results: Drinking increased from 40.5% among high school seniors (Wave 3) to 53.5% in Wave 4 for 30-day use, and from 29.0% to 41.2% for heavy episodic drinking. Significant predictors of 30-day drinking included previous drinking status (odds ratio [OR] = 5.48), peer drinking often (OR = 3.25), parental expectations (OR = 0.91), and current year living on campus (OR = 2.10). The same significant predictors with similar magnitudes were found for both measures of heavy episodic drinking. Peer use did not interact with college attendance or residence. Conclusions: Predictors of drinking and heavy episodic drinking during the first year after high school included being White, living on campus, previous drinking, lower parental expectations, and having peers who drink. PMID:26751362

  20. Does aging impair first impression accuracy? Differentiating emotion recognition from complex social inferences.

    PubMed

    Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-09-01

    Young adults can be surprisingly accurate at making inferences about people from their faces. Although these first impressions have important consequences for both the perceiver and the target, it remains an open question whether first impression accuracy is preserved with age. Specifically, could age differences in impressions toward others stem from age-related deficits in accurately detecting complex social cues? Research on aging and impression formation suggests that young and older adults show relative consensus in their first impressions, but it is unknown whether they differ in accuracy. It has been widely shown that aging disrupts emotion recognition accuracy, and that these impairments may predict deficits in other social judgments, such as detecting deceit. However, it is unclear whether general impression formation accuracy (e.g., emotion recognition accuracy, detecting complex social cues) relies on similar or distinct mechanisms. It is important to examine this question to evaluate how, if at all, aging might affect overall accuracy. Here, we examined whether aging impaired first impression accuracy in predicting real-world outcomes and categorizing social group membership. Specifically, we studied whether emotion recognition accuracy and age-related cognitive decline (which has been implicated in exacerbating deficits in emotion recognition) predict first impression accuracy. Our results revealed that emotion recognition accuracy did not predict first impression accuracy, nor did age-related cognitive decline impair it. These findings suggest that domains of social perception outside of emotion recognition may rely on mechanisms that are relatively unimpaired by aging.

  1. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions.

  2. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158

  3. Counting on Kin: Social Networks, Social Support, and Child Health Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia; Donato, Katharine M.; Thompson-Colon, Theresa; Stainback, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of new data collection in Mexico about the relationship between child well-being and social networks. Two research questions guide the analysis. First, under what conditions do networks generate greater (lesser) support? Second, what kinds of networks are associated with healthier children? We explore the health…

  4. Super-aging and social security for the most elderly in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao

    2016-06-13

    This article is dedicated to an under-researched area, the demographic development and social welfare for the most elderly (aged ≥80 years) in The People's Republic of China. Based on national censuses conducted over the last six decades in China this study examined the development of the most elderly population in comparison with groups of younger elderly people. It is argued that population growth among the most elderly in China has occurred with unparalleled speed, a phenomenon referred to as second order aging. This study demonstrated that the proportion of individuals aged ≥80 years has increased more rapidly than any other age group among elderly people. Particular attention has been given to the issue of social security and social welfare for the most elderly based on the non-contributory old age allowances provided by various regions and provinces. A national unified program of social security for the most elderly in the population is still not in sight.

  5. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  6. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  7. School-based social skills training for preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Radley, Keith C; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder-particularly interventions capable of being delivered in educational settings. The study evaluated the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program on accurate demonstration of social skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Two preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder participated in a weekly social skills intervention. A multiple probe design across skills was used to determine the effects of the intervention. Both participants demonstrated substantial improvements in skill accuracy. Social skills checklists also indicated improvements in social functioning over baseline levels.

  8. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  9. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  10. Exploring the association of dental caries with social factors and nutritional status in Brazilian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana B; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2008-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess whether dental caries status was related to nutritional status in preschool urban Brazilian children aged 12-59 months. Dental and anthropometric examinations were conducted on 1,018 12-59-month-old children during the National Day of Children Vaccination. Dental caries prevalence and severity were measured using the decayed, missing or filled surfaces (dmfs) index. The World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards Reference was used to evaluate nutritional status. Results on nutritional status were presented as Z-scores. The data collected included socio-economic conditions. Multilevel linear regression was applied to investigate the effect of nutritional, socio-economic, and demographic factors on the status of children's dental caries. Caries was present in 23.4% of children. The final hierarchical logistic model showed a significant association between nutritional status and caries experience. Children with low Z-scores in some indexes had an increased risk of having caries. In addition, children whose mothers had < 8 yr of education and were from lower-income families had an increased risk of high levels of dental caries. There was an association between nutritional and socio-economic factors, and dental caries. In conclusion, underweight children and those with adverse socio-economic conditions were more likely to have caries experience.

  11. Social and Mental Health Needs of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Lennie-Marie

    1983-01-01

    The United States Commissioner on Aging describes challenges posed by the increasing size of the older adult population, outlines gaps in knowledge regarding aging and the elderly, and calls for greater collaboration between the elderly and existing mental health networks. (AOS)

  12. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    PubMed

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  13. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  14. Social status differences regulate the serotonergic system of a cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni

    PubMed Central

    Loveland, Jasmine L.; Uy, Natalie; Maruska, Karen P.; Carpenter, Russ E.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) inhibits aggression and modulates aspects of sexual behaviour in many species, but the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. Here, we exploited the social dominance hierarchy of Astatotilapia burtoni to understand the role of the serotonergic system in long-term maintenance of social status. We identified three populations of 5-HT cells in dorsal and ventral periventricular pretectal nuclei (PPd, PPv), the nucleus of the paraventricular organ (PVO) and raphe. Dominant males had more 5-HT cells than subordinates in the raphe, but the size of these cells did not differ between social groups. Subordinates had higher serotonergic turnover in the raphe and preoptic area (POA), a nucleus essential for hypothalamic-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis function. The relative abundance of mRNAs for 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes 1A and 2A (htr1a, htr2a) was higher in subordinates, a difference restricted to the telencephalon. Because social status is tightly linked to reproductive capacity, we asked whether serotonin turnover and the expression of its receptors correlated with testes size and circulating levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We found negative correlations between both raphe and POA serotonin turnover and testes size, as well as between htr1a mRNA levels and circulating 11-KT. Thus, increased serotonin turnover in non-aggressive males is restricted to specific brain nuclei and is associated with increased expression of 5-HTR subtypes 1A and 2A exclusively in the telencephalon. PMID:24855673

  15. Diet and social status on Taumako, a Polynesian outlier in the Southeastern Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Buckley, Hallie R; Gray, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S) are used to characterize the diet of the adult individuals (n = 99) interred in the Namu burial ground located on the Polynesian outlier of Taumako (∼300-750 BP). Polynesian outliers are islands on the fringe of Remote Oceania that were inhabited by a back migration of populations from Polynesia during prehistory. As a result of admixture with nearby island communities, little is known about the social structure and social diversity of the prehistoric inhabitants of Taumako. The distribution of prestige grave goods within the Namu cemetery has been used as evidence to support the premise that Taumakoan social structure was stratified like Polynesian societies. Here we test the hypothesis that "wealthy" individuals and males will display isotopic ratios indicative of the consumption of "high status" foods in the Pacific islands such as pork, chicken, sea turtle, and pelagic fish. The isotope results suggest the δ(34) S values were diagenetically altered, possibly an effect of volcanism. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicate that the diet of all the individuals included a mixture of C3 terrestrial plant foods (likely starchy staples such as yam, taro, and breadfruit, in addition to nuts) and a variety of marine resources, including reef and pelagic fish. The stable isotope results indicate that wealthy individuals and males were eating more foods from higher trophic levels, interpreted as being high status animal foods. The socially differentiated food consumption patterns are discussed within a Pacific island context.

  16. Does social status within a dominance hierarchy mediate individual growth, residency and relocation?

    PubMed

    Akbaripasand, Abbas; Ramezani, J; Krkosek, Martin; Lokman, P Mark; Closs, Gerard P

    2014-11-01

    The availability of food, and hence energy, is known to influence the abundance, habitat choice and growth of individuals. In contrast, there is a paucity of knowledge on how the interaction of energy supply and social status determines patterns of residency and movement. This study tests whether the presence of conspecifics and an individual's social status in relation to food supply influence the fitness and movement of a drift-feeding fish (Galaxias fasciatus). Using an information-theoretic approach (AIC), our analysis indicated that the most parsimonious model of fish movement among pools was one that included food supply, social rank and fish relative growth rate. Our results indicated that subordinate fish relocated more frequently compared to dominant fish, most likely as a consequence of intra-specific competition that limited the access of these smaller fish to resources and constrained their growth. Our results suggest that energy constraints may force individuals to explore new habitats in an effort to find more energetically profitable patches. We conclude that intra-specific competition mediated through the social hierarchy amongst closely interacting individuals plays a key role in determining individual growth, residency and relocation.

  17. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior.

  18. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Engelman, Corinne D; Wallace, Robert B; LeBlanc, Erin S; Tinker, Lesley F.; Iyengar, Sudha K; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Importance Deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with increased odds of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objective We examined 1) whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD and 2) if there is an association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in vitamin D transport, metabolism and genomic function. Design, Setting and Participants Women were postmenopausal and participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) (54 to <75 years) with available serum 25(OH)D concentrations (assessed from 1994–1998), genetic data, and measures of AMD (n=142) assessed at CAREDS baseline from 2001–2004 (n=913). Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent early or late AMD was determined from graded, stereoscopic fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD by the joint effects of 25(OH)D (<30, ≥30 to <50, ≥50 to <75, and ≥75 nmol/L) and risk genotype (noncarrier, one, or two risk alleles). The referent group was noncarriers with adequate vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L). Joint effect ORs were adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, self-reported cardiovascular disease, self-reported diabetes status, and hormone use. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed using the Synergy Index (SI) and an interaction term, respectively. Results We observed a 6.7-fold increased odds of AMD (95% CI=1.6, 28.2) among women with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D<30 nmol/L) and two risk alleles for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (SI for additive interaction=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7; p for multiplicative interaction=0.25,. A significant additive (SI=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7) and multiplicative interaction (p=0.02) was observed for deficient women with two high risk complement factor I (CFI) (rs10033900) alleles (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.6, 24.2). The odds of AMD did not differ by genotype of candidate

  19. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and < -1SD; > or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and < or = +2SD; between Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  20. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in global LINE-1 DNA methylation have been related to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was quantified in 568 children 5–12 years of age using pyrosequencing technology. We examined the association of LINE-1 methylation with erythrocyte folate, plasma vitamin B12, vitamin A ferritin (an indicator of iron status) and serum zinc concentrations using multivariable linear regression. We also considered associations of LINE-1 methylation with socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Mean (± SD) LINE-1 methylation was 80.25 (± 0.65) percentage of 5-mC (%5-mC). LINE-1 methylation was inversely related to plasma vitamin A. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with retinol levels higher than or equal to 1.05 µmol/L showed 0.19% 5-mC lower LINE-1 methylation than children with retinol levels lower than 0.70 µmol/L. LINE-1 methylation was also inversely associated with C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic inflammation, and female sex. We identified positive associations of maternal body mass index and socioeconomic status with LINE-1 methylation. These associations were not significantly different by sex. Whether modification of these exposures during school-age years leads to changes in global DNA methylation warrants further investigation. PMID:22918385

  1. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  2. The impact of age on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease differs by relationship status.

    PubMed

    Holm, Kristen E; Plaufcan, Melissa R; Ford, Dee W; Sandhaus, Robert A; Strand, Matthew; Strange, Charlie; Wamboldt, Frederick S

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that can lead to early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the impact of age on psychological and clinical outcomes among individuals with AATD-associated COPD. 468 individuals with AATD-associated COPD (age 32-84 at baseline) completed questionnaires at baseline, 1- and 2-year follow-up. Age was examined as a predictor of depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and breathlessness at all three time points using linear mixed models. Age was associated with anxiety (b = -0.09, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) and health-related quality of life (b = -0.29, SE = 0.09, p < 0.001). Age also had a statistically significant interaction with relationship status when predicting depression, health-related quality of life, and breathlessness. Among individuals who were single, younger age was associated with more symptoms of depression (b = -0.08, SE = 0.03, p < 0.01), worse health-related quality of life (b = -0.61, SE = 0.16, p < 0.001), and more breathlessness (b = -0.023, SE = 0.009, p < 0.01) throughout the 2-year study. Age was not associated with these three outcomes among individuals who were married/part of an unmarried couple. Results suggest that individuals who develop a chronic illness at a young age, particularly those who are single, may be more likely to have worse psychological and clinical outcomes.

  3. [Social inequality and health: Status and prospects of socio-epidemiological research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Lampert, Thomas; Richter, Matthias; Schneider, Sven; Spallek, Jacob; Dragano, Nico

    2016-02-01

    Social differences in morbidity and mortality have always been a central topic in public health research. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest that has clearly resonated with the general public and the political arena as well. This article describes the development and establishment of social epidemiology in Germany and presents the current status of research. In addition, it describes different models for explaining health inequalities. On this basis, selected challenges and prospects of socio-epidemiological research are demonstrated. The reason why the analysis of social differences in morbidity and mortality will continue to be a key task of public health research in the national and international context in the future is also explained.

  4. Consequences of Arizona's immigration policy on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigration status

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers’ experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group content and interactions revealed that perceived racial profiling was common among mothers and led to fear of family separation. Several described direct experiences with detention and deportation. Although detention and deportation strengthened social ties between mothers and other unauthorized immigrants, these experiences were detrimental to social ties between mothers and members of the mainstream society, including their children's teachers. Finally, immigration policies were perceived to affect parent-child ties negatively, as mothers reported family stress, financial hardship, and decreased parental availability. PMID:24371370

  5. Marrying Up by Marrying Down: Status Exchange between Social Origin and Education in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine R; Zeng, Zhen; Xie, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968-2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange-that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials.

  6. Mapping social capital: a critical contextual approach for working with low-status families.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marisol; McDowell, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Promoting justice in therapeutic work with families demands an analysis of contextual factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, and social class in relationship to societal systems of power, privilege, and oppression. A broad understanding of these dynamics, however, is inadequate to inform our work with families whose social capital severely limits available life choices, social influence, and material resources. In this article, we describe working from a critical contextual perspective to consider how families gain and/or lose social capital through participation in multiple contexts. We introduce a technique for mapping social capitol within and across multiple systems as well as suggestions for interventions aimed at increasing the social well-being of low-status families. These include considering the dynamics of boundary crossing, recognizing and optimizing resistance to oppressive dynamics, finding ways to limit constraints and optimize opportunities, and developing webs of allies to support family functioning and access to resources. We offer the example of 13-year-old Pepe as a case in point.

  7. Mixed-Status Immigrant Families in the United States: The Role of Social Justice in Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Mackenzie D M; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    More than 4 million unauthorized parents of legal status children currently reside in the United States (Capps, Fix, & Zong, 2016). Developmental scientists and intervention researchers hoping to work with these mixed-status families face a myriad of challenges, largely generated from the population's policy-driven social exclusion. Despite the challenges, there is a moral imperative to work with and support parents and children currently living in mixed-status households. This chapter applies a social justice perspective, largely stemming from Prilleltensky's critical community psychological framework, to improve the relevance and usefulness of research on mixed-status families (Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). We discuss the utility of this social justice perspective in theory building, study design and implementation, and dissemination of findings regarding mixed-status families, with exemplars from recent research.

  8. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  9. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Lauretta M; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-08-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties.

  10. Socioeconomic status and social support following illicit drug use: causal pathways or common liability?

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; Gardner, Charles O; Aggen, Steven H; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2008-06-01

    The negative social attributes associated with drug use and abuse/dependence may arise as a result of shared genetic or environmental factors rather than through causal pathways. To evaluate this possibility, structured interviews were conducted for 3969 male and female twins from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry and evaluations of their socioeconomic status (SES), social interactions, and use of drugs were obtained. Drug involvement was categorized as never used, tried, or met criteria for abuse or dependence. A co-twin control design was implemented using hierarchical linear modeling to assess whether twins who used drugs experienced lower SES and social support than non-using co-twins. Poorer social functioning in the drug-exposed twin is consistent with a causal relationship, while similar functioning in the drug exposed versus naive twins imply shared genetic or common environmental factors. Use of drugs was not significantly related to any SES measures. However, education and job status appear to share genetic influences with drug abuse/dependence. Lower income was not related to abuse/dependence of drugs. Negative interactions with friends and relatives share genetic factors with use of drugs, but the escalation from trying drugs to abusing them appears to generate discord between the abuser and friends and relatives in a causal fashion. These results indicate that presumptive causal influences of drug abuse/dependence on low SES may actually be mediated by shared genes. Drug use and social discord also appear to have shared genetic factors, but increased levels of drug involvement seem to causally influence social interactions.

  11. Is menopausal status related to women's attitudes toward menopause and aging?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between menopausal status and attitudes toward menopause and aging. We identified 1,400 Bengali Hindu women aged 40-55 years (early perimenopausal n = 445; late perimenopausal n = 240; early postmenopausal n = 285; late postmenopausal n = 430) from West Bengal, India. Information on attitudes toward menopause and aging was collected from March 2009 to July 2012 using ten agree/disagree statements, of which three were positive, four were negative, and the rest were neutral. We used only the positive and negative statements in the analyses. The participants were given three response options for each statement: (1) agreed, (2) disagreed, and (3) felt neutral. Agreement with positive statements and disagreement with negative statements were scored as 3. The converse responses were scored as 1. Neutral responses were not scored. Thus, the total attitude score for each participant ranged from 7 to 21. Additionally, data on sociodemographic and reproductive variables, menopausal symptoms, and perceptions toward menopause were also collected. Multivariable analyses (ANCOVA) showed that postmenopausal women had more positive attitudes toward menopause and aging than perimenopausal women. Providing balanced information about menopause and aging might help to foster positive attitudes toward menopause.

  12. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…

  13. Social Work Education and Direct Practice in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnaan, Ram A.

    1989-01-01

    Educators must prepare social work students to use computers in practice, develop practice-relevant software, and protect and empower those who might be victimized by information technology. Issues and tasks associated with each of these areas are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  14. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  15. Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of…

  16. Librarians and Teen Privacy in the Age of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranich, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Teenagers will freely give up personal information to join social networks on the Internet. However, a 2007 study by the Pew Internet and American Life project found that most of the 55 percent of teens who place their personal profiles online take steps to protect themselves from the most obvious areas of risk. Parents, teachers, and librarians…

  17. Social Foundations of Education for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Leonard J. Waks re-imagines the social foundations of education (SFE) as a project within the information society. He begins with what he believes to be a reasonably non-controversial definition: SFE is a field of scholarship and teaching aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding, through description, interpretation, and…

  18. Combinations of social participation and trust, and association with health status-an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Ronan, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    A limited number of studies have examined the 'miniaturization of community' model which is based on belief that 'new' individualistic, and narrower forms of social participation, do not promote generalized trust in others. Little is known about miniaturization of community and self-reported health, physical health and psychological health in Australia. Data from a 2009 computer-assisted-telephone-interview survey was used to investigate generalized trust, social participation and health-related quality of life in a regional Australian population (n = 1273; mean age 51.2 years). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between generalized trust, social participation and poor self-reported health (global self-rated, psychological and physical), and included four social participation/trust categories. A majority (67%) reported high generalized trust of others, 54% were categorized as high social participators. Miniaturization of community was a risk factor for poor self-rated psychological health across genders, and a risk factor for poor self-rated health for males. For women, low social participation (irrespective of trust level) was associated with poor self-reported health. Given current and previous findings, there is a need for further research in a range of contexts which explores the underlying concept of miniaturization of community, that is, the changes in social participation and social networks which may negatively impact community health.

  19. The Social Distribution of Primary Social Isolation among the Aged: A Subcultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutzen, S. Robert

    1980-01-01

    Examines subcultural variations in primary social isolation in older persons in Albany. Seven hypothetical subcultures contain enough respondents to be numerically important. Two subcultures have above-average rates of primary social isolation. Three subcultures have below-average rates. Results indicate that primary social isolation is a group…

  20. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  1. Social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem: gender and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Stevenson, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the generalisability of the factor pattern, structural parameters, factor correlations and latent mean structure of social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem across gender, age and gender x age. The social physique anxiety scale and general physical self-esteem scale from the physical self-perception profile was administered to high school and university students aged 11-24 years (N = 2334). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the adequacy of a two-factor correlated model in the full sample, and separately by gender, age and gender x age sub-samples. The CFA model satisfied criteria for goodness-of-fit with the data in all sub-samples, the only exception was for females aged 21 and over. Tests of invariance of the factor pattern, structural parameters and correlations across age, gender and age x gender revealed few decrements in goodness-of-fit. Latent means analysis revealed that females had consistently higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males, with the exception of the 11-12 age group. Results extend previous findings that females tend to report higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males by demonstrating that these differences are consistent across age group.

  2. Relationship between the Preschool Children's Attitudes towards the Environment and Their Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körükçü, Özlem; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the social position of preschool children and their attitude towards the environment. The sample group of the survey comprised 106 children from five-to-six years age group, attending nursery classes of primary schools affiliated to Ministry of National Education, in Denizli city centre.…

  3. The sexual preference of female rats is influenced by males' adolescent social stress history and social status.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa

    2017-03-01

    Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour.

  4. Lifespan aging and belief reasoning: Influences of executive function and social cue decoding.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise H; Bull, Rebecca; Allen, Roy; Insch, Pauline; Burr, Kirsty; Ogg, Will

    2011-08-01

    Older adults often perform poorly on Theory of Mind (ToM) tests that require understanding of others' beliefs and intentions. The course and specificity of age changes in belief reasoning across the adult lifespan is unclear, as is the cause of the age effects. Cognitive and neuropsychological models predict that two types of processing might influence age differences in belief reasoning: executive functioning and social cue detection. In the current study we assessed 129 adults aged between 18 and 86 on novel measures of ToM (video clips and verbal vignettes), which manipulated whether true or false belief reasoning was required. On both video and verbal tasks, older adults (aged 65-88) had specific impairments in false belief reasoning, but showed no such problem in performing true belief tasks. Middle-aged adults (aged 40-64) generally performed as well as the younger adults (aged 18-39). Difficulties in updating information in working memory (but not inhibitory problems) partially mediated the age differences in false belief reasoning. Also, the ability to decode biological motion, indexing social cue detection, partially mediated age-related variance in the ability to interpret false beliefs. These results indicate that age differences in decoding social cues and updating information in memory may be important influences on the specific problems encountered when reasoning about false beliefs in old age.

  5. [Social-professional status, identity, social participation and media utilization. Analysis of a complex dynamics].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon; Roggero, Pascal; Southcott, Chris

    2010-08-01

    This article examines the link between the domain and level of occupation, on the one hand, and use of media, including internet, on the other. It adds to this investigation an analysis of identity in its relation to media use and accessibility. It challenges the hypothesis of a strong correlation between level of occupation and use and accessibility to media. It reveals complex phenomena of social homogenization and differentiation. Data is extracted from a sample of workers who completed a questionnaire which focused on use of media.

  6. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

  7. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  8. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384

  9. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Mankus, Annette M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness.

  10. Daily social exchanges and affect in middle and later adulthood: the impact of loneliness and age.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C S; Scott, Stacey B

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses investigated whether loneliness or age moderate the relationship between daily affect and daily social exchanges with family and friends. Results indicated differences between events involving family and those involving friends. Furthermore, lonelier individuals benefitted more from positive events than less lonely adults but were not more negatively reactive to negative events. Moreover, results suggested that older adults' affect is more independent of both positive and negative social events compared to younger people. Implications are discussed for the importance of daily social exchanges, daily social stress vulnerability, and the influences of loneliness across middle and later adulthood.

  11. Social Identification, Perception of Aging, and Successful Aging in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted self-identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979) to examine the role of affective and cognitive identification and the perception of aging with regard to Chinese employees' successful aging in the workplace. A total of 242 Chinese workers in Hong Kong aged 45 and above were recruited. Results showed that cognitive identification…

  12. Feeding practices and nutritional status of children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Hoque, M A; Mollah, A H; Islam, M N; Latif, S A; Hossain, M A

    2011-10-01

    A descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Pediatrics Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess breast feeding pattern, complementary feeding pattern, types of complementary foods and also to assess the nutritional status and to detect any relationship with the nutritional status and the feeding practices. Mothers with their children aged less than 2 years were included and very sick children, mother less children, handicapped children were excluded. Four hundred (400) consecutive children were enrolled from eight upazillas of Mymensingh district who were selected randomly. Out of 400 children, 214 children (53.5%) were male and 186 children (47.5%) were female and M:F was 1.2:1. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was 41.5%. Pre-lacteal feeding rate were 30.7% and most common pre-lacteal foods were honey and sugar water. Colostrum was given in 69.3% children. Breast feeding continued at the time of interview was 58.1%. Complementary feeding started in time in 35.8%, early weaning in 44.5% children. Type of complementary food was mainly luta (rice powder mixed with boiled water and sugar only) in 38.8% and khichuri (rice, pulses, soybean oil) in 19.5%. Bottle feeding rate was 31.30%. Around 43% children were underweight and 10.25% children were severely underweight and common in between 12 to 23 months of age group. Around 29% children were stunted among 11.25% were severely stunted. About 13.5% children were wasted and among them 2.5% were severely wasted. Stunting prevalent over the age of 9 months and wasting started after 6 months of age. Malnutrition was common in partially breast fed and early weaning with carbohydrate rich food.

  13. Measures of Chronic Conditions and Diseases Associated With Aging in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents a description of the methods used in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to detect the presence of chronic conditions and diseases associated with aging. It also discusses the validity and distribution of these measures. Methods Markers associated with common chronic diseases and conditions of aging were collected from 3,005 community-dwelling older adults living in the United States, aged 57–85 years, during 2006. Dried blood spots, physical function tests, anthropometric measurements, self-reported history, and self-rated assessments were used to detect the presence of chronic conditions associated with aging or of risk factors associated with the development of chronic diseases. Results The distribution of each measure, disaggregated by age group and gender, is presented. Conclusions This paper describes the methodology used as well as the distribution of each of these measures. In addition, we discuss how the measures used in the study relate to specific chronic diseases and conditions associated with aging and how these measures might be used in social science analyses. PMID:19204070

  14. School-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radley, Keith C.; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder--particularly interventions capable of being…

  15. The Role of Age and Motivation for the Experience of Social Acceptance and Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitin, Jana; Schoch, Simone; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    A study with n = 55 younger (18-33 years, M = 23.67) and n = 58 older (61-85 years, M = 71.44) adults investigated age-related differences in social approach and avoidance motivation and their consequences for the experience of social interactions. Results confirmed the hypothesis that a predominant habitual approach motivation in younger adults…

  16. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  17. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  18. Social isolation and diurnal cortisol patterns in an ageing cohort☆

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Mai; Gardner, Mike; Kumari, Meena; Kuh, Diana; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Social isolation may operate as a psychosocial stressor which disrupts functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis. Methods Using data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we tested whether living alone, not being married and social network size were associated with diurnal cortisol patterns at 60–64 years. We hypothesised that recent onset compared with long-term isolation would be more strongly associated with cortisol awakening response, cortisol decline over the day and evening cortisol. Models were adjusted for sex, smoking, body mass index, alcohol intake, psychological distress and financial difficulties. Results Those widowed within the last three years had a 36% (95%CI 6%, 73%) higher night time cortisol than those who were currently married. Those newly living alone also had a higher night time cortisol and flatter diurnal slope than those living with others. Conclusion Independently of multiple behavioural and psychosocial correlates, recent onset of social isolation is related to diurnal cortisol patterns that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. PMID:23920224

  19. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  20. Satisfaction with hospital rehabilitation: is it related to life satisfaction, functional status, age or education?

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, Franco; Ottonello, Marcella; Benevolo, Emilio; Tesio, Luigi

    2002-05-01

    Satisfaction with care, functional and cognitive status, life satisfaction, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables were correlated in 55 in-patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip or knee surgery. The study aimed at investigating whether, as an index of care quality, patient satisfaction can be considered as a distinct domain or instead is subsidiary to other patient characteristics. Patient satisfaction with rehabilitation care was measured through a questionnaire, SAT-16. The SAT-16 scores were moderately correlated with a short form of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-11: rs = 0.41, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with either the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the STAI form X (the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), age or educational level. According to the "discrepancy model", the fair degree of correlation between SAT-16 and LSI-11 could be explained by connecting both expressions of satisfaction with personal background expectations and their perceived degree of fulfilment. The results confirm, also for rehabilitation care, that patient satisfaction should be considered as a valuable specific outcome, independent of most of the patient characteristics investigated (functional and cognitive status, anxiety, age, and education).

  1. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  2. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  3. Age and physical activity status effects on appetite and mood state in older humans.

    PubMed

    Apolzan, John W; Flynn, Michael G; McFarlin, Brian K; Campbell, Wayne W

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the influences of age and chronic physical activity status on appetite and mood state. Groups of younger inactive, younger active, older inactive, and older active men and women completed questionnaires each waking hour, rating appetite and mood state for 1 day. Maximal oxygen consumption was 20% lower in older than in younger (p < 0.001) subjects, and 32% lower in inactive than in active (p < 0.001) subjects. Mean hunger (older, 4 +/- 1; younger, 5 +/- 1 arbitrary units (AU); p < 0.01) and desire to eat (older, 3 +/- 1; younger, 4 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.01) were lower in older than in younger subjects. Nadir arousal was higher for the active subjects (active, 3 +/- 1; inactive, 2 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.05). Nadir arousal, nadir pleasantness, and mean pleasantness were higher for the older subjects (p < 0.05). Physical activity status does not influence appetite or the age-associated declines in hunger or desire to eat. The increased nadir arousal of the physically active and older groups is consistent with these subjects experiencing less extreme sleepiness.

  4. Interactive effects of family socioeconomic status and body mass index on depression in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Depression is an important health problem in children and the onset of depression is occurring at a younger age than previously suggested. The associations of being overweight and low socioeconomic status in childhood depression have been well documented; nevertheless few studies have addressed the combined effects of socioeconomic status and body weight, with depression in school-age children. We intended to examine if the relationship between socioeconomic status and childhood depression could be modified by abnormal body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 559 subjects from 29 elementary schools in Taiwan. A depression scale was used to determine the depression status. Children receiving governmental monetary assistance for after-school class were categorized as being in the lower socioeconomic group. Data for depression-related demographic characteristics, family and school variables were collected. Children in the lower socioeconomic status group have a higher prevalence of depression (23.5%) than those in higher socioeconomic status groups(16.4%). Being overweight demonstrates the opposite effect on depression risk in the different socioeconomic groups. In lower socioeconomic families, the risk of depression in overweight children is three times higher than that for normal weight children; whereas in higher socioeconomic families, overweight children have a lower risk for depression than normal weight children. We concluded that a qualitative interactive effect existed between being overweight and socioeconomic status with childhood depression. More attention should be paid to overweight children from lower socioeconomic status families to prevent depression in school-age children.

  5. The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nikitin, Jana; Burgermeister, Lea C.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years) who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years) who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their daily social experience and subjective well-being over the course of 2 weeks. In line with the literature, social approach motives and age were related to higher subjective well-being, whereas social avoidance motives were negatively associated with subjective well-being. Time since the transition was an important moderator of the association between social avoidance motives and negative outcomes. With increasing time from the transition, the negative effects of social avoidance motives decreased. The positive effects of social approach motives remained fairly stable over time. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the associations between social motivation and outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of transition-related instability and age-related stability. PMID:23060835

  6. Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services.

  7. Are Luxury Brand Labels and "Green" Labels Costly Signals of Social Status? An Extended Replication.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.

  8. Marcel Duchamp, the Artist, and the Social Expectations of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritikin, Reynold

    1990-01-01

    Reviews life of Marcel Duchamp, considered by many art professionals to be the best artist of this century. Claims Duchamp's career speaks to issues of aging because over his lifetime there was no diminution of quality of innovation, theory, or power. (Author/ABL)

  9. Improving Age Appropriate Social Skills To Enhance Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara

    This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…

  10. Social Justice and Career Guidance in the Age of Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The practice of career guidance is heavily influenced by changes in the workplace impacted by globalization and fluctuating economies. In the current era, known as the Age of Talent, people are increasingly viewed as commodities to fulfill labor market needs. There are controversies and inequities about who has access to meaningful employment and…

  11. Marital status and gender differences in managing a chronic illness: the function of health-related social control.

    PubMed

    August, Kristin J; Sorkin, Dara H

    2010-11-01

    The attempts of social network members to regulate individuals' health behaviors, or health-related social control, is one mechanism by which social relationships influence health. Little is known, however, about whether this process varies in married versus unmarried individuals managing a chronic illness in which health behaviors are a key component. Researchers have proposed that social control attempts may have dual effects on recipients' well-being, such that improved health behaviors may occur at the cost of increased emotional distress. The current study accordingly sought to examine marital status differences in the sources, frequency, and responses to health-related social control in an ethnically diverse sample of 1477 patients with type 2 diabetes from southern California, USA. Results from two-way ANCOVAs revealed that married individuals reported their spouses most frequently as sources of social control, with unmarried women naming children and unmarried men naming friends/neighbors most frequently as sources of social control. Married men reported receiving social control most often, whereas unmarried men reported receiving social control least often. Regression analyses that examined behavioral and emotional responses to social control revealed that social control using persuasion was associated with better dietary behavior among married patients. Results also revealed a complex pattern of emotional responses, such that social control was associated with both appreciation and hostility, with the effect for appreciation most pronounced among women. Findings from this study highlight the importance of marital status and gender differences in social network members' involvement in the management of a chronic illness.

  12. [Exploration of social support available to mothers of children with cancer, their health status, and other factors related to their family function].

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ling; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2008-12-01

    The mother is typically the primary caregiver for children suffering from cancer. The long-term care responsibilities involved with caring for a cancer-stricken child impacts upon the mother's family role and functions and causes lifestyle changes or imbalances. The aim of this study was to explore social support, health status, and related factors in families of children with cancer. This study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design. Study subjects consisted of 120 mothers of children with cancer recruited from the outpatient and inpatient departments of two medical centers in southern Taiwan between January and April 2006. Research instruments included demographic characterizations of the children with cancer, their mothers, and families; the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, the Duke Health Profile (DUKE), and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results showed a mean score of social support for mothers of children with cancer was 131.21 out of a total possible 175. The standard score for social support was 75.0. The standard score for health was 67.15. The mean score of family functioning was 128.48 out of a total possible 240. The standard score of family function was 53.53. Mother's age, marriage, family type, family socioeconomic stage, disease stage, and relapse of child's disease all had a statistically significant relationship to family function. Significant positive relationships were identified between the two variables social support and health status and family function. Mother's health, social support, disease relapse, and mother's age were significant predictors of mother's family function, explaining 42% of variance in family function for mothers of children with cancer. We hope findings will help clinical health professionals identify and implement nursing strategies to increase the health of mothers and their children as well as promote social support to strengthen family functions.

  13. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  14. Aging services or services to the aging?focus of a university-community curriculum development partnership to increase awareness of aging issues in social work practice.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Sadhna; Wertheimer, Mindy R

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between social work faculty and community practitioners to develop gerontological curricula to increase awareness of aging issues among social work students. We describe steps taken to identify learning needs of students by examining gaps in the core curriculum and surveying community-based agencies that serve older persons who face a variety of problems. We also describe a unique field education assignment designed to increase awareness of how well community service agencies meet the needs of older clients and provide quantitative and qualitative data on students' overall learning experiences. The project highlights the role of community partners in developing relevant curricula for future social work practitioners.

  15. The Effect of Social and Isolate Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschool-Aged Children in a Naturalistic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallam, Michael; Rettig, Michael

    A total of 26 handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children between 3 and 5 years of age were grouped into play groups of three or four children and observed playing in the groups over a 7-week period. Children were provided with toys that were identified as social, such as dolls or wooden building blocks, or isolate, such as puzzles and…

  16. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  17. Hormonal correlates of social status and courtship display in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin.

    PubMed

    DuVal, Emily H; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Though cooperative behavior has long been a focus of evolutionary biology, the proximate hormonal mechanisms underlying cooperative interactions remain poorly understood. Lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) are tropical passerines that form long-term male-male partnerships and cooperate in paired male courtship displays. To elucidate patterns of natural hormonal variation in relation to cooperation and reproductive behavior, we examined circulating androgen levels of male lance-tailed manakins in relation to social status, display behavior, and time of year. We found significantly higher circulating androgen levels in alpha-ranked (breeding) males compared to non-alpha adult males in the population. Beta males, which participated in courtship displays but did not copulate, had androgen levels indistinguishable from those of unpaired adult males that never displayed for females, suggesting that an elevated concentration of plasma testosterone in tropical lekking birds may be associated primarily with copulatory behavior or other status-specific traits, and not the performance of courtship display. Androgens decreased throughout the breeding season for males of all status categories. Interestingly, alphas that displayed for females in the observation session prior to sampling had lower androgen levels than alphas that did not display for females. This pattern may result from female discrimination against alpha males at display areas with high levels of social conflict among males, as social disruption is linked to elevated testosterone in many species. However, recent change of a display partner was not related to alpha androgen levels. We discuss alternative explanations and the possible implications of these results, and generate several testable predictions for future investigations.

  18. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  19. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  20. Induced abortion. Effects of marital status, age and parity on choice of pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K; Daltveit, A K; Nymoen, E H

    1994-03-01

    Data from the Abortion File of the Central Bureau of Statistics in Norway for 1979-90 were used to examine the relative risks of induced abortion among groups varying by marital status, age, and parity for four 3-year time periods. Between January 1979 and December 1990, 639,551 births were registered and 174,590 pregnancies were terminated by abortion. The mean number of induced abortions in three-year periods increased from 12,800 to 14,600 (14%), and births increased from 50,700 to 58,800 (16%). The two prominent groups having abortions were unmarried women without children aged less than 30 years (40%) and married women with 2 or more children. Declines in abortion occurred among married women with two or more children, from 24% of all abortions in 1979-81 to 15% in 1988-90. Unmarried, pregnant women aged more than 20 years of age experienced a decline in abortion terminations. Unmarried teenage abortions remained stable. Pregnancy terminations increased primarily for married women aged 10-24 years without children. The lowest group with abortions comprised married childless women aged 25-29 years: the reference group. Unmarried women, regardless of age and parity, ended their pregnancies 40-50 times more often than the reference group. Registration of data affected the data by overestimation of abortions among single teenagers by 4% for all time periods. Although abortions increased among unmarried women aged over 20 years, there was still a decline in the proportion of pregnancies terminated by abortion among unmarried women aged over 20 years. Births among cohabiting or unmarried women increased more than the relative number of abortions among unmarried women. Cohabitation increased from 12% in 1977 to 30% in 1988. The suggestion was that the decreasing trend in abortion among pregnant unmarried women might be related to the changes in consensual unions. Data from the 1988 Norway Fertility Survey found that 40% of births were to childless married couples not