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Sample records for age specific incidence

  1. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  2. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  3. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  4. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  5. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  6. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  7. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  8. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  9. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  10. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Donaldson, Anna L; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  11. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  12. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  13. Age- and gender-specific associations between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population: the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Liu, X; Wang, X; Wu, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the age- and sex-dependent association between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population. The Kailuan prospective cohort study recruited 101 510 participants. Those participants were followed for an average of 3.98 years and the data obtained from 32 137 participants out of 101 510 were analyzed in this study. Sleep duration was categorized as five groups of⩽5, 6, 7, 8 and ⩾9 h. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze the association of sleep duration with incident hypertension. The 3.98 years' follow-up data showed that 12 732 out of 32 137 participants developed hypertension. Short duration of sleep (⩽5 h per night) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in woman (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.58) and participants aged <60 years (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), when compared with the group reported with 7 h of sleep per day. This study suggested that short sleep duration could cause an increased risk of hypertension in Chinese females and population aged <60 years. PMID:26763887

  14. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  15. Uveitis in the Aging Eye: Incidence, Patterns, and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaal, Marwan R.; Abiad, Bachir H.; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is a vision threatening inflammation of the eye that carries considerable morbidity. It is responsible for 10% of legal blindness in the United States and up to 25% in the developing world. Uveitis in patients more than 60 years of age is less common. The aging body has a changing response of the immune system, which might reflect a different pattern of uveitis in the elderly population. In this paper we review the incidence and patterns of uveitis in the elderly as reported in the literature and discuss changes with time. We also delineate a thorough differential diagnosis of de novo uveitis in the elderly. PMID:26090218

  16. Evaluating hospital performance based on excess cause-specific incidence.

    PubMed

    Van Rompaye, Bart; Eriksson, Marie; Goetghebeur, Els

    2015-04-15

    Formal evaluation of hospital performance in specific types of care is becoming an indispensable tool for quality assurance in the health care system. When the prime concern lies in reducing the risk of a cause-specific event, we propose to evaluate performance in terms of an average excess cumulative incidence, referring to the center's observed patient mix. Its intuitive interpretation helps give meaning to the evaluation results and facilitates the determination of important benchmarks for hospital performance. We apply it to the evaluation of cerebrovascular deaths after stroke in Swedish stroke centers, using data from Riksstroke, the Swedish stroke registry. PMID:25640288

  17. Evaluating hospital performance based on excess cause-specific incidence

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompaye, Bart; Eriksson, Marie; Goetghebeur, Els

    2015-01-01

    Formal evaluation of hospital performance in specific types of care is becoming an indispensable tool for quality assurance in the health care system. When the prime concern lies in reducing the risk of a cause-specific event, we propose to evaluate performance in terms of an average excess cumulative incidence, referring to the center's observed patient mix. Its intuitive interpretation helps give meaning to the evaluation results and facilitates the determination of important benchmarks for hospital performance. We apply it to the evaluation of cerebrovascular deaths after stroke in Swedish stroke centers, using data from Riksstroke, the Swedish stroke registry. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25640288

  18. Sexual incidents in an extended care unit for aged men.

    PubMed

    Szasz, G

    1983-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the nursing staff of a 400-bed extended-care unit for aged men by questionnaire to find out what patient behaviors were identified as sexual by the staff and how they reacted to these behaviors. Three types of behavior were identified as sexual and as "causing problems": sex talk (e.g., using foul language); sexual acts (e.g., touching or grabbing, exposing genitalia); and implied sexual behavior (e.g., openly reading pornographic magazines). As many as 25 per cent of the residents were thought to create such incidents. Acceptable sexual behavior identified by the staff were limited to hugging and kissing on the cheek, although their answers implied that residents could need more intimate touching and affection. The survey raised questions about the nature and causes of different types of sexual behavior in the institutionalized elderly and about the roles nursing staff, physicians, and administrators can play in recognizing individual needs while safeguarding both the residents and the staff from the consequences of unacceptable incidents. PMID:6863791

  19. Age-specific migration and regional diversity.

    PubMed

    Morrill, R

    1994-11-01

    "This author examines patterns of age-specific migration between 1980 and 1990 for a small, growing region, the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A., with the purpose of assessing the degree of geographic diversity in experience. A simple typology of the expected spatial and structural pattern of age-specific migration is proposed. Cluster analysis is used to group counties on the basis of age-specific rates of net migration. Even this fairly small region is found to exemplify most of the patterns that might be expected to occur in the nation as a whole." PMID:12288335

  20. Country-specific estimates of the incidence of intellectual disability associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C; O'Leary, Keri; Rainis, Holly; Gibb, Herman J

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes country-specific estimates of the incidence of intellectual disability in children associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. A systematic review was undertaken to identify country-specific data on hair mercury concentrations in women of reproductive age. A variety of approaches were used to estimate biomarker concentrations for countries lacking such data. A dose-effect relationship derived on the basis of the data from three large prospective studies relating prenatal methylmercury exposure to IQ in children was used to estimate the country-specific incidences of mild, moderate, severe, and profound intellectual disability in children as a result of prenatal methylmercury exposure. The incidence of methylmercury-associated mild intellectual disability (IQ scores 50-70) varied nearly 40-fold across countries, with the greatest incidences generally in countries that are islands or that are coastal. Countries with high birth rates and greater consumption of foods that contribute most to methylmercury intake in humans (seafood, rice) can be expected to make the largest contributions to the worldwide burden of disease associated with methylmercury. The assumptions and limitations of the estimates are discussed. PMID:26874048

  1. A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, F. E.; Stephan, B. C. M.; Robinson, L.; Jagger, C.; Barnes, L. E.; Arthur, A.; Brayne, C.; Comas-Herrera, A.; Wittenberg, R.; Dening, T.; McCracken, C.F.M.; Moody, C.; Parry, B.; Green, E.; Barnes, R.; Warwick, J.; Gao, L.; Mattison, A.; Baldwin, C.; Harrison, S.; Woods, B.; McKeith, I.G.; Ince, P.G.; Wharton, S.B.; Forster, G.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic global increases in future numbers of people with dementia have been predicted. No multicentre population-based study powered to detect changes over time has reported dementia incidence. MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) undertook baseline interviews in populations aged 65+ years in England and Wales (1989–1994). Three areas (CFAS I) were selected for new sampling two decades later (2008–2011) with same geographical boundaries, sampling and approach methods (CFAS II). At 2 years CFAS I interviewed 5,156 (76% response) with 5,288 interviewed in CFAS II (74% response). Here we report a 20% drop in incidence (95% CI: 0–40%), driven by a reduction in men across all ages above 65. In the UK we estimate 209,600 new dementia cases per year. This study was uniquely designed to test for differences across geography and time. A reduction of age-specific incidence means that the numbers of people estimated to develop dementia in any year has remained relatively stable. PMID:27092707

  2. Aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension--gender specific effects.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bluhm, Gösta; Hilding, Agneta; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies show associations between aircraft noise and cardiovascular outcomes such as hypertension. However, these studies were mostly cross-sectional and there are uncertainties regarding potential gender differences as well as sensitive subgroups. In this study, we investigated the cumulative incidence of hypertension in relation to aircraft noise exposure among Swedish men and women living in Stockholm County. A total of 4721 subjects, aged 35-56 at baseline, were followed for 8-10 years. The population was selected according to family history of diabetes, which was present for half of the subjects. The exposure assessment was performed by geographical information systems and based on residential history during the period of follow-up. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Additional information regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension as well as various lifestyle factors was provided by questionnaires. In the overall population, no increased risk for hypertension was found among subjects exposed to aircraft noise ≥ 50 dB(A) L(den); relative risk (RR) 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15). When restricting the cohort to those not using tobacco at the blood pressure measurements, a significant risk increase per 5 dB(A) of aircraft noise exposure was found in men; RR 1.21 (1.05-1.39), but not in women; RR 0.97 (0.83-1.13). In both sexes combined, an increased risk of hypertension related to aircraft noise exposure was indicated primarily among those reporting annoyance to aircraft noise; RR 1.42 (1.11-1.82). No consistent effect modification was detected for any of the cardiovascular risk factors under investigation although a family history of diabetes appeared to modify the risk in women. In conclusion, the results suggest an increased risk of hypertension following long-term aircraft noise exposure in men, and that subjects annoyed by aircraft noise may be particularly sensitive to noise related hypertension. PMID:20880521

  3. Anthropogenic pollutants may increase the incidence of neurodegenerative disease in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    The current world population contains an ever-increasing increased proportion of the elderly. This is due to global improvements in medical care and access to such care. Thus, a growing incidence of age-related neurodegenerative disorders is to be expected. Increased longevity also allows more time for interaction with adverse environmental factors that have the potential exert a gradual pressure, facilitating the onset of organismic aging. Nearly all neurodegenerative disorders have a relatively minor genetic element and a larger idiopathic component. It is likely that some of the unknown factors promoting neurological disease involve the appearance of some deleterious aspects of senescence, elicited prematurely by low but pervasive levels of toxic materials present in the environment. This review considers the nature of such possible toxicants and how they may hasten neurosenescence. An enhanced rate of emergence of normal age-related changes in the brain can lead to increased incidence of those specific neurological disorders where aging is an essential requirement. In addition, some xenobiotic agents appear to have the capability of engendering specific neurodegenerative disorders and some of these are also considered. PMID:26812399

  4. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  5. Age-related incidence and other epidemiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aul, C; Gattermann, N; Schneider, W

    1992-10-01

    Although most haematologists perceive a rising prevalence and incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), reliable epidemiological data on these disorders are largely lacking. The bone marrow register of the University of Düsseldorf allowed us to assess among other epidemiological features the incidence of MDS, which was compared to that of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Among a total of 18,416 different patients registered between 1975 and 1990, 584 cases of MDS (3.2%) and 506 cases of AML (2.8%) were identified. Over the study period, the percentage of newly diagnosed MDS rose from 1.3% to 4.5%, while there was no upward trend for AML. Among all patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy, the proportion of those over 60 years of age increased from 41.9% in 1975 to 54.1% in 1990. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of elderly patients and the relative frequency of MDS diagnoses. Thirty-one patients (5.3%) were classified as a secondary MDS because of previous treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or irradiation for a variety of malignancies. Twelve patients were identified in whom occupational exposure to organic solvents could not be ruled out. For calculating age-specific incidence rates, the analysis was confined to the town district of Düsseldorf (575,000 inhabitants), because exact demographical data were available for this population. In the last quinquennium of the study period (1986-90), myelodysplastic syndromes were more frequent than AML in the age group 50-70 years (4.9 v 1.8/100,000/year). In patients over 70, the incidence of MDS was more than 3 times that of AML (22.8 v 6.7/100,000). In this group, men had a higher incidence of MDS (33.9/100,000) than women (18/100,000). Crude annual incidence (all age groups) was also higher for MDS (4.1/100,000) than for AML (2.1/100,000) in recent years. We conclude that MDS are relatively common haematological neoplasias. The rising incidence in recent years is probably not due to changes in

  6. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  7. Incidence of specific absolute neurocognitive impairment in globally intact children with histories of early severe deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Behen, Michael E.; Helder, Emily; Rothermel, Robert; Solomon, Katherine; Chugani, Harry T.

    2008-01-01

    Postnatal deprivation is associated with neurocognitive delay/dysfunction. Although “catch up” in global cognition following adoption has been reported, this study examined the incidence of specific absolute impairment in adopted children with intact global cognitive functioning. Eighty-five children (38 males, mean age=112.8, SD=30.3 months; range 61−209 months) raised from birth in orphanages underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Fifty-four were deemed globally intact (IQ>85). Of those deemed globally intact, 46 percent evidenced absolute impairment in at least one domain of functioning. Duration of stay in the orphanage was directly associated with incidence of impairment and number of domains affected. A substantial proportion of participants evidenced persistent, absolute impairment in one or more domains of neurocognitive function despite integrity of basic intellectual functions. PMID:18686074

  8. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  9. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  10. Occupational exposure and 25-year incidence rate of non-specific lung disease: the Zutphen Study.

    PubMed

    Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Burema, J; Biersteker, K; Kromhout, D

    1990-12-01

    Information gathered in the Zutphen Study, the Dutch contribution to the Seven Countries Study that started in the 1960s, was used for the present study. In 1960 878 men participated in the physical examination and they were followed for 25 years until 1 July 1985. During this follow-up, their morbidity status was verified regularly. With this information the occurrence of chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD) at a specific time was coded by one physician, using strict criteria. The CNSLD diagnosis was based on the following criteria: episodes of respiratory symptoms such as regular cough and phlegm for longer than three months or episodes of wheezing and shortness of breath reported to the survey physician, or: diagnosis of CNSLD, including chronic bronchitis or emphysema by a clinical specialist. Occupation in 1960 was coded and used to generate specific occupational exposures with a Job Exposure Matrix. Because the exact time of diagnosis of CNSLD was known, incidence densities could be calculated. For 804 men a complete set of data was available. A Poisson regression analysis was used to analyse the relationships between the incidence density and independent variables like age, calendar period, occupation and specific occupational exposures. Blue collar workers had a significantly elevated incidence density ratio (IDR) compared to white collar workers (1.82, 95% confidence limits (CL): 1.35, 2.46). Subgroups of blue collar workers, wood and paper workers, textile workers, and tailors, construction workers and transport workers had significantly elevated IDRs also. Of the specific exposures heavy metals, mineral dust and adhesives had a significantly elevated IDR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2084026

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care. PMID:25526960

  12. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  13. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  14. Sunlight Exposure, Pigmentation, and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Howard, Kerri P.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD. Methods. Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color. Results. Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD. Conclusions. Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype. PMID:25125603

  15. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, N K; Linn, F H H; van der Plas, J A; Algra, A; Rinkel, G J E

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. Results We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45 821 896 person‐years. Incidences per 100 000 person‐years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45–55 years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25 years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85 years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55 years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. Conclusions The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100 000 person‐years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45 years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general. PMID:17470467

  16. Does Older Age Confer an Increased Risk of Incident Neurocognitive Disorders Among Persons Living with HIV Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, David P.; Woods, Steven Paul; Bondi, Mark W.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Massman, Paul J.; Doyle, Katie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. Method A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV−, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV−, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14.3 ±0.2 months later. Results A logistic regression predicting incident neurocognitive disorders from HIV, age group, and their interaction was significant (χ2[4] = 13.56, p = .009), with a significant main effect of HIV serostatus (χ2[1] = 5.01, p = .025), but no main effect of age or age by HIV interaction (ps > .10). Specifically, 15.7 percent of the HIV+ individuals had an incident neurocognitive disorder as compared to 3.2 percent of the HIV− group (odds ratio = 4.8 [1.2, 32.6]). Among older HIV+ adults, lower baseline cognitive reserve, prospective memory, and verbal fluency each predicted incident neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Conclusions Independent of age, HIV infection confers a nearly 5-fold risk for developing a neurocognitive disorder over approximately one year. Individuals with lower cognitive reserve and mild weaknesses in higher-order neurocognitive functions may be targeted for closer clinical monitoring and preventative measures. PMID:26367342

  17. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  18. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  19. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  20. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  1. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  2. Subtype-specific incidence rates of lymphoid malignancies in Hong Kong compared to the United States, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Au, Wing-Yan; Mang, Oscar; Ngan, Roger; Morton, Lindsay M; Ip, Dennis K M; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Seow, Wei Jie; Xu, Jun; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-06-01

    Clinical studies of lymphoid malignancies (LMs) have suggested that the descriptive patterns of LMs differ in East Asia compared to Western populations. However, there are very limited available data on population-based, subtype-specific incidence rates of LMs in the East Asian population, particularly in Chinese. Using data from the Hong Kong (HK) Cancer Registry and United States (U.S.) SEER Program, we calculated and compared age-adjusted incidence rates of LM subtypes in HK to those in Whites and Asians living in the U.S. Overall and sex-specific rates were calculated for the period 2001-2010. The incidence of most subtypes was low in the HK population, with rates <1 case per 100,000 for all subtypes except for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (3.26/100,000) and plasma cell neoplasms (1.99/100,000). Age-adjusted incidence rates of all evaluated B-cell subtypes were significantly higher in U.S. Whites compared to HK, with standardized rate ratios (SRRs) ranging from 1.6 (Burkitt lymphoma) to 9.1 (chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma). Rates in U.S. Asians were generally intermediate to those in U.S. Whites and HK. Conversely, rates of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma were significantly lower in both U.S. Whites (SRR=0.2) and U.S. Asians (SRR=0.5) compared to HK. Our data provide new insight into the subtype-specific patterns of LMs in the Chinese population, and suggest the need for etiological studies of LMs in the East Asian population to elucidate the factors responsible for these differences in the geographic incidence patterns. PMID:26991956

  3. Colorado IDDM Registry. Incidence and validation of IDDM in children aged 0-17 yr.

    PubMed

    Hamman, R F; Gay, E C; Cruickshanks, K J; Cook, M; Lezotte, D C; Klingensmith, G J; Chase, H P

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged 0-17 yr for age, sex, season, and urban and rural residence of onset in Colorado. Retrospective registration of new-onset cases was conducted from 1978 to 1980, and then prospective registration continued through 1983 with the use of physician reporting with hospital validation. The annual incidence of IDDM was 15.2/100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1, 16.3), with little difference between the sexes. The highest incidence was in the 10- to 14-yr age-group for both sexes. There was a seasonal peak of winter onset in those aged 10-17 yr, with similar patterns between sex and ethnic groups. No temporal trend over the 6 yr was seen, although an excess of cases was seen for 15- to 17-yr-old boys in 1980-1982. Rates were similar for urban and rural areas of the state. Case ascertainment was estimated to be 93.2% complete (95% CI 91.5, 95.5). Incidence was similar in Colorado to other populations in the United States at similar latitudes. These data serve as a baseline for evaluation of changes in incidence over time, by region, and for the identification of possible outbreaks. PMID:2351028

  4. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  5. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  6. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and incidence of airflow limitation per 1000 person-years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  7. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  8. Direct Coombs antiglobulin reactions in Gambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. I. Incidence and class specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Facer, C A; Bray, R S; Brown, J

    1979-01-01

    Gambian children with past or present Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated for the incidence of Coombs positivity using monospecific antisera. Approximately 50% were positive and the most frequent form of erythrocyte sensitization was with C3d. Other specificities, EIgG, EIgGC3d and EIgGC4bC3d were less common. Erthyrocytes were never found sensitized with IgA or IgM. There was no correlation between a positive test and age, tribal status or level of parasitaemia at presentation, although a positive test was often found in association with anaemia. Sensitized erythrocytes were present in the circulation for a period of up to 6 weeks following initial observation. The mechanism of erythrocyte sensitization is not known, but the results suggest a Type III complex-mediated hypersensitivity involving parasite antigen-antibody complexes. It is likely that these reactions contribute to the pathogenesis of the anaemia in falciparum malaria. Images FIG. 3 PMID:371880

  9. Incidence of Dementia Among Participants and Nonparticipants in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  10. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Incident Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Antonio B.; Panza, Gregory A.; Cramer, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Saurav; Jayaraman, Ramya; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness in people over 65 years old in the United States and has been associated with cardiovascular risk and decreased survival. There is conflicting data, however, regarding the contribution of AMD to the prediction of stroke. Aim To determine whether AMD is a risk indicator for incident stroke in a meta-analysis of available prospective and retrospective cohort studies published in the English literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of all studies published in English with Pub Med and other databases from 1966 to August 2014, reporting stroke incidence in patients with macular degeneration. Two investigators independently extracted the data. A random effects model was used to report Odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-regression using a mixed linear model was used to understand potential heterogeneity amongst studies. Results We identified 9 studies that reported stroke incidence in patients with and without early AMD (N = 1,420,978). No significant association was found between early AMD with incident stroke. Combined, these 9 studies demonstrated random effects (OR, 1.12; CI, 0.86–1.47; I2 = 96%). Meta-regression on baseline covariates of age, sex, and year of publication did not significantly relate to heterogeneity. Conclusions We found no significant relationship between AMD and incident stroke. Further studies are needed to clarify other causes of decreased survival in patients with AMD. PMID:26580396

  11. Age incidence and site distribution of mammary dysplasias in young beagle bitches.

    PubMed

    Warner, M R

    1976-07-01

    The age incidence and site distribution of 2,142 mammary dysplasias were documented for 39 beagle bitches 6 months to 4 years of age. Lesion onset was at 2-3 years of age, at which time more than 50% of the females had dysplasias. Dysplasias appeared before palpable tumors. Posterior mammae developed more lesions than did anterior mammae. Thus the gradient for early onset of lesions coincided with the gradient for tumor frequency reported previously; a preneoplastic potential is suggested for (some) dysplasias. Problems of defining normal tissue are discussed. PMID:1034018

  12. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  13. Cognitive Reserve, Incident Dementia, and Associated Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Bello, Toyin; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe factors associated with incident dementia and dementia mortality over 5 years in a large community sample of elderly persons. Design Longitudinal investigation of a household multistage probability sample. Setting Eight contiguous states of the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older (N=2,149). Measurements Dementia was diagnosed using tools previously validated in the population. Incident cases of dementia over three follow-up waves were determined after censoring cases in the preceding wave. Information on mortality was collected from key informants in subjects’ households. Results A dementia incident rate was found of 20.9 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI)=17.7–24.9). The adjusted mortality hazard for those with dementia was 1.5 (95% CI=1.1–2.1). Along with previously identified social and demographic factors, poor predementia cognitive function (hazard ratio (HR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.1–2.8) and low occupational complexity (HR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3–8.0) were associated with incident dementia. Conclusion The findings confirm the low incidence of dementia in this population, as previously reported. The condition is nevertheless associated with higher risk of mortality. Along with some features of social disadvantage, proxies of lower cognitive reserve were risk factors for incident dementia. PMID:26926137

  14. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  15. Age at First Drink and the First Incidence of Adult-Onset DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing studies of the association between age at first drink (AFD) and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) suffer from inconsistent levels of control and designs that may inflate associations by failure to control for duration of exposure to risk. Methods This study examined associations between AFD (ages <15 and 15-17 versus 18+ years) and first incidence of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, abuse, and specific AUD criteria over a 3-year follow-up in a longitudinal study of U.S. drinkers 18 years of age and older at baseline (n=22,316), controlling for duration of exposure, family history and a wide range of baseline and childhood risk factors. Results After adjusting for all risk factors, the incidence of dependence was increased for AFD <15 years (OR=1.38) and for women only with AFD at ages 15-17 (OR=1.54). The incidence of abuse was increased at AFD <15 and 15-17 years (OR=1.52 and 1.30, respectively). Most dependence criteria showed significant associations with AFD, but hazardous drinking and continued drinking despite interpersonal problems were the only abuse criteria to do so. All associations were nonsignificant after controlling for volume of consumption, except that AFD at all ages <18 combined was associated with a reduced likelihood of impaired control and AFD at ages 15-17 was associated with lower odds of drinking more/longer than intended among heavy-volume drinkers. In a population of low-risk drinkers that excluded those with positive family histories, personality disorders and childhood risk factors, there were strong associations between early AFD (<18) and the incidence of dependence (OR=3.79) and continued drinking despite physical/psychological problems (OR=2.71), but no association with incidence of abuse. Conclusions There is a robust association between AFD and the risk of AUD that appears to reflect willful rather than uncontrolled heavy drinking, consistent with misuse governed by poor decision-making and/or reward

  16. Exploring the relationship between incidence and the average age of infection during seasonal epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the incidence and the average age of first infection for immunizing agents has become a basic tenet in the theory underlying the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. However, this relationship assumes that the infection has reached an endemic equilibrium. In reality, most infectious diseases exhibit seasonal and/or long-term oscillations in incidence. We use a seasonally-forced age-structured SIR model to explore the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection over a single epidemic cycle. Contrary to the relationship for the equilibrium dynamics, we find that the average age of first infection is greatest at or near the peak of the epidemic when mixing is homogeneous. We explore the sensitivity of our findings to assumptions about the natural history of infection, population mixing behavior, the mechanism of seasonality, and of the timing of case reporting in relation to the infectious period. We conclude that seasonal variation in the average age of first infection tends to be greatest for acute infections, and the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection can vary depending on the nature of population mixing and the natural history of infection. PMID:19527734

  17. Proteomic analysis reveals age-related changes in tendon matrix composition, with age- and injury-specific matrix fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Peffers, Mandy J; Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Collins, John A; Eong, Robin; Wei, Timothy K J; Screen, Hazel R C; Clegg, Peter D

    2014-09-12

    Energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), are highly prone to injury, the incidence of which increases with aging. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in increased injury in aged tendons are not well established but are thought to result in altered matrix turnover. However, little attempt has been made to fully characterize the tendon proteome nor determine how the abundance of specific tendon proteins changes with aging and/or injury. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the protein profile of normal SDFTs from young and old horses using label-free relative quantification to identify differentially abundant proteins and peptide fragments between age groups. The protein profile of injured SDFTs from young and old horses was also assessed. The results demonstrate distinct proteomic profiles in young and old tendon, with alterations in the levels of proteins involved in matrix organization and regulation of cell tension. Furthermore, we identified several new peptide fragments (neopeptides) present in aged tendons, suggesting that there are age-specific cleavage patterns within the SDFT. Proteomic profile also differed between young and old injured tendon, with a greater number of neopeptides identified in young injured tendon. This study has increased the knowledge of molecular events associated with tendon aging and injury, suggesting that maintenance and repair of tendon tissue may be reduced in aged individuals and may help to explain why the risk of injury increases with aging. PMID:25077967

  18. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  19. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

  20. Incident-specific and individual-level moderators of brief intervention effects with mandated college students.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Nadine R; Murphy, James G; Colby, Suzanne M; Monti, Peter M; Barnett, Nancy P

    2011-12-01

    Brief Motivational Interventions (BMI) and Computer-delivered interventions (CDI) have been successful in reducing drinking behaviors with mandated college students. However, research examining moderators of intervention effects have found mixed results. The current study sought to replicate and extend the research on moderators of intervention efficacy with mandated students. Baseline alcohol-related problems, readiness to change, gender, incident consequences, and participant responses to the event (personal attributions about the incident, aversiveness of the incident) were examined as moderators of intervention and booster condition efficacy on alcohol use and problems. Mandated students (N = 225) were randomized to complete either a BMI or CDI (Alcohol 101; Century Council, 1998), with or without a 1-month booster session, following a campus alcohol sanction. Outcomes were measured three months after baseline. Attributions moderated intervention condition such that participants low in personal attributions for their incident showed significantly less drinking following a CDI than a BMI. Men and individuals who reported low incident aversiveness showed higher drinks per occasion after receiving a booster, while individuals high in alcohol-related problems reported fewer heavy drinking days after completing a booster session. Findings suggest that identifying specific characteristics related to the precipitating event may inform intervention approaches in this high-risk population; however, additional research is needed to offer concrete guidance to practitioners in the field. PMID:21766975

  1. Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Background Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological wellbeing may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological wellbeing was associated with incidence of physical frailty. Methods We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relation between psychological wellbeing, assessed using the CASP-19 questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria, in 2557 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results Men and women with higher levels of psychological wellbeing were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological wellbeing at baseline, the relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 (0.40, 0.54). There was a significant association between psychological wellbeing and risk of pre-frailty: 0.69 (0.63, 0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) wellbeing showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in wellbeing, suggesting that the relationship is bi-directional. Conclusions Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological wellbeing in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:23822897

  2. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  3. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  4. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  5. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Sara M.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Hall, Aron J.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Duarte, Ana S. R.; Black, Robert E.; Angulo, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the global and regional incidence and mortality of diarrhoeal diseases caused by nine pathogens that are commonly transmitted through foods. Methods and Findings We abstracted data from systematic reviews and, depending on the overall mortality rates of the country, applied either a national incidence estimate approach or a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) approach to estimate the aetiology-specific incidence and mortality of diarrhoeal diseases, by age and region. The nine diarrhoeal diseases assessed caused an estimated 1.8 billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.1–3.3 billion) cases and 599,000 (95% UI 472,000–802,000) deaths worldwide in 2010. The largest number of cases were caused by norovirus (677 million; 95% UI 468–1,153 million), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (233 million; 95% UI 154–380 million), Shigella spp. (188 million; 95% UI 94–379 million) and Giardia lamblia (179 million; 95% UI 125–263); the largest number of deaths were caused by norovirus (213,515; 95% UI 171,783–266,561), enteropathogenic E. coli (121,455; 95% UI 103,657–143,348), ETEC (73,041; 95% UI 55,474–96,984) and Shigella (64,993; 95% UI 48,966–92,357). There were marked regional differences in incidence and mortality for these nine diseases. Nearly 40% of cases and 43% of deaths caused by these nine diarrhoeal diseases occurred in children under five years of age. Conclusions Diarrhoeal diseases caused by these nine pathogens are responsible for a large disease burden, particularly in children. These aetiology-specific burden estimates can inform efforts to reduce diarrhoeal diseases caused by these nine pathogens commonly

  6. Lipids, Lipid Genes and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Three Continent Age-Related Macular Degeneration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Meta-analysis. Methods Setting Three population-based cohorts. Population 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and Rotterdam Study (RS). Observation Procedures Participants were followed over 20 years and examined at 5-year intervals. Hazard ratios (HRs) associated with lipid levels per standard deviation above the mean or associated with each additional risk allele for each lipid pathway gene were calculated using random-effects inverse-weighted meta-analysis models, adjusting for known AMD risk factors. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of AMD. Results The average 5-year incidences of early AMD were 8.1%, 15.1%, and 13.0% in the BDES, BMES, and RS, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cholesterol and lipid pathway genes on the incidence and progression of AMD was evident when the data from the three studies were combined in meta-analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find a statistically significant association between any of the cholesterol measures, statin use, or serum lipid genes and any of the AMD outcomes in the meta-analysis. Conclusion In a meta-analysis, there were no associations of cholesterol measures, history of statin use, or lipid pathway genes to the incidence and progression of AMD. These findings add to inconsistencies in earlier reports from our studies and others showing weak associations, no associations, or inverse associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol with AMD. PMID:24879949

  7. Well-Being and Chronic Disease Incidence: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Okely, Judith A.; Gale, Catharine R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Previous research suggests that greater well-being may protect against onset of chronic disease. However, it is unclear whether this association is similar across different types of disease. Method We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the prospective relationship between well-being (measured using the CASP-19 quality of life questionnaire) and incidence of arthritis, cancer, stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease over 8 years. The sample consisted of 8182 participants 50 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results After adjustments for established risk factors, a standard deviation increase in CASP-19 score was associated with a decrease in arthritis risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83–0.96) and, in those younger than 65 years, a decrease in diabetes risk (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70–0.95) and chronic lung disease risk (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.97). Higher CASP-19 scores were associated with reduced risk for stroke and myocardial infarction; however, these associations were no longer significant after adjustments for established risk factors. No association was observed for cancer incidence. An age interaction was observed for diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease, with a stronger association between CASP-19 score and disease incidence at younger ages. Conclusions The extent of association between well-being and incident disease risk is not consistent across different chronic diseases. Future studies should examine the cause of this variation. PMID:26569542

  8. The incidence of cervical spondylosis decreases with aging in the elderly, and increases with aging in the young and adult population: a hospital-based clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanling; Tian, Fuming; Zhou, Yingjun; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cervical spondylosis is well accepted as a common degenerative change in the cervical spine. Compelling evidence has shown that the incidence of cervical spondylosis increases with age. However, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis through more and more clinical data. Methods In the case-controlled study reported here, retrospective clinical analysis of 1,276 cases of cervical spondylosis has been conducted. We analyzed the general clinical data, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis, and the relationship between age-related risk factors and the incidence of cervical spondylosis. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of less than 0.05. Results The imaging examination demonstrated the most prominent characteristic features of cervical spondylosis: bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6. The incidence of cervical spondylosis increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially in the elderly after 60 years old. The occurrence rate of bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially after 60 years. Moreover, the incidence of hyperosteogeny and spinal stenosis increased with aging before age 60 years and decreased with aging after age 60 years, although there was no obvious change in calcification. The age-related risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking, have no relationship with the incidence of cervical spondylosis. Conclusion A decreasing proportion of cervical spondylosis with aging occurs in the elderly, while the proportion of

  9. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  10. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  11. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  12. Incidences of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Japanese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older From a Community-based Prospective Cohort Study: The SHEZ Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Yano, Shuichiro; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cross-sectional studies have examined the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but prospective studies in Japanese older adults are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a community-based prospective cohort study to determine the incidence in Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. Methods We recruited 12 522 participants from Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, between December 2008 and November 2009 and followed participants for 3 years. When a subject presented with symptoms suggestive of HZ, they were examined at collaborating medical institutions and cooperated with onset and recovery surveys (eg, measurement of varicella zoster virus-specific immunity and a pain survey). The hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ and PHN according to sex and age were analyzed by Cox regression analysis with a significance level of 5%. Results The incidence of HZ was 10.9/1000 person-years (men: 8.5/1000 person-years; women: 12.8/1000 person-years) and was significantly higher in women than in men (HR 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8). The incidence of PHN was 2.1/1000 person-years (men: 1.7/1000 person-years; women: 2.4/1000 person-years), with no significant sex differences. A total of 19% of HZ cases progressed to PHN; no sex-specific difference in the proportion of PHN cases was observed. Conclusions We clarified the accurate incidences of HZ and PHN in a population of Japanese older adults. These incidences increased with age. HZ incidence was higher in women than in men, while PHN incidence did not differ markedly between the sexes. PMID:26399445

  13. The Contribution of Mammography Screening to Breast Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States: An Updated Age-period-cohort Model

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Alagoz, Oguz; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Holford, Theodore R.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of screening mammography on breast cancer incidence is difficult to disentangle from cohort- and age-related effects on incidence. Methods We developed an age-period-cohort model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer incidence in U.S. females using cancer registry data. Five functions were included in the model to estimate stage-specific effects for age, premenopausal birth cohorts, postmenopausal birth cohorts, period (for all years of diagnosis), and a mammography period effect limited to women aged ≥40 years after 1982. Incidence with and without the mammography period effect was calculated. Results More recent birth cohorts have elevated underlying risk compared to earlier cohorts for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Comparing models with and without the mammography period effect showed that overall breast cancer incidence would have been 23.1% lower in the absence of mammography in 2010 (95% CI 18.8, 27.4), including 14.7% (9.5, 19.3) lower for invasive breast cancer and 54.5% (47.4, 59.6) lower for DCIS. Incidence of distant-staged breast cancer in 2010 would have been 29.0% (13.1, 48.1) greater in the absence of mammography screening. Conclusions Mammography contributes to markedly elevated rates of DCIS and early stage invasive cancers, but also contributes to substantial reductions in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. Impact Mammography is an important tool for reducing the burden of breast cancer, but future work is needed to identify risk factors accounting for increasing underlying incidence and to distinguish between indolent and potentially lethal early stage breast cancers that are detected via mammography. PMID:25787716

  14. A Population-Based Cohort Study of All-Cause and Site-Specific Cancer Incidence Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Chun; Lin, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Te-Hui; Lee, Hui-Mei; Kuo, Chieh; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and cancer incidence remains unclear. We sought to assess the all-cause and site-specific cancer incidence in patients with T1DM. Methods A retrospective cohort study design was employed, in which 14 619 patients with T1DM were retrieved from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance medical claims between 2000 and 2007. The study subjects were followed to the end of 2008, and cancer incidence was assessed. We calculated age-, sex-, and calendar year-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of all-cause cancer incidence and site-specific neoplasm incidence, with reference to the general population. Results Seven hundred and sixty patients were identified for all-cause cancer over 86 610 person-years, representing an incidence rate of 87.75 cases per 10 000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in males than in female patients (109.86 vs 69.75 cases per 10 000 person-years). T1DM was associated with a significantly increased SIR of all-cause cancer (1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.22). The sex-specific SIR was significantly elevated in female patients (1.19; 95% CI, 1.07–1.33), but the SIR for male patients was insignificantly elevated (1.09; 95% CI, 0.99–1.20). Pancreatic cancer showed the greatest increase in SIR among both male and female patients with T1DM. Male patients experienced significantly increased SIRs for kidney, rectum, liver, and colon neoplasm, and significantly increased SIRs were noted for ovarian, bladder, and colon cancer in female patients. Conclusions T1DM was associated with a 13% increase in risk of all-cause cancer incidence. Patients with T1DM should be advised to undergo cancer screening for certain types of cancer. PMID:26212724

  15. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  16. Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in School-Aged Children in Puerto Rico: A Prospective Seroepidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, D. Fermín; Tomashek, Kay M.; Quiñones, Luz; Beltran, Manuela; Acosta, Luz; Santiago, Luis M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Pollissard-Gadroy, Laurence; Luxemburger, Christine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by the mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4). To estimate DENV seroincidence in school-aged children, a 1-year prospective cohort study was conducted in Patillas, Puerto Rico; 10- to 18-year-olds (N = 345) were randomly selected from 13 public schools. At enrollment, 49.8% of the entire cohort had DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-DENV antibodies, and there were individuals with neutralizing antibodies specific to each of the four DENV. The mean age of participants with incident DENV infection was 13.4 years. The 1-year seroincidence rate was 5.6%, and 61.1% of infections were inapparent. Having IgG anti-DENV at enrollment was associated with seroincidence (risk ratio = 6.8). Acute febrile illnesses during the study period were captured by a fever diary and an enhanced and passive surveillance system in the municipios of Patillas and Guayama. In summary, at enrollment, nearly one-half of the participants had a prior DENV infection, with the highest incidence in the 10- to 11-year-olds, of which most were inapparent infections, and symptomatic infections were considered mild. PMID:25646256

  17. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed. PMID:26351273

  18. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  19. Fitting age-specific fertility with the Makeham curve.

    PubMed

    Luther, N Y

    1984-01-01

    The Makeham curve has long been recognized for its empirically good fit of adult mortality experience. However, it has never been seriously used in fertility estimation. This paper aims to show that the Makeham curve provides a very good fit of cumulative age-specific fertility over the full range of the fertility experience. Presented here is a simple linearization procedure, easily executed by hand calcualtor, for the estimation of cumulative age-specific fertility per woman (or parity) ar exact age x. The procedure provides a check for the fit of the Makeham curve to cumulative age-specific fertility, locally or globally--that is, the fit to local ratios over any range of ages. The procedure also determines the parameters of optimum fit over any range of ages. To carry out the procedure, one must simply check the linearity of points in each of 2 data plots and determine the Makeham curve from the slopes and intercepts of the fitted straight lines. The mathematical methodology for the procedure is presented and the global goodness of fit studied. Because it is of a local nature, and since it elicits an explicit analytic formula for the fitted Makeham curve, the procedure is conducive to interpolation and extrapolation applications, including the completion of incomplete schedules of age-specific fertility rates at the tails of the reproductive age span. The use of the procedure for extrapolation purposes is illustrated with data from the 1968 Population Growth Survey of Pakistan. It suggests results that, for the most part, are consistent with the thesis of general age exaggeration of reporting women. However, further evidence is needed to be conclusive. PMID:12313262

  20. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  1. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes. PMID:25574605

  2. Relationship between Age and Timely Placement of Vascular Access in Incident Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Placement of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) prior to initiating dialysis can affect clinical outcomes for patients who subsequently initiate chronic hemodialysis treatments. Age-related variation in receipt of a functioning AVF prior to initiating dialysis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related rates in use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment among U.S. incident patients on hemodialysis. Findings Among 526,145 identified, the use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment was lower in the youngest (<55 year) and oldest (≥80 year) vs. both 55–66 year and 67–79 year age groups. These findings persisted after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle behavior, employment and insurance status, physical/functional conditions, and comorbid conditions. Conclusions The presence of a functioning AVF at initial dialysis treatment varies by age. Modifying healthcare policy and/or expanding the role of the renal nurse practitioner should be considered to address this issue. PMID:25802137

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Incident Dementia: Evidence from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Megan; Mather, Karen A; Xu, Jing; Assareh, Amelia A; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-03-29

    Alcohol consumption is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, but the literature is not completely consistent. This inconsistency may be partly due to an interaction with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, an established risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident dementia or decline in specific cognitive domains over 4 years, and if this effect is modified by APOEɛ4 status. Non-demented community dwelling older adults (70-90 years) from an ongoing longitudinal study were assessed for cognitive impairment in attention/processing speed, language, executive function, visuospatial ability, and memory. Incident dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Compared to those who did not drink in the previous 12 months, neither low consumption (HR 0.64 95% CI 0.3-1.4) or risky consumption (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.2-1.5) was associated with incident dementia. Carriers of the APOEɛ4 allele were more likely to develop dementia, but there was no significant interaction with alcohol consumption. PMID:27031466

  4. An Atypical Age-Specific Pattern of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Peru: A Threat for Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Loli, Sebastian; Moura, Julien; Zimic, Mirko; Deharo, Eric; Ruiz, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Background In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin. Results Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. Conclusions The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population. PMID:23840771

  5. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  6. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  7. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    1,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines. PMID:27115485

  8. Age-Dependent Sex Difference of the Incidence and Mortality of Status Epilepticus: A Twelve Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Sheu, Shew-Meei; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Wong, Yi-Sin; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurologic emergency associated with a significant mortality. The objective of this study is to investigate its epidemiology in terms of age- and sex-specific incidences and mortality. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2000 to 2011, we identified hospitalized patients with a discharged diagnosis of SE and calculated the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE with respect to age and sex. The overall incidence of SE was 4.61 per 100,000 person-years, which displayed a “J-shaped” distribution by age with a little higher under the age of 5 and highest over 60 years. The male-to-female rate ratio was 1.57 and it demonstrated a “mountain-shape” across ages with the peak at 45 to 49 years old. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in males (7.38%) than in females (11.12%) with an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72). Notably, the in-hospital mortality for females increased rapidly after the age of 40 to 45 years. The multivariate analysis found males had a significantly lower risk of mortality than females after, but not before, 45 years of age with an odds ratio of 0.56 (95% CI 0.49-0.65). Sex and age are crucial factors associated with the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE. The females over 45 years of age have a higher risk of occurrence and mortality from SE. The underlying mechanism deserves further study. PMID:25826701

  9. Autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T; Stey, Paul C

    2014-07-01

    Overgeneral memory refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in ability to retrieve specific memories among preschoolers. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory demonstrated that the AMT-Preschool Version maintained the same underlying 1-factor structure as the original. Additionally, the present study determined that child age was associated with increased specificity. Inhibitory control was evaluated as a potential mediator. Although age was related to inhibition, inhibition was unrelated to memory specificity. This finding adds to research suggesting that behavioral inhibition is unrelated to overgeneral memory among youth. PMID:24842462

  10. Classification of patients with incident non-specific low back pain: implications for research

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Giulia; McDonough, Christine M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Shwartz, Michael; Burgess, James F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Comparing research studies of low back pain is difficult because of heterogeneity. There is no consensus among researchers on inclusion criteria or the definition of an episode. PURPOSE This study aimed to determine pattern(s) of recurrent non-specific low back pain from data collected over 27 months. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING This study used retrospective cohort study using administrative claims from multiple payers. Although claims are designed for capturing costs, not clinical complexity, they are valid for describing utilization patterns, which are not affected by potential “upcoding.” PATIENT SAMPLE The patient sample consisted of population-based, nationally generalizable sample of 65,790 adults with continuous medical and pharmaceutical commercial health insurance who received health care for incident, non-specific low back pain. Potential subjects were excluded for plausible cause of the pain, severe mental illness, or cognitive impairment. OUTCOME MEASURES Diagnostic and therapeutic health-care services, including medical, surgical, pharmaceutical, and complementary, received in inpatient, outpatient, and emergency settings were the outcome measures for this study. METHODS The methods used for this study were latent class analysis of health-care utilization over 27 months (9 quarters) following index diagnosis of non-specific low back pain occurring in January–March 2009 and an analysis sample with 60% of subjects (n=39,597) and validation sample of 40% (n=26,193). RESULTS Four distinct groups of patients were identified and validated. One group (53.4%) of patients recovered immediately. One third of patients (31.7%) may appear to recover over 6 months, but maintain a 37–48% likelihood of receiving care for low back pain in every subsequent quarter, implying frequent relapse. Two remaining groups of patients each maintain very high probabilities of receiving care in every quarter (65–78% and 84–90%), predominantly utilizing

  11. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  12. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  13. Age specific fecundity of Lygus hesperus in high, fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have simulated hourly temperatures to examine Lygus response to hot summers in the San Joaquin Valley. Constant temperature of 33C quickly killed Lygus and SJV temperatures routinely surpass this level. Average hourly temperatures were tested for the months May, July, and September. Age specific ...

  14. Stereotypes of Ageing: Messages Promoted by Age-Specific Paper Birthday Cards Available in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Shannon R.; Morrison, Todd G.

    2005-01-01

    Birthday cards are a ceremonial token that may purposefully or unintentionally transmit stereotypes about the ageing process. In the current study, the authors examined 150 age-specific paper birthday cards sold in retail outlets located in a small metropolitan area. Results suggest that a greater proportion of the cards' textual messages…

  15. Detection of the specific binding on protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Heng; Wen, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Li, Wei; Lu, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Yang, Guozhen

    2010-09-01

    The specific binding between Cy5-labeled goat anti-mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mouse IgG with a concentration range from 625 to 104 µg ml - 1 has been detected successfully by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method in each procedure of microarray fabrication. The experimental data prove that the OI-RD method can be employed not only to distinguish the different concentrations in label-free fashion but also to detect the antibody-antigen capture. In addition, the differential treatment of the OI-RD signals can decrease the negative influences of glass slide as the microarray upholder. Therefore the OI-RD technique has promising applications for the label-free and high-throughput detection of protein microarrays.

  16. Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant: Part 2. Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bye, T.; Romundstad, P. R.; Ronneberg, A.; Hilt, B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A Norwegian coke plant that operated from 1964 to 1988 was investigated to ascertain whether the male workers in this plant had increased morbidities of cancer or increased mortality from specific causes, particularly associated with specific exposures at the coke plant. METHODS: Personal data on all the employees of the plant were obtained from the plant's archives. With additional data from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics we identified 888 male former workers at the plant. Causes of death were obtained from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics, and cancer diagnoses from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. The results were compared with national averages adjusted for age. Specific exposures were estimated with records of actual measurements done at the plant and interviews with former workers at the plant. RESULTS: A significant excess of stomach cancer (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01 to 4.21) was found. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and sudden death was positively associated with work in areas which entailed peak exposures to CO. When considering work in such areas the past 3 years before death, the association was significant (p = 0.01). The last result is based on only two deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the short follow up time and the small size of the cohort the results should be interpreted with a certain caution. The positive results would justify a re- examination of the cohort at a later date.   PMID:9861185

  17. Specificity of Incident Diagnostic Outcomes in Patients at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jadon R.; Addington, Jean; Perkins, Diana O.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Heinssen, Robert K.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tarbox, Sarah I.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Woods, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    It is not well established whether the incident outcomes of the clinical high-risk (CHR) syndrome for psychosis are diagnostically specific for psychosis or whether CHR patients also are at elevated risk for a variety of nonpsychotic disorders. We collected 2 samples (NAPLS-1, PREDICT) that contained CHR patients and a control group who responded to CHR recruitment efforts but did not meet CHR criteria on interview (help-seeking comparison patients [HSC]). Incident diagnostic outcomes were defined as the occurrence of a SIPS-defined psychosis or a structured interview diagnosis from 1 of 3 nonpsychotic Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) groups (anxiety, bipolar, or nonbipolar mood disorder), when no diagnosis in that group was present at baseline. Logistic regression revealed that the CHR vs HSC effect did not vary significantly across study for any emergent diagnostic outcome; data from the 2 studies were therefore combined. CHR (n = 271) vs HSC (n = 171) emergent outcomes were: psychosis 19.6% vs 1.8%, bipolar disorders 1.1% vs 1.2%, nonbipolar mood disorders 4.4% vs 5.3%, and anxiety disorders 5.2% vs 5.3%. The main effect of CHR vs HSC was statistically significant (OR = 13.8, 95% CI 4.2–45.0, df = 1, P < .001) for emergent psychosis but not for any emergent nonpsychotic disorder. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Within the CHR group emergent psychosis was significantly more likely than each nonpsychotic DSM-IV emergent disorder, and within the HSC group emergent psychosis was significantly less likely than most emergent nonpsychotic disorders. The CHR syndrome is specific as a marker for research on predictors and mechanisms of developing psychosis. PMID:26272875

  18. Recommendations for the treatment of aging in standard technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Allen, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the standard technical specifications for nuclear power plants to determine whether the current surveillance requirements (SRs) were effective in detecting age-related degradation. Nuclear Plant Aging Research findings for selected systems and components were reviewed to identify the stressors and operative aging mechanisms and to evaluate the methods available to detect, differentiate, and trend the resulting aging degradation. Current surveillance and testing requirements for these systems and components were reviewed for their effectiveness in detecting degraded conditions and for potential contributions to premature degradation. When the current surveillance and testing requirements appeared ineffective in detecting aging degradation or potentially could contribute to premature degradation, a possible deficiency in the SRs was identified that could result in undetected degradation. Based on this evaluation, PNL developed recommendations for inspection, surveillance, trending, and condition monitoring methods to be incorporated in the SRs to better detect age- related degradation of these selected systems and components.

  19. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  20. Analysis of 151 agricultural driveline-related incidents resulting in fatal and non-fatal injuries to U.S. children and adolescents under age 18 from 1970 through 2004.

    PubMed

    Beer, S R; Deboy, G R; Field, W E

    2007-04-01

    Agricultural driveline-related incidents have been identified as an important cause of farm-related injury resulting in death and permanently disabling conditions to children and adolescents. A database of driveline-related injuries, including both PTO drivelines and secondary shafts and drivelines on agricultural equipment, developed at Purdue University was mined to identify all cases involving children and adolescents under age 18 who had been involved in a driveline-related incident from 1970 through 2004. Although these incidents did not account for a high percentage of all childhood farm-related injuries, this age group was found to make up nearly one in four documented agricultural driveline incidents. Of the 685 cases in the database with known ages, 151 were identified as youth under age 18. Findings indicated that these incidents often resulted in catastrophic injuries including amputation, spinal cord injuries, and compound bone fractures. Over the period studied, the trend in documented cases is declining, with recent years reporting below the yearly average and 2004 reporting no fatalities. Youth, primarily males, age 13 had the highest frequency of incidents, and over 50% of all cases occurred to youth ages 12 to 17. Fall was identified as the season with the most reported incidents. Amputations were documented in nearly 50% of all cases, and augers, elevators, and conveyors were the machines most frequently identified as being involved in the incident. Recommendations and strategies that specifically target the childhood injury problem related to agricultural drivelines are provided. PMID:17555204

  1. Odor-Specific Loss of Smell Sensitivity with Age as Revealed by the Specific Sensitivity Test.

    PubMed

    Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Huang, Dejian

    2016-07-01

    The perception of odor mixtures plays an important role in human food intake, behavior, and emotions. Decline of smell acuity with normal aging could impact food perception and preferences at various ages. However, since the landmark Smell Survey by National Geographic, little has been elucidated on differences in the onset and extent of loss in olfactory sensitivity toward single odorants. Here, using the Specific Sensitivity test, we show the onset and extent of loss in both identification and detection thresholds of odorants with age are odorant-specific. Subjects of Chinese descent in Singapore (186 women, 95 men), aged 21-80 years, were assessed for olfactory sensitivity of 10 odorants from various odor groups. Notably, subjects in their 70s required 179 times concentration of rose-like odorant (2-phenylethanol) than subjects in the 20s, while thresholds for onion-like 2-methyloxolane-3-thiol only differed by 3 times between the age groups. In addition, identification rate for 2-phenylethanol was negatively correlated with age throughout adult life whereas mushroom-like oct-1-en-3-ol was equally identified by subjects across all ages. Our results demonstrated the girth of differentiated olfactory loss due to normal ageing, which potentially affect overall perception and preferences of odor mixtures with age. PMID:27001718

  2. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Holford, T R

    1991-01-01

    Time trends for population-based disease rates often are summarized by using direct adjustment by period of diagnosis or death. Similarly, the effect of age often is presented graphically as age-specific rates for a given period of diagnosis. These approaches may be necessary if there is an absence of long-term data, as they provide a natural way for annually updating information when monitoring trends, or they may be a convenient way of summarizing a large amount of data (7, 10, 11, 39, 45). However, these summaries only can adjust for the effect of age in a given period; they implicitly ignore the cohort effect. The effect of cohort is an important factor in understanding time trends for many diseases. Thus, it is not advisable to use data analytic strategies that routinely ignore it. Another alternative to modeling is to give a graphical presentation of the age-specific rates themselves. As I noted in the introduction, some of the first analyses to identify the effect of cohort on diseases, such as tuberculosis and lung cancer, relied entirely on a graphical analysis. Although graphs certainly are an important part of the interpretation of time trends, it would be a mistake to limit your analysis to impressions of points on a graph. For example, such a perusal would not give an objective indication of the statistical significance of a particular pattern. Regression analysis forces us to recognize a fundamental problem with interpreting time trends in disease rates--a problem that you should remember, even when trying to understand a graphical display of time trends in age-specific rates. PMID:2049144

  3. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  4. Procedure-specific Surgical Site Infection Incidence Varies Widely within Certain National Healthcare Safety Network Surgery Groups

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Mohammed J; Dubberke, Erik R; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Background The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) classifies surgical procedures into 40 categories. The objective of this study was to determine surgical site infection (SSI) incidence for clinically defined subgroups within 5 heterogeneous NHSN surgery categories. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study using the longitudinal State Inpatient Database. We identified 5 groups of surgical procedures (amputation; biliary, liver and pancreas [BILI]; breast; colon and hernia) using ICD-9-CM procedure codes in community hospitals in California, Florida and New York from January 2009 through September 2011 in persons aged ≥18 years. Each of these 5 categories was classified to more specific surgical procedures within the group. 90-day SSI rates were calculated using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Results There were 62,901 amputation, 33,358 BILI, 72,058 breast, 125,689 colon and 85,745 hernia surgeries in 349,298 people. 90-day SSI rates varied significantly within each of the 5 subgroups. Within the BILI category, bile duct, pancreas and laparoscopic liver procedures had SSI rates of 7.2%, 17.2%, and 2.2%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each) compared to open liver procedures (11.1% SSI). Conclusion 90-day SSI rates varied widely within certain NHSN categories. Risk adjustment for specific surgery type is needed in order to make valid comparisons between hospitals. PMID:25818024

  5. Incidence Rate of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome without Specific Treatment in India and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Potharaju, Nagabhushana Rao

    2012-01-01

    Background: A performance target (PT) for the incidence rate (IR) of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) was not defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to lack of data. There is no specific treatment for ~90% of the AES cases. Objectives: (1) To determine the IR of AES not having specific treatment (AESn) in two countries, India and Nepal. (2) To suggest the PT. Subjects and Methods: This was a record-based study of the entire population of India and Nepal from 1978 to 2011. The WHO definition was used for inclusion of cases. Cases that had specific treatment were excluded. IR was calculated per 100,000 population per annum. Forecast IR was generated from 2010 to 2013 using time-series analysis. Results: There were 165,461 cases from 1978 to 2011, of which 125,030 cases were from India and 40,431 were from Nepal. The mean IR of India was 0.42 (s 0.24) and that of Nepal was 5.23 (σ 3.03). IRs of 2010 and 2011 of India and that of 2011 of Nepal were closer to the mean IR rather than the forecast IR. IR of 2010 of Nepal was closer to the forecast IR. The forecast IR for India for 2012 was 0.49 (0.19-1.06), for 2013 was 0.42 (0.15-0.97) and for Nepal for both 2012 and 2013 was 5.62 (1.53-15.05). Conclusions: IRs were considerably different for India and Nepal. Using the current mean IR as PT for the next year was simple and practical. Using forecasting was complex and, less frequently, useful. PMID:23293439

  6. Mortality and Incidence of Hospital Admissions for Stroke among Brazilians Aged 15 to 49 Years between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Fernando; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter dos Santos; Paiva, Laércio da Silva; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Santos, Edige Felipe de Sousa; Martins, Bruno Luis; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to analyze rates of stroke-related mortality and incidence of hospital admissions in Brazilians aged 15 to 49 years according to region and age group between 2008 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis was performed in 2014 using data from the Hospital and Mortality Information Systems and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Stroke was defined by ICD, 10th revision (I60–I64). Crude and standardized mortality (WHO reference) and incidence of hospital admissions per 100,000 inhabitants, stratified by region and age group, were estimated. Absolute and relative frequencies; and linear regression were also used. The software used was Stata 11.0. Results There were 35,005 deaths and 131,344 hospital admissions for stroke in Brazilians aged 15–49 years old between 2008 and 2012. Mortality decreased from 7.54 (95% CI 7.53; 7.54) in 2008 to 6.32 (95% CI 6.31; 6.32) in 2012 (β = -0.27, p = 0.013, r2 = 0.90). During the same time, incidence of hospital admissions stabilized: 24.67 (95% CI 24.66; 24.67) in 2008 and 25.11 (95% CI 25.10; 25.11) in 2012 (β = 0.09, p = 0.692, r2 = 0.05). There was a reduction in mortality in all Brazilian regions and in the age group between 30 and 49 years. Incidence of hospitalizations decreased in the South, but no significant decrease was observed in any age group. Conclusion We observed a decrease in stroke-related mortality, particularly in individuals over 30 years old, and stability of the incidence of hospitalizations; and also regional variation in stroke-related hospital admission incidence and mortality among Brazilian young adults. PMID:27332892

  7. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  8. Incidences and sociodemographics of specific congenital heart diseases in the United States of America: an evaluation of hospital discharge diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Egbe, Alexander; Uppu, Santosh; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Lee, Simon; Ho, Deborah; Srivastava, Shubhika

    2014-08-01

    Current estimates of the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) are derived from small clinical studies and metaanalyses. For the true incidence of CHD in the United States of America to be estimated, a single large representative population must be analyzed. All the data in this study were derived from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. The study determined the overall and lesion-specific incidences of CHD diagnoses among all birth hospitalizations in 2008, stratified by race, gender, socioeconomic status, and hospital geographic location. The study identified 13,093 CHD diagnoses among 1,204,887 birth hospitalizations, yielding an incidence of 10.8 per 1,000, with a predominance of mild lesions and septal defects. Atrial septal defect (ASD) and pulmonic stenosis were more common among females, whereas aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and d-transposition of great arteries were more common among males. No racial difference was observed in the overall CHD incidence. However, isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and ventricular septal defects (VSDs) were more common among Caucasians, whereas ASDs were more common among Hispanics. The incidences of CHD diagnoses were similar for all socioeconomic classes except the lowest socioeconomic class, which had a significantly lower CHD incidence. There was no geographic or seasonal variation in CHD incidence. This study demonstrated the incidence of echocardiographically confirmed CHD diagnosis to be 10.8 per 1,000 live births, marked by a high proportion of mild cardiac lesions and isolated PDAs. The high incidence of isolated PDAs in this study may be explained by the inclusion of only CHD diagnoses during birth hospitalization. PMID:24563074

  9. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  10. Elementary school age children's comprehension of specific idiomatic expressions.

    PubMed

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M; Mackey, T A

    1985-08-01

    This study explored the ability of elementary school age children to comprehend six idiomatic expressions. Eighty linguistically normal children, 20 from each of four different grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, fourth grade, and sixth grade) participated as subjects. All of the children completed a task designed to probe comprehension of specific idioms. A short story was presented, after which the subjects were required to identify events in the story, which were described using idiomatic phrases. When examined as a group, comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. These results are discussed with regard to clinical implications in the assessment and management of language-disordered children. PMID:4019816

  11. The Association Between Vitamin K Antagonist Therapy and Site-specific Cancer Incidence Estimated by Using Heart Valve Replacement as an Instrumental Variable

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Thomas P.; Pedersen, Lars; Sværke, Claus; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies suggest a protective association between vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulants and the incidence of cancer. The authors examined the associations between VKA therapy and incidence of 24 site-specific cancers with a Danish population-based cohort study, using heart valve replacement as an instrumental variable. The authors enrolled 9,727 Danish residents who received a replacement heart valve between 1989 and 2006. The heart valve recipients were matched with 95,481 unexposed individuals on age and sex. The authors used the heart valve replacement instrument to estimate rate ratios associating VKA therapy with incidence of the 24 site-specific cancers using Poisson regression models. Direct associations between VKA therapy and incidence of the 24 cancers were estimated in a prescription validation subset. The instrumental variable associations were plotted according to the inverse normal of rank percentile and subjected to semi-Bayes shrinkage adjustment for multiple comparisons. The pattern of associations was consistent with a null-centered Gaussian distribution. No individual cancer site showed a substantial positive or negative association with VKA therapy in the prescription validation subset, the instrumental variable analysis, or the analysis with semi-Bayes adjustment. These results do not support the existing hypothesis that VKA therapy is associated with reduced cancer risk. PMID:22047822

  12. Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ye; Li, Hua; Wu, Yu-Fei; Xu, Ji; Lv, Sha; Li, Ge; Liu, Shi-Chun; Song, Sheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia. Results Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was −2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of −0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher myopic or hyperopic refractive error at baseline. The cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refractive error of −0.50 D or more, among initial emmetropes and hyperopes was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.2%–63.5%), with an annual incidence of 10.6% (95% CI, 8.7%–13.1%). Myopia was found more likely to happen in female and older children. Conclusions In Western China, both myopic progression and incidence of myopia were higher than those of children from most other locations in China and from the European Caucasian population. Compared with a previous study in China, there was a relative increase in annual myopia progression and annual myopia incidence, a finding which is consistent with the increasing trend on prevalence of myopia in China. PMID:26875599

  13. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  14. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  15. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  16. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40). PMID:26830034

  17. Associations of census-tract poverty with subsite-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates and stage of disease at diagnosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Sherman, Recinda L; McDonald, Kaila; Johnson, Christopher J; Lin, Ge; Stroup, Antoinette M; Boscoe, Francis P

    2014-01-01

    Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05-1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20-1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10-1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity. PMID:25165475

  18. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  19. Sex-specific predictor analyses for the incidence of recurrent headaches in German schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Gaßmann, Jennifer; Barke, Antonia; van Gessel, Hester; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify psychosocial risk factors for the incidence of recurrent headache (HA) in children/adolescents (8–15 years). Method: In 2003 (Wave 1) a representative, population-based sample of 8800 parents was mailed a questionnaire. Those who took part were asked to participate again one year later (Wave 2). Of the parents originally contacted, 47.3% participated in both surveys. Potential risk factors concerning the areas ‘school’ and ‘emotional and behavioural problems’ were collected in Wave 1. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess their predictive value for HA in Wave 2. Results: Univariable regression analyses showed that for boys and girls most of the predictor variables influenced the incidence of recurrent HA, but only to a very low extent. When all variables were assessed jointly in a multivariable model, these factors lost their predictive power for boys. For girls, ‘academic problems’ and ‘dysfunctional stress coping’ were shown to increase the chance for the incidence of recurrent HA. Discussion: In contrast to previous findings, school-related factors and emotional and behavioural problems failed to predict HA in boys, and only two factors appeared relevant with regard to girls. This might be due to the strict unidirectional design, which focussed exclusively on the incidence of HA. PMID:22879857

  20. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. PMID:25363616

  1. Trends in age-specific cerebrovascular disease in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2014-01-01

    Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927

  2. Declines in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence and Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Tanner, Rikki M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P.; Woolley, J. Michael; Thacker, Evan L.; Levitan, Emily B.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate secular changes in CHD incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. Methods We analyzed data on participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–1996 (early time period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003–2009 (late time period). Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of diabetes and time period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for socio-demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. Results After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR=1.99,95% CI=1.59,2.49) and late (HR=2.39,95% CI=1.69,3.35) time periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late time periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Conclusions Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. PMID:24970491

  3. Age-Period-Cohort approaches to back-calculation of cancer incidence rate

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Cheongeun; Holford, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    A compartment model for cancer incidence and mortality is developed in which healthy subjects may develop cancer, and subsequently die of cancer or another cause. In order to adequately represent the experience of a defined population, it is also necessary to allow for subjects who are diagnosed at death, as well as subjects who migrate and are subsequently lost to follow-up. Expressions are derived for the number of cancer deaths as a function of the number of incidence cases and vice versa, which allows for the use of mortality statistics to obtain estimates of incidence using survival information. In addition, the model can be used to obtain estimates of cancer prevalence, which is useful for health care planning. The method is illustrated using data on lung cancer among males in Connecticut. PMID:25715831

  4. Sex Specific Incidence Rates of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors over 9 Years of Follow-Up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshan, Arash; Sardarinia, Mahsa; Khalili, Davood; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the population-based incidence of type 2 diabetes and its potential risk factors in a sex-split cohort of Iranian population. Materials and Methods A total of 8400 non-diabetic participants, aged ≥20 years (3620 men and 4780 women) entered the study. Crude and age standardized incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated for whole population and each sex separately. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for all potential risk factors in both uni-variable and multivariable models. Results During a median follow-up of 9.5 years, 736 new cases of diabetes were identified, including 433 women and 303 men. The annual crude and age-standardized incidence rates (95% CI) of diabetes in the total population were 10.6 (9.92–11.4) and 9.94 (7.39–13.6) per 1000 person-years of follow-up and the corresponding sex specific rates were 10.2 (9.13–11.4) and 9.36 (5.84–14.92) in men and 11.0 (9.99–12.0) and 10.1 (7.24–13.9) in women, respectively. In the multivariable model, the risk for incident diabetes was significantly associated with fasting and 2 hour post challenge plasma glucose as well as family history of diabetes in both men and women. However, among women, only the contribution of wrist circumference to incident diabetes achieved statistical significance [HR: 1.16 (1.03–1.31)] with waist/height ratio being marginally significant [HR: 1.02 (0.99–1.04)]; while among men, only body mass index was a significant predictor [HR: 1.12 (1.02–1.22)]. Additionally, low education level conferred a higher risk for incident diabetes only among men [HR: 1.80 (1.23–2.36); P for interaction with sex = 0.003]. Conclusion Overall, sex did not significantly modify the impact of risk factors associated with diabetes among Iranian adults; however, among modifiable risk factors, the independent role of lower education and general adiposity in men and central adiposity in

  5. Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Karakaş, Hakkı Muammer; Ozsunar, Yelda; Altın, Levent; Ceken, Kağan; Alıcıoğlu, Banu; Sönmez, Iclal; Alparslan, Ahmet; Yürümez, Belde; Celik, Tayfun; Kazak, Eda; Geyik, Pınar Özdemir; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the incidence of pineal gland calcification (PGC), to investigate the interaction of PGC and aging, and to compare the incidence of PGC among the populations living in Turkey. In a prospective study the rate of PGC on CT scans of 1376 individuals in six referral centers from different regions of Turkey was investigated, with emphasis on effects of climatological parameters and aging on PGC. It was found that the incidence of PGC increased rapidly after first decade and the increase remains gradual thereafter, higher in males than in females for all age groups. There was a significant difference for incidence and degree of PGC between different clinics and between both sexes (p<0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference for the degree of PGC between the clinics in low altitude group and those in high altitude group (p<0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and intensity of sunlight exposure significantly affected the risk of PGC (odds ratios (OR) 1.335, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.261-1.414, p<0.001; OR 1.900, 95% CI 1.486-2.428, p<0.001; OR 0.715, 95% CI 0.517-0.990, p<0.05; OR 0.997, 95% CI 0.994-0.999, p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, by multiple linear regression analysis, high altitude and increased intensity of sunlight exposure were found to affect the degree of PGC (beta=0.003, p<0.001). It is concluded that there is a close relationship between PGC and the aforementioned parameters, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these. This study provides some reference data for new clinical studies on the putative role of pineal gland in future. PMID:18420391

  6. Bone tumors in a population of 400 000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 y of age: incidence and survival

    PubMed Central

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; von Euler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of, survival until, and survival after the diagnosis of canine bone tumors by breed, sex, age, and geographic location of residence. Dogs under 10 y old and insured by a Swedish insurance company between 1995 and 2002 were studied. In total, 764 dogs had claims for bone tumors, and the incidence rate was 5.5 cases per 10 000 dog-years at risk (DYAR). At ages 6, 8, and 10 y, the proportions of dogs with bone tumors were 0.13%, 0.30%, and 0.64%. The top 3 breeds at risk were Irish wolfhound, St. Bernard, and leonberger (incidence rates 99, 78, and 53 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively). Median survival time after diagnosis was 56 d in the 419 dogs that survived ≥ 1 d. With a Cox regression model controlling for breed and age, females were shown to be at decreased risk of bone tumors, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (99% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.87). PMID:17955904

  7. Age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 genotypes in cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Qeadan, Fares; Gravitt, Patti E; Blaakaer, Jan

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer has been reported to decline with age in some papers. However, whether this decline in proportion of cancers positive for HPV16/18 is consistently observed across studies remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify papers reporting data on age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer and to summarize the results. We employed MEDLINE and Embase for a systematic literature search and thereby identified a total of 644 papers published in the period 1999-2015, of which 15 papers, reporting cross-sectional data, were included for review (11,526 cervical cancers). The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer declined significantly with age (ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04) from 74.8% (95% CI 67.6-80.8) in women aged 30-39 years to 56.8% (95% CI 43.9-68.8) in women aged ≥70 years. As the HPV16/18 positive cancers are prevented in fully vaccinated cohorts, the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer is anticipated to change, with a shift in peak incidence rate to older ages. It will be important for integrated vaccination and screening strategies to consider predicted change in the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer. PMID:26661889

  8. Malnutrition and age-specific nutritional management in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dodge, J A

    1992-10-01

    Malnutrition is recognised as a major prognostic factor adversely affecting survival in cystic fibrosis (CF) and is the result of an unfavourable energy balance in these patients. A high resting energy expenditure, dependent on the patient's genotype, in addition to pulmonary infection play an important role in producing anorexia and weight loss. Nutritional management with the aim to gain weight and catch up with growth is age-specific. It is important to repair nutritional status as early as possible after diagnosis. In infancy breast feeding is advised with, if necessary, supplemental feeding with predigested formulae such as Pregestimil. In childhood nutritional management must be aimed towards a normal weight gain and growth velocity. The latter is the best guide of nutritional adequacy. If weight gain falters the first principle is to treat any associated respiratory infection, the second is to ensure adequate enzyme therapy and control of steatorrhoea, and only then should dietary energy supplements be introduced. When oral hypernutrition fails, nocturnal naso-gastric tube feeding of a non-elemental formula may be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated and should be reserved as a last solution for CF-patients. PMID:1470282

  9. Severity of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in 1 Eye and the Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Fellow Eye

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Importance Previous studies of the implications of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity in one eye on prognosis for the fellow eye have focused on incidence of neovascular AMD in the fellow eye of subjects with neovascular AMD in the other eye. It is unclear to what extent AMD severity in one eye impacts incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in its fellow eye across the entire range of AMD severity. Objective To investigate the impact of severity of AMD in one eye on incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in the fellow eye. Design, Setting and Participants The Beaver Dam Eye Study, a longitudinal population-based study of age-related eye diseases conducted in the city and township of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988-1990 through 2008-2010). Study participants (N=4379) were aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination. At baseline and up to 4 subsequent examinations, retinal photographs were taken. Exposures Age, sex, and the Y402H polymorphism in the Complement Factor H gene on chromosome 1q; AMD severity in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, progression, and regression of AMD assessed in retinal photographs according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System; mortality. Results More severe AMD in one eye was associated with increased incidence and progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 1 to 2: hazard ratio [HR] 4.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.26-5.63; Level 2 to 3: HR 2.09, CI 1.42-3.06; Level 3 to 4: HR 2.38, CI 1.74-3.25; Level 4 to Level 5: HR 2.46, CI 1.65-3.66). Less severe AMD in one eye was associated with less progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 2 to 3: HR 0.42, CI 0.33-0.55; Level 3 to 4: HR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.83). We estimate that 51% of subjects who develop any AMD always maintain AMD severity states within 1 step of each other between eyes; 90% stay within 2 steps. Conclusions and Relevance Using multi-state models, we

  10. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  11. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  12. Breed-specific incidence rates of canine primary bone tumors — A population based survey of dogs in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Anfinsen, Kristin P.; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Jonasdottir, Thora J.

    2011-01-01

    This is one of few published population-based studies describing breed specific rates of canine primary bone tumors. Incidence rates related to dog breeds could help clarify the impact of etiological factors such as birth weight, growth rate, and adult body weight/height on development of these tumors. The study population consisted of dogs within 4 large/giant breeds; Irish wolfhound (IW), Leonberger (LB), Newfoundland (NF), and Labrador retriever (LR), born between January 1st 1989 and December 31st 1998. Questionnaires distributed to owners of randomly selected dogs — fulfilling the criteria of breed, year of birth, and registration in the Norwegian Kennel Club — constituted the basis for this retrospective, population-based survey. Of the 3748 questionnaires received by owners, 1915 were completed, giving a response rate of 51%. Forty-three dogs had been diagnosed with primary bone tumors, based upon clinical examination and x-rays. The breeds IW and LB, with 126 and 72 cases per 10 000 dog years at risk (DYAR), respectively, had significantly higher incidence rates of primary bone tumors than NF and LR (P < 0.0001). Incidence rates for the latter were 11 and 2 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively. Pursuing a search for risk factors other than body size/weight is supported by the significantly different risks of developing primary bone tumors between similarly statured dogs, like NF and LB, observed in this study. Defining these breed-specific incidence rates enables subsequent case control studies, ultimately aiming to identify specific etiological factors for developing primary bone tumors. PMID:22210997

  13. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753

  14. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  15. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  16. Incidence of Elderly Eye Injuries in Automobile Crashes: The Effects of Lens Stiffness as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gail A.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Stefan M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the incidence of eye injuries with respect to occupant age in frontal automobile crashes as well as to investigate possible injury mechanisms of the elderly eye and the effects of lens stiffness. The National Automotive Sampling System was searched from years 1993–2000 for three separate occupant age groups of 16–35 years old, 36–65 years old, and 66 years old and greater in order to compare the total number of weighted occupants who sustained an eye injury to the number of occupants who sustained an eye injury per age group. Three separate impact scenarios simulating a foam particle (30 m/s), a steering wheel (15 m/s), and an air bag (67 m/s), were applied to a finite element eye model in order to elucidate the effects of aging on the eye when subjected to blunt trauma. The lens stiffness of the model was varied according to human lens stiffness values determined for each age group. Occupants aged 66 years old and greater were two to three times more likely to incur an eye injury than younger occupants. The computational eye model demonstrated that increased risk was related to the increasing stiffness of the lens, producing up to a 120% larger stress in the ciliary body. PMID:12941223

  17. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  18. Five-year incidence, progression and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Fridbert; Fisher, Diana E.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Klein, Ronald; Launer, Lenore J; Harris, Tamara; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and progression of age related m acular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and five-year follow-up. Methods Digital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main outcome measures AMD, defined as early or late. Results Among 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year 1.14 (95% CI 1.11, 1.17)), current smoking (OR 2.07 (1.38, 3.11)), former smoking (OR 1.36 (1.04, 1.79)), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR 1.62 per mmol/L (1.19, 2.22)), and body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.04 per kg/m2 (1.01, 1.07)). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy (GA) and 11.7% exudative AMD). In multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14 (1.07, 1.21)) and exudative AMD (OR 1.08 (1.01, 1.14)). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR 2.10 (1.10, 3.98)) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR 2.03 per mmol/L (1.02, 4.05)). Conclusion By age 85 years, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development. PMID:24768241

  19. Age-Varying Association Between Statin Use and Incident Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Shofer, Jane B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kukull, Walter A.; Peskind, Elaine R.; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Crane, Paul K.; Breitner, John C.S.; Larson, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier post hoc analysis suggested possible benefits of statins in reducing risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in younger participants (< age 80 years) with the APOE ε4 allele. We further investigated these findings with more follow-up time and more recently enrolled participants. Design A cohort of cognitively intact elderly was assessed biennially for dementia and AD. Setting Community based. Participants 3,392 non-demented member of a health maintenance organization (HMO) aged ≥ 65 years. Measurements We identified statin use from the HMO pharmacy database and applied proportional hazards models with statin use as a time-dependent covariate to assess the statin-AD association and the modifying effects of age and the APOE ε4 allele. Results Over an average of 6.1 years of follow-up of 3099 participants, 263 participants developed probable AD. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for statin use was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 – 0.97) for AD in models including demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors as covariates. The strength of the statin-AD association diminished with age (statin × age-at-entry interaction p = 0.04); the aHR in those younger than 80 was 0.44 (CI 0.25 – 0.78) vs. 1.22 (CI 0.61 – 2.42) for those older than 80. The interaction term for statin use × APOE ε4 was not significant (p = 0.65). Conclusion This enlarged study confirms earlier findings that statin therapy in early old age, but not in late age, may be associated with reduced risk of AD. The relationship between statin use and AD was consistent across APOE genotypes. PMID:20533968

  20. Age-specific risk factors for lead absorption in children

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, S.D.; Yankel, A.J.; von Lindern, I.H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of blood lead levels to environmental and individual characteristics is analyzed in a large sample of children residing near a lead smelting complex, with particular emphasis on the identification of age-related risk factors. Exceptional variation in both blood leads and its determinants within the study region facilitated the simultaneous detection of several significant risk factors for each year of age from 1 to 9 y. The strongest predictor of blood lead at all ages was air lead, but the secondary risk factors were age dependent. Household dustiness was significantly related to blood lead in young children, especially those under 2 y of age; soil lead may be an important source of ingested lead for children between 2 and 7 y. Other significant effects included that of pica at about 2 y of age, a slight effect of the occupational category of the fathers of 5- to 8-y-old children, and a tendency for 8- and 9-y-old boys to have higher blood leads than girls of the same age. Lead concentration in household paint was not a significant risk factor. These results suggest that a multifactorial approach to the prevention of excessive lead absorption by children is required.

  1. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  2. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224

  3. A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Martani; Steyn, Nelia; Burger, Hester-Mari; Charlton, Karen; Senekal, Marjanne

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC) and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas—having maize as a staple food—it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ) has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP) series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were designed to assist quantification of intakes (portion size photographs) and to facilitate estimation of maize amounts in various combined dishes (ratio photographs) using data from 24 h recalls (n = 159), dishing-up sessions (n = 35), focus group discussions (FGD) (n = 56) and published literature. Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the EC Province, known to have a high incidence of OC, were randomly selected. Women between the ages of 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate. The FP series comprised three portion size photographs (S, M, L) of 21 maize dishes and three ratio photographs of nine combined maize-based dishes. A culturally specific FP series was designed to improve portion size estimation when reporting dietary intake using a newly developed M-FFQ. PMID:23925043

  4. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  5. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  6. Zone Specific Fractal Dimension of Retinal Images as Predictor of Stroke Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Hao, Hao; Unnikrishnan, Premith; Kawasaki, Ryo; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimensions (FDs) are frequently used for summarizing the complexity of retinal vascular. However, previous techniques on this topic were not zone specific. A new methodology to measure FD of a specific zone in retinal images has been developed and tested as a marker for stroke prediction. Higuchi's fractal dimension was measured in circumferential direction (FDC) with respect to optic disk (OD), in three concentric regions between OD boundary and 1.5 OD diameter from its margin. The significance of its association with future episode of stroke event was tested using the Blue Mountain Eye Study (BMES) database and compared against spectrum fractal dimension (SFD) and box-counting (BC) dimension. Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed FDC as a better predictor of stroke (H = 5.80, P = 0.016, α = 0.05) compared with SFD (H = 0.51, P = 0.475, α = 0.05) and BC (H = 0.41, P = 0.520, α = 0.05) with overall lower median value for the cases compared to the control group. This work has shown that there is a significant association between zone specific FDC of eye fundus images with future episode of stroke while this difference is not significant when other FD methods are employed. PMID:25485298

  7. Zone specific fractal dimension of retinal images as predictor of stroke incidence.

    PubMed

    Aliahmad, Behzad; Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Hao, Hao; Unnikrishnan, Premith; Che Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal; Kawasaki, Ryo; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimensions (FDs) are frequently used for summarizing the complexity of retinal vascular. However, previous techniques on this topic were not zone specific. A new methodology to measure FD of a specific zone in retinal images has been developed and tested as a marker for stroke prediction. Higuchi's fractal dimension was measured in circumferential direction (FDC) with respect to optic disk (OD), in three concentric regions between OD boundary and 1.5 OD diameter from its margin. The significance of its association with future episode of stroke event was tested using the Blue Mountain Eye Study (BMES) database and compared against spectrum fractal dimension (SFD) and box-counting (BC) dimension. Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed FDC as a better predictor of stroke (H = 5.80, P = 0.016, α = 0.05) compared with SFD (H = 0.51, P = 0.475, α = 0.05) and BC (H = 0.41, P = 0.520, α = 0.05) with overall lower median value for the cases compared to the control group. This work has shown that there is a significant association between zone specific FDC of eye fundus images with future episode of stroke while this difference is not significant when other FD methods are employed. PMID:25485298

  8. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  9. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  10. Analysis of retinoblastoma age incidence data using a fully stochastic cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Stiller, Charles A.; Li, Guangquan; Kroll, Mary E.; Murphy, Michael F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is an important ocular malignancy of childhood. It has been commonly accepted for some time that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is the principal molecular target associated with the occurrence of RB. In this paper, we examine the validity of the two-hit theory for retinoblastoma by comparing the fit of a stochastic model with two or more mutational stages. Unlike many such models, our model assumes a fully stochastic stem cell compartment, which is crucial to its behavior. Models are fitted to a population-based dataset comprising 1,553 cases of retinoblastoma for the period 1962–2000 in Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales). The population incidence of retinoblastoma is best described by a fully stochastic model with two stages, although models with a deterministic stem cell compartment yield equivalent fit; models with three or more stages fit much less well. The results strongly suggest that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is necessary and may be largely sufficient for the development of retinoblastoma, in support of Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis. PMID:21387305

  11. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  12. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  13. International long-term trends and recent patterns in the incidence of leukemias and lymphomas among children and adolescents ages 0-19 years.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Brown, Linda M; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Check, David; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Landgren, Annelie; Devesa, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences in rates for non-Hodgkin and for Hodgkin lymphoma have diminished in some regions. Lymphoid leukemia rates during 2003-2007 in 54 populations varied about 10-fold, with rates highest in US white Hispanics (50.2 per million person-years) and Ecuador (48.3) and lowest in US blacks (20.4), Tunisia (17.7) and Uganda (6.9). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 30-fold, with very high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (146.0 in Malawi and 54.3 in Uganda) and low rates (≤ 10) in some Asian populations (China, Japan, India, the Philippines and Thailand) and U.S. Asian-Pacific Islanders, eastern and northern European populations and Puerto Rico. Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 15-fold, with rates highest in Italy (21.3) and lowest in China (1.7). Myeloid leukemia rates varied only about fivefold, with rates highest in the Philippines and Korea (exceeding 14.0) and lowest in Eastern Europe (5.9 in Serbia and 5.3 in the Czech Republic) and Uganda (2.7). The boy/girl average incidence rate ratios were 2.00 or lower. Age-specific patterns differed among the four hematopoietic malignancies, but were generally consistent within major categories world-wide, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic world-wide approach comparing postulated etiologic factors in low- versus high-risk populations may help clarify the etiology of these childhood malignancies. PMID:26562742

  14. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  15. Effectiveness of breed-specific legislation in decreasing the incidence of dog-bite injury hospitalisations in people in the Canadian province of Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Dan; Burchill, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background The city of Winnipeg was the first among several jurisdictions in Manitoba, Canada, to introduce breed specific legislation (BSL) by banning pit-bull type dogs in 1990. The objective of the present work was to study the effectiveness of BSL in Manitoba. Methods Temporal differences in incidence of dog-bite injury hospitalisations (DBIH) within and across Manitoba jurisdictions with and without BSL were compared. Incidence was calculated as the number of unique cases of DBIH divided by the total person-years at risk and expressed as the number per 100 000 person-years. Year of implementation determined the pre-BSL and post-BSL period for jurisdictions with BSL; for jurisdictions without BSL to date, the entire study period (1984–2006) was considered as the preimplementation period. The annual number of DBIH, adjusted for total population at risk, was modelled in a negative binomial regression analysis with repeated measures. Year, jurisdiction and BSL implementation were independent variables. An interaction term between jurisdiction and BSL was introduced. Results A total of 16 urban and rural jurisdictions with pit-bull bans were identified. At the provincial level, there was a significant reduction in DBIH rates from the pre-BSL to post-BSL period (3.47 (95% CI 3.17 to 3.77) per 100 000 person-years to 2.84 (95% CI 2.53 to 3.15); p=0.005). In regression restricted to two urban jurisdictions, DBIH rate in Winnipeg relative to Brandon (a city without BSL) was significantly (p<0.001) lower after BSL (rate ratio (RR)=1.10 in people of all ages and 0.92 in those aged <20 years) than before (RR=1.29 and 1.28, respectively). Conclusions BSL may have resulted in a reduction of DBIH in Winnipeg, and appeared more effective in protecting those aged <20 years. PMID:22753529

  16. Age-specific seroprevalence of hepatitis A in Antananarivo (Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Carod, Jean-François; Ramarokoto, Charles-Emile; Chrétien, Jean-Baptiste; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enteric, viral, infectious disease endemic in many developing countries such as Madagascar. Infection is often subclinical or asymptomatic in children; however, symptomatic acute infections become more common with increasing age. In some developing countries, improvements in living conditions have led to changes in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection. There are very few reports on the prevalence of HAV in Madagascar. This study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in relation to age in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. Methods Serum samples collected in 2004 during a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged between two and 24 years from Antananarivo were tested for anti-HAV antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Subjects were investigated using a standardized social and medical history questionnaire. Results 926 subjects were enrolled including 406 males and 520 females. There were 251 children under 10 years old and 675 subjects between 10 and 24 years old. Of the 926 serum samples tested, 854 (92.2%) were positive for anti-HAV antibodies. The number of seropositive samples was similar for males and females. The overall seroprevalence was 83.7% (210/251) for children under 10 years old and 95.5% (644/675) for subjects aged between 10 and 24 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion Despite improvements in sanitary conditions and hygiene over the last few years, the prevalence of HAV in Antananarivo is high. Only children under five years old remain susceptible to HAV infection. Immunization against HAV is not needed at the present time in the Madagascan population, but should be recommended for travellers. PMID:18538023

  17. Age-specific differences of dual n-back training.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Tiina; Frensch, Peter; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in executive functions can be decisive in performing everyday tasks autonomously. Working memory (WM) is closely related to executive functions, and training of WM has yielded evidence toward cognitive plasticity in older adults. The training effects often transfer to untrained tasks and functions. These effects have mostly been shown in processes such as WM and attention, whereas studies investigating transfer to executive functions have been scarce. We trained older adults aged 57-73 years in a WM training task that was reported to be effective in producing transfer in young adults. The training intervention consisted of a dual n-back task including independently processed auditory and visual n-back tasks. We investigated transfer to tasks engaging executive functions, and compared the effects in older adults to those reported in young adults. We found that both training groups improved in the training task. Although the training effect in older adults was smaller than the training effect in young adults, the older adults still showed a notable improvement so that after training they performed on the same level as young adults without training. The older adults also showed transfer to an untrained WM updating task, a result that was in accordance with the findings in young adults; other transfer effects in older adults were lacking. We conclude that although transfer effects were scarce, the present study provides encouraging evidence toward the possibilities to compensate for age-related decline in executive functions by a WM training intervention. PMID:25867501

  18. Association of Serum Vitamin D with the Risk of Incident Dementia and Subclinical Indices of Brain Aging: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Ioannis; Pase, Matthew P.; Beiser, Alexa; Booth, Sarah L.; Jacques, Paul F.; Rogers, Gail; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Annweiler, Cedric; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer’s disease (AD), MRI markers of brain aging, and neuropsychological function. Methods Framingham Heart Study participants had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured between 1986 and 2001. Vitamin D status was considered both as a continuous variable and dichotomized as deficient (<10 ng/mL), or at the cohort-specific 20th and 80th percentiles. Vitamin D was related to the 9-year risk of incident dementia (n= 1663), multiple neuropsychological tests (n= 1291) and MRI markers of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and silent cerebral infarcts (n = 1139). Results In adjusted models, participants with vitamin D deficiency (n = 104, 8% of the cognitive sample) displayed poorer performance on Trail Making B-A (β = −0.03 to −0.05 ±0.02) and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (β = −0.09 to −0.12 ±0.05), indicating poorer executive function, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. These associations remained when vitamin D was examined as a continuous variable or dichotomized at the cohort specific 20th percentile. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with lower hippocampal volumes (β = −0.01 ±0.01) but not total brain volume, white matter hyperintensities, or silent brain infarcts. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and incident all-cause dementia or clinically characterized AD. Conclusions In this large community-based sample, low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and poorer neuropsychological function. PMID:26890771

  19. Incidence of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Fellow Eye in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Maureen G.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Shah, Ankoor R.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Avery, Robert L.; Huang, Jiayan; Martin, Revell W.; Roth, Daniel B.; Castellarin, Alessandro A.; Bakri, Sophie J.; Fine, Stuart L.; Martin, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of drug, dosing regimen, and traditional, non-traditional, and genetic risk factors on the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the fellow eye of patients treated for CNV with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Design Cohort study of patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Participants Patients with no CNV in the fellow eye at the time of enrollment in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Methods Eligibility criteria for the clinical trial required that study eyes have evidence on fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual acuity between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to three different regimens for dosing over a two-year period. The genotypes for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) associated with risk of AMD were determined. Only patients without CNV in the fellow eye at baseline were considered at risk. CATT ophthalmologists examined patients every four weeks through two years and recorded treatment for CNV in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Development of CNV in the fellow eye. Results Among 1185 CATT participants, 727 (61%) had no CNV in the fellow eye at enrollment. At two years, CNV had developed in 75 (20.6%) of 365 patients treated with ranibizumab and 60 (16.6%) of 362 patients treated with bevacizumab (absolute difference 4.0%, 95% confidence interval (−1.7%, 9.6%); p=0.17). The risk ratio for pro re nata (PRN) dosing relative to monthly dosing was 1.1 (95% confidence interval (0.8, 1.6)). Greater elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluid in the foveal center of the study eye were associated with increased incidence of CNV in the fellow eye. Incidence was not associated with genotype on rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3

  20. Incidence and Clinical Significance of De Novo Donor Specific Antibodies after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotellis, Konstantinos; Iniotaki, Aliki; Boletis, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney transplantation has evolved over more than half a century and remarkable progress has been made in patient and graft outcomes. Despite these advances, chronic allograft dysfunction remains a major problem. Among other reasons, de novo formation of antibodies against donor human leukocyte antigens has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for reduced allograft survival. The type of treatment in the presence of donor specific antibodies (DSA) posttransplantation is largely related to the clinical syndrome the patient presents with at the time of detection. There is no consensus regarding the treatment of stable renal transplant recipients with circulating de novo DSA. On the contrast, in acute or chronic allograft dysfunction transplant centers use various protocols in order to reduce the amount of circulating DSA and achieve long-term graft survival. These protocols include removal of the antibodies by plasmapheresis, intravenous administration of immunoglobulin, or depletion of B cells with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies along with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. This review aims at the comprehension of the clinical correlations of de novo DSA in kidney transplant recipients, assessment of their prognostic value, and providing insights into the management of these patients. PMID:24348683

  1. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Age-Specific Patterns of Genetic Variance in Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Fecundity and Its Genetic Covariance with Age-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, DEL.; Khazaeli, A. A.; Curtsinger, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V(A)) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a bimodal pattern for V(A) with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. PMID:8725233

  3. Increase in specific density of levobupivacaine and fentanyl solution ensures lower incidence of inadequate block.

    PubMed

    Djeno, Ivana Tudorić; Duzel, Viktor; Ajduk, Marko; Oremus, Zrinka Safarić; Zupcić, Miroslav; Dusper, Silva; Jukić, Dubravko; Husedzinović, Ino

    2012-06-01

    The clinical presentation of a subarachnoid block (SAB) is dependent upon the intrathecal spread of local anesthetic (LA). Intrathecal distribution depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of LA, puncture site, technique used, patient anatomical characteristics and hydrodynamic properties of cerebrospinal fluid. We tried to determine whether a combined glucose/LA solution can render a clinically significant difference in sensory block distribution and motor block intensity.This was a controlled, randomized and double blinded study. The surgical procedures were stripping of the great or small saphenous vein and extirpation of remaining varicose veins. The study included 110 patients distributed into two groups: Hyperbaric (7.5 mg levobupivacaine (1.5 ml 0.5% Chirocaine) + 50 microg Fentanyl (0.5 ml Fentanil) and 1 ml 10% glucose (Pliva)) vs. Hypobaric (7.5 mg levobupivacaine (1.5 ml 0.5% Chirocaine) + 50 microg Fentanyl (0.5 ml Fentanil) and 1 ml 0.9% NaCl (Pliva, Zagreb)) adding to a total volume of 3.5 ml per solution. Spinal puncture was at L3-L4 level. Spinal block distribution was assessed in five minute intervals and intensity of motor block was assessed according to the modified Bromage scale. Pain was assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale. A statistically significant difference in sensory block distribution, motor block intensity and recovery time was established between hyperbaric and hypobaric solutions. By increasing the specific density of anesthetic solution, a higher sensory block, with lesser variability, a diminished influence of Body Mass Index, decreased motor block intensity and faster recovery time may be achieved. PMID:22856218

  4. Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T.; Stey, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    "Overgeneral memory" refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in…

  5. Age-specific CT and MRI templates for spatial normalization

    PubMed Central

    Rorden, Christopher; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius; Bender, Benjamin; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Spatial normalization reshapes an individual’s brain to match the shape and size of a template image. This is a crucial step required for group-level statistical analyses. The most popular standard templates are derived from MRI scans of young adults. We introduce specialized templates that allow normalization algorithms to be applied to stroke-aged populations. First, we developed a CT template: while this is the dominant modality for many clinical situations, there are no modern CT templates and popular algorithms fail to successfully normalize CT scans. Importantly, our template was based on healthy individuals with ages similar to what is commonly seen in stroke (mean 65 years old). This template allows studies where only CT scans are available. Second, we derived a MRI template that approximately matches the shape of our CT template as well as processing steps that aid the normalization of scans from older individuals (including lesion masking and the ability to generate high quality cortical renderings despite brain injury). The benefit of this strategy is that the resulting templates can be used in studies where mixed modalities are present. We have integrated these templates and processing algorithms into a simple SPM toolbox (http://www.mccauslandcenter.sc.edu/CRNL/tools/spm8-scripts). PMID:22440645

  6. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A.; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Methods Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Results Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Conclusions Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD. PMID:26906160

  7. Is There Relationship between Brain Atrophy and Higher Incidence of Hip Fracture in Old Age? -A Preliminary Study-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Suh, Seung Woo; Yoon, Tae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The studies on the correlation between incidence of fall and brain atrophy have been going on to find out the cause of fall and its prevention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between incidence of hip fracture and brain volume, measured by magnetic resonance image. Materials and Methods A total of 14 subjects with similar conditions (age, height, weight, and past history) were selected for this study. Fracture group (FG) was consisted of 5 subjects with intertrochanteric fracture. Control group (CG) had 9 subjects without intertrochanteric fracture. MRI-based brain volumetry was done in FG and CG with imaging software (V-works, CyberMed Co., Korea). Total brain (tBV), absolute cerebellar volumes (aCV) and relative cerebellar volumes (rCV) were compared between two groups. Student t-test was used to statistically analyze the results. Results In FG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were 1034.676±38.80, 108.648±76.80 and 10.50±0.72 cm3, respectively. In CG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were found to be 1106.459±89.15, 114.899±98.06 and 10.39±0.53 cm3, respectively, having no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the fracture and control groups. Patients with neurologic disease such as cerebellar ataxia definitely have high incidence of fall that causes fractures and have brain changes as well. However, FG without neurologic disease did not have brain volume change. We consider that high risk of fall with hip fracture might decrease brain function which is not obvious to pickup on MRI. PMID:24142659

  8. Age- and brain region-specific differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Royland, Joyce E; MacPhail, Robert C; Sullivan, Patrick G; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters in 5 brain regions (brain stem [BS], frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus [HIP]) of 4 diverse age groups (1 month [young], 4 months [adult], 12 months [middle-aged], 24 months [old age]) to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their possible contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and enzyme activities were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5/group). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State III respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12, and 24-months age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and electron transport chain complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age and brain region specific. In general, changes associated with age were more pronounced with enzyme activities declining as the animals aged (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). These age- and brain region-specific observations may aid in evaluating brain bioenergetic impact on the age-related susceptibility to environmental chemical stressors. PMID:27143418

  9. With increasing ageing in Western populations, what are the prospects for lowering the incidence of coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Walker, A R

    2001-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), rare in the early 1900s, in the 1970s was responsible for almost a third of deaths in Western populations. Although its mortality rate has fallen in the last 20 years, considerably in certain populations, it remains the leading cause of death, and there is little evidence of any fall in its incidence rate. The primary risk factors, which include pattern of diet, smoking practice, and level of physical activity, are well known, but explain only approximately 50% of variation in its occurrence. Despite the numerous health improvement recommendations made, alterations in diet have been relatively slight. Although smoking practice has halved in some populations, its prevalence is now rising in the young. The extent of physical activity is low, compared with that in the past, and may even be decreasing in the young. With the general ageing of populations, the near absence of strong encouragement from the state, and individuals' general failure to reduce risk factors significantly, the chances of decreases in the incidence of CHD appear remote. PMID:11181987

  10. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals. PMID:26582043

  11. Impact of Early Blood Transfusion After Kidney Transplantation on the Incidence of Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrandiz, I; Congy-Jolivet, N; Del Bello, A; Debiol, B; Trébern-Launay, K; Esposito, L; Milongo, D; Dörr, G; Rostaing, L; Kamar, N

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of posttransplant blood transfusion on the sensitization of anti-HLA antibodies and the formation of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). The aims of our study were to determine the 1-year incidence of DSAs (assessed using a solid-phase assay) and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant patients who had or had not received a blood transfusion during the first year after transplantation. Included were 390 non-HLA-sensitized patients who had received an ABO-compatible kidney transplant and had not previously or simultaneously received a nonkidney transplant. Overall, 64% of patients received a red blood cell transfusion within the first year after transplantation, most within the first month. The overall 1-year incidence of DSAs was significantly higher in patients that had undergone transfusion (7.2% vs. 0.7% in patients with no transfusion, p < 0.0001). AMR occurred more often in the transfusion group (n = 15, 6%) compared with the nontransfusion group (n = 2, 1.4%; p = 0.04). Blood transfusion was an independent predictive factor for de novo DSA formation but not for AMR. Patients who had a transfusion and developed DSAs were more often treated with cyclosporin A (n = 10, 55.5%) rather than tacrolimus (n = 45, 19.4%; p = 0.0001). In conclusion, early posttransplant blood transfusion may increase immunological risk, especially in underimmunosuppressed patients. PMID:26998676

  12. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account. PMID:20376521

  13. Age-specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among Apparently Healthy Nigerian Men Without Clinical Evidence of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, SO; Ajala, MO; Abolarinwa, AA; Omisanjo, OA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA among civil servants in Lagos, who underwent routine medical checkups. Criteria for inclusion were men who have no lower urinary tract symptoms, normal digital rectal examination and serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml. SPSS Statistic 21 was used for data evaluation and the mean, median, 95th percentile PSA levels were estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 4032 men met the criteria for inclusion in the evaluation. The mean age was 51.6 (range 40–70) years, and there was a strong correlation between serum PSA levels and age (r = 0.097, P < 0.001). PSA ranges of 0–2.5, >2.5–4.0, >4.0–10, and >10 ng/ml were found in 3218 (80%), 481 (12%), 284 (7%), and 52 (1%) men, respectively. The mean, median and the 95th percentile PSA for the overall group were 1.84, 1.33, and 5.2 ng/ml respectively. However the 95th percentile PSA levels for men aged 40–49, 50–59, and 60–70 years were 4.78, 5.47, and 8.93 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: The age-specific PSA levels among Nigerian men for each age group is higher than what was described for men in the Western world. These reference ranges of serum PSA should be considered for men aged ≥40 years in our environment. PMID:27013850

  14. Practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in normal aging vs. incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Machulda, Mary M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in a population based cohort classified as clinically normal at their initial evaluation. We examined 1390 individuals with a median age of 78.1 years and re-evaluated them up to four times at approximate 15 month intervals, with an average follow-up time of five years. Of the 1390 participants, 947 (69%) individuals remained cognitively normal, 397 (29%) progressed to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 46 (3%) to dementia. The stable normal group showed an initial practice effect in all domains which was sustained in memory and visuospatial reasoning. There was only a slight decline in attention and language after visit 3. We combined individuals with incident MCI and dementia to form one group representing those who declined. The incident MCI/dementia group showed an unexpected practice effect in memory from baseline to visit 2, with a significant decline thereafter. This group did not demonstrate practice effects in any other domain and showed a downward trajectory in all domains at each evaluation. Modeling cognitive change in an epidemiologic sample may serve as a useful benchmark for evaluating cognitive change in future intervention studies. PMID:24041121

  15. Specificity of inhibitory deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Collette, Fabienne; Schmidt, Christina; Scherrer, Christine; Adam, Stéphane; Salmon, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Deficits of suppression abilities are frequently observed in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. However, few studies have explored these deficits in the two populations simultaneously using a large battery of tasks. The aim of the present study was to explore if the pattern of performance presented by elderly subjects and AD patients is in agreement with theoretical frameworks [Wilson, S.P., Harnishfeger, K.K., 1998. The development of efficient inhibition: Evidence from directed forgetting tasks. Dev. Rev. 18, 86-123; see also Nigg J.T., 2000. On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychol. Bull. 126, 220-246], distinguishing between the concepts of inhibition (a voluntary suppression of irrelevant information) and interference (an automatic suppression process occurring prior to conscious awareness). The results obtained demonstrated that (1) there is an alteration of the inhibitory process in normal elderly subjects; (2) inhibitory and interference resolution processes are quantitately less efficient in AD, since these patients present a correct performance only for information which leaves weak traces in memory. PMID:18029058

  16. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  17. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  18. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  19. First incident hospitalisation for Australian women aged 70 and beyond: A 10 year examination using competing risks.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding high hospital use among older adults and the capacity to manage the economic impact of the ageing population trend on healthcare systems. First hospitalisation in old age may act as a catalyst for ongoing intensification of health problems and acute care use. This study examined factors associated with first incident hospitalisation in women aged over 70, accounting for the health inequalities associated with geographic location. Survey data from 3780 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the Admitted Patients Data Collection and National Death Index. Days to first event (hospitalisation or death) were modelled using competing risks methods. A total of 3065 (80.3%) women had at least one hospital admission. More than half of the top 15 reasons for first hospitalisation were related to cardiovascular disease, with atrial fibrillation the most common. Proportional subdistribution hazards models showed that first hospital admission was driven by enabling and need factors including asthma/bronchitis diagnosis (HR=1.16; p=0.047), private health insurance (HR=1.16; p=0.004) more than two prescribed medications in previous month (HR=1.31; p=0.001), more than four general practitioner visits in previous year (HR=1.50; p=0.034), lower physical functioning (HR=0.99; p<0.001) and living in an inner regional area (HR=1.17; p=0.003). First overnight hospitalisation was primarily related with potentially preventable and treatable chronic diseases. Primary and secondary strategies aimed at chronic disease generally, and better chronic disease management particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, may play a vital role in disease prevention or delay in readmissions among this population. PMID:26952374

  20. Gestational age-specific associations between infantile acute bronchiolitis and asthma after age five

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J.; Marsh, Caitlin A.; Darrow, Lyndsey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infantile acute bronchiolitis is a risk factor for the development of pediatric asthma. The associations might differ according to gestational age. Methods Datasets of emergency department (ED) visits (Jan 2002 to June 2010) and live birth records (Jan 2002 to Dec 2004) from the state of Georgia were linked for all children who survived one year. Exposure was an ED visit for acute bronchiolitis during infancy (AB), and the outcome was an ED visit for asthma after age five years. The risk of asthma among children with AB (n = 11,564) was compared with the risk of asthma among children who did not have an ED visit for AB but who utilized the ED for another reason during infancy (n = 131,694). Associations were estimated using log-binomial regression models that controlled for several plausible confounders. Effect measure modification of the risk ratio by gestational age was investigated. Results Crude asthma risks (per 100 children) through June 2010 were 4.5 for children with AB and 2.3 for children without AB. The adjusted risk ratio for the overall association was 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73, 2.108). We did not observe effect modification of the risk ratio by gestational age. Conclusion A positive association was observed between ED visits for AB and subsequent asthma ED visits after age five; associations did not vary meaningfully by gestational age. Sensitivity analyses did not suggest large biases due to differences in ED utilization across socio-demographic groups or loss to follow-up from residential migration. PMID:25256755

  1. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders. PMID:25944549

  2. Risk Factors for Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    CHOUDHURY, FARZANA; VARMA, ROHIT; MCKEAN-COWDIN, ROBERTA; KLEIN, RONALD; AZEN, STANLEY P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify risk factors for 4-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in adult Latinos. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS Participants, aged 40 or older, from The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent standardized comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at 4 years of follow-up. Age-related macular degeneration was detected by grading 30-degree stereoscopic fundus photographs using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of incidence and progression of AMD and baseline sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and ocular characteristics. RESULTS Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR per decade of age: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.85) and higher pulse pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.76) were independently associated with the incidence of any AMD. The same factors were associated with early AMD, soft indistinct drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Additionally, presence of clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus was independently associated with increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.85), and male gender was associated with retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.23). Older age (OR per decade of age: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.67) and current smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.66, 4.90) were independently associated with progression of AMD. CONCLUSIONS Several modifiable risk factors were associated with 4-year incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos. The results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing pulse pressure and promoting smoking cessation may reduce incidence and progression of AMD, respectively. PMID:21679916

  3. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  4. Age-specific seroprevalence of hepatitis A in Sari, northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alian, S; Ajami, A; Ghasemian, R; Yadegarinia, D

    2011-10-01

    The declining incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Islamic Republic of Iran may be reducing the population's natural immunity. This was the first systemized, population-based survey of the seroprevalence of HAV antibodies in urban and rural inhabitants of Sari, Mazandaran province. Serum from 1034 individuals aged 1-25 years in 2007 were tested for anti-HAV lgG antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. The overall seroprevalence was 38.9%. The lowest prevalence (5.2%) was among the younger age group (1-5 years) from urban areas and the highest prevalence (82.0%) in the older age group (15-25 years) from rural areas. Seropositivity was significantly higher at higher age, among females and in rural areas. Sari is no longer classified as an area of high endemicity, and immunization against HAV may be needed in our population in the future. PMID:22256409

  5. [Oral glucocorticoid-induced psychiatric side-effects: focus on clinical specificities, incidence, risk factors and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ricoux, A; Guitteny-Collas, M; Sauvaget, A; Delvot, P; Pottier, P; Hamidou, M; Vanelle, J-M

    2013-05-01

    Oral glucocorticoids have been used for several decades and psychiatric side-effects may occur. This review will discuss relevant data of the clinical specificities, the incidence, the risk factors for the occurrence of these episodes and the preventive and curative medications of these episodes. We performed a literature review by using PubMed database. We selected and discussed articles and studies with high standard of evidence. The occurrence of psychiatric symptoms is quite frequent. The varying intensity of clinical features ranges from minor signs (impregnation) to acute psychotic episodes which may occur from 5 to 30% of patients. Affective symptoms or disorders are the most prominent clinical features. Delirium may occur and suicidal risk could be increased. The significant predictive factors are prednisone dosage more than 40 mg/day, particularly weight-based dosage, and a history of psychiatric disorders. When a reduced dosage of glucocorticoids is not sufficient to control the symptomatology, curative medication is mainly based on atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine. Studies about neuropsychiatric complications of glucocorticoids present various and heterogeneous results. Further prospective clinical studies should be based on a close cooperation between physicians and consultation liaison psychiatrists. This collaboration is required for an optimized management of the patient who receive glucocorticoids. PMID:23374903

  6. Incidence and recovery of neurosensory disturbances after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in different age groups: a retrospective study of 263 patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, J P; Mensink, G; Fiocco, M; van Merkesteyn, J P R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of neurosensory disturbance (NSD) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in different age groups and to assess the probability of sensory recovery in patients aged <19 years, 19-30 years, and >30 years. Hypoaesthesia of the lower lip was assessed subjectively and objectively immediately after BSSO and at 1 week and 1, 6, and 12 months after BSSO. Hypoaesthesia was considered permanent if it was present 1 year after BSSO. The frequency of NSD immediately after surgery was significantly higher in older patients. The cumulative incidence of recovery at 1 year was lower and the mean time to recovery was longer in the older patients, although these differences were not statistically significant. Older age was a significant risk factor for permanent hypoaesthesia, with an incidence of 4.8% per patient aged <19 years, 7.9% per patient aged 19-30 years, and 15.2% per patient aged >30 years. These findings show that the risk of NSD after BSSO is significantly higher in older patients. These results may aid surgeons in preoperative patient counselling and in deciding the optimal age at which to perform BSSO. PMID:26846794

  7. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  9. Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Genotype- and Age-Specific Analyses of External Genital Lesions Among Men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane A.; Stoler, Mark H.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A.; O'Keefe, Michael T.; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. Methods. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009–2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan–Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. Results. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9–19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Conclusion. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. PMID:25344518

  10. Age-Specificity of Clinical Dengue during Primary and Secondary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Hoang, Phuong Lan; Tran, Nga Thanh Thi; Phan, Giao Trong; Le, Hung Quoc; Tran, Binh Quang; Nguyen, Nam Van; de Vries, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack (i.e., the risk of symptomatic dengue among the total number of dengue virus (DENV) infections) during primary and secondary infections. Methods We analyzed two pieces of epidemiological information in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam, i.e., age-specific seroprevalence and a community-wide longitudinal study of clinical dengue attack. The latter data set stratified febrile patients with DENV infection by age as well as infection parity. A simple modeling approach was employed to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack during primary and secondary infections. Results Using the seroprevalence data, the force of infection was estimated to be 11.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 10.8–12.7) per year. Median age (and the 25–75 percentiles) of dengue fever patients during primary and secondary infections were 12 (9–20) and 20 (14–31) years, respectively. The estimated age-specific risk of clinical dengue increases as a function of age for both primary and secondary infections; the estimated proportion of symptomatic patients among the total number of infected individuals was estimated to be <7% for those aged <10 years for both primary and secondary infections, but increased as patients become older, reaching to 8–11% by the age of 20 years. Conclusions/Significance For both primary and secondary infections, higher age at DENV infection was shown to result in higher risk of clinical attack. Age as an important modulator of clinical dengue explains recent increase in dengue notifications in ageing countries in Southeast Asia, and moreover, poses a paradoxical problem of an increase in adult patients resulting from a decline in the force of infection, which may be caused by various factors including time-dependent variations in epidemiological, ecological and demographic dynamics. PMID:21713018

  11. Speech Disruptions in the Sentence Formulation of School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finneran, Denise A.; Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many school-age children with specific language impairment produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. Aims: To determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence…

  12. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  13. Age-specific and sex-specific morbidity and mortality from avian influenza A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Joseph P; Mackay, Ian M

    2013-11-01

    We used data on age and sex for 136 laboratory confirmed human A(H7N9) cases reported as of 11 August 2013 to compare age-specific and sex-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality from the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with those of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus. Human A(H7N9) cases exhibit high degrees of age and sex bias: mortality is heavily biased toward males >50 years, no deaths have been reported among individuals <25 years old, and relatively few cases documented among children or adolescents. The proportion of fatal cases (PFC) for human A(H7N9) cases as of 11 August 2013 was 32%, compared to a cumulative PFC for A(H5N1) of 83% in Indonesia and 36% in Egypt. Approximately 75% of cases of all A(H7N9) cases occurred among individuals >45 years old. Morbidity and mortality from A(H7N9) are lowest among individuals between 10 and 29 years, the age group which exhibits the highest cumulative morbidity and case fatality rates from A(H5N1). Although individuals <20 years old comprise nearly 50% of all human A(H5N1) cases, only 7% of all reported A(H7N9) cases and no deaths have been reported among individuals in this age group. Only 4% of A(H7N9) cases occurred among children<5 years old, and only one case from the 10 to 20 year age group. Age- and sex-related differences in morbidity and mortality from emerging zoonotic diseases can provide insights into ecological, economic, and cultural factors that may contribute to the emergence and proliferation of novel zoonotic diseases in human populations. PMID:24091087

  14. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  15. Population-based incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanoma in various races and ethnic groups with comparisons to other site-specific melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan-Ning; Yu, Guo-Pei; McCormick, Steven A

    2010-04-01

    Little is known on the difference in the incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. Population-based incidence of these melanomas in Asian and Hispanic individuals is almost unknown. Using 1992-2005 data provided by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. From 1992 to 2005, there were 324 vulvar melanomas and 125 vaginal melanomas diagnosed in this group. The annual age-adjusted incidence rates (per million female population) of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in the different racial/ethnic groups was 0.87 (Blacks), 0.75 (American-Indian), 1.03 (Asians and Pacific Islanders), 1.22 (Hispanics), and 1.90 (non-Hispanic Whites). The overall white/black incidence ratio in vulvar and vaginal melanomas was 3.14 : 1 and 1.02 : 1, respectively; which is much less than that of cutaneous melanoma (13 : 1-17 : 1) and uveal melanoma (18 : 1) and is similar to that of conjunctival melanoma (2.6 : 1) and other mucosal melanomas (2.1 : 1-2.3 : 1). The low racial difference in vulvar and vaginal melanomas (as well as conjunctival and other mucosal melanomas) may be determined by their microenvironment factors (all originate from mucosa or semi-mucosa tissues). The incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas has does not increased in recent decades or toward the south (more sun exposure), indicating that ultraviolet radiation is not a causative factor in these melanomas. The slight decrease of incidence of vulvar melanoma in dark pigmented individuals may be related to the biochemical protective effects of melanin (as an antioxidant) rather than their photo-screen effects. PMID:20147857

  16. Trends in the Incidence of In Situ and Invasive Cervical Cancer by Age Group and Histological Type in Korea from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Sang-yoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study aims to describe changes in carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in Korean women diagnosed between 1993 and 2009. Methods All cases of CIS and invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in the Korean National Cancer Incidence database were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) in incidence rates were compared according to age and histological type. Additionally, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to know the association between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate of cervical cancer. Results Between 1993 and 2009, 72,240 cases of ICC were reported in Korea. Total incidence rate of ICC was 14.7 per 100,000 females. ASRs of ICC declined 3.8% per year, from 19.3 per 100,000 in 1993 to 10.5 per 100,000 in 2009. Although the overall incidence rate of adenocarcinoma remained stable, invasive squamous cell carcinoma showed a decreasing trend (APC −4.2%). For women aged 60–79 years, ASRs for squamous cell carcinoma increased from 1993 to 2001, and decreased from 2001 to 2009 (APC: −4.6%). Total 62,300 cases of CIS were diagnosed from 1993 to 2009. Total incidence rate of CIS was 12.2 per 100,000 females. ASRs of CIS increased 5.7% per year, from 7.5 per 100,000 in 1993 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2009. Adenocarcinoma in situ increased 13.2% per year. There was a strong positive correlation between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate for CIS (p-value = 0.03) whereas screening rate showed a strong negative correlation with incidence rate for squamous ICC (p-value = 0.04). Conclusions The increasing trend in CIS, coupled with a decreasing trend in ICC, suggests the important role of cervix cancer screening. The incidence of adenocarcinoma showed a plateau, but the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ showed an increasing trend. PMID:23977194

  17. Identification of specific age groups with a high risk for developing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Voit, Martin; Suntheim, Patricia; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    The impact of age on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of this study was to identify age groups with a higher risk for developing vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), or delayed infarction (DI) and to identify a cut-off age for a better risk stratification. We defined six age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cutoff age with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for developing vasospasm, defined as a blood-flow-velocity-increase >120 cm/s in transcranial-Doppler-sonography (TCD). Multivariate binary-logistic-regression-analysis was then performed to evaluate differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm, DIND, and DI among the different age groups. A total of 753 patients were included in the study. The highest incidence (70 %) of TCD-vasospasm was found in patients between 30 and 39 years of age. The cutoff age with the highest PPV (65 %) for developing TCD-vasospasm was 38 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <38 years (OR 3.6; CI 95 % 2.1-6.1; p < 0.001) best predicted vasospasm, followed by the need for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (OR 1.5; CI 95 % 1.0-2.3; p = 0.04). However, lower age did not correlate with higher rates of DIND or infarcts. The overall vasospasm-incidence after aSAH is age-dependent and highest in the age group <38 years. Surprisingly, the higher incidence in the younger age group does not translate into a higher rate of DIND/DI. This finding may hint towards age-related biological factors influencing the association between arterial narrowing and cerebral ischemia. PMID:26940102

  18. Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Richard; Scofield, Patricia; Eckerman, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, "Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides." With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in dose coefficients derived from those models. PMID:23803668

  19. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  20. Mammary gland-specific ablation of focal adhesion kinase reduces the incidence of p53-mediated mammary tumour formation

    PubMed Central

    van Miltenburg, M H A M; van Nimwegen, M J; Tijdens, I; Lalai, R; Kuiper, R; Klarenbeek, S; Schouten, P C; de Vries, A; Jonkers, J; van de Water, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) occurs in numerous human cancers including colon-, cervix- and breast cancer. Although several studies have implicated FAK in mammary tumour formation induced by ectopic oncogene expression, evidence supporting a role for FAK in spontaneous mammary tumour development caused by loss of tumour suppressor genes such as p53 is lacking. Alterations in the tumour suppressor gene p53 have been implicated in over 50% of human breast cancers. Given that elevated FAK expression highly correlates with p53 mutation status in human breast cancer, we set out to investigate the importance of FAK in p53-mediated spontaneous mammary tumour development. Methods: To directly assess the role of FAK, we generated mice with conditional inactivation of FAK and p53. We generated female p53lox/lox/FAK+/+/WapCre, p53lox/lox/FAKflox/+/WapCre and p53lox/lox/FAKflox/−/WapCre mice, and mice with WapCre-mediated conditional expression of p53R270H, the mouse equivalent of human p53R273H hot spot mutation, together with conditional deletion of FAK, P53R270H/+/FAKlox/+/WapCre and p53R270H/+/FAKflox/−/WapCre mice. All mice were subjected to one pregnancy to induce WapCre-mediated deletion of p53 or expression of p53 R270H, and Fak genes flanked by two loxP sites, and subsequently followed the development of mammary tumours. Results: Using this approach, we show that FAK is important for p53-induced mammary tumour development. In addition, mice with the mammary gland-specific conditional expression of p53 point mutation R270H, the mouse equivalent to human R273H, in combination with conditional deletion of Fak showed reduced incidence of p53R270H-induced mammary tumours. In both models these effects of FAK were related to reduced proliferation in preneoplastic lesions in the mammary gland ductal structures. Conclusions: Mammary gland-specific ablation of FAK hampers p53-regulated spontaneous mammary tumour formation. Focal adhesion

  1. Evolutionary demography and quantitative genetics: age-specific survival as a threshold trait

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers must understand how mutations affect survival at various ages to understand how ageing evolves. Many models linking mutation to age-specific survival have been proposed but there is little evidence to indicate which model is most appropriate. This is a serious problem because the predicted evolutionary endpoints of ageing depend upon the details of the specific model. We apply an explicitly quantitative genetic perspective to the problem. To determine the inheritance of dichotomous traits (such as survival), quantitative genetics has long employed a threshold model. Beginning from first principles, we show how this is the most defensible mutational model for age-specific survival and how this, relative to the standard model, predicts delayed senescence and mortality deceleration at late age. These are commonly observed patterns of ageing that heretofore have required more complicated survival models. We also show how this model can be developed further to unify quantitative genetics and evolutionary demography into a more complete conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of ageing. PMID:20659934

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of Memory Complaints in Employed Compared to Non-Employed Aged 55–64 Years and the Role of Employment Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC) in 55–64-year-olds. Methods Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525) and employment characteristics (n = 1071) with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline). Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526) and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain) with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up). Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits). Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population. Results At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC. Conclusions Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55–64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work. PMID:25742133

  3. Specific age-related molecular alterations in the cerebellum of Down syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Créau, Nicole; Cabet, Eva; Daubigney, Fabrice; Souchet, Benoit; Bennaï, Soumia; Delabar, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, has been modeled with various trisomic and transgenic mice to help understand the consequences of an altered gene dosage in brain development and function. Though Down syndrome has been associated with premature aging, little is known about the molecular and cellular alterations that target brain function. To help identify alterations at specific ages, we analyzed the cerebellum of Ts1Cje mice, trisomic for 77 HSA21 orthologs, at three ages-young (4 months), middle-age (12 months), and old (17 months)-compared to age-matched controls. Quantification of neuronal and glial markers (n=11) revealed increases in GFAP, with an age effect, and S100B, with age and genotype effects. The genotype effect on S100B with age was unexpected as Ts1Cje has only two copies of the S100b gene. Interestingly, the different increase in GFAP observed between Ts1Cje (trisomic segment includes Pcp4 gene) and controls was magnified in TgPCP4 mice (1 extra copy of the human PCP4 gene) at the same age. S100B increase was not found in the TgPCP4 confirming a difference of regulation with aging for GFAP and S100B and excluding the calcium signaling regulator, Pcp4, as a potential candidate for increase of S100B in the Ts1Cje. To understand these differences, comparison of GFAP and S100B immunostainings at young and middle-age were performed. Immunohistochemical detection of differences in GFAP and S100B localization with aging implicate S100B+ oligodendrocytes as a new phenotypic target in this specific aging process. PMID:27297494

  4. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Methods Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. Results A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18–64 compared to females of the same age. Conclusions We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of

  5. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site-Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Armstrong, Miranda Eg

    2016-08-01

    Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions with a mean follow-up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site-specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow-up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age-specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2) ), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p < 0.001 for all). Strenuous activity was significantly associated with a decreased risk of fracture of the humerus and femur (both neck and remainder of femur) (p < 0.001), but was not significantly associated with lower leg, ankle, wrist, and forearm fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a high lifetime risk of fracture. BMI and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for fracture, but their associations with fracture risk differ substantially across fracture sites. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published

  6. Specificity of the Tuberculin Skin Test and the T-SPOT."TB" Assay among Students in a Low-Tuberculosis Incidence Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Harland, Dawn; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Burrer, Sherry; Adams, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-[gamma] release assays (IGRAs) are an important tool for detecting latent "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" infection (LTBI). Insufficient data exist about IGRA specificity in college health centers, most of which screen students for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Participants: Students at a low-TB incidence college…

  7. Effect of Walking Distance on 8-Year Incident Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Men With and Without Chronic Disease: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Toby L.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Fong, Kaon; Abbott, Robert D.; Ross, George W.; Petrovitch, Helen; Blanchette, Patricia L.; White, Lon R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of walking on incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men with and without chronic disease Design Prospective cohort study Setting The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study Participants Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 years at baseline Measurements Physical activity was assessed by self-reported distance walked per day. Depressive symptoms were measured with an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at the 4th exam (n=3196) and again at the 7th exam 8 years later (1999-2000, n=1417). Presence of incident depressive symptoms was defined as CESD-11 score ≥ 9 or taking anti-depressants at Exam 7. Subjects with prevalent depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Results Age adjusted 8-year incident depressive symptoms were 13.6%, 7.6% and 8.5% for low (< ¼ miles/day), intermediate (¼ to 1.5 miles/day) and high (> 1.5 miles/day) walking groups at baseline, p=0.008. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, marital status, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent diseases and functional impairment found that those in the intermediate and highest walking groups had significantly lower odds for developing 8-year incident depressive symptoms (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.32-0.83, p=0.006; and OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.39-0.97, p=0.04 respectively). Analysis found that this association was only significant in those without chronic diseases (CHD, CVA, Cancer, PD, Dementia or cognitive impairment) at baseline. Conclusion Daily physical activity (≥¼ mile/day) is significantly associated with a lower risk for 8-year incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men who do not have chronic disease at baseline. PMID:20670378

  8. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  9. Restoration of Retarded Influenza Virus-specific Immunoglobulin Class Switch in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Monica; Liu, Lin; Mbawuike, Innocent N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The declined immune response to infection causes significant higher morbidity and mortality in aging in spite of the coexisted hyperimmunoglobulinemia (HIG). This study is to reveal the cellular basis of HIG and mechanism of weakened HA-specific IgG response in aged mice and to test cell therapy in the treatment of age-related IgG antibody production deficiency with immunocyte adoptive transfer. Methods BALB/c mice was immunized with Influenza A/Taiwan vaccine and challenged with the same strain of virus. ELISA was used to assess the levels of total immunoglobulins and antigen specific antibody response. The flow cytometry and ELISPOT were used to evaluate the frequencies of total immunoglobulin- and specific antibody-producing and secreting B lymphocytes. In vitro expanded mononuclear cells, CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD20+ B lymphocytes from old and young mice were adoptively transferred into influenza virus-challenged aged mice, and HA-specific IgG responses were observed. Results It is found that old mice exhibited higher levels of total serum IgG, IgM and IgA, higher frequencies of IgG+, IgM+ and IgA+ cells, and greater antigen-specific IgM and IgA responses to influenza infection, in comparison to young mice. However, influenza antigen- specific IgG and its subclass responses in old mice were significantly lower. Conclusion The retarded specific IgG response could be attributed to an insufficiency of immunoglobulin class switch in aging. Correlation analysis indicated that HIG and deficient specific IgG production in aged mice could be independent to each other in their pathogenesis. Correction of deficient specific IgG production by adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded and unexpanded CD4+ cells from immunized young mice suggests the CD4+ cell dysfunction contributes to the insufficiency of immunoglobulin class switch in aged mice. The transfusion of in vitro expanded lymphocytes could be a potential effective therapy for the age

  10. Age- and Sex-Specific Mortality Associated With the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, Cécile; Eisenstein, Jana; Reid, Ann H.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves. Methods. Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911–1919 were abstracted by medically trained personnel. Pandemic-associated excess mortality rates were calculated by subtracting observed rates during pandemic months from rates in previous years, separately for each single year of age and by sex. Results. The age profile of excess mortality risk in fall 1918 was characterized by a maximum among infants, a minimum at ages 9–10 years, a maximum at ages 24–26 years, and a second minimum at ages 56–59 years. The excess mortality risk in young adults had been greatly attenuated by winter 1919. The age breakpoints of mortality risk did not differ between males and females. Conclusions. The observed mortality breakpoints in male and female cohorts born during 1859–1862, 1892–1894, and 1908–1909 did not coincide with known dates of historical pandemics. The atypical age mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 pandemic cannot be explained by military crowding, war-related factors, or prior immunity alone and likely result from a combination of unknown factors. PMID:23230061

  11. Age-specific epidemic waves of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in a subtropical city.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok Hung; Suen, Lorna K P; Chan, King Pan; Wang, Xiling; Cao, Peihua; He, Daihai; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are active throughout the year in subtropical or tropical regions, but few studies have reported on age-specific seasonal patterns of these viruses. We examined the age-specific epidemic curves of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A (subtyped into seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and pandemic virus A(H1N1)pdm09), influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in subtropical city Hong Kong from 2004 to 2013. We found that different types and subtypes of influenza showed similar two-peak patterns across age groups, with one peak in winter and another in spring/summer. Age differences were found in epidemic onset time and duration, but none could reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Age synchrony was found in epidemic peak time for both cool and warm seasons. RSV showed less clear seasonal patterns and non-synchronized epidemic curves across age. In conclusion, age synchrony was found in influenza seasonal epidemics and the 2009 pandemic, but not in RSV. None of the age groups consistently appear as the driving force for seasonal epidemics of influenza and RSV in Hong Kong. PMID:25981824

  12. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases. PMID:26529217

  13. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  14. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  15. Intestine-Specific Deletion of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Increases Mortality in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhe; Xie, Yan; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Breed, Elise R.; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO) exhibit a complete block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Young (8–10 week) Mttp-IKO mice have improved survival when subjected to a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis. However, 80% of deaths in sepsis occur in patients over age 65. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age impacts outcome in Mttp-IKO mice subjected to sepsis. Methods Aged (20–24 months) Mttp-IKO mice and WT mice underwent intratracheal injection with P. aeruginosa. Mice were either sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively for mechanistic studies or followed seven days for survival. Results In contrast to young septic Mttp-IKO mice, aged septic Mttp-IKO mice had a significantly higher mortality than aged septic WT mice (80% vs. 39%, p = 0.005). Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice exhibited increased gut epithelial apoptosis, increased jejunal Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL ratios yet simultaneously demonstrated increased crypt proliferation and villus length. Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice also manifested increased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels, suggesting increased neutrophil infiltration, as well as decreased systemic TNFα compared to aged septic WT mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion alters mortality following sepsis in an age-dependent manner. Increases in gut apoptosis and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, and decreased systemic TNFα represent potential mechanisms for why intestine-specific Mttp deletion is beneficial in young septic mice but harmful in aged mice as each of these parameters are altered differently in young and aged septic WT and Mttp-IKO mice. PMID:25010671

  16. Molecular mechanisms and therapeutics of the deficit in specific force in ageing skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    The age-related impairment in muscle force is only partially explained by the loss of muscle mass. The loss both in specific and absolute forces contributes to the muscle weakness measured in the elderly and in animal models of ageing. Successful interventions aimed at preventing age-associated functional deficits will require a better insight into the mechanisms underlying the decline in muscle-specific force. The present review article is focused on recent evidence supporting excitation-contraction uncoupling as a key factor underlying fast and slow muscle fiber impairment with ageing. The molecular, functional and structural factors supporting this theory and counteracting measures such as insulin-like growth factor 1 transgenic overexpression are discussed. PMID:12237563

  17. Variations of CT-Based Trunk Muscle Attenuation by Age, Sex, and Specific Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fat accumulation in muscle may contribute to age-related declines in muscle function and is indicated by reduced attenuation of x-rays by muscle tissue in computed tomography scans. Reduced trunk muscle attenuation is associated with poor physical function, low back pain, and increased hyperkyphosis in older adults. However, variations in trunk muscle attenuation with age, sex and between specific muscles have not been investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional examination of trunk muscle attenuation in computed tomography scans was performed in 60 younger (35–50 years) and 60 older (75–87 years) adults randomly selected from participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Multidetector Computed Tomography Study. Computed tomography attenuation of 11 trunk muscles was measured at vertebral levels T8 and L3, and the effects of age, sex, and specific muscle on computed tomography attenuation of trunk muscles were determined. Results. Muscle attenuation varied by specific muscle (p < .001), was lower in older adults (p < .001), and was generally lower in women than in men (p < .001), although not in all muscles. Age-related differences in muscle attenuation varied with specific muscle (p < .001), with the largest age differences occurring in the paraspinal and abdominal muscles. Conclusions. Trunk muscle attenuation is lower in older adults than in younger adults in both women and men, but such age-related differences vary widely between muscle groups. The reasons that some muscles exhibit larger age-related differences in fat content than others should be further explored to better understand age-related changes in functional capacity and postural stability. PMID:22904095

  18. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site‐Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day‐case or overnight admissions with a mean follow‐up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site‐specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow‐up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age‐specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m2), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p < 0.001 for all). Strenuous activity was significantly associated with a decreased risk of fracture of the humerus and femur (both neck and remainder of femur) (p < 0.001), but was not significantly associated with lower leg, ankle, wrist, and forearm fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a high lifetime risk of fracture. BMI and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for fracture, but their associations with fracture risk differ substantially across fracture sites. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral

  19. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  20. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y.; Chooljian, Marc S.; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation, but systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin- a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition, and social behaviors - is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signaling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation throughactivation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle, but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle aging. PMID:24915299

  1. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Cousin, Wendy; Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y; Chooljian, Marc S; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P; Conboy, Irina M

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation; however, systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin--a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition and social behaviours--is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signalling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation through activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle ageing. PMID:24915299

  2. Sex-specific age-related changes of information processing rate indicators during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Mislav S; Budimir, Sanja; Merkas, Marina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Zivicnjak, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevant findings on non-average information processing rate (IPR) indicators-intelligence relation, and on age-related changes of some of these indicators during aging, the research on sex-specific age-related changes of these indicators during childhood and adolescence are lacking. In a transversal study, 1197 school children (598 girls) aged 8-18 have been individually measured on 5 IPR indicators--two averages (mean_t, median_t) and three non-averages (min_t, max_t, sd_t). The results corroborated the expected non-linear changes of average IPR indicators in the observed developmental period, whereby the sex difference in related developmental patterns was detected: marked age-related decrement in girls ceased at the age of 12, and in boys around the age of 13-14, after which progress in both sexes gradually ceased by the age of 18 and was less pronounced in girls. Generally similar non-linear age-related decrements of non-average indicators were registered, but they showed mutual intensity differences at specific ages and sex difference in developmental patterns was detected, analogously to average indicators. Systematic sex differences in the whole observed period were obtained only in two non-average indicators: girls showed minor sd_t and boys showed minor min_t. In specific age groups, a number of sex differences were obtained that are explainable by two possible mechanisms: earlier maturation in girls and sex bias of the IPR task content. The justifiability of separate, average and non-average, IPR indicators application was corroborated by their distribution form differences, by mutual, predominantly low and medium correlations, by the different intensity of their developmental changes and by their different ability to detect sex differences. For all registered phenomena, the theoretical and/or empirical explanations were offered from the domain of sex specific intellectual, motor and neural development, and it has been shown that non

  3. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visser, W Edward; Bombardieri, Cíntia R; Zevenbergen, Chantal; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A; Peeters, Robin P; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P; de Waard, Monique C; de Krijger, Ronald R; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Melis, Joost P M; Darras, Veerle M; Dollé, Martijn E T; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Visser, Theo J

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging. PMID:26953569

  4. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Visser, W. Edward; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A.; Peeters, Robin P.; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; de Waard, Monique C.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J.; List, Edward O.; Melis, Joost P. M.; Darras, Veerle M.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Visser, Theo J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging. PMID:26953569

  5. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  6. Age-specific forced polymorphism: implications of ontogenetic changes in morphology for male mating tactics.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Duncan J; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2006-01-01

    Age-specific forced polymorphism is the presence of two or more distinct phenotypes (here we consider only males) that occur in separate sexually mature age groups (e.g., horns in older males but not younger males). The life-stage morph maturation hypothesis posits that all younger males that possess a particular structure can transform into older males with a different structure, most likely via the influence of hormones. The life-stage morph selection hypothesis posits that polymorphism is due to intense selection resulting in a highly nonrandom sample of younger males surviving to become older males, thus leading to different mean phenotypes in different age groups. We conducted an extensive review of literature from the past 20 years (1983-2003) for cases of age-specific forced polymorphism. Overall, we found only a few cases that fit our criteria of age-specific forced polymorphism, and we argue that most (e.g., orangutans, elephant seals) have likely arisen via the life-stage morph maturation mechanism, but we also present several examples (e.g., green anole lizards) that appear to be candidates for life-stage morph selection. However, none of the reviewed studies provided enough information (e.g., age of morphs, growth patterns of the morphological structure) to definitively invoke either of the two mechanisms. We suggest that age-specific forced polymorphism is more common than reflected in this review and that future studies should gather demographic and laboratory data that will directly compare the life-stage morph maturation and life-stage morph selection hypotheses. PMID:16380929

  7. A review of the equine age-related changes in the immune system: comparisons between human and equine aging, with focus on lung-specific immune-aging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Baptiste, K E; Fjeldborg, J; Horohov, D W

    2015-03-01

    The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans and horses share many of these age-related changes, with only a few differences. Thus, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence are well-described phenomena in both human and equine research, particularly in relation to the peripheral blood and especially the T-cell compartment. However, the lung is faced with unique challenges because of its constant interaction with the external environment and thus may not share similarities to peripheral blood when considering age-related changes in immune function. Indeed, recent studies have shown discrepancies in cytokine mRNA and protein expression between the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage immune cells. These results provide important evidence that age-related immune changes or 'dys-functions' are organ-specific. PMID:25497559

  8. Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction and the 20-year Cumulative Incidence of Early Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Danforth, Lorraine G.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Modifying levels of factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may decrease risk of visual impairment in older persons. Objective To examine the relationships of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. Design Longitudinal population-based cohort study. Setting Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Participants A random sample of 975 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study without signs of AMD who participated in the baseline examination in 1988-1990 and up to four follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2008-2010. Exposures Serum markers of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 [TNF-αR2], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and white blood cell count), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and total carbonyl content), and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were measured. Interactions with Complement Factor H (rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (rs10490924), C3 (rs2230199) and C2/CFB (rs4151667) were examined using multiplicative models. AMD was assessed from fundus photographs. Main Outcome Measure Early AMD defined by the presence of any size drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities, or by the presence of large-sized drusen (≥125 μm diameter), in the absence of late AMD. Results The 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 23.0%. Adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, hsCRP (odds ratio [OR] comparing 4th to 1st quartile 2.18, P=0.005), TNF-αR2 (1.78, P=0.04), and IL-6 (1.78, P=0.03) were associated with the incidence of early AMD. Increased incidence of early AMD was associated with sVCAM-1 (OR per standard deviation on the log ng/mL scale 1.21, P=0.04). Conclusions and Relevance We found modest evidence of relationships of serum hsCRP, TNF-αR2, and IL-6 and sVCAM-1 to the 20

  9. Telomerase Protects Werner Syndrome Lineage-Specific Stem Cells from Premature Aging

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Liu, Xiaozhuo; Canterel-Thouennon, Lucile; Li, Lu; Edmonson, Catherine; Rennert, Owen M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Werner syndrome (WS) patients exhibit premature aging predominantly in mesenchyme-derived tissues, but not in neural lineages, a consequence of telomere dysfunction and accelerated senescence. The cause of this lineage-specific aging remains unknown. Here, we document that reprogramming of WS fibroblasts to pluripotency elongated telomere length and prevented telomere dysfunction. To obtain mechanistic insight into the origin of tissue-specific aging, we differentiated iPSCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). We observed recurrence of premature senescence associated with accelerated telomere attrition and defective synthesis of the lagging strand telomeres in MSCs, but not in NPCs. We postulate this “aging” discrepancy is regulated by telomerase. Expression of hTERT or p53 knockdown ameliorated the accelerated aging phenotypein MSC, whereas inhibition of telomerase sensitized NPCs to DNA damage. Our findings unveil a role for telomerase in the protection of accelerated aging in a specific lineage of stem cells. PMID:24749076

  10. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  11. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks’ gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks’ gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  12. Basis for the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is developing age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients for environmentally important radionuclides. This paper describes the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium. The model is constructed within a physiologically based framework originally developed for application to the alkaline earth elements but sufficiently general to apply to the larger class of bone-volume-seeking elements. Transfer rates for a reference adult are based mainly on: (1) measurements of uranium in blood and excreta of several human subjects who were intravenously injected with uranium; (2) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of some of those subjects; (3) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of occupationally and non-occupationally exposed subjects; (4) data on baboons, dogs, and smaller laboratory animals exposed to uranium for experimental purposes; and (5) consideration of the physiological processes thought to control retention and translocation of uranium in the body. Transfer rates for the adult are extended to children by application of a set of generic assumptions applied by the ICRP to calcium-like elements. These assumptions were derived mainly from observations of the age-specific biokinetics of the alkaline earth elements and lead in humans and laboratory animals but are consistent with available age-specific biokinetic data on uranium. 82 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Teaching Grammar to School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment Using Shape Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to teaching grammar which has been designed for school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI). The approach uses shapes, colours and arrows to make the grammatical rules of English explicit. Evidence is presented which supports the use of this approach with older children in the areas of past tense…

  14. School-Age Prework Experiences of Young People with a History of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Young people with specific language impairment (SLI) are at risk for poorer outcomes with respect to employment in adulthood, yet little is known of how early school-age prework experiences prepare them for the job market. This study examined whether young people with SLI engage in similar types of early work experiences as their typically…

  15. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  16. Adolescents' Domain-Specific Judgments about Different Forms of Civic Involvement: Variations by Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Ferris, Kaitlyn

    2013-01-01

    Domain-specific judgments about different forms of civic engagement were assessed in a sample 467 primarily White adolescents (M age = 15.26, range = 11-19). Adolescents reported on the obligatory nature and social praiseworthiness (respect) of different forms of civic involvement. Adolescents distinguished among four different categories of civic…

  17. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Parametric Cox models and pooled logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CKD. We observed 238 incident cases of CKD during 70,515.8 person-years of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, the hazard ratios for CKD comparing quartiles 2–4 vs. quartile 1 of serum direct bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  18. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  19. Structural modeling of age specific fertility curves in Peninsular Malaysia: An approach of Lee Carter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafiah, Hazlenah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the study of fertility has been getting a lot of attention among research abroad following fear of deterioration of fertility led by the rapid economy development. Hence, this study examines the feasibility of developing fertility forecasts based on age structure. Lee Carter model (1992) is applied in this study as it is an established and widely used model in analysing demographic aspects. A singular value decomposition approach is incorporated with an ARIMA model to estimate age specific fertility rates in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 1958-2007. Residual plots is used to measure the goodness of fit of the model. Fertility index forecast using random walk drift is then utilised to predict the future age specific fertility. Results indicate that the proposed model provides a relatively good and reasonable data fitting. In addition, there is an apparent and continuous decline in age specific fertility curves in the next 10 years, particularly among mothers' in their early 20's and 40's. The study on the fertility is vital in order to maintain a balance between the population growth and the provision of facilities related resources.

  20. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  1. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  2. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; p<0.001) of aged rats compared to young rats, however no significant differences were detected in synaptic levels in the PFC region. Double immunogold labeling indicated that agmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26548412

  3. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. Methods A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Results Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. Conclusion We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers. PMID:22935721

  4. Development and evaluation of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan

    PubMed Central

    Silvester, William; Parslow, Ruth A; Lewis, Virginia J; Fullam, Rachael S; Sjanta, Rebekah; Jackson, Lynne; White, Vanessa; Hudson, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report on the quality of advance care planning (ACP) documents in use in residential aged care facilities (RACF) in areas of Victoria Australia prior to a systematic intervention; to report on the development and performance of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan template used during the intervention. Design An audit of the quality of pre-existing documentation used to record resident treatment preferences and end-of-life wishes at participating RACFs; development and pilot of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan template; an audit of the completeness and quality of Advance Care Plans completed on the new template during a systematic ACP intervention. Participants and setting 19 selected RACFs (managed by 12 aged care organisations) in metropolitan and regional areas of Victoria. Results Documentation in use at facilities prior to the ACP intervention most commonly recorded preferences regarding hospital transfer, life prolonging treatment and personal/cultural/religious wishes. However, 7 of 12 document sets failed to adequately and clearly specify the resident's preferences as regards life prolonging medical treatment. The newly developed aged care specific Advance Care Plan template was met with approval by participating RACFs. Of 203 Advance Care Plans completed on the template throughout the project period, 49% included the appointment of a Medical Enduring Power of Attorney. Requests concerning medical treatment were specified in almost all completed documents (97%), with 73% nominating the option of refusal of life-prolonging treatment. Over 90% of plans included information concerning residents’ values and beliefs, and future health situations that the resident would find to be unacceptable were specified in 78% of completed plans. Conclusions Standardised procedures and documentation are needed to improve the quality of processes, documents and outcomes of ACP in the residential aged care sector. PMID:23626906

  5. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired hepatitis C infection from birth to 5 years of age in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Doa’a A.; Shebl, Fatma M.; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Magder, Laurence S.; Allam, Alif; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Hashem, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Strickland, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A prospective study in three Egyptian villages (A, B and C) having a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection examined incidence of community-acquired HCV infection in children; 2852 uninfected infants were prospectively followed from birth for up to 5.5 years. Fifteen seroconverted for either HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA (incidence of 0.53%). Ten had both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA; four had only anti-HCV; and one had HCV-RNA in the absence of antibody. The incidence rate at all ages was 2.7/1000 person-years (PY). It was 3.8/1000 PY during infancy and 2.0/1000 PY for the 1–5-years age group. Hospitalization and low birth weight increased the risk of infection; while living in village B, the family having a higher socioeconomic status, and advanced maternal education were protective. Six of eight HCV-infected infants reported iatrogenic exposures (e.g. hospitalization, therapeutic injections, ear piercing) prior to infection whereas only 2/7 children older than 1 year reported these exposures. Having an HCV-positive mother was the only other reported risk in two of these older children. The virus cleared in six (40%) children by the end of follow-up. Health education targeting iatrogenic exposures and focusing on risk factors could reduce HCV infection in children in high-risk populations. PMID:20153495

  6. Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Areum; Kim, Ha Young; Lee, Yong Beom; Ha, Yong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012. Results Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012. Conclusions Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory. PMID:25774360

  7. [The incidence of caries in a school-age population sample of U.S.L. n. 15 Alta Val di Cecina-Volterra].

    PubMed

    Benetti, G L; Dini, M

    1990-01-01

    It was made a screening on children of some filter classes (1st and 3d class of primary school and 1st class of secondary school) of the Volterra's schools to estimate the incidence of caries and, if necessary, to activate programs for an adequate prevention. We examined 749 children arrived to the Dental Department of the Sanitary District owing an invitation letter; a set of question was given to their parents testing mainly alimentary and oral hygienic uses of the children examined by dentists. Elaboration of data obtained from replies and demonstrated that caries incidence in our population is of 65.29%, prevailing on male sex, and that this pathology is predominant on people taking insufficient care of oral hygiene, making no use of fluoridated toothpaste and eating any of cakes (especially between meals). These data show the high incidence of caries in evolutional age and how much this is strictly connected with wrong alimentary and hygienic uses. Therefore, to reduce this phenomenon, it's necessary to operate interventions of sanitary education and dental checking examinations, at least every 6-12 months, beginning in preschool age. PMID:2075102

  8. Memory reactivation in healthy aging: evidence of stimulus-specific dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent, Marie; Abdi, Hervé; Bondad, Ashley; Buchsbaum, Bradley R

    2014-03-19

    We investigated how aging affects the neural specificity of mental replay, the act of conjuring up past experiences in one's mind. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analysis to quantify the similarity between brain activity elicited by the perception and memory of complex multimodal stimuli. Young and older human adults viewed and mentally replayed short videos from long-term memory while undergoing fMRI. We identified a wide array of cortical regions involved in visual, auditory, and spatial processing that supported stimulus-specific representation at perception as well as during mental replay. Evidence of age-related dedifferentiation was subtle at perception but more salient during mental replay, and age differences at perception could not account for older adults' reduced neural reactivation specificity. Performance on a post-scan recognition task for video details correlated with neural reactivation in young but not in older adults, indicating that in-scan reactivation benefited post-scan recognition in young adults, but that some older adults may have benefited from alternative rehearsal strategies. Although young adults recalled more details about the video stimuli than older adults on a post-scan recall task, patterns of neural reactivation correlated with post-scan recall in both age groups. These results demonstrate that the mechanisms supporting recall and recollection are linked to accurate neural reactivation in both young and older adults, but that age affects how efficiently these mechanisms can support memory's representational specificity in a way that cannot simply be accounted for by degraded sensory processes. PMID:24647939

  9. The age-specific force of natural selection and biodemographic walls of death

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Evans, Steven N.; Steinsaltz, David

    2013-01-01

    W. D. Hamilton’s celebrated formula for the age-specific force of natural selection furnishes predictions for senescent mortality due to mutation accumulation, at the price of reliance on a linear approximation. Applying to Hamilton’s setting the full nonlinear demographic model for mutation accumulation recently developed by Evans, Steinsaltz, and Wachter, we find surprising differences. Nonlinear interactions cause the collapse of Hamilton-style predictions in the most commonly studied case, refine predictions in other cases, and allow walls of death at ages before the end of reproduction. Haldane’s principle for genetic load has an exact but unfamiliar generalization. PMID:23657010

  10. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  11. Age-Related, Sport-Specific Adaptions of the Shoulder Girdle in Elite Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662

  12. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  13. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  14. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  15. Sex-specific influence of aging on exercising leg blood flow.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Pelberg, Justin A; Mishkin, Aaron D; Proctor, David N

    2008-03-01

    Our previous work suggests that healthy human aging is associated with sex-specific differences in leg vascular responses during large muscle mass exercise (2-legged cycling) (Proctor DN, Parker BA. Microcirculation 13: 315-327, 2006). The present study determined whether age x sex interactions in exercising leg hemodynamics persist during small muscle mass exercise that is not limited by cardiac output. Thirty-one young (20-30 yr; 15 men/16 women) and 31 older (60-79 yr; 13 men/18 women) healthy, normally active adults performed graded single-leg knee extensions to maximal exertion. Femoral artery blood velocity and diameter (Doppler ultrasound), heart rate (ECG), and beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, radial artery tonometry) were measured during each 3-min work rate (4.8 and 8 W/stage for women and men, respectively). The results (means +/- SE) were as follows. Despite reduced resting leg blood flow and vascular conductance, older men exhibited relatively preserved exercising leg hemodynamic responses. Older women, by contrast, exhibited attenuated hyperemic (young: 52 +/- 3 ml.min(-1).W(-1); vs. older: 40 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P = 0.02) and vasodilatory responses (young: 0.56 +/- 0.06 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1).W(-1) vs. older: 0.37 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) W(-1); P < 0.01) to exercise compared with young women. Relative (percentage of maximal) work rate comparisons of all groups combined also revealed attenuated vasodilator responses in older women (P < 0.01 for age x sex x work rate interaction). These sex-specific age differences were not abolished by consideration of hemoglobin, quadriceps muscle, muscle recruitment, and mechanical influences on muscle perfusion. Collectively, these findings suggest that local factors contribute to the sex-specific effects of aging on exercising leg hemodynamics in healthy adults. PMID:18162481

  16. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:24219316

  17. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  18. Specific tandem mass spectrometric detection of AGE-modified arginine residues in peptides.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rico; Böhme, David; Singer, David; Frolov, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with reducing sugars or dicarbonyl products of their oxidative degradation. Modification of arginine residues by dicarbonyls such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal results in formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). In mammals, these modifications impact in diabetes mellitus, uremia, atherosclerosis and ageing. However, due to the low abundance of individual AGE-peptides in enzymatic digests, these species cannot be efficiently detected by LC-ESI-MS-based data-dependent acquisition (DDA) experiments. Here we report an analytical workflow that overcomes this limitation. We describe fragmentation patterns of synthetic AGE-peptides and assignment of modification-specific signals required for unambiguous structure retrieval. Most intense signals were those corresponding to unique fragment ions with m/z 152.1 and 166.1, observed in the tandem mass spectra of peptides, containing glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone AGEs, respectively. To detect such peptides, specific and sensitive precursor ion scanning methods were established for these signals. Further, these precursor ion scans were incorporated in conventional bottom-up proteomic approach based on data-dependent acquisition (DDA) LC-MS/MS experiments. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of human serum albumin (HSA) and human plasma protein tryptic digest with subsequent structure confirmation by targeted LC-MS/MS (DDA). Altogether 44 hydroimidazolone- and dihydroxyimidazolidine-derived peptides representing 42 AGE-modified proteins were identified in plasma digests obtained from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. PMID:25800199

  19. Age-related differences in celiac disease: Specific characteristics of adult presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Santiago; Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Caminero, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease may appear both in early childhood and in elderly subjects. Current knowledge of the disease has revealed some differences associated to the age of presentation. Furthermore, monitoring and prognosis of celiac subjects can vary depending on the pediatric or adult stage. The main objective of this review is to provide guidance for the adult diagnostic and follow-up processes, which must be tailored specifically for adults and be different from pediatric patients. PMID:26558154

  20. Brain site-specific proteome changes in aging-related dementia

    PubMed Central

    Manavalan, Arulmani; Mishra, Manisha; Feng, Lin; Sze, Siu Kwan; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Heese, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at gaining insights into the brain site-specific proteomic senescence signature while comparing physiologically aged brains with aging-related dementia brains (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)). Our study of proteomic differences within the hippocampus (Hp), parietal cortex (pCx) and cerebellum (Cb) could provide conceptual insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in aging-related neurodegeneration. Using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) brain site-specific proteomic strategy, we identified 950 proteins in the Hp, pCx and Cb of AD brains. Of these proteins, 31 were significantly altered. Most of the differentially regulated proteins are involved in molecular transport, nervous system development, synaptic plasticity and apoptosis. Particularly, proteins such as Gelsolin (GSN), Tenascin-R (TNR) and AHNAK could potentially act as novel biomarkers of aging-related neurodegeneration. Importantly, our Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)-based network analysis further revealed ubiquitin C (UBC) as a pivotal protein to interact with diverse AD-associated pathophysiological molecular factors and suggests the reduced ubiquitin proteasome degradation system (UPS) as one of the causative factors of AD. PMID:24008896

  1. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Christopoulou, Maria; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2010-04-01

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  2. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  3. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  4. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  5. High incidence of adverse cerebral blood flow responses to spreading depolarization in the aged ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Menyhárt, Ákos; Makra, Péter; Szepes, Borbála É; Tóth, Orsolya M; Hertelendy, Péter; Bari, Ferenc; Farkas, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the brain after stroke, exacerbate ischemic injury, and thus emerge as a potential target of intervention. Aging predicts worse outcome from stroke; yet, the impact of age on SD evolution is not clear. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in young (8-9 weeks old, n = 8) and old (2 year olds, n = 6) anesthetized rats. Sham-operated animals of both age groups served as control (n = 12). Electrocorticogram, direct current potential, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) variations were acquired via a small craniotomy above the parietal cortex. SDs were elicited by KCl through a second craniotomy distal to the recording site. Ischemia and age delayed the recovery from SD. CBF decreased progressively during ischemia in the old animals selectively, and inverse neurovascular coupling with SD evolved in the old but not in the young ischemic group. We propose that (mal)adaptation of cerebrovascular function with aging impairs the SD-related CBF response, which is implicated in the intensified expansion of ischemic damage in the old brain. PMID:26346140

  6. Cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Metal-on-metal hip implants have been widely used, especially in the USA, Australia, England and Wales, and Finland. We assessed risk of death and updated data on the risk of cancer related to metal-on-metal hip replacements. Patients and methods A cohort of 10,728 metal-on-metal hip replacement patients and a reference cohort of 18,235 conventional total hip replacement patients were extracted from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register for the years 2001–2010. Data on incident cancer cases and causes of death until 2011 were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry and Statistics Finland. The relative risk of cancer and death were expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). SIR/SIR ratios and SMR/SMR ratios, and Poisson regression were used to compare the cancer risk and the risk of death between cohorts. Results The overall risk of cancer in the metal-on-metal cohort was not higher than that in the non-metal-on-metal cohort (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.82–1.02). The risk of soft-tissue sarcoma and basalioma in the metal-on-metal cohort was higher than in the non-metal-on-metal cohort (SIR/SIR ratio = 2.6, CI: 1.02–6.4 for soft-tissue sarcoma; SIR/SIR ratio = 1.3, CI: 1.1–1.5 for basalioma). The overall risk of death in the metal-on-metal cohort was less than that in the non-metal-on-metal cohort (RR = 0.78, CI: 0.69–0.88). Interpretation The overall risk of cancer or risk of death because of cancer is not increased after metal-on-metal hip replacement. The well-patient effect and selection bias contribute substantially to the findings concerning mortality. Arthrocobaltism does not increase mortality in patients with metal-on-metal hip implants in the short term. However, metal-on-metal hip implants should not be considered safe until data with longer follow-up time are available. PMID:24397743

  7. Morbidity and mortality in motor neuron disease: comparison with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: age and sex specific rates and cohort analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T M; Swash, M; Alberman, E

    1985-01-01

    The cause of motor neuron disease (MND) remains unknown although recent reports have suggested a possible rise in mortality rate. The present account describes age-specific patterns in morbidity rate and cross-sectional and cohort analyses of mortality rate, and compares these with those in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. First hospital admission rate for motor neuron disease (a proxy for incidence rates) rose steadily with age in males and females until the age of 75 years or more, but then fell, but only in females. This irregular pattern suggested the possibility of an environmental effect on certain older birth cohorts. The validity of the results was supported by a similar pattern in the two hospital regional authorities studied and the difference between this pattern and that found in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Age-specific mortality rates of motor neuron disease between 15 and 64 years for males and females in England and Wales from 1940 to 1982 rose steadily with age. Mortality rates after the age of 65 fell in all female cohorts studied, but only in the earlier male cohorts. Unlike Parkinson's disease there was no strong birth cohort effect. However an analysis of Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (Registrar General) reports has revealed a slight increase in the age-specific mortality rate in both males and females aged 65 and over for successive birth cohorts born since 1900. Neither changes in ICD coding or in diagnostic habits could account for this pattern, which differed from that seen in Parkinson's disease. No such effect was seen in multiple sclerosis. PMID:3873517

  8. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Thomé, A; Gray, D T; Erickson, C A; Lipa, P; Barnes, C A

    2016-09-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging non-human primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question, we combine large-scale electrophysiological recordings with cell-type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in the hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in the stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  9. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Alexander; Gray, Daniel T.; Erickson, Cynthia A.; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging nonhuman primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question we combine large scale electrophysiological recordings with cell type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively-assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of the somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly-defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  10. Region-specific changes in mitochondrial D-loop in aged rat CNS.

    PubMed

    McInerny, Simone C; Brown, Amanda L; Smith, Doug W

    2009-05-01

    Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is considered a cause of aging. A reduction in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and/or transcription may contribute to this OXPHOS diminution. Impairments in the displacement (D) loop, or non-coding, region of the mitochondrial genome, or accumulation of mtDNA mutations, may affect mtDNA replication and transcription. We determined the effects of age on the D-loop and on mtDNA deletion mutations in the spinal cord, medulla, midbrain, cerebellum, striatum, and cerebral cortex of Fischer 344 rats. D-loop, 7S DNA levels were reduced by 3-fold in striatum, 2.5-fold in cortex, and 2-fold in the spinal cord of older animals. We did not detect a population of mtDNA affected by the most prevalent known (ND4-containing) deletions, indicating they do not comprise a significant portion of total mtDNA. However, we detected an age-related and region-specific increase in the common deletion, which comprised 0.0003-0.0007% of total mtDNA. Mitochondrial genome copy number varied between regions, in addition to an overall 18% decrease with age across the whole brain. These results suggest the age-related decline in OXPHOS may be related to a reduction in D-loop function. PMID:19428453

  11. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  12. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio; Baggio, Giovannella

    2016-10-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene-environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  13. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T; Sauld, John F; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T; Pollack, Henry J; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  14. Immune-inflammatory Dysregulation Modulates the Incidence of Progressive Fibrosis and Diastolic Stiffness in the Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Taffet, George E.; Carlson, Signe; Hermosillo, Jesus; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in the aging heart is a grave condition that challenges the life and lifestyle of a growing segment of our population. This report seeks to examine the role and interrelationship of inflammatory dysregulation in interstitial myocardial fibrosis and progressive diastolic dysfunction in aging mice. We studied a population of C57BL/6 mice that developed progressive diastolic dysfunction over 30 months of life. This progressive dysfunction was associated with increasing infiltration of CD45+ fibroblasts of myeloid origin. In addition, increased rates of collagen expression as measured by cellular procollagen were apparent in the heart as a function of age. These cellular and functional changes were associated with progressive increases in mRNA for MCP-1 and IL-13 which correlated both temporally and quantitatively with changes in fibrosis and cellular procollagen levels. MCP-1 protein was also increased and found to be primarily in the venular endothelium. Protein assays also demonstrated elevation of IL-4 and IL-13 suggesting a shift to a Th2 phenotype in the aging heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that IL-13 markedly enhanced monocyte fibroblast transformation. Our results indicate that immunoinflammatory dysregulation in the aging heart induces progressive MCP-1 production and an increased shift to a Th2 phenotype paralleled by an associated increase in myocardial interstitial fibrosis, cellular collagen synthesis, and increased numbers of CD45+ myeloid-derived fibroblasts that contain procollagen. The temporal association and functional correlations suggests a causative relationship between age-dependent immunoinflammatory dysfunction, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20974150

  15. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Farley, Julie A; Logan, Sreemathi; Yan, Han; Ungvari, Zoltan; Hodges, Erik L; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-02-01

    Advanced aging is associated with increased risk of bone fracture, especially within the vertebrae, which exhibit significant reductions in trabecular bone structure. Aging is also associated with a reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Studies have suggested that the reduction in IGF-1 compromises healthspan, whereas others report that loss of IGF-1 is beneficial because it increases healthspan and lifespan. To date, the effect of decreases in circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we delineate the consequences of a loss of circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging in male and female Igf(f/f) mice. IGF-1 was reduced at multiple specific time points during the mouse lifespan: early in postnatal development (crossing albumin-cyclic recombinase [Cre] mice with Igf(f/f) mice); and in early adulthood and in late adulthood using hepatic-specific viral vectors (AAV8-TBG-Cre). Vertebrae bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry. Consistent with previous studies, both male and female mice exhibited age-related reductions in vertebral bone structure. In male mice, reduction of circulating IGF-1 induced at any age did not diminish vertebral bone loss. Interestingly, early-life loss of IGF-1 in females resulted in a 67% increase in vertebral bone volume fraction, as well as increased connectivity density and increased trabecular number. The maintenance of bone structure in the early-life IGF-1-deficient females was associated with increased osteoblast surface and an increased ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) levels in circulation. Within 3 months of a loss of IGF-1, there was a 2.2-fold increase in insulin receptor expression within the vertebral bones of our female mice, suggesting that local signaling may compensate for the loss of circulating IGF-1. Together, these data

  16. Phonological skills of children with specific expressive language impairment (SLI-E): outcome at age 3.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Rescorla, L; Giroux, J; Stevens, L

    1998-04-01

    Naturalistic speech samples of 29 3-year-olds diagnosed with specific expressive language delay (SU-E) were compared to those produced by 19 age-matched normally developing peers in order to determine their improvement in phonological skills since age 2, when Rescorla and Ratner (1996) studied them. Specifically, the groups were compared with regard to vocalization rate, verbalizations, fully intelligible utterances, phonetic inventories, percentages of consonants correct (PCC), phonological processes, and mean length of utterance (MLU). Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups in their numbers of vocalizations (as there had been at age 2), although there continued to be differences in their phonetic inventories, PCC scores, and overall intelligibility. These findings suggest that at age 2 the children with SU-E were not only less phonologically skilled but less talkative, whereas by age 3 they were equally vocal. Analysis of the phonetic inventories of the children demonstrated that for most consonants, the SLI-E group followed the some pattern of development as the comparison children, but more of the normally developing group had productive control of each consonant, consistent with findings of Rescorla and Ratner. There continued to be differences in intelligibility as measured by rates of verbalization (those utterances with at least one intelligible word) and fully intelligible utterances. Using these measures, we found that approximately half the SU-E children had caught up with their normally developing peers in terms of articulation, whereas half of them continued to be significantly delayed. Finally, although some of the late-bloomer group had caught up to the comparison children in language skills, as measured by MLU, many had not, suggesting that there was a tendency for the children to catch up in some articulation skills before catching up in language abilities. PMID:9570589

  17. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: genotype-specific risks by age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Bickeböller, H; Campion, D; Brice, A; Amouyel, P; Hannequin, D; Didierjean, O; Penet, C; Martin, C; Pérez-Tur, J; Michon, A; Dubois, B; Ledoze, F; Thomas-Anterion, C; Pasquier, F; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Moreaud, O; Babron, M C; Meulien, D; Guez, D; Chartier-Harlin, M C; Frebourg, T; Agid, Y; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE epsilon3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [epsilon4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE epsilon2 allele (OR[epsilon2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the epsilon4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[epsilon4/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[epsilon3/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the epsilon4 allele versus the epsilon3 allele, OR(epsilon4), were not equal in all age classes: OR(epsilon4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In epsilon3/epsilon4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. PMID:9012418

  18. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Cholesterol and the risk of grade-specific prostate cancer incidence: evidence from two large prospective cohort studies with up to 37 years' follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High cholesterol may be a modifiable risk factor for prostate cancer but results have been inconsistent and subject to potential "reverse causality" where undetected disease modifies cholesterol prior to diagnosis. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12,926 men who were enrolled in the Midspan studies between 1970 and 1976 and followed up to 31st December 2007. We used Cox-Proportional Hazards Models to evaluate the association between baseline plasma cholesterol and Gleason grade-specific prostate cancer incidence. We excluded cancers detected within at least 5 years of cholesterol assay. Results 650 men developed prostate cancer in up to 37 years' follow-up. Baseline plasma cholesterol was positively associated with hazard of high grade (Gleason score≥8) prostate cancer incidence (n = 119). The association was greatest among men in the 2nd highest quintile for cholesterol, 6.1 to < 6.69 mmol/l, Hazard Ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.10, compared with the baseline of < 5.05 mmol/l. This association remained significant after adjustment for body mass index, smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Men with higher cholesterol are at greater risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer but not overall risk of prostate cancer. Interventions to minimise metabolic risk factors may have a role in reducing incidence of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:22260413

  20. Prevalence of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Tehran: An Age-Specific Serological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Mohajel, Nasir; Keyvani, Hossein; Nasimi, Maryam; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Several new types of polyomavirus have been discovered in recent years mainly because of the recent state-of-the-art detection technologies. Among the polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has attracted the most attention because of its possible role in the etiology of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but lethal form of skin cancer. Objectives This study aimed to determine age-specific seroprevalence of MCPyV in Tehran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we collected 440 serum samples from healthy individuals 2 to 78 years of age who visited the Pasteur Institute’s clinic in Tehran, Iran, using a convenience sampling strategy. We developed a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses VP1, the major capsid protein of MCPyV, to detect and quantitate serum antibodies to MCPyV. We compared the prevalence of MCPyV between males and females and across eight age groups. Results A total of 255 (57.9%) of the serum samples were MCPyV positive. The seroprevalence in children under 10 years of age was 25%. The seroprevalence increased to 56% over the next decade of life (10 - 19 years of age). The seroprevalence rate in males and females was 56.1% and 59.7% respectively, and a binary logistic regression showed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.77). However, the prevalence of MCPyV increased with age (P = 0.012). Conclusions Our results suggest that human exposure to MCPyV occurs throughout life. The MCPyV antibody levels remained high among older adults in our population, consistent with reports from other populations. PMID:27437129

  1. Cartilage-Specific Knockout of the Mechanosensory Ion Channel TRPV4 Decreases Age-Related Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    O’Conor, Christopher J.; Ramalingam, Sendhilnathan; Zelenski, Nicole A.; Benefield, Halei C.; Rigo, Isaura; Little, Dianne; Wu, Chia-Lung; Chen, Di; Liedtke, Wolfgang; McNulty, Amy L.; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of articular cartilage and surrounding tissues, and is associated with both advanced age and joint injury. Biomechanical factors play a critical role in the onset and progression of OA, yet the mechanisms through which physiologic or pathologic mechanical signals are transduced into a cellular response are not well understood. Defining the role of mechanosensory pathways in cartilage during OA pathogenesis may yield novel strategies or targets for the treatment of OA. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channel transduces mechanical loading of articular cartilage via the generation of intracellular calcium ion transients. Using tissue-specific, inducible Trpv4 gene-targeted mice, we demonstrate that loss of TRPV4-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction in adulthood reduces the severity of aging-associated OA. However, loss of chondrocyte TRPV4 did not prevent OA development following destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). These results highlight potentially distinct roles of TRPV4-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction in age-related and post-traumatic OA, and point to a novel disease-modifying strategy to therapeutically target the TRPV4-mediated mechanotransduction pathway for the treatment of aging-associated OA. PMID:27388701

  2. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed. PMID:20586530

  3. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  4. Pragmatic comprehension in secondary school-aged students with specific developmental language disorder.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, W

    2000-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that there may be particular difficulties for secondary school students with specific developmental language disorder (SDLD) in understanding contextual, pragmatic meaning. Sixty-four SDLD students aged 11+ to 14+ years are compared with chronological-age-matched and language-age-matched non-impaired students. New procedures are used to examine comprehension of two types of ambiguity where the context determines speaker intention: inconsistent messages of emotion and multiple meanings in context. These types of ambiguity are evident in a range of communicative intent, e.g. sarcasm, idiomatic expression, deceit and humour. Preliminary study into adolescent language suggests that at this age there is a growing expectation for students to understand these kinds of communication, both in the classroom and socially. The study finds that the SDLD students were less able than both comparison groups to use context to understand implied meanings. Non-impaired children were also more able to rule out literal interpretations when they did not know the non-literal meaning. These findings were statistically significant. The implications for research and practice are discussed, including those of diagnostic assessment, in the light of the literature survey revealing that many currently available do not assess pragmatic meaning comprehension. There is a challenge to the view that disorders in the semantic and pragmatic domains necessarily co-occur, as suggested by the diagnostic category semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:10824222

  5. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Felipe C. G.; Branquinho, Jéssica L. O.; Brandão, Bruna B.; Guerra, Beatriz A.; Silva, Ismael D.; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald; Festuccia, William T.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mori, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  6. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Reis, Felipe C G; Branquinho, Jéssica L O; Brandão, Bruna B; Guerra, Beatriz A; Silva, Ismael D; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald; Festuccia, William T; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Mori, Marcelo A

    2016-06-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  7. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  9. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  10. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  11. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  12. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  13. Sensitivity and Specificity of Portable Hearing Screening in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves; Gonçalves, Andréa Krüger; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Seimetz, Bruna Macagnin; Bauer, Magda Aline; Coradini, Patricia Pérez; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hearing screening allows the identification of individuals with hearing loss. Aim To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a portable hearing screening device in middle-aged and older adults using the manufacturer scoring and a scoring system proposed by the researchers. Methods In this transversal study, participants underwent anamnesis, otoscopy, and hearing screening using portable equipment. After this, a pure tone audiometry was performed, with participants classified into two groups: with and without hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the hearing screening were calculated for the right and left ears using two methods of interpretation: the original method recommended by the manufacturer (criteria 1) and the method proposed by researchers (criteria 2). Results The sample consisted of 55 individuals, 83.6% (n = 46) of whom were women. Per criteria 1, the sensitivities were 26.3 (right ear) and 21.4% (left ear). The specificity was 100% for both ears. Using criteria 2, the sensitivity was 94.7 (right ear) and 100% (left ear). The specificity was 74.3 (right ear) and 65.9% (left ear). Conclusion This study showed that the criteria proposed by the manufacturer presented low sensitivity in the hearing screening. The criteria proposed by the researchers to achieve a more efficient performance reached high and balanced values for sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25992058

  14. [Time trends in cancer incidence in Osaka].

    PubMed

    Hanai, A; Fujimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Changes in environments and life styles in Japan have caused the recent changes in the time trends of cancer incidence for various sites. Using the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, time trends during 1966-80 were analysed for cancer incidence of the leading 5 sites: stomach, lung, liver, uterus and breast. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancers of the stomach (both sexes) and uterus (invasive cancer) decreased to 75% and 64% respectively between the two periods of 1966-68 and 1978-80 while cancers of the lung, liver, and breast reached 163%, 140%, and 143 % during the same period. Decrease of stomach cancer incidence was observed in all age-groups under 79, however, not in the 25-44 age-groups among females. Analyzing the histological data in the registry, it was noticed that estimated incidence of the intestinal type of stomach carcinoma had decreased more rapidly than the diffuse type. In the 30-49 age-groups among females, no decrease was observed of the diffuse type of carcinoma. Concerning lung cancer, a marked increase was observed over 60 years of age. The age-specific incidence curves by birth cohort showed no or very small cohort effects for the population born 1920-29. Among males, percentages of adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma have increased and that of epidermoid carcinoma decreased. The change was more marked in the age-groups younger than 59. Liver cancer showed the 3rd highest incidence rate among males and 6th among females. A rising trend in recent years was noticeable over 45 years of age among males. For the invasive uterine carcinoma, the incidence rate has been decreasing in all ages. Comparing these figures with those of whites in Connecticut or of Japanese in Hawaii, the former was higher than the latter and the difference was larger in age-groups over 40. The recent age incidence curve of breast cancer in Osaka came to be close to that in Iceland in 1930-49 when the curve had kept a constant level for age-groups after

  15. The development of global and domain-specific self-esteem from age 13 to 31.

    PubMed

    von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem. PMID:26167796

  16. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  17. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ‘‘concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication”. We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. Results The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80–104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17–1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09–1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12–1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of

  18. A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age

    PubMed Central

    Moro, G; Arslanoglu, S; Stahl, B; Jelinek, J; Wahn, U; Boehm, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. Aims To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto‐ and long chain fructo‐oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of atopy. Methods Prospective, double‐blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; 259 infants at risk for atopy were enrolled. A total of 102 infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. If bottle feeding was started, the infant was randomly assigned to one of two hydrolysed protein formula groups (0.8 g/100 ml prebiotics or maltodextrine as placebo). All infants were examined for clinical evidence of atopic dermatitis. In a subgroup of 98 infants, faecal flora was analysed. Results Ten infants (9.8%; 95 CI 5.4–17.1%) in the intervention group and 24 infants (23.1%; 95 CI 16.0–32.1%) in the control group developed AD. The severity of the dermatitis was not affected by diet. Prebiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher number of faecal bifidobacteria compared with controls but there was no significant difference in lactobacilli counts. Conclusion Results show for the first time a beneficial effect of prebiotics on the development of atopic dermatitis in a high risk population of infants. Although the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation, it appears likely that oligosaccharides modulate postnatal immune development by altering bowel flora and have a potential role in primary allergy prevention during infancy. PMID:16873437

  19. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  20. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2015-08-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. In addition, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts. PMID:26048213

  1. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a three month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. Additionally, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts. PMID:26048213

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of HIV Infection, Trends, and Risk Factors Among Persons Aged 15–64 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimanga, Davies O.; Ogola, Samuel; Umuro, Mamo; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Kimondo, Lucy; Murithi, Patrick; Muttunga, James; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Sharrif, Shahnaaz; De Cock, Kevin M.; (UK), FRCP; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently. Methods From October 2012 to February 2013, we conducted a 2-stage cluster sampling survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years in 9 geographic regions in Kenya. Participants answered questionnaires and provided blood for HIV testing. We estimated HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, described trends in HIV prevalence over the past 5 years, and identified factors associated with HIV infection. This analysis was restricted to persons aged 15–64 years. Results HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35–39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence has declined in Kenya since 2007. With improved access to treatment, HIV prevalence has become more challenging to interpret without data on new infections and mortality. Correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide important information on where to prioritize prevention interventions to reduce transmission of HIV in the broader population. PMID:24445338

  3. Age Dependence and Isotype Specificity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Stalk-Reactive Antibodies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nachbagauer, Raffael; Choi, Angela; Izikson, Ruvim; Cox, Manon M.; Palese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza remains a major global health burden. Seasonal vaccines offer protection but can be rendered less effective when the virus undergoes extensive antigenic drift. Antibodies that target the highly conserved hemagglutinin stalk can protect against drifted viruses, and vaccine constructs designed to induce such antibodies form the basis for a universal influenza virus vaccine approach. In this study, we analyzed baseline and postvaccination serum samples of children (6 to 59 months), adults (18 to 49 years), and elderly individuals (≥65 years) who participated in clinical trials with a recombinant hemagglutinin-based vaccine. We found that baseline IgG and IgA antibodies against the H1 stalk domain correlated with the ages of patients. Children generally had very low baseline titers and did not respond well to the vaccine in terms of making stalk-specific antibodies. Adults showed the highest induction of stalk-specific antibodies, but the elderly had the highest absolute antibody titers against the stalk. Importantly, the stalk antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed neutralizing activity in neutralization assays and protected mice in a passive-transfer model in a stalk titer-dependent manner. Finally, we found similar patterns of stalk-specific antibodies directed against the H3 and influenza B virus hemagglutinins, albeit at lower levels than those measured against the H1 stalk. The relatively high levels of stalk-specific antibodies in the elderly patients may explain the previously reported low influenza virus infection rates in this age group. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00336453, NCT00539981, and NCT00395174.) PMID:26787832

  4. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects. PMID:21427880

  5. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-08-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5-14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  6. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5–14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  7. Incidence of Chromosome Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

  8. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates

    PubMed Central

    Picq, Jean-Luc; Villain, Nicolas; Gary, Charlotte; Pifferi, Fabien; Dhenain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination. PMID:26716699

  9. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    PubMed

    Picq, Jean-Luc; Villain, Nicolas; Gary, Charlotte; Pifferi, Fabien; Dhenain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination. PMID:26716699

  10. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  11. Age-specific association of migraine with cryptogenic TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G.; Kuker, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. Methods: We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002–2012). Results: Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–2.16, p < 0.0001; cardioembolic 2.00, 1.50–2.66, p < 0.0001; large artery 1.75, 1.20–2.53, p = 0.003; small vessel 1.32, 0.95–1.83, p = 0.096). The association of migraine with cryptogenic events was independent of age, sex, and all measured vascular risk factors (RFs) (adjusted OR 1.68, 1.33–2.13, p < 0.0001) and was strongest at older ages (<55 years, OR 1.11, 0.55–2.23; 55–64 years, 1.48, 0.83–2.63; ≥65 years, 1.81, 1.39–2.36) and in patients without vascular RFs (0 RFs OR 2.62, 1.33–5.15; 1 RF 2.01, 1.35–3.01; 2 RFs 1.80, 1.21–2.68; 3 RFs 1.21, 0.71–2.07; 4 RFs 0.92, 0.28–2.99). Results were consistent for migraine with or without aura and for analyses excluding TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. Conclusions: In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. PMID:26423431

  12. Age-Specific Sex-Related Differences in Infections: A Statistical Analysis of National Surveillance Data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753

  13. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy’s Classes– A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy’s Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  14. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in recent years in reducing human exposures to lead, the potential for high intake of this contaminant still exists in millions of homes and in many occupational settings. Moreover, there is growing evidence that levels of lead intake considered inconsequential just a few years ago can result in subtle, adverse health effects, particularly in children. Consequently, there have been increased efforts by health protection agencies to develop credible, versatile methods for relating levels of lead in environmental media to levels in blood and tissues of exposed humans of all ages. In a parallel effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age-specific biokinetic models for calculating radiation doses from environmentally important radionuclides, including radioisotopes of lead. This paper describes a new age-specific biokinetic model for lead originally developed for the ICRP but expanded to include additional features that are useful for consideration of lead as a chemical toxin. The model is developed within a generic, physiologically motivated framework designed to address a class of calciumlike elements. This framework provides a useful setting in which to synthesize experimental, occupational, and environmental data on lead and exploit common physiological properties of lead and the alkaline earth elements. The modular design is intended to allow researchers to modify specific parameter values or model components to address special problems in lead toxicology or to incorporate new information. Transport of lead between compartments is assumed to follow linear, first-order kinetics provided the concentration in red blood cells remains below a nonlinear threshold level, but a nonlinear relation between plasma lead and red blood cell lead is modeled for concentrations above that level. The model is shown to be consistent

  15. Age-specific response of a migratory bird to an experimental alteration of its habitat.

    PubMed

    Haché, Samuel; Villard, Marc-André

    2010-07-01

    1. Recruitment, i.e. the influx of new breeding individuals into a population, is an important demographic parameter, especially in species with a short life span. Few studies have measured this parameter in solitary-breeding animal populations even though it may yield critical information on habitat suitability and functional connectivity. 2. Using a before-after, control-impact pairs (BACIP) experimental design, we measured: (i) the return rate and apparent survival rate of individually marked territorial males of a neotropical migrant bird species, the Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla Linnaeus and (ii) the age-specific recruitment rate. Study plots (n = 10) were paired: one was treated through single-tree selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removal) and the other acted as a control. We hypothesized that experienced males would out-compete inexperienced ones and tend to avoid settling in lower-quality, treated stands. 3. In the first year post-harvest, the mean density of territorial males was significantly lower in treated plots (-41%) than in controls and the difference remained relatively stable thereafter. This lower density mainly reflected a lower recruitment rate compared to controls (17.9 vs. 49.0% of males present), itself driven by a lower recruitment rate of experienced males (2.8 vs. 22.8%). Return rate was similar between controls and treated plots in the first year post-harvest (59 vs. 55%, respectively) but it decreased in treated plots during the second (-15.8% relative to controls) and third (-12.7%) year post-harvest. The trend was even stronger when considering only experienced males. The treatment was followed by a major expansion in mean territory size in treated plots (+49% relative to controls, 3rd year post-treatment). 4. Neither apparent survival rate nor recruitment rate varied as predicted. There was a strong year effect but no treatment effect on apparent survival rate, whereas male recruitment patterns were both year- and age-specific

  16. Incidence and duration of type-specific human papillomavirus infection in high-risk HPV-naïve women: results from the control arm of a phase II HPV-16/18 vaccine trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Naud, Paulo; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; de Carvalho, Newton S; de Borba, Paola C; Teixeira, Julio C; Blatter, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Harper, Diane M; Romanowski, Barbara; Tyring, Stephen K; Ramjattan, Brian; Schuind, Anne; Dubin, Gary; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Persistence of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. We evaluated incidence and duration of type-specific HPV infections and the influence of age and number of sexual partners. Methods Data were obtained from 553 women (15–25 years), who were seronegative and DNA-negative for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types and were enrolled in the placebo arm of a randomised trial of the HPV-16/18 vaccine (NCT00689741/NCT00120848). They were followed for 6.3 years. Cervicovaginal samples were self-collected at 3-month intervals for up to 27 months, and cervical samples were collected by clinicians at 6-month intervals until study end. Samples were tested for HPV types using a broad-spectrum PCR assay. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were used to estimate the association among age, sexual habits and HPV acquisition. Results Incidence rates (95% CI) using cervical samples were 11.8 (10.4 to 13.4) and 5.6 (4.7 to 6.6) per 1000 women-months for HR-HPVs and low-risk HPVs (LR-HPVs), respectively. Equivalent rates in combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples were 17.2 (15.4 to 19.2) and 6.9 (5.9 to 8.0), respectively. 54 per cent of HR-HPV types from combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples persisted for 1 year compared with 32.3% for LR-HPV types. The risk of acquiring any HPV infection was higher among women aged <21 years (RR=1.33, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) and women having >1 sexual partner (RR=1.83, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) at baseline. Conclusions HR-HPV infections were more common and lasted longer on average than LR-HPV infections. HPV acquisition was more common in younger women with multiple sexual partners. Trial registration number NCT00689741, NCT00120848; Post-results. PMID:27566633

  17. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99%) would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. Methods A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Results Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group) were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Conclusions Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less of an impact on the economy

  18. Age-related and site-specific adaptation of the arterial endothelial cytoskeleton during atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yost, J. C.; Herman, I. M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors probed the vascular endothelial cell cytoskeleton in strains of pigeons that are atherosclerosis-susceptible and disease-resistant, namely, the White Carneau and Show Racer pigeons. Endothelial cell actin and myosin were localized with the use of affinity-purified antibodies in conjunction with indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The endothelial cell cytoskeleton was characterized in a site-specific and time-dependent manner by examination of arterial segments from each strain of pigeons. Anti-actin and anti-myosin fluorescence staining patterns of endothelial cells lining the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and thoracic aorta from the White Carneau and Show Racer pigeons sacrificed at 1 and 12 months of age were compared and analyzed. In the Show Racer, irrespective of arterial site or chronologic age, endothelial cell cytoskeletal organization is similar. Actin and myosin fluorescence is brightest at the cortex, where endothelial cells meet their neighbors. There is also an amorphous (diffuse) fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm. In addition to the diffuse and cortical cytoskeletal fluorescence in the endothelial cells of the Show Racers, the White Carneau also possess a unique cytoskeletal array of linear fluorescence, ie, the endothelial cell ridge. At 1 month of age, anti-actin staining of endothelial cell ridges averages 28.5 mu in length in the ascending aorta, 28.0 mu in the aortic arch, and 40.0 mu in the thoracic aorta. At the same time, anti-myosin fluorescence extends past both ends of the anti-actin-stained endothelial cell ridge fluorescence. In the ascending aorta, anti-myosin labeling of endothelial cell ridges is 3.5 times longer than anti-actin staining. This staining is absent in the aortic arch, whereas the thoracic aorta possesses endothelial cell ridges that extend over the entire length of the vessel segment. At 12 months of age, actin-stained endothelial cell ridges increase 1.6- and 1.4-fold in the ascending aorta and aortic

  19. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Atkinson, Hal H.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yaffe, Kristine; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Rubin, Susan M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Houston, Denise K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score ≥10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23–2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥30ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25326643

  20. Impact of ageing on the response and repertoire of influenza virus-specific CD4 T cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ageing has been shown to reduce CD8 T cell repertoire diversity and immune responses against influenza virus infection in mice. In contrast, less is known about the impact of ageing on CD4 T cell repertoire diversity and immune response to influenza virus infection. Results The CD4 T cell response was followed after infection of young and aged C57BL/6 mice with influenza virus using a tetramer specific for an immunodominant MHC class II epitope of the influenza virus nucleoprotein. The appearance of virus-specific CD4 T cells in the lung airways of aged mice was delayed compared to young mice, but the overall peak number and cytokine secretion profile of responding CD4 T cells was not greatly perturbed. In addition, the T cell repertoire of responding cells, determined using T cell receptor Vβ analysis, failed to show the profound effect of age we previously described for CD8 T cells. The reduced impact of age on influenza-specific CD4 T cells was consistent with a reduced effect of age on the overall CD4 compared with the CD8 T cell repertoire in specific pathogen free mice. Aged mice that were thymectomized as young adults showed an enhanced loss of the epitope-specific CD4 T cell response after influenza virus infection compared with age-matched sham-thymectomized mice, suggesting that a reduced repertoire can contribute to impaired responsiveness. Conclusions The diversity of the CD4 T cell repertoire and response to influenza virus is not as profoundly impaired by ageing in C57BL/6 mice as previously shown for CD8 T cells. However, adult thymectomy enhanced the impact of ageing on the response. Understanding the impact of ageing on CD4 T cell responses to influenza virus infection is an important prerequisite for developing better vaccines for the elderly. PMID:24999367

  1. Measuring skill acquisition and retention with an ATM simulator: the need for age-specific training.

    PubMed

    Mead, S; Fisk, A D

    1998-09-01

    The present study focused on the type of information presented during training and its effects on initial and retention performance of older and younger adults interacting with computerized, new technology. The effects of emphasizing concepts versus actions during training on performance immediately after training and after a 1-month retention interval were examined. Younger and older adults completed either action or concept training for operating a virtual automatic teller machine (ATM). Overall, action training was associated with faster and more accurate performance immediately after training and better retention performance for older adults. For older adults, value of type of training interacted with type of task component. These findings are applicable to the development of age-specific training materials for computerized tasks. PMID:9849109

  2. Tissue-Specific Effects of Loss of Estrogen during Menopause and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wend, Korinna; Wend, Peter; Krum, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of estrogens have been best studied in the breast, breast cancers, and in the female reproductive tract. However, estrogens have important functions in almost every tissue in the body. Recent clinical trials such as the Women’s Health Initiative have highlighted both the importance of estrogens and how little we know about the molecular mechanism of estrogens in these other tissues. In this review, we illustrate the diverse functions of estrogens in the bone, adipose tissue, skin, hair, brain, skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system, and how the loss of estrogens during aging affects these tissues. Early transcriptional targets of estrogen are reviewed in each tissue. We also describe the tissue-specific effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) used for the treatment of breast cancers and postmenopausal symptoms. PMID:22654856

  3. Muscle specific miRNAs are induced by testosterone and independently upregulated by age

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Hvid, Thine; Kelly, Meghan; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Dethlefsen, Christine; Winding, Kamilla; Mathur, Neha; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Age dependent decline in skeletal muscle function leads to impaired metabolic flexibility in elderly individuals. Physical activity and testosterone treatment have proven efficient strategies for delaying this condition. However, a common molecular pathway has not been identified. Muscle specific miRNAs (myomiRs) regulate metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle, are regulated by physical activity, and have response elements for testosterone in their promoter region. We therefore hypothesized that myomiRs would be regulated in skeletal muscle during aging. We further investigated any potential gender-dependent regulation of these miRNAs. We found that the myomiRs miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-133b were increased in skeletal muscle of elderly men compared to younger men. In addition, miR-133a/133b expression was markedly higher in women compared to men. Elimination of circulating testosterone in men was associated with lower levels of miR-133a and miR-133b. A positive regulatory effect of testosterone on miR-133a/133b expression was confirmed in castrated male C57BL/6J mice and in a model of primary human myocytes. Yet, an improvement of fitness level in the testosterone depleted men resulted in a down-regulation of miR133a/b. In conclusion, alterations in fitness level and circulating testosterone seem to represent two independent regulatory events where testosterone is a specific regulator of miR-133a/b expression. PMID:24478708

  4. Age-specific survival estimates of King Eiders derived from satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    Age- and sex-specific survival and dispersal are important components in the dynamics and genetic structure of bird populations. For many avian taxa survival rates at the adult and juvenile life stages differ, but in long-lived species juveniles' survival is logistically challenging to study. We present the first estimates of hatch-year annual survival rates for a sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), estimated from satellite telemetry. From 2006 to 2008 we equipped pre-fiedging King Eiders with satellite transmitters on breeding grounds in Alaska and estimated annual survival rates during their first 2 years of life with known-fate models. We compared those estimates to survival rates of adults marked in the same area from 2002 to 2008. Hatch-year survival varied by season during the first year of life, and model-averaged annual survival rate was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48–0.80). We did not record any mortality during the second year and were therefore unable to estimate second-year survival rate. Adults' survival rate was constant through the year (0.94, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97). No birds appeared to breed during their second summer. While 88% of females with an active transmitter (n = 9) returned to their natal area at the age of 2 years, none of the 2-year old males (n = 3) did. This pattern indicates that females' natal philopatry is high and suggests that males' higher rates of dispersal may account for sex-specific differences in apparent survival rates of juvenile sea ducks when estimated with mark—recapture methods.

  5. Maternal Microbe-Specific Modulation of Inflammatory Response in Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Yamamoto, Hidemi; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Allred, Elizabeth; Leviton, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The fetal response to intrauterine inflammatory stimuli appears to contribute to the onset of preterm labor as well as fetal injury, especially affecting newborns of extremely low gestational age. To investigate the role of placental colonization by specific groups of microorganisms in the development of inflammatory responses present at birth, we analyzed 25 protein biomarkers in dry blood spots obtained from 527 newborns delivered by Caesarean section in the 23rd to 27th gestation weeks. Bacteria were detected in placentas and characterized by culture techniques. Odds ratios for having protein concentrations in the top quartile for gestation age for individual and groups of microorganisms were calculated. Mixed bacterial vaginosis (BV) organisms were associated with a proinflammatory pattern similar to those of infectious facultative anaerobes. Prevotella and Gardnerella species, anaerobic streptococci, peptostreptococci, and genital mycoplasmas each appeared to be associated with a different pattern of elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins. Lactobacillus was associated with low odds of an inflammatory response. This study provides evidence that microorganisms colonizing the placenta provoke distinctive newborn inflammatory responses and that Lactobacillus may suppress these responses. PMID:21264056

  6. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  7. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  8. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  9. Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations. PMID:24821932

  10. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  11. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  12. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. Results In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial

  13. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  14. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  15. LINC00507 Is Specifically Expressed in the Primate Cortex and Has Age-Dependent Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Mills, James D; Ward, Melanie; Chen, Bei Jun; Iyer, Anand M; Aronica, Eleonora; Janitz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the appreciation of the role of non-coding RNA in the development of organism phenotype. It is possible to divide the non-coding elements of the transcriptome into three categories: short non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs are those transcripts that are greater than 200 nts in length and lack any significant open reading frames that produce proteins greater then 100 amino acids. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a subclass of long non-coding RNAs. In contrast to protein coding RNAs, lincRNAs are expressed in a more tissue- and species-specific manner. In particular, many lincRNAs are only conserved amongst higher primates. This coupled with the propensity of many lincRNAs to be expressed in the brain, suggests that they are in fact one of the major drivers of organism complexity. We analysed 39 lincRNAs that are expressed in the frontal cortex and identified LINC00507 as being expressed in a cortex-specific manner in non-human primates and humans. The expression patterns of LINC00507 appear to be age-dependent, suggesting it may be involved in brain development of higher primates. Moreover, the analysis of LINC00507 potential to bind ribosomes revealed that this previously identified non-coding transcript may harbour a micropeptide. PMID:27059230

  16. Thyroid-Specific Genes Expression Uncovered Age-Related Differences in Pediatric Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cordioli, Maria Isabel Cunha Vieira; Moraes, Lais; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Delcelo, Rosana; Monte, Osmar; Longui, Carlos Alberto; Cury, Adriano Namo; Cerutti, Janete Maria

    2016-01-01

    Despite a more advanced stage of disease at presentation, a better response to radioiodine (RAI) therapy and a reduced overall mortality have been reported in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in comparison to adult DTC. Few studies suggested that the better response to RAI therapy in pediatric patients might be associated with an increased expression of NIS. However, a marked heterogeneity within the pediatric group has been recognized. Children (<10 years old) usually present a more aggressive disease than adolescents (≥10–18 years old). By analyzing the expression of thyroid-specific genes in 38 sporadic pediatric tumors, we show that the expression of NIS, PDS, and TSHR was lower in children than adolescents (P < 0.05). A linear regression confirmed the association between NIS expression and age. Most significantly, NIS was expressed at similar levels in DTC from children and adults, whereas PDS and TSHR expression was even lower in DTC from children, compared to adolescents and adults. Our data suggest that biological behaviors of DTC in adolescents might differ from those in children and adults. Therefore, the premise that the expression of thyroid-specific genes is higher in tumors from pediatric patients than in adults is not entirely true and might be too oversimplified. PMID:27022395

  17. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan D; Martin, Oriana San; Gallicchio, Lisa; Vial, Pablo A; Lagos, Rosanna

    2002-05-01

    Transition from high to lower endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may portend increased public health burden with the shift of infection to older ages and increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes age-specific prevalence of antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) among children and young adults in Santiago, Chile, compared with previous prevalence data and assesses factors predictive for anti-HAV. In 1998, a serosurvey was performed in Metropolitan Santiago, designed to enroll a representative, age-stratified population on the basis of area of residence. A total of 784 individuals (age range, 1-24 years) were enrolled. Anti-HAV prevalence by year of life was as follows: ages 1 to 4, 12.5%; 5 to 9, 26.2%; 10 to 14, 43.4%; 15 to 19, 57.4%; 20 to 24, 73.9%. Adjusting for age, factors associated (inversely) with anti-HAV included residential areas of higher socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, and household characteristics of potable water, municipal sewage system, and the presence of a toilet or refrigerator in the house. In logistic regression analysis, only maternal years of education and residence in areas of higher SES remained independently associated with anti-HAV. Excluding those from higher SES areas, comparison of the age-specific anti-HAV prevalence data from previous studies of similar methodology in areas of lower SES revealed consistent decreases across all age groups; the age-standardized prevalence for this age range (1-24 years) dropped from 53.7% in 1990 to 40.6% in 1998. In light of the growing pool of susceptible individuals at older ages, with HAV continuing to circulate in the communities, evaluation of the feasibility of vaccination programs would be judicious. PMID:12201603

  18. Air pollution and gene-specific methylation in the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Lepeule, Johanna; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Coull, Brent A; Tarantini, Letizia; Vokonas, Pantel S; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which air pollution has multiple systemic effects in humans are not fully elucidated, but appear to include inflammation and thrombosis. This study examines whether concentrations of ozone and components of fine particle mass are associated with changes in methylation on tissue factor (F3), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We investigated associations between air pollution exposure and gene-specific methylation in 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). We repeatedly measured methylation at multiple CpG sites within each gene’s promoter region and calculated the mean of the position-specific measurements. We examined intermediate-term associations between primary and secondary air pollutants and mean methylation and methylation at each position with distributed-lag models. Increase in air pollutants concentrations was significantly associated with F3, ICAM-1, and TLR-2 hypomethylation, and IFN-γ and IL-6 hypermethylation. An interquartile range increase in black carbon concentration averaged over the four weeks prior to assessment was associated with a 12% reduction in F3 methylation (95% CI: -17% to -6%). For some genes, the change in methylation was observed only at specific locations within the promoter region. DNA methylation may reflect biological impact of air pollution. We found some significant mediated effects of black carbon on fibrinogen through a decrease in F3 methylation, and of sulfate and ozone on ICAM-1 protein through a decrease in ICAM-1 methylation. PMID:24385016

  19. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  20. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  1. Kcne4 deletion sex- and age-specifically impairs cardiac repolarization in mice.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Levy, Daniel I; Goldstein, Steve A N; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial repolarization capacity varies with sex, age, and pathology; the molecular basis for this variation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcript for KCNE4, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel β subunit associated with human atrial fibrillation, was 8-fold more highly expressed in the male left ventricle compared with females in young adult C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Similarly, Kv current density was 25% greater in ventricular myocytes from young adult males (P < 0.05). Germ-line Kcne4 deletion eliminated the sex-specific Kv current disparity by diminishing ventricular fast transient outward current (Ito,f) and slowly activating K(+) current (IK,slow1). Kcne4 deletion also reduced Kv currents in male mouse atrial myocytes, by >45% (P < 0.001). As we previously found for Kv4.2 (which generates mouse Ito,f), heterologously expressed KCNE4 functionally regulated Kv1.5 (the Kv α subunit that generates IKslow1 in mice). Of note, in postmenopausal female mice, ventricular repolarization was impaired by Kcne4 deletion, and ventricular Kcne4 expression increased to match that of males. Moreover, castration diminished male ventricular Kcne4 expression 2.8-fold, whereas 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implants in castrated mice increased Kcne4 expression >3-fold (P = 0.01) to match noncastrated levels. KCNE4 is thereby shown to be a DHT-regulated determinant of cardiac excitability and a molecular substrate for sex- and age-dependent cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26399785

  2. Spatially adapted augmentation of age-specific atlas-based segmentation using patch-based priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Harrylock, Lisa; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Van; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Studholme, Colin

    2014-03-01

    One of the most common approaches to MRI brain tissue segmentation is to employ an atlas prior to initialize an Expectation- Maximization (EM) image labeling scheme using a statistical model of MRI intensities. This prior is commonly derived from a set of manually segmented training data from the population of interest. However, in cases where subject anatomy varies significantly from the prior anatomical average model (for example in the case where extreme developmental abnormalities or brain injuries occur), the prior tissue map does not provide adequate information about the observed MRI intensities to ensure the EM algorithm converges to an anatomically accurate labeling of the MRI. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic segmentation of such cases. This approach augments the atlas-based EM segmentation by exploring methods to build a hybrid tissue segmentation scheme that seeks to learn where an atlas prior fails (due to inadequate representation of anatomical variation in the statistical atlas) and utilize an alternative prior derived from a patch driven search of the atlas data. We describe a framework for incorporating this patch-based augmentation of EM (PBAEM) into a 4D age-specific atlas-based segmentation of developing brain anatomy. The proposed approach was evaluated on a set of MRI brain scans of premature neonates with ages ranging from 27.29 to 46.43 gestational weeks (GWs). Results indicated superior performance compared to the conventional atlas-based segmentation method, providing improved segmentation accuracy for gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal CSF regions.

  3. Variegated expression of Hsp22 transgenic reporters indicates cell-specific patterns of aging in Drosophila oenocytes.

    PubMed

    Tower, John; Landis, Gary; Gao, Rebecca; Luan, Albert; Lee, Jonathan; Sun, Yuanyue

    2014-03-01

    The cytoplasmic chaperone gene Hsp70 and the mitochondrial chaperone gene Hsp22 are upregulated during normal aging in Drosophila in tissue-general patterns. In addition, Hsp22 reporters are dramatically upregulated during aging in a subset of the oenocytes (liver-like cells). Hsp22 reporter expression varied dramatically between individual oenocytes and between groups of oenocytes located in adjacent body segments, and was negatively correlated with accumulation of age pigment, indicating cell-specific and cell-lineage-specific patterns of oenocyte aging. Conditional transgenic systems were used to express 88 transgenes to search for trans-regulators of the Hsp70 and Hsp22 reporters during aging. The wingless gene increased tissue-general upregulation of both Hsp70 and Hsp22 reporters. In contrast, the mitochondrial genes MnSOD and Hsp22 increased expression of Hsp22 reporters in the oenocytes and decreased accumulation of age pigment in these cells. The data suggest that cell-specific and cell lineage-specific patterns of mitochondrial malfunction contribute to oenocyte aging. PMID:23723429

  4. AGE-RAGE signal generates a specific NF-κB RelA "barcode" that directs collagen I expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yunqian; Kim, Ji-Min; Park, Hal-Sol; Yang, Annie; Islam, Celia; Lakatta, Edward G; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are sugar-modified biomolecules that accumulate in the body with advancing age, and are implicated in the development of multiple age-associated structural and functional abnormities and diseases. It has been well documented that AGEs signal via their receptor RAGE to activate several cellular programs including NF-κB, leading to inflammation. A large number of stimuli can activate NF-κB; yet different stimuli, or the same stimulus for NF-κB in different cellular settings, produce a very different transcriptional landscape and physiological outcome. The NF-κB barcode hypothesis posits that cellular network dynamics generate signal-specific post-translational modifications, or a "barcode" to NF-κB, and that a signature "barcode" mediates a specific gene expression pattern. In the current study, we established that AGE-RAGE signaling results in NF-κB activation that directs collagen Ia1 and Ia2 expression. We further demonstrated that AGE-RAGE signal induces phosphorylation of RelA at three specific residues, T254, S311, and S536. These modifications are required for transcription of collagen I genes and are a consequence of cellular network dynamics. The increase of collagen content is a hallmark of arterial aging, and our work provides a potential mechanistic link between RAGE signaling, NF-κB activation, and aging-associated arterial alterations in structure and function. PMID:26729520

  5. Age-specific reference values for serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Lindahl, T; Varenhorst, E

    1997-05-01

    To establish normal reference values for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Swedish population we investigated 878 healthy men, 56-75 years of age. They were randomly selected from a population of 9171 males in this group. Cancer of the prostate was excluded by digital rectal examination. When digital rectal examination was suspicious for carcinoma of the prostate and/or serum PSA > 4 micrograms l-1, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. Central values, values of variance and reference limits were defined by a non-parametric method in four age groups. A strong positive correlation between PSA values and age was found and the variance increased with age. The relationship between PSA value and age was non-linear. For the age group 56-60 the upper reference limit (95th percentile) was 4.6 micrograms l-1 (confidence interval, CI: 3.9-5.5). For the age groups 61-65, 66-70 and 71-75 the corresponding values were 4.4 (3.8-5.2), 7.6 (6.5-8.9) and 8.4 micrograms l-1 (7.2-9.8) respectively. For the age groups studied the increment over time of the PSA value was 2-8% per year depending on age, with an average increment per year over 15 years of 4.3%. Overall, 11% of our reference sample had a serum PSA level > 4 micrograms l-1. We consider our study population to be representative for a normal Swedish male population in these age groups. PMID:9238758

  6. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. PMID:27217528

  7. The Associations of Serum Serotonin with Bone Traits Are Age- and Gender-Specific

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Chen, Decai; Nicholson, Patrick; Cheng, Shumei; Alen, Markku; Mao, Lijian; Cheng, Sulin

    2014-01-01

    Context Serotonin plays a potential role in bone metabolism, but the nature and extent of this relationship is unclear and human studies directly addressing the skeletal effect of circulating serotonin are rare. Objective The study aimed to investigate the associations between serum serotonin and bone traits at multiple skeletal sites in women and men. Subjects and Methods Subjects were part of the CALEX-family study and comprised 235 young women, 121 premenopausal women, 124 postmenopausal women, and 168 men. Body composition was assessed using DXA, as was areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of spine, femur and whole body. In addition, pQCT was used to determine bone properties at tibial midshaft and distal radius. Fasting serum serotonin concentration was assessed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum serotonin declined with advancing age both in females and males (all p<0.01). Serotonin was negatively correlated with weight, BMI, lean and fat mass in women (r = −0.22 to −0.39, all p<0.001), but positively with height and lean mass in men (all p<0.01). In the premenopausal women, serotonin was negatively correlated with lumbar spine aBMD (r = −0.23, p<0.05) but the statistical significance disappeared after adjustment for weight. Conversely, in postmenopausal women, serotonin was positively correlated with whole body and femur aBMD, as well as with distal radius bone mineral content and volumetric BMD (r = 0.20 to 0.30, all p<0.05), and these associations remained significant after adjustment for weight. In men, no significant associations were found between serotonin and bone traits. Conclusion Serum serotonin is positively associated with bone traits in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women or men. This partially supports the idea of circulating serotonin playing a role in the regulation of bone metabolism, but also indicates the importance of gender and age specific factors. PMID:25279460

  8. Molecular mechanism of age-specific hepatic lipid accumulation in PPARalpha (+/-):LDLR (+/-) mice, an obese mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Sugiyama, Eiko; Yokoyama, Shin; Jiang, Lingling; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of age-specific hepatic lipid accumulation accompanying hyperinsulinemia in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) (+/-):low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (+/-) mouse line. The hepatic fat content, protein amounts, and mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were analyzed in 25-, 50-, 75- and 100-week-old mice. Severe fatty liver was confirmed only in 50- and 75-week-old mice. The hepatic expression of proteins that function in lipid transport and catabolism did not differ among the groups. In contrast, the mRNA levels and protein amounts of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-1, fatty acid synthase, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, enhanced in the mice with fatty liver. Elevated mRNA and protein levels of lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid translocase, which are involved in hepatic lipid uptake, were also detected in mice with fatty liver. Moreover, both protein and mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor regulating lipid synthesis, had age-specific patterns similar to those of the proteins described above. Therefore, the age-specific fatty liver found in the PPARalpha (+/-):LDLR (+/-) mouse line is probably caused by age-specific expression of SREBP-1 and its downstream lipogenic genes, coordinated by the increased uptake of lipids. All of these factors might be affected by age-specific changes in serum insulin concentration. PMID:18335269

  9. Age-specific population frequencies of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration among cognitively normal people age 50-89 years: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background As treatment of pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a focus of therapeutic intervention, observational research studies should recognize the overlap between imaging abnormalities associated with typical aging vs those associated with AD. Our objective was to characterize how typical aging and pre-clinical AD blend together with advancing age in terms of neurodegeneration and b-amyloidosis. Methods We measured age-specific frequencies of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration in 985 cognitively normal subjects age 50 to 89 from a population-based study of cognitive aging. Potential participants were randomly selected from the Olmsted County, Minnesota population by age- and sex-stratification and invited to participate in cognitive evaluations and undergo multimodality imaging. To be eligible for inclusion, subjects must have been judged clinically to have no cognitive impairment and have undergone amyloid PET, FDG PET and MRI. Imaging studies were obtained from March 2006 to December 2013. Amyloid positive/negative status (A+/A−) was determined by amyloid PET using Pittsburgh Compound B. Neurodegeneration positive/negative status (N+/N−) was determined by an AD-signature FDG PET measure and/or hippocampal volume on MRI. We labeled subjects positive or negative for neurodegeneration (FDG PET or MRI) or amyloidosis by using cutpoints defined such that 90% of 75 clinically diagnosed AD dementia subjects were categorized as abnormal. APOE genotype was assessed using DNA extracted from blood. Every individual was assigned to one of four groups: A−N−, A+N−, A−N+, or A+N+. Age specific frequencies of the 4 A/N groups were determined cross-sectionally using multinomial regression models. Associations with APOE ε4 and sex effects were evaluated by including these covariates in the multinomial models. Findings The population frequency of A−N− was 100% (n=985) at age 50 and declined thereafter. The frequency of A+N− increased to a

  10. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures.

    PubMed

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs - but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genesPDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this "Buccal-Cell-Signature" correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  11. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G.; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs – but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genes PDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this “Buccal-Cell-Signature” correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  12. Mutation frequency and specificity with age in liver, bladder and brain of lacI transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, G R; Oda, Y; de Boer, J G; Glickman, B W

    2000-01-01

    Mutation frequency and specificity were determined as a function of age in nuclear DNA from liver, bladder, and brain of Big Blue lacI transgenic mice aged 1.5-25 months. Mutations accumulated with age in liver and accumulated more rapidly in bladder. In the brain a small initial increase in mutation frequency was observed in young animals; however, no further increase was observed in adult mice. To investigate the origin of mutations, the mutational spectra for each tissue and age were determined. DNA sequence analysis of mutant lacI transgenes revealed no significant changes in mutational specificity in any tissue at any age. The spectra of mutations found in aging animals were identical to those in younger animals, suggesting that they originated from a common set of DNA lesions manifested during DNA replication. The data also indicated that there were no significant age-related mutational changes due to oxidative damage, or errors resulting from either changes in the fidelity of DNA polymerase or the efficiency of DNA repair. Hence, no evidence was found to support hypotheses that predict that oxidative damage or accumulation of errors in nuclear DNA contributes significantly to the aging process, at least in these three somatic tissues. PMID:10757770

  13. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  14. The ICRP age-specific biokinetic model for lead: validations, empirical comparisons, and explorations.

    PubMed Central

    Pounds, J G; Leggett, R W

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide a description of the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) model and a comparison to other models (the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic [IEUBK] and O'Flaherty models), including the software used with the models, and a comparison of the model predictions for selected situations. The ICRP biokinetic model for Pb is a multicompartmental model for Pb uptake and disposition in children and in adults. The model describes deposition and retention of absorbed Pb in numerous tissues, removal from tissues to plasma, and movement along various routes of excretion. Long-term skeletal behavior of Pb is described in terms of age-specific rates of restructuring of compact and trabecular bone. The ICRP model is more flexible and has wider applicability than the IEUBK model. The major disadvantages are that application of the computer model requires some basic computer skills, and the user must convert the Pb concentrations in food, air, soil, dust, paint, or other media to the amount of Pb ingested or inhaled per day. Direct comparisons between the ICRP model and the IEUBK model are provided by modeling blood Pb levels using the IEUBK v0.99d default Pb uptakes and intake values. The model is used to simulate occupational exposure cases and a controlled Pb inhalation experiment in adult humans. Finally, use of the model to explore situations with limited data is illustrated by simulating the kinetics and disposition of Pb during acute Pb poisoning and chelation therapy in a child. PMID:9860909

  15. Stem Cell-Specific Mechanisms Ensure Genomic Fidelity within HSCs and upon Aging of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Bettina M; Nattamai, Kalpana; Brown, Andreas; Florian, Maria C; Ryan, Marnie; Vogel, Mona; Bliederhaeuser, Corinna; Soller, Karin; Prows, Daniel R; Abdollahi, Amir; Schleimer, David; Walter, Dagmar; Milsom, Michael D; Stambrook, Peter; Porteus, Matthew; Geiger, Hartmut

    2015-12-22

    Whether aged hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have impaired DNA damage repair is controversial. Using a combination of DNA mutation indicator assays, we observe a 2- to 3-fold increase in the number of DNA mutations in the hematopoietic system upon aging. Young and aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) do not show an increase in mutation upon irradiation-induced DNA damage repair, and young and aged HSPCs respond very similarly to DNA damage with respect to cell-cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. Both young and aged HSPCs show impaired activation of the DNA-damage-induced G1-S checkpoint. Induction of chronic DNA double-strand breaks by zinc-finger nucleases suggests that HSPCs undergo apoptosis rather than faulty repair. These data reveal a protective mechanism in both the young and aged hematopoietic system against accumulation of mutations in response to DNA damage. PMID:26686632

  16. Stem cell specific mechanisms ensure genomic fidelity within HSCs and upon aging of HSCs

    PubMed Central

    Moehrle, Bettina M.; Nattamai, Kalpana; Brown, Andreas; Florian, Maria C.; Ryan, Marnie; Vogel, Mona; Bliederhaeuser, Corinna; Soller, Karin; Prows, Daniel R.; Abdollahi, Amir; Schleimer, David; Walter, Dagmar; Milsom, Michael D.; Stambrook, Peter; Porteus, Matthew; Geiger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Whether aged hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have impaired DNA damage repair is controversial. Using a combination of DNA mutation indicator assays, we observe a 2-3 fold increase in the number of DNA mutations in the hematopoietic system upon aging. Young and aged HSCs and HPCs do not show an increase in mutation upon irradiation-induced DNA damage repair, and young and aged HSPCs respond very similarly to DNA damage with respect to cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. Both, young and aged HSPCs show impaired activation of the DNA-damage induced G1-S checkpoint. Induction of chronic DNA double strand breaks by zinc-finger nucleases suggest that HSPCs undergo apoptosis rather than faulty repair. These data reveal a protective mechanism in both the young and aged hematopoietic system against accumulation of mutations in response to DNA damage. PMID:26686632

  17. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  18. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hengxi; Liu, Xiangjie; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Li; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Xinzheng; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated) and 84 (downregulated) genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates. PMID:26421297

  19. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hengxi; Liu, Xiangjie; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Li; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Xinzheng; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated) and 84 (downregulated) genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates. PMID:26421297

  20. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  1. High-throughput transcriptomic analysis nominates proteasomal genes as age-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, S G; Jackson, W C; Kothari, V; Schipper, M J; Erho, N; Evans, J R; Speers, C; Hamstra, D A; Niknafs, Y S; Nguyen, P L; Schaeffer, E M; Ross, A E; Den, R B; Klein, E A; Jenkins, R B; Davicioni, E; Feng, F Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although prostate cancer (PCa) is hypothesized to differ in nature between younger versus older patients, the underlying molecular distinctions are poorly understood. We hypothesized that high-throughput transcriptomic analysis would elucidate biological differences in PCas arising in younger versus older men, and would nominate potential age-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Methods: The high-density Affymetrix GeneChip platform, encompassing >1 million genomic loci, was utilized to assess gene expression in 1090 radical prostatectomy samples from patients with long-term follow-up. We identified genes associated with metastatic progression by 10 years post-treatment in younger (age<65) versus older (age⩾65) patients, and ranked these genes by their prognostic value. We performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to nominate biological concepts that demonstrated age-specific effects, and validated a target by treating with a clinically available drug in three PCa cell lines derived from younger men. Results: Over 80% of the top 1000 prognostic genes in younger and older men were specific to that age group. GSEA nominated the proteasome pathway as the most differentially prognostic in younger versus older patients. High expression of proteasomal genes conferred worse prognosis in younger but not older men on univariate and multivariate analysis. Bortezomib, a Food and Drug Administration approved proteasome inhibitor, decreased proliferation in three PCa cell lines derived from younger patients. Conclusions: Our data show significant global differences in prognostic genes between older versus younger men. We nominate proteasomeal gene expression as an age-specific biomarker and potential therapeutic target specifically in younger men. Limitations of our study include clinical differences between cohorts, and increased comorbidities and lower survival in older patients. These intriguing findings suggest that current models of PCa biology do

  2. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly. Results: A total of 254,962 new cancer cases and 75,172 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2016. The five leading primary cancer incident sites in 2016 were estimated colorectal, stomach, lung, liver and thyroid cancer in men; thyroid, breast, colorectal, stomach, and lung cancer in women. Conclusion: Currently cancer is one of the foremost public health concerns in Korea. Although cancer rates are anticipated to decrease the nation’s cancer burden will continue to increase as the population ages. PMID:27034143

  3. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70–71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions. PMID:27333203

  4. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  5. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Eun; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  6. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  7. Reliability of India-specific regression formula for age estimation of population in and around Bahadurgarh, Haryana (India)

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ankita; Agarwal, Vartika; Arora, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study was conducted to check the reliability of India-specific regression formula for age estimation of population in and around Bahadurgarh, Haryana (India). Materials and methods The study was conducted using digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) of 464 subjects (253 males and 211 females). Chronologic age (CA) was derived from that mentioned on the OPG. Each tooth in the left mandibular segment was scored using Demirjian's scoring and age was calculated using the regression formulas derived by Acharya. The difference of the chronologic and estimated age was used to check the reliability of India-specific regression formula. Results The mean estimated age was found to be significantly higher as compared to CA for overall as well as both the genders independently (p < 0.001). Difference (in ±) between estimated and CA ranged from 0 to 4.2 years. Mean difference in age was 0.85 ± 0.73 years for males and 0.87 ± 0.76 years for females. Conclusion The published India-specific regression formula does not have reliability in the population of Bahadurgarh, Haryana and hence cannot be universally applied. PMID:26587381

  8. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages—An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types

    PubMed Central

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials. PMID:27014059

  9. Muscle-specificity of age-related changes in markers of autophagy and sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Russ, David W; Boyd, Iva M; McCoy, Katherine M; McCorkle, Katherine W

    2015-12-01

    Our previous findings indicate that the gastrocnemius muscle of aging rats exhibits impairments of muscle quality (force/unit muscle tissue) and autophagy and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum stress. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related changes in soleus muscle contractility and in markers of autophagy in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. We assessed in situ muscle force and size in the soleus muscle of adult (7-8 months) and aged (24-26 months) male, F344/BN rats. We used immunoblotting to compare abundance of markers of autophagy, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stress and sphingolipid metabolism in the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles of these animals. Relative to adults, aged rats maintained soleus muscle quality and increased muscle size, resulting in increased tetanic force production. Immunoblotting revealed a general pattern of an age-related reduction of basal autophagy, despite increases in indicators of SR stress and upstream autophagic pathway activation in the MG. The MG also exhibited changes in markers of sphingolipid metabolism suggestive of increased muscle ceramide. Minimal age-related changes were observed in the soleus. The soleus maintains muscle mass and quality with age, and exhibits fewer age-related changes in markers of stress and autophagy than the MG. Based on these data, we suggest that maintenance of autophagy may preserve muscle quality by preventing excessive SR stress. PMID:26296420

  10. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  11. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    PubMed

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  12. Task Switching Across the Life Span: Effects of Age on General and Specific Switch Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Stian; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated age-related changes in executive control using an Internet-based task-switching experiment with 5,271 participants between the ages of 10 and 66 years. Speeded face categorization was required on the basis of gender (G) or emotion (E) in single task blocks (GGG... and EEE...) or switching blocks (GGEEGGEE...). General…

  13. Age Associated Increase of Low Avidity CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells That Re-Express CD45RA

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Stephen J.; Riddell, Natalie E.; Masters, Joanne; Libri, Valentina; Henson, Sian M.; Wertheimer, Anne; Wallace, Diana; Sims, Stuart; Rivino, Laura; Larbi, Anis; Kemeny, David M.; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Kern, Florian; Klenerman, Paul; Emery, Vince C.; Akbar, Arne N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating memory CD8+ T cell function and homeostasis during ageing are unclear. CD8+ effector memory T cells that re-express CD45RA (EMRA T cells) increase considerably in older humans and both ageing and persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are independent factors in this process. We used MHC class I tetrameric complexes that were mutated in the CD8 binding domain to identify CMV-specific CD8+ T cells with high antigen binding avidity. In individuals who were HLA-A*0201, CD8+ T cells that expressed CD45RA and were specific for the pp65 protein (NLV epitope) had lower avidity than those that expressed CD45RO and demonstrated decreased cytokine secretion and cytolytic potential after specific activation. Furthermore, low avidity NLV-specific CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in older individuals. The stimulation of blood leukocytes with CMV lysate induced high levels of IFNα that in turn induced IL-15 production. Moreover, the addition of IL-15 to CD45RA−CD45RO+ CMV-specific CD8+ T cells induced CD45RA expression while antigen activated cells remained CD45RO+. This raises the possibility that non-specific cytokine driven accumulation of CMV-specific CD8+ CD45RA+ T cells with lower antigen binding avidity may exacerbate the effects of viral re-activation on skewing the T cell repertoire in CMV infected individuals during ageing. PMID:23636061

  14. Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: focus on young and elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y

    1998-09-01

    This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923

  15. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  16. Region specific neuron loss in the aged canine hippocampus is reduced by enrichment.

    PubMed

    Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Head, Elizabeth; Muggenburg, Bruce A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2008-01-01

    Neuron loss within the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex occurs as a function of age in humans. We first tested the hypothesis that neuron loss occurs in the aged dog. The total unilateral number of neurons in the canine entorhinal cortex and subdivisions of the hippocampus from the left hemisphere were estimated using the optical fractionator. The brains from 5 old (13.0-15.0 years old) and 5 young (3.4-4.5 years old) beagle dogs were analyzed. The hilus of the hippocampus showed a significant loss of neurons (approximately 30%) in the aged dog brain compared to young. Differences were not detected in the remaining hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex. We further tested the hypothesis that an antioxidant fortified food or behavioral enrichment would reduce the age-related loss of hilar neurons. Behaviorally enriched aged dogs had more neurons in the hilus (approximately 18%) compared to aged controls. These results suggest that the aged canine hippocampus in the left hemisphere shows selective neuron loss and that behavioral enrichment may reduce this loss. PMID:17092609

  17. Age- and gender-specific norms for the German version of the Three-Factor Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    PubMed

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-08-01

    The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p < 0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p < 0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. PMID:25889877

  18. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Statin Medication Use and Incident Mobility Limitation in Community Older Adults. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Shorr, Ronald I; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Hanlon, Joseph T

    2012-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statin medications have been proposed as potential agents to prevent or delay physical disability; yet limited research has evaluated whether such use in older community dwelling adults is associated with a lower risk of incident mobility limitation. Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Participants 3055 participants who were well functioning at baseline (e.g., no mobility limitations). Measurements Summated standardized daily doses (low, medium and high) and duration of ACE inhibitor and statin use was computed. Mobility limitation (two consecutive self-reports of having any difficulty walking 1/4 mile or climbing 10 steps without resting) was assessed every 6 months after baseline. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted adjusting for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Results At baseline, ACE inhibitors and statins were used by 15.2% and 12.9%, respectively and both increased to over 25% by year 6. Over 6.5 years of follow-up, 49.8% had developed mobility limitation. In separate multivariable models, neither ACE inhibitor (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82–1.09) nor statin use (multivariate HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.87–1.17) was associated with a lower risk for mobility limitation. Similar findings were seen in analyses examining dose- and duration-response relationships and sensitivity analyses restricted to those with hypertension. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACE inhibitors and statins widely prescribed to treat hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively do not lower risk of mobility limitation, an important life quality indicator. PMID:22092102

  19. The effects of age and dietary restriction on the tissue-specific metabolome of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Laye, Matthew J; Tran, ViLinh; Jones, Dean P; Kapahi, Pankaj; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a robust intervention that extends lifespan and slows the onset of age-related diseases in diverse organisms. While significant progress has been made in attempts to uncover the genetic mechanisms of DR, there are few studies on the effects of DR on the metabolome. In recent years, metabolomic profiling has emerged as a powerful technology to understand the molecular causes and consequences of natural aging and disease-associated phenotypes. Here, we use high-resolution mass spectroscopy and novel computational approaches to examine changes in the metabolome from the head, thorax, abdomen, and whole body at multiple ages in Drosophila fed either a nutrient-rich ad libitum (AL) or nutrient-restricted (DR) diet. Multivariate analysis clearly separates the metabolome by diet in different tissues and different ages. DR significantly altered the metabolome and, in particular, slowed age-related changes in the metabolome. Interestingly, we observed interacting metabolites whose correlation coefficients, but not mean levels, differed significantly between AL and DR. The number and magnitude of positively correlated metabolites was greater under a DR diet. Furthermore, there was a decrease in positive metabolite correlations as flies aged on an AL diet. Conversely, DR enhanced these correlations with age. Metabolic set enrichment analysis identified several known (e.g., amino acid and NAD metabolism) and novel metabolic pathways that may affect how DR effects aging. Our results suggest that network structure of metabolites is altered upon DR and may play an important role in preventing the decline of homeostasis with age. PMID:26085309

  20. Age-specific risk factor profiles of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification  = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25  = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification  = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers. PMID:26175109

  1. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septotemporal axis in adulthood and middle age.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-11-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic, and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septotemporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septotemporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18 mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity, and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  2. Basin-Specific Variations in the Thermal Aging of Oceanic Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, E.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the depth extent of mantle thermal aging beneath ocean basins, we project 3D Voigt averaged S-velocity variations from an ensemble of global tomographic models onto a 1º x 1º degree age-based regionalization and average each major ocean basin (Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian) in equal increments of the square-root of crustal age. By comparing the age averaged S-wave profiles, we estimate convergence depths, the minimum depths where age variations become statistically insignificant. Following Jordan & Paulson (JGR, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50263, 2013), we estimate aleatory variability in the S-wave profiles, correct for vertical smearing bias, and estimate epistemic uncertainties over the model ensemble. We can assert with 90% confidence that the age-correlated variations in Voigt-averaged S velocities persist to depths greater than 170 km. Given the strong evidence that the G discontinuity (~70 km) approximates the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath ocean basins, we conclude that the upper part of the oceanic asthenosphere participates in the cooling that forms the kinematic plates. Age-averaged profiles show significant differences among the ocean basins. To quantify this, we fit age-dependent vertical travel times through the uppermost mantle of the models with an idealized Earth model having a strict square-root of age velocity structure in the ocean basins, suitably filtered to mimic tomographic smoothing. Good fits can be obtained for the Atlantic and Indian ocean basins out to 170 My, although the travel-time slopes for the former are steeper than the latter, implying more rapid cooling in the Atlantic. The Pacific basin shows significant deviations from simple conductive cooling for ages greater than about 50 My, in general agreement with previously published surface-wave models, indicating perturbations associated with small-scale convective processes. We conclude that large-scale flow advects small-scale heterogeneities due to

  3. Differences in geriatric anthropometric data between DXA-based subject-specific estimates and non-age-specific traditional regression models

    PubMed Central

    Sukits, Alison L.; McCrory, Jean L.; Cham, Rakié

    2016-01-01

    Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity. PMID:21844608

  4. Differences in geriatric anthropometric data between DXA-based subject-specific estimates and non-age-specific traditional regression models.

    PubMed

    Chambers, April J; Sukits, Alison L; McCrory, Jean L; Cham, Rakie

    2011-08-01

    Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity. PMID:21844608

  5. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  6. Increase in secretory sphingomyelinase activity and specific ceramides in the aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout mice during aging.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Nagata, Eri; Sasaki, Kazuki; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Kojo, Shosuke; Kikuzaki, Hiroe

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is caused by many factors, one of which is oxidative stress. We recently demonstrated that systemic oxidative stress increased secretory sphingomyelinase (sSMase) activity and generated ceramides in the plasma of diabetic rats. In addition, we also showed that the total ceramide level in human plasma correlated with the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. To investigate the relationship between ceramide species and atherogenesis during aging, we compared age-related changes in ceramide metabolism in apolipoprotein E knock out mice (apoE(-/-)) and wild type mice (WT). Although the total plasma ceramide level was higher in apoE(-/-) than that in WT at all ages, it decreased with increasing age. sSMase activity increased at 65 weeks (w) of age in both strains of mice. When apoE(-/-) developed atherosclerosis at 15 w of age, C18:0, C22:0, and C24:0 ceramide levels in the apoE(-/-) aorta significantly increased. Furthermore, at 65 w of age C16:0 and C24:1 ceramide levels were significantly higher than those in WT. These results suggested that elevation in levels of specific ceramide species due to sSMase activity contributed to atherogenesis during aging. PMID:23811568

  7. Specific reduction of calcium-binding protein (28-kilodalton calbindin-D) gene expression in aging and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Iacopino, A.M.; Christakos, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The present studies establish that there are specific, significant decreases in the neuronal calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D) gene expression in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. The specificity of the changes observed in calbindin mRNA levels was tested by reprobing blots with calmodulin, cyclophilin, and B-actin cDNAs. Gross brain regions of the aging rat exhibited specific, significant decreases in calbindin{center dot}mRNA and protein levels in the cerebellum, corpus striatum, and brain-stem region but not in the cerebral cortex or hippocampus. Discrete areas of the aging human brain exhibited significant decreases in calbindin protein and mRNA in the cerebellum, corpus striatum, and nucleus basalis but not in the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, locus ceruleus, or nucleus raphe dorsalis. Comparison of diseased human brain tissue with age- and sex-matched controls yielded significant decreases calbindin protein and mRNA in the substantia nigra (Parkinson disease), in the corpus striatum (Huntington disease), in the nucleus basalis (Alzheimer disease), and in the hippocampus and nucleus raphe dorsalis (Parkinson, Huntington, and Alzheimer diseases) but not in the cerebellum, neocortex, amygdala, or locus ceruleus. These findings suggest that decreased calbindin gene expression may lead to a failure of calcium buffering or intraneuronal calcium homeostasis, which contributes to calcium-mediated cytotoxic events during aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  9. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  10. Concurrent and Construct Validity of Oral Language Measures with School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Brandel, Jayne; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of 2 oral language measures that are commonly used for diagnostic purposes with school-age children who have language impairments. Method: Two hundred sixteen children with specific language impairment were assessed with the Test of Language Development--Primary, Third Edition (TOLD-P:3;…

  11. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Methods Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. Results The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26–39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. Conclusion This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010. PMID:25592123

  12. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  13. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  14. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  15. Specific ablation of Nampt in adult neural stem cells recapitulates their functional defects during aging

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Liana R; Imai, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and self-renewal, as well as insult-induced differentiation, decrease markedly with age. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these declines remain unclear. Here, we show that levels of NAD+ and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis, decrease with age in the hippocampus. Ablation of Nampt in adult NSPCs reduced their pool and proliferation in vivo. The decrease in the NSPC pool during aging can be rescued by enhancing hippocampal NAD+ levels. Nampt is the main source of NSPC NAD+ levels and required for G1/S progression of the NSPC cell cycle. Nampt is also critical in oligodendrocytic lineage fate decisions through a mechanism mediated redundantly by Sirt1 and Sirt2. Ablation of Nampt in the adult NSPCs in vivo reduced NSPC-mediated oligodendrogenesis upon insult. These phenotypes recapitulate defects in NSPCs during aging, giving rise to the possibility that Nampt-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is a mediator of age-associated functional declines in NSPCs. PMID:24811750

  16. Site-specific AGE modifications in the ECM: a role for glyoxal in protein damage in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Voziyan, Paul; Brown, Kyle L.; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Non-enzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major proposed mechanism of diabetic complications. Specifically, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from hyperglycemia-induced reactive carbonyl species (RCS) can have pathogenic consequences when they target functionally critical protein residues. Modification of a small number of these critical residues, often undetectable by the methodologies relying on measurements of total AGE levels, can cause significant functional damage. Therefore, detection of specific sites of protein damage in diabetes is central to understanding molecular basis of diabetic complications and for identification of biomarkers which are mechanistically linked to the disease. The current paradigm of RCS-derived protein damage places the major focus on methylglyoxal (MGO), an intermediate of cellular glycolysis. We propose that glyoxal (GO) is a major contributor to extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in diabetes. Here, we review the current knowledge and provide new data about GO-derived site-specific ECM modification in experimental diabetes. PMID:23492568

  17. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  18. Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Specific Cognitive Abilities in the Colorado Adoption Project at Age 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multivariate hierarchical model of specific cognitive abilities was fitted to data from 196 adopted and 213 nonadopted children from the Colorado Adoption Project and 120 of their siblings to assess genetic influence on specific mental abilities. Genetic effects occur in middle childhood that differentially influence mental ability scores.…

  19. Analyzing False Memories in Children with Associative Lists Specific for Their Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Paula; Albuquerque, Pedro; Fernandez, Angel; Esteves, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments attempted to resolve previous contradictory findings concerning developmental trends in false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm by using an improved methodology--constructing age-appropriate associative lists. The research also extended the DRM paradigm to preschoolers. Experiment 1 (N = 320) included…

  20. Attention to Item-Specific Processing Eliminates Age Effects in False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A.K.; Sommers, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    One possible reason for age differences in false memory susceptibility is that older adults may not encode contextual information that allows them to distinguish between presented and non-presented but internally activated items. The present research examines whether older adults can reduce false memories when given external contextual support. In…

  1. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  2. Evaluating the All-Ages Lead Model Using SiteSpecific Data: Approaches and Challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) exposure continues to be a problem in the United States. Even after years of progress in reducing environmental levels, CDC estimates at least 500,000 U.S. children ages 1-5 years have blood Pb levels (BLL) above the CDC reference level of 5 µg/dL. Childhood Pb ex...

  3. ESTIMATES OF AGE-SPECIFIC URINARY EXCRETION RATES FOR CREATININE AMONG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this study suggest that naïve adjustment by creatinine concentration, without consideration of the age-dependence of the physiological mechanisms controlling its excretion, may introduce sizeable error and is inappropriate when comparing metabolite concentrations a...

  4. Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cyclic fatigue loading (FL) on the microstructural strain response of SDFT fascicles from young and old horses. The data demonstrate two independent age-related mechanisms of fatigue failure; in young horses, FL caused low levels of matrix damage and decreased rotation. This suggests that loading causes alterations to the helix substructure, which may reduce their ability to recoil and recover. By contrast, fascicles from old horses, in which the helix is already compromised, showed greater evidence of matrix damage and suffer increased fibre sliding after FL, which may partially explain the age-related increase in tendinopathy. Elucidation of helix structure and the precise alterations occurring owing to both ageing and FL will help to develop appropriate preventative and repair strategies for tendinopathy. PMID:24402919

  5. [The age-specific changes in the wall of the arterial circle of Willis].

    PubMed

    Trushel', N A; Pivchenko, P G; Bel'chikov, E I

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to create the database of morphometric and morphological characteristics of the wall of the vessels of the Willis arterial circle at the site of their bifurcation throughout the period of postnatal ontogenesis in man to be used for the postmortem determination of human age. Preparations of vascular cross sections were used to measure the intima thickness (intimal pads) in the region of lateral bifurcation angles on the terminal branch of the internal carotid and basilar arteries obtained from 130 corpses of the subjects aged between 0 and 75 years. The histological preparations were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and van Gieson's pyrofuchsin or by the Unnar-Tenzer method. Morphometry was performed using a Bioscan image analyser and the Scion Image v.402 software. The Microsoft Excel 2003 package was used for the primary treatment of the data obtained. They were used to draw the table of intimal pads developing throughout the period of postnatal ontogenesis in man that allows for the postmortem determination of approximate human age. The study showed that the thickening of intimal pads and concomitant thinning of the underlying muscular layer during the postnatal ontogenesis should be regarded as being normal age-related changes. PMID:23802302

  6. Age-specific haemosporidian infection dynamics and survival in Seychelles warblers.

    PubMed

    Hammers, Martijn; Komdeur, Jan; Kingma, Sjouke A; Hutchings, Kimberly; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Gilroy, Danielle L; Richardson, David S

    2016-01-01

    Parasites may severely impact the fitness and life-history of their hosts. After infection, surviving individuals may suppress the growth of the parasite, or completely clear the infection and develop immunity. Consequently, parasite prevalence is predicted to decline with age. Among elderly individuals, immunosenescence may lead to a late-life increase in infection prevalence. We used a 21-year longitudinal dataset from one population of individually-marked Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate age-dependent prevalence of the GRW1 strain of the intracellular protozoan blood parasite Haemoproteus nucleocondensus and whether infections with this parasite affect age-dependent survival. We analyzed 2454 samples from 1431 individuals and found that H. nucleocondensus infections could rarely be detected in nestlings. Prevalence increased strongly among fledglings and peaked among older first year birds. Prevalence was high among younger adults and declined steeply until ca 4 years of age, after which it was stable. Contrary to expectations, H. nucleocondensus prevalence did not increase among elderly individuals and we found no evidence that annual survival was lower in individuals suffering from an infection. Our results suggest that individuals clear or suppress infections and acquire immunity against future infections, and provide no evidence for immunosenescence nor an impact of chronic infections on survival. PMID:27431430

  7. Age-specific haemosporidian infection dynamics and survival in Seychelles warblers

    PubMed Central

    Hammers, Martijn; Komdeur, Jan; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites may severely impact the fitness and life-history of their hosts. After infection, surviving individuals may suppress the growth of the parasite, or completely clear the infection and develop immunity. Consequently, parasite prevalence is predicted to decline with age. Among elderly individuals, immunosenescence may lead to a late-life increase in infection prevalence. We used a 21-year longitudinal dataset from one population of individually-marked Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) to investigate age-dependent prevalence of the GRW1 strain of the intracellular protozoan blood parasite Haemoproteus nucleocondensus and whether infections with this parasite affect age-dependent survival. We analyzed 2454 samples from 1431 individuals and found that H. nucleocondensus infections could rarely be detected in nestlings. Prevalence increased strongly among fledglings and peaked among older first year birds. Prevalence was high among younger adults and declined steeply until ca 4 years of age, after which it was stable. Contrary to expectations, H. nucleocondensus prevalence did not increase among elderly individuals and we found no evidence that annual survival was lower in individuals suffering from an infection. Our results suggest that individuals clear or suppress infections and acquire immunity against future infections, and provide no evidence for immunosenescence nor an impact of chronic infections on survival. PMID:27431430

  8. Synapse Specificity of Long-Term Potentiation Breaks Down with Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ris, Laurence; Godaux, Emile

    2007-01-01

    Memory shows age-related decline. According to the current prevailing theoretical model, encoding of memories relies on modifications in the strength of the synapses connecting the different cells within a neuronal network. The selective increases in synaptic weight are thought to be biologically implemented by long-term potentiation (LTP). Here,…

  9. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  10. Cellular consequences in the brain and liver of age-specific selection for rate of development in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, W R; Wei, R; Crenshaw, P

    2000-01-01

    Changes in cell number (hyperplasia) and cell size (hypertrophy) in the brain and liver are described for mice subjected to 24 generations of age-specific restricted index selection for rate of development in body weight. One selection treatment (E) altered rate of development between birth and 10 days of age, another treatment (L) involved changes in rate of development between 28 and 56 days of age, while a third control treatment (C) involved random selection. Each selection treatment was replicated three times. These age-specific selection treatments focused on intervals during ontogeny when different developmental processes (hypertrophy or hyperplasia) were more predominant in the control of growth. Significant changes in brain and liver weight occurred at both 28 and 70 days of age. Early selection (E) generated significant changes in the number of cells in the brain while later selection (L) had no effect since the brain had stopped growth before selection was initiated. For the liver, early and late selection produced significant effects on both cell number and cell size. These results describe the dynamic and multidimensional aspects of selection in terms of its ability to alter different cellular and developmental components of complex morphological traits. PMID:10880493

  11. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    PubMed

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed. PMID:27277154

  12. Estimation of age-specific per capita home-produced food intake among populations that garden, farm, or raise animals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda; Moya, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the most recent national food survey that contains the information necessary to estimate home-produced consumption. These data represent "consumer-only" intake rate distributions for various age and demographic categories. "Consumers-only" information is also provided for households who garden, farm, and raise animals for all age groups combined. However, these "consumer-only" values may not always be appropriate when assessing chronic exposures. Furthermore, data for all ages combined may not be useful for estimating exposure among age groups that may be of particular concern. This paper provides age-specific "per capita" intake rate distributions of home-produced foods specifically for the populations that garden, farm, and raise animals, using data from EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook. PMID:21522189

  13. Cause specific mortality and cancer incidence among employees exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD after a 1953 reactor accident.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, M G; Zober, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long term health consequences of past occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). METHODS: Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality were examined up to and including 1992 in a group of 243 men with external comparisons and internal dose-response analyses. Model based estimates of TCDD dose (expressed in micrograms/kg body weight) were developed for all cohort members with an approach that incorporated detailed accounts of each employee's work activities, analyses of TCDD in blood lipid of 138 employees, and internally derived estimates of elimination rates of TCDD. RESULTS: The estimated dose of TCDD for 135 men was > or = 0.1 microgram/kg body weight and for 69 men > or = 1 microgram/kg body weight. Increased cancer risk ratios were found with higher doses of TCDD and longer interval since first exposure for all sites combined and digestive and respiratory cancers in particular. Within the high dose group (> or = 1 microgram/kg body weight), total cancer mortality was increased > or = 20 years after first exposure (13 cases, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05-3.36) as was respiratory cancer (six cases, SMR 3.06; 95% CI 1.12-6.66). Among current cigarette smokers, 12 cancer deaths occurred in the high dose group (SMR 3.42, 95% CI 1.77-5.97) compared with seven deaths at lower doses of TCDD (SMR 1.29, 95% CI 0.52-2.66). Regression analyses based on the Cox's proportional hazards model provided further evidence of a relation between cumulative dose of TCDD and occurrence of both overall and digestive cancer. No evidence of an effect of TCDD on overall mortality or deaths due to circulatory disease was found and no cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or soft tissue sarcoma have been found to date. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with a carcinogenic effect induced by TCDD at doses > or = 1 microgram/kg body weight. With such a small cohort, the risk estimates are

  14. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Arends, Mark J.; Brownstein, David G.; Luo Feijun; Devenney, Paul S.; Rose, Lorraine; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; Berry, Rachel L.; Harrison, David J.; Hooper, Martin L.; Patek, Charles E. . E-mail: Charles.Patek@ed.ac.uk

    2006-01-01

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras {sup -/-} (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} and K-ras {sup -/-} ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras {sup -/-} cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras {sup -/-} cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice.

  15. Differential expression and glycative damage affect specific mitochondrial proteins with aging in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bakala, Hilaire; Ladouce, Romain; Baraibar, Martin A; Friguet, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by the gradual deterioration of cell functions. Particularly, mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with an accumulation of damaged proteins, is of key importance due to the central role of these organelles in cellular metabolism. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in such impairment have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, proteomic analyses looking at both changes at the expression level as well as to glycative modifications of the mitochondrial proteome were performed. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed proteins with aging. Thirteen exhibited a decreased expression and are crucial enzymes related to OXPHOS chain complex I/V components, TCA cycle or fatty acid β-oxidation reaction. On the other hand, 2 enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation cycle were increased in aged mitochondria. Immunodetection and further identification of glycated proteins disclosed a set of advanced glycation end product-modified proteins, including 6 enzymes involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation process, and 2 enzymes of the TCA/urea cycles. A crucial antioxidant enzyme, catalase, was among the most strongly glycated proteins. In addition, several AGE-damaged enzymes (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) exhibited a decreased activity with age. Taken together, these data suggest that liver mitochondria in old rats suffer from a decline in their capacity for energy production, due to (i) decreased expression of OXPHOS complex I/V components and (ii) glycative damage to key fatty acid β-oxidation and TCA/urea cycle enzymes. PMID:23906978

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Growth and Development and the Incidence of Physical Defects at Ages 9 and 10. A Progress Report to the Bernard van Leer Foundation on the Growth and Development Study of the Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anne; O'Brien, Peter

    A longitudinal comparative study was made of the physical growth and development of Australian fourth-grade students from low, medium, and high socioeconomic groups. Specific questions addressed were (1) Do children differing in socioeconomic status differ in anthropometric characteristics and incidence of physical defects? (2) What is the…

  17. Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

  18. Anger and sadness in response to an emotionally neutral film: evidence for age-specific associations with well-being.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Seider, Benjamin H; Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-06-01

    When the association between emotion and well-being is being considered, positive emotions usually come to mind. However, negative emotions serve important adaptive functions and particular negative emotions may be especially adaptive at different stages of adult development. We examined the associations between self-reported negative emotions in response to an emotionally neutral, thematically ambiguous film and subjective well-being among 76 young (age 20-29), 73 middle-aged (age 40-49), and 73 older (age 60-69) adults. Results indicated that higher self-reported anger in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for middle-aged adults, but not for young and older adults. Higher self-reported sadness in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for older adults, but not for young and middle-aged adults. These findings were stronger for cognitive well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life) than for affective well-being (i.e., ratio of dispositional positive to negative affect) and were specific to these emotions (not found for self-reported disgust or fear) and to the emotionally neutral film (not found for sad or disgusting films). Results are discussed in terms of the functions that anger and sadness are thought to serve and the control opportunities afforded in midlife and late life that render these functions differentially adaptive. PMID:21843005

  19. Age-specific productivity and nest site characteristics of Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, K.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nesting Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) were studied in northeastern Oregon. Second-year (SY) males did not breed, but 22 percent of the breeding females were SY's. Mean clutch size (P = 0.012) and mean number of young fledged per pair that laid eggs (P < 0.10) were lower for SY females than for adult (after second year [ASY}) females; however, an equal percentage of the eggs (excluding a collected sample egg) yielded fledged young for each age class. Stepwise discriminant analysis suggested differences in structural characteristics of the nest site habitat for ASY and SY females, i.e., SY female nest sites were associated with younger successional stages than ASY female nest sites. Nests of both age groups were built in trees with high crown volume, but ASY females utilized mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) for nest structures more frequently (P < 0.01) than SY females.

  20. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  1. The role of domain-specific practice, handedness, and starting age in chess.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Fernand; Campitelli, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The respective roles of the environment and innate talent have been a recurrent question for research into expertise. The authors investigated markers of talent, environment, and critical period for the acquisition of expert performance in chess. Argentinian chess players (N = 104), ranging from weak amateurs to grandmasters, completed a questionnaire measuring variables including individual and group practice, starting age, and handedness. The study reaffirms the importance of practice for reaching high levels of performance, but it also indicates a large variability: The slower player needed 8 times as much practice to reach master level than the faster player. Additional results show a correlation between skill and starting age and indicate that players are more likely to be mixed-handed than individuals in the general population; however, there was no correlation between handedness and skill within the sample of chess players. Together, these results suggest that practice is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the acquisition of expertise, that some additional factors may differentiate chessplayers and nonchessplayers, and that starting age of practice is important. PMID:17201516

  2. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  3. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  4. Chronic Exercise Modifies Age-Related Telomere Dynamics in a Tissue-Specific Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Andrew T.; Witkowski, Sarah; Marshall, Mallory R.; Wang, Jenny; Lima, Laila C. J.; Guth, Lisa M.; Spangenburg, Espen E.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of long-term exercise on telomere dynamics in wild-derived short telomere mice (CAST/Ei) over 1 year. We observed significant telomere shortening in liver and cardiac tissues in sedentary 1-year-old mice compared with young (8 weeks) baseline mice that were attenuated in exercised 1-year-old animals. In contrast, skeletal muscle exhibited significant telomere shortening in exercise mice compared with sedentary and young mice. Telomerase enzyme activity was increased in skeletal muscle of exercise compared with sedentary animals but was similar in cardiac and liver tissues. We observed significant age-related decreases in expression of telomere-related genes that were attenuated by exercise in cardiac and skeletal muscle but not liver. Protein content of TRF1 was significantly increased in plantaris muscle with age. In summary, long-term exercise altered telomere dynamics, slowing age-related decreases in telomere length in cardiac and liver tissue but contributing to shortening in exercised skeletal muscle. PMID:22389464

  5. Association of tobacco habits, including bidi smoking, with overall and site-specific cancer incidence: results from the Mumbai cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Yeole, Balkrishna B.; Hébert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bidis are hand-rolled cigarettes commonly smoked in South Asia and are marketed to Western populations as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. This study examined the association between bidis and other forms of tobacco use and cancer incidence in an urban developing country population. Methods Using data from the large, well-characterized Mumbai cohort study, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from Cox proportional hazards regression models in order to compare the relative effect of various forms of tobacco use on cancer incidence. Results During 649,228 person-years of follow-up 1,267 incident cancers occurred in 87,222 male cohort members. Incident oral cancer in bidi smokers (HR = 3.55; 95% CI = 2.40,5.24) was 42% higher than in cigarette smokers (HR = 2.50;95% CI = 1.65,3.78). For all respiratory and intrathoracic organs combined, the increase was 69% (HR = 5.54; 95% CI = 3.46,8.87 vs. HR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.99,5.39); for lung and larynx, the increases were 35 and 112%, respectively. Smokeless tobacco use was associated with cancers of the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, digestive, respiratory, and intrathoracic organs. Conclusions Despite marketing claims to the contrary, we found that smokeless tobacco use and bidi smoking are at least as harmful as cigarette smoking for all incident cancers and are associated with increased risk of oral and respiratory/intrathoracic cancers. PMID:21431915

  6. Age-related impairment of humoral response to influenza is associated with changes in antigen specific T follicular helper cell responses.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Masters, April R; Hopkins, Jacob W; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4(+) T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged animals during infection, but TFH cells from aged mice exhibit significant differences, including reduced expression of ICOS and elevated production of IL-10 and IFNγ, which potentially impairs interaction with cognate B cells. Also, more influenza specific T cells in aged mice have a regulatory phenotype, which could contribute to the impaired TFH function. Adoptive transfer studies with young T cells demonstrated that TGF-β1 in the aged environment can drive increased regulatory T cell accumulation. Aging and the aged environment thus impact antigen specific TFH cell function and formation, which contribute to reduced protective humoral responses. PMID:27109638

  7. Age-related impairment of humoral response to influenza is associated with changes in antigen specific T follicular helper cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Masters, April R; Hopkins, Jacob W; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4+ T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged animals during infection, but TFH cells from aged mice exhibit significant differences, including reduced expression of ICOS and elevated production of IL-10 and IFNγ, which potentially impairs interaction with cognate B cells. Also, more influenza specific T cells in aged mice have a regulatory phenotype, which could contribute to the impaired TFH function. Adoptive transfer studies with young T cells demonstrated that TGF-β1 in the aged environment can drive increased regulatory T cell accumulation. Aging and the aged environment thus impact antigen specific TFH cell function and formation, which contribute to reduced protective humoral responses. PMID:27109638

  8. Vulnerability to nicotine self-administration in adolescent mice correlates with age-specific expression of α4* nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Renda, Anthony; Penty, Nora; Komal, Pragya; Nashmi, Raad

    2016-09-01

    The majority of smokers begin during adolescence, a developmental period with a high susceptibility to substance abuse. Adolescents are affected differently by nicotine compared to adults, with adolescents being more vulnerable to nicotine's rewarding properties. It is unknown if the age-dependent molecular composition of a younger brain contributes to a heightened susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Nicotine, the principle pharmacological component of tobacco, binds and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The most prevalent is the widely expressed α4-containing (α4*) subtype which mediates reward and is strongly implicated in nicotine dependence. Exposing different age groups of mice, postnatal day (P) 44-86 days old, to a two bottle-choice oral nicotine self-administration paradigm for five days yielded age-specific consumption levels. Nicotine self-administration was elevated in the P44 group, peaked at P54-60 and was drastically lower in the P66 through P86 groups. We also quantified α4* nAChR expression via spectral confocal imaging of brain slices from α4YFP knock-in mice, in which the α4 nAChR subunit is tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Quantitative fluorescence revealed age-specific α4* nAChR expression in dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area. Receptor expression showed a strong positive correlation with daily nicotine dose, suggesting that α4* nAChR expression levels are age-specific and may contribute to the propensity to self-administer nicotine. PMID:27102349

  9. Factors Associated with Self-rated Health in the Rural Population: Age- and Gender-specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Kimata, Takaya; Uemura, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies worldwide have supported the predictive validity of self-rated health (SRH) with regard to disability and mortality among elderly people. Although SRH is an important study topic providing clues to enhance a person’s quality of life, there is currently insufficient data on age- and gender-specific differences among factors associated with SRH in Japan, particularly in rural areas. The present study examined the factors associated with SRH of a segment of Japan’s rural population by age- and gender-specific analysis. Methods: We used data from a cohort study of all users who underwent an annual health checkup at a public clinic in a rural area. The study subjects were 155 male and 169 female users from June 2009 to August 2010 who agreed to participate in this study. We divided the study subjects into 4 categories as follows: men aged less than 65, women aged less than 65, men aged 65 and over, and women aged 65 and over. The subjects who responded positively to the SRH-related questions were defined as the high SRH group, and those who responded negatively were defined as the low SRH group. We then compared the data between the high and the low groups in each category. Results: In all four categories, there were statistically significant differences in regular hospital or clinic attendance between the high and low SRH groups. In all four categories, there were no significant differences in eating or exercise habits between the two SRH groups. Conclusion: Because regular hospital or clinic attendance by a subject is indicative of the presence of chronic health problems, it is natural for the subject’s perception of their own health to be negative. However, rural physicians should provide patients with emotional and psychological support to deal with any health-related concerns positively. PMID:25648990

  10. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  11. Heart-Specific Knockout of the Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Reductase (Txnrd2) Induces Metabolic and Contractile Dysfunction in the Aging Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Kiermayer, Claudia; Northrup, Emily; Schrewe, Anja; Walch, Axel; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Schoensiegel, Frank; Zischka, Hans; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Ivandic, Boris; Kupatt, Christian; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous deletion of thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2) in mice is embryonically lethal and associated with abnormal heart development, while constitutive, heart-specific Txnrd2 inactivation leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and perinatal death. The significance of Txnrd2 in aging cardiomyocytes, however, has not yet been examined. Methods and Results The tamoxifen-inducible heart-specific αMHC-MerCreMer transgene was used to inactivate loxP-flanked Txnrd2 alleles in adult mice. Hearts and isolated mitochondria from aged knockout mice were morphologically and functionally analyzed. Echocardiography revealed a significant increase in left ventricular end-systolic diameters in knockouts. Fractional shortening and ejection fraction were decreased compared with controls. Ultrastructural analysis of cardiomyocytes of aged mice showed mitochondrial degeneration and accumulation of autophagic bodies. A dysregulated autophagic activity was supported by higher levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-I (LC3-I), and p62 in knockout hearts. Isolated Txnrd2-deficient mitochondria used less oxygen and tended to produce more reactive oxygen species. Chronic hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit stabilization and altered transcriptional and metabolic signatures indicated that energy metabolism is deregulated. Conclusions These results imply a novel role of Txnrd2 in sustaining heart function during aging and suggest that Txnrd2 may be a modifier of heart failure. PMID:26199228

  12. Guaiacol and 4-methylphenol as specific markers of torrefied malts. Fate of volatile phenols in special beers through aging.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Caroline; Nizet, Sabrina; Collin, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    Phenol-specific extracts of 12 Belgian special beers were analyzed by gas chromatography hyphenated to olfactometry (AEDA procedure) and mass spectrometry (single ion monitoring mode). As guaiacol and 4-methylphenol were revealed to be more concentrated in brown beers (>3.5 and >1.1 μg/L, respectively), they are proposed as specific markers of the utilization of dark malts. Analysis of five differently colored malts (5, 50, 500, 900, and 1500 °EBC) allowed confirmation of high levels of guaiacol (>180 μg/L; values given in wort, for 100% specialty malt) and 4-methylphenol (>7 μg/L) for chocolate and black malts only (versus respectively <3 μg/L and undetected in all other worts). Monitoring of beer aging highlighted major differences between phenols. Guaiacol and 4-methylphenol appeared even more concentrated in dark beers after 14 months of aging, reaching levels not far from their sensory thresholds. 4-Vinylphenols and 4-ethylphenols, on the contrary, proved to be gradually degraded in POF(+)-yeast-derived beers. Vanillin exhibited an interesting pattern: in beers initially containing <25 μg/L, the vanillin concentration increased over a 14 month aging period to levels exceeding its sensory threshold (up to 160 μg/L). Beers initially showing an above-threshold level of vanillin displayed a decrease during aging. PMID:25174984

  13. Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Questionnaires in a College-Age Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shean, Glenn; Baldwin, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CESD; L. S. Radloff, 1977) questionnaires for a college-student sample. Results indicate that the BDI-II and CES-D evidenced satisfactory levels of…

  14. Visual Fast Mapping in School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…

  15. Mother-Child Reminiscing and Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E.; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the…

  16. Sex- and age-specific differences in relaxin family peptide receptor expression within the hippocampus and amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Meadows, K L; Byrnes, E M

    2015-01-22

    Relaxin is an essential pregnancy-related hormone with broad peripheral effects mediated by activation of relaxin-like family peptide 1 receptors (RXFP1). More recent studies suggest an additional role for relaxin as a neuropeptide, with RXFP1 receptors expressed in numerous brain regions. Neurons in an area of the brainstem known as the nucleus incertus (NI) produce relaxin 3 (RLN3), the most recently identified neuropeptide in the relaxin family. RLN3 has been shown to activate both RXFP1 and relaxin-like family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3) receptor subtypes. Studies suggest wide-ranging neuromodulatory effects of both RXFP1 and RXFP3 activation, although to date the majority of studies have been conducted in young males. In the current study, we examined potential sex- and age-related changes in RLN3 gene expression in the NI as well as RXFP1 and RXFP3 gene expression in the dorsal hippocampus (HI), ventral hippocampus (vHI) and amygdala (AMYG) using young adult (9-12weeks) and middle-aged (9-12months) male and female rats. In addition, regional changes in RXFP1 and RXFP3 protein expression were examined in the CA1, CA2/CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) as well as within basolateral (BLA), central (CeA), and medial (MeA) amygdaloid nuclei. In the NI, RLN3 showed an age-related decrease in males. In the HI, only the RXFP3 receptor showed an age-related change in gene expression, however, both receptor subtypes showed age-related changes in protein expression that were region specific. Additionally, while gene and protein expression of both receptors increased with age in AMYG, these effects were both region- and sex-specific. Finally, overall males displayed a greater number of cells that express the RXFP3 protein in all of the amygdaloid nuclei examined. Cognitive and emotional processes regulated by activity within the HI and AMYG are modulated by both sex and age. The vast majority of studies exploring the influence of sex on age-related changes in the HI and AMYG have

  17. Patient-Specific Age: The Other Side of the Coin in Advanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schimke, Magdalena M.; Marozin, Sabrina; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are present as a rare subpopulation within any type of stroma in the body of higher animals. Prominently, MSC have been recognized to reside in perivascular locations, supposedly maintaining blood vessel integrity. During tissue damage and injury, MSC/pericytes become activated, evade from their perivascular niche and are thus assumed to support wound healing and tissue regeneration. In vitro MSC exhibit demonstrated capabilities to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue cell types. Hence, many MSC-based therapeutic approaches have been performed to address bone, cartilage, or heart regeneration. Furthermore, prominent studies showed efficacy of ex vivo expanded MSC to countervail graft-vs.-host-disease. Therefore, additional fields of application are presently conceived, in which MSC-based therapies potentially unfold beneficial effects, such as amelioration of non-healing conditions after tendon or spinal cord injury, as well as neuropathies. Working along these lines, MSC-based scientific research has been forged ahead to prominently occupy the clinical stage. Aging is to a great deal stochastic by nature bringing forth changes in an individual fashion. Yet, is aging of stem cells or/and their corresponding niche considered a determining factor for outcome and success of clinical therapies? PMID:26696897

  18. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. PMID:25180915

  19. Shedding light on the specificity of school-aged children's attachment narratives.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Jessica L; Somers, Jennifer A; West, Jessica L; Coffey, John K; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael

    2016-04-01

    A prominent research tradition within the field of attachment involves analyzing relationship narratives for qualities thought to reveal important information regarding the organization of attachment, and the different ways in which attachment insecurity presents. Researchers increasingly use this method to assess attachment in middle childhood, but further work needs to be conducted with respect to the divergent validity of attachment narratives in this age range. Thus, the current study examined differential associations between children's discursive style and linguistic behavior when completing an attachment interview (Child Attachment Interview [CAI]) and Non-Relational Interview (NRI). In addition, the discriminant validity of attachment narratives was assessed in predicting children's physiological reactivity to a relational challenge. Children (N = 125) completed the NRI and the CAI at Time 1. A subset of the original sample (n = 64) completed another assessment 1.5 years later involving simulated non-relational and relational challenges. While narrative coherence was moderately associated across the two interviews, CAI narrative coherence uniquely predicted reactivity to a relational probe. We discuss implications for understanding children's narrative styles across discourse topics as well as the significance of the results for using attachment interviews in this age range. PMID:26781084

  20. Role of leptin G-2548A polymorphism in age- and gender-specific development of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Adeela; Rana, Sobia; Mahmood, Saqib; Saeed, Shahid

    2015-09-01

    Leptin is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, and therefore, is central to adipositysensing pathway. We examined the relationship of the leptin G-2548A polymorphism with obesity and obesityrelated anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a total of 394 (239 obese and 155 non-obese) subjects between 5 and 45 years of age. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin and leptin receptor were determined, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed association with obesity in children and adolescents (less than or equal to 18 years of age) but not in adults. However, analysis by gender stratification revealed association with obesity in girls only. In addition, G-2548A polymorphism showed association with BMI, WC, HC, fasting blood glucose and serum leptin levels. This suggests that G-2548A polymorphism may influence the susceptibility to metabolic disturbances and obesity at an early life. Further investigation with a larger sample size is required to validate the effect of LEP G-2548A polymorphism in obese Pakistani girls. PMID:26333398

  1. Patient-Specific Age: The Other Side of the Coin in Advanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schimke, Magdalena M; Marozin, Sabrina; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are present as a rare subpopulation within any type of stroma in the body of higher animals. Prominently, MSC have been recognized to reside in perivascular locations, supposedly maintaining blood vessel integrity. During tissue damage and injury, MSC/pericytes become activated, evade from their perivascular niche and are thus assumed to support wound healing and tissue regeneration. In vitro MSC exhibit demonstrated capabilities to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue cell types. Hence, many MSC-based therapeutic approaches have been performed to address bone, cartilage, or heart regeneration. Furthermore, prominent studies showed efficacy of ex vivo expanded MSC to countervail graft-vs.-host-disease. Therefore, additional fields of application are presently conceived, in which MSC-based therapies potentially unfold beneficial effects, such as amelioration of non-healing conditions after tendon or spinal cord injury, as well as neuropathies. Working along these lines, MSC-based scientific research has been forged ahead to prominently occupy the clinical stage. Aging is to a great deal stochastic by nature bringing forth changes in an individual fashion. Yet, is aging of stem cells or/and their corresponding niche considered a determining factor for outcome and success of clinical therapies? PMID:26696897

  2. Rising incidence of breast cancer among young women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ranstam, J.; Janzon, L.; Olsson, H.

    1990-01-01

    The national Swedish cancer registry was used to analyse the age-specific time trends in breast cancer incidence in Sweden from 1970 to 1984. The analysis included both a calendar year and a birth cohort approach to estimate time trends in disease occurrence. According to the birth cohort approach there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence with an average annual increase of the incidence of 3.2% (P = 0.0114), 3.4% (P = 0.0002) and 2.2% (P = 0.0264) in the age groups 25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively. Possible causes of the observed increasing incidence are discussed. PMID:2297482

  3. Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza A viruses in Hong Kong, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Peihua; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wang, Xiling; Chan, King-Pan; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Poon, Leo Lit-Man; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza viruses have not been documented in tropical and subtropical regions. We implemented a systematic surveillance program in two tertiary hospitals in Hong Kong Island, to collect 112 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 254 A(H3N2) positive specimens from 2013 to 2014. Of these, 56 and 72 were identified as genetic variants of the WHO recommended vaccine composition strains, respectively. A subset of these genetic variants was selected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, but none appeared to be antigenic variants of the vaccine composition strains. We also found that genetic and antigenicity variations were similar across sex and age groups of ≤18 yrs, 18 to 65 yrs, and ≥65 yrs. Our findings suggest that none of the age groups led other age groups in genetic evolution of influenza virus A strains. Future studies from different regions and longer study periods are needed to further investigate the age and sex heterogeneity of influenza viruses. PMID:27453320

  4. Phonological profile of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment at age 4: are there any changes over time?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Serra-Raventós, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children with SLI continue to show a delay in the acquisition of segments, syllabic structures and in the use of the simplification processes, but not in word structures, compared with their age-matched controls. Children with SLI also display significant differences compared with their language level controls, but not in the same areas as observed at age 3: the differences are now in nasals and liquids at the segmental level, and in CCV, CVC and other complex structures at the syllabic level. There are also some simplification processes that seem to be more prevalent in these children than in their language level controls: absence of trill, cluster reductions and consonant deletions. The results enable us to interpret SLI as more than a delayed development and to show the differences in the profiles over time. PMID:17108698

  5. The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Akhter, Samiha; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Alam, Tanzir; Nageeb Hasan, S M; Saifullah, A R M; Shohel, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed