Science.gov

Sample records for age standard deviation

  1. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  2. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  3. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  4. Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

  5. A Method for the Automatic Exposure Control in Pediatric Abdominal CT: Application to the Standard Deviation Value and Tube Current Methods by Using Patient's Age and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Ken; Akiyama, Shinji; Nambu, Atushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hasebe, Yuusuke

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to apply the pediatric abdominal CT protocol of Donnelly et al. in the United States to the pediatric abdominal CT-AEC. Examining CT images of 100 children, we found that the sectional area of the hepatic portal region (y) was strongly correlated with the body weight (x) as follows: y=7.14x + 84.39 (correlation coefficient=0.9574). We scanned an elliptical cone phantom that simulates the human body using a pediatric abdominal CT scanning method of Donnelly et al. in, and measured SD values. We further scanned the same phantom under the settings for adult CT-AEC scan and obtained the relationship between the sectional areas (y) and the SD values. Using these results, we obtained the following preset noise factors for CT-AEC at each body weight range: 6.90 at 4.5-8.9 kg, 8.40 at 9.0-17.9 kg, 8.68 at 18.0-26.9 kg, 9.89 at 27.0-35.9 kg, 12.22 at 36.0-45.0 kg, 13.52 at 45.1-70.0 kg, 15.29 at more than 70 kg. From the relation between age, weight and the distance of liver and tuber ischiadicum of 500 children, we obtained the CTDIvol values and DLP values under the scanning protocol of Donnelly et al. Almost all of DRL from these values turned out to be smaller than the DRL data of IAEA and various countries. Thus, by setting the maximum current values of CT-AEC to be the Donnelly et al.'s age-wise current values, and using our weight-wise noise factors, we think we can perform pediatric abdominal CT-AEC scans that are consistent with the same radiation safety and the image quality as those proposed by Donnelly et al.

  6. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  7. Estimation of amplitude and standard deviation of noisy sinusoidal signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-01-01

    A simple method to estimate the amplitude and standard deviation of sinusoidal signals corrupted with additive Gaussian noise is proposed. For this, a two-parameter model is developed by sorting the samples of the signal. This reduced parametric model allows robust parameter estimation, even if the phase function of the sinusoid is nonlinear, discontinuous, and unknown. The functionality and performance of the proposed method are analyzed by several computer simulations; the used GNU Octave program is provided. The proposed method can be useful for unbiased envelope estimation in fringe pattern normalization among other potential applications.

  8. Vectorial statistics for the standard deviation of wind direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, Pierre S.; Micallef, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation of wind direction is an important parameter in atmospheric pollution management. It can be used to calculate the rate of horizontal diffusion and from this the transport and dispersion of air contaminants can be determined. The standard deviation of wind direction cannot be calculated directly from customary linear statistics, mainly because of its periodic nature which makes the zero position arbitrary. Various algorithms have been proposed to estimate its value. The methodologies adopted in meteorology implicitly assume that the wind angle can be treated independently of the wind speed. Such an assumption might not be appropriate in some instances, as will be shown in this work by means of an example. To overcome this limitation, a new algorithm that takes into account both the periodic and the vectorial nature of the wind direction will be proposed. This is done by weighing each sample value with the corresponding wind speed. The results obtained from the new method were compared to those determined from algorithms available in literature using measured data. The comparison indicates that while the behavior is similar, differences do exist. Further investigation indicated that while the differences can be small, they might be physically important.

  9. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-12-31

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Spectral relative standard deviation: a practical benchmark in metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Helen M; Ekman, Drew R; Collette, Timothy W; Viant, Mark R

    2009-03-01

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to assess the reproducibility of metabolomics datasets that are derived from all the detected metabolites. Here we calculate spectrum-wide relative standard deviations (RSDs; also termed coefficient of variation, CV) for ten metabolomics datasets, spanning a variety of sample types from mammals, fish, invertebrates and a cell line, and display them succinctly as boxplots. We demonstrate multiple applications of spectral RSDs for characterising technical as well as inter-individual biological variation: for optimising metabolite extractions, comparing analytical techniques, investigating matrix effects, and comparing biofluids and tissue extracts from single and multiple species for optimising experimental design. Technical variation within metabolomics datasets, recorded using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry, ranges from 1.6 to 20.6% (reported as the median spectral RSD). Inter-individual biological variation is typically larger, ranging from as low as 7.2% for tissue extracts from laboratory-housed rats to 58.4% for fish plasma. In addition, for some of the datasets we confirm that the spectral RSD values are largely invariant across different spectral processing methods, such as baseline correction, normalisation and binning resolution. In conclusion, we propose spectral RSDs and their median values contained herein as practical benchmarks for metabolomics studies.

  11. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  12. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  13. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Deviations from standard organization of...

  14. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  15. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Deviations from standard organization of...

  16. Linear Age-Correlated Development of Inhibitory Saccadic Trajectory Deviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Greg L.; Mendizabal, Sandrine; Carrière, Marie-Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined development-related differences in saccade curvature during a goal-directed saccade task in the presence of distracting visual information. Participants were individuals who ranged in age from 6 to 30 years. Consistent with previous findings, all participants showed curvature toward the distractor stimulus at shorter…

  17. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for.... standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to... the standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon that was submitted by Yardarm Knot Fisheries,...

  18. 75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    .... standard of identity for bottled water. The purpose of the temporary permit is to allow the applicant to... Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for bottled water (Sec. 165.110... 101.9. The bottled water must be manufactured in accordance with the quality standards in Sec....

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility Standard Deviations in the Measurement of Trace Moisture Generated Using Permeation Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peter H.; Kacker, Raghu

    2003-01-01

    Permeation-tube moisture generators are used in industry as calibrated sources of water vapor and carrier gas mixtures. Measurements were made using three permeation-tube moisture generators of the type used in the semiconductor industry. This paper describes repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations in measurement of moisture concentration from such generators. Repeatability refers to measurements within a system and reproducibility refers to measurements between systems. Two independent methods were used to measure the realized concentration of water vapor. The first measurement, the calculated value, was determined using calibrated permeation rate of permeation-tube and flow rate of dry carrier gas. This is the industrial method of evaluating moisture concentration. The second measurement, the measured value, was determined using the low frost-point generator at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and a quartz-crystal-micro-balance. Four pairs of independent measurements for each generator and for six nominal levels in the range from10 nL/L to 100 nL/L were made. The characteristic used to quantify repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations in industrial measurements is the calculated value minus the measured value. Repeatability standard deviation ranges from 1 nL/L to 2 nL/L, approximately. Reproducibility standard deviation ranges from 2 nL/L to 8 nL/L, approximately. The documentary ASTM standard E691-99 was used for both data validation and quantification of the repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations. PMID:27413608

  20. Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

    2006-01-01

    The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  2. Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...

  3. Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

  4. A passive autofocus system by using standard deviation of the image on a liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Pejman; Kesküla, Arko; Haus, Henry; Schlaak, Helmut F.; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Aabloo, Alvo; Kiefer, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Today most of applications have a small camera such as cell phones, tablets and medical devices. A micro lens is required in order to reduce the size of the devices. In this paper an auto focus system is used in order to find the best position of a liquid lens without any active components such as ultrasonic or infrared. In fact a passive auto focus system by using standard deviation of the images on a liquid lens which consist of a Dielectric Elastomer Actuator (DEA) membrane between oil and water is proposed.

  5. Standard Deviation and Intra Prediction Mode Based Adaptive Spatial Error Concealment (SEC) in H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

    Transmission of compressed video over error prone channels may result in packet losses or errors, which can significantly degrade the image quality. Therefore an error concealment scheme is applied at the video receiver side to mask the damaged video. Considering there are 3 types of MBs (Macro Blocks) in natural video frame, i. e., Textural MB, Edged MB, and Smooth MB, this paper proposes an adaptive spatial error concealment which can choose 3 different methods for these 3 different MBs. For criteria of choosing appropriate method, 2 factors are taken into consideration. Firstly, standard deviation of our proposed edge statistical model is exploited. Secondly, some new features of latest video compression standard H.264/AVC, i. e., intra prediction mode is also considered for criterion formulation. Compared with previous works, which are only based on deterministic measurement, proposed method achieves the best image recovery. Subjective and objective image quality evaluations in experiments confirmed this.

  6. A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.

  7. Age, colors and ISO standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2010-01-01

    Age influences all bodily functions, also vision. Therefore, the effects of age on vision should be mirrored in ergonomic requirements laid down in display standards such as ISO 9241-300/307, 'Electronic visual display requirements'. However, this is only true to a limited extent - just as is the case with other standards dealing with ergonomic requirements, because developers of such standards do not possess the necessary specific knowledge. It therefore was an important step by ISO and IEC to publish in 2001 ISO/IEC Guide 71: 'Guidelines for standard developers to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities'. This guide was followed by a more specific and detailed Technical Report from ISO, ISO/TR 22411, as well as by 'Guidelines on Accessibility' from CIE. These three guidelines are reviewed. The paper concludes with developments around ISO 9241-300/307 in general, especially future additions on autostereoscopic displays and electronic paper. As to the former, the visual fatigue often accompanying viewing 3D displays needs methods for characterizing and validating such displays, to reduce visual fatigue as much as possible. Standardizing certain properties of electronic paper is an example of the present pro-active way of working of ISO/TC159/SC4/WG2, 'Visual Display Requirements', that developed ISO 9241-300/307.

  8. Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrake, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

  9. Poorly recognized age-related downward deviation of the inguinal ligament

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Yassir; Barvalia, Mihir; Rana, Gurinder; Khakwani, M Zain; Azim, Khizr; Patel, Rahul; Idrees, Sohira; Baker, Gail; Cohen, Marc; Wasty, Najam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors affecting actual inguinal ligament course in live human subjects. Introduction and hypothesis: Although the expected inguinal ligament course is supposedly a straight line extending from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle, the actual inguinal ligament course is frequently depicted a priori by a downward bowing dotted line. There are no studies in a live subject supporting this assumption. We hypothesized this assumption is indeed valid and is related to among other factors a lifelong effect of gravity and lax abdominal musculature on the inguinal ligament course. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 54 consecutive computed tomography scans of the abdomen and pelvis randomly distributed across all age groups. Actual inguinal ligament course was visualized by reconstructing images using Terracon software. Vertical distance from the lowest point of actual inguinal ligament course to the expected inguinal ligament course was measured. We used multiple linear regression analysis to study the correlation between degree of inguinal ligament deviation and several variables. Results: Actual inguinal ligament course was below the expected inguinal ligament course in 52 of 54 patients. The mean deviation was 8.2 ± 5.9 mm. Advanced age was significantly associated with greater downward bowing of the inguinal ligament (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Actual inguinal ligament course is often well below the expected inguinal ligament course; this downward bowing of the inguinal ligament is especially pronounced with advancing age. Operators need to be mindful as this downward bowing can lead to supra-inguinal sticks causing vascular complications. PMID:27826446

  10. Repeatable source, site, and path effects on the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, P.-S.; Chiou, B.; Abrahamson, N.; Walling, M.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the reduction in the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models by removing ergodic assumption.We partition the modeling error (residual) into five components, three of which represent the repeatable source-location-specific, site-specific, and path-specific deviations from the population mean. A variance estimation procedure of these error components is developed for use with a set of recordings from earthquakes not heavily clustered in space.With most source locations and propagation paths sampled only once, we opt to exploit the spatial correlation of residuals to estimate the variances associated with the path-specific and the source-location-specific deviations. The estimation procedure is applied to ground-motion amplitudes from 64 shallow earthquakes in Taiwan recorded at 285 sites with at least 10 recordings per site. The estimated variance components are used to quantify the reduction in aleatory variability that can be used in hazard analysis for a single site and for a single path. For peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 s, we find that the singlesite standard deviations are 9%-14% smaller than the total standard deviation, whereas the single-path standard deviations are 39%-47% smaller.

  11. Estimating wind velocity standard deviation values in the inertial sublayer from observations in the roughness sublayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falabino, Simona; Trini Castelli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    In air quality practice, observed data are often input to air pollution models to simulate the pollutants dispersion and to estimate their concentration. When the area of interest includes urban sites, observed data collected at urban or suburban stations can be available, and it can happen to use them for estimating surface layer parameters given in input to the models. In such case, roughness sublayer quantities may enter the parameterizations of the turbulence variables as if they were representative of the inertial sublayer, possibly leading to a not appropriate application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. We investigate whether it is possible to derive suitable values of the wind velocity standard deviations for the inertial sublayer using the friction velocity and stability parameter observed in the roughness sublayer, inside a similarity-like analytical function. For this purpose, an analysis of sonic anemometer data sets collected in suburban and urban sites is proposed. The values derived through this approach are compared to actual observations in the inertial sublayer. The transferability of the empirical coefficients estimated for the similarity functions between different sites, characterized by similar or different morphologies, is also addressed. The derived functions proved to be a reasonable approximation of the actual data. This method was found to be feasible and generally reliable, and can be a reference to keep using, in air pollution models, the similarity theory parameterizations when measurements are available only in the roughness sublayer.

  12. A better detection of 2LSB steganography via standard deviation of the extended pairs of values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a modification to the Extended Pairs of Values (EPoV) method of 2LSB steganalysis in digital still images. In EPoV, the detection and the estimation of the hidden message length were performed in two separate processes as it considered the automated detection. However, the new proposed method uses the standard deviation of the EPoV to measure the amount of distortion in the stego image made by the embedding process using 2LSB replacement, which is directly proportional with the embedding rate. It is shown that it can accurately estimate the length of the hidden message and outperform the other methods of the targeted 2LSB steganalysis in the literature. The proposed method is also more consistent with the steganalysis methods in the literature by giving the amount of difference to the expected clean image. According to the experimental results, based on analysing 3000 nevercompressed images, the proposed method is more accurate than the current targeted 2LSB steganalysis methods for low embedding rates.

  13. Delay and Standard Deviation Beamforming to Enhance Specular Reflections in Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Raja Sekhar; Sornes, Anders Rasmus; Hermans, Jeroen; Samset, Eigil; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Although interventional devices, such as needles, guide wires, and catheters, are best visualized by X-ray, real-time volumetric echography could offer an attractive alternative as it avoids ionizing radiation; it provides good soft tissue contrast, and it is mobile and relatively cheap. Unfortunately, as echography is traditionally used to image soft tissue and blood flow, the appearance of interventional devices in conventional ultrasound images remains relatively poor, which is a major obstacle toward ultrasound-guided interventions. The objective of this paper was therefore to enhance the appearance of interventional devices in ultrasound images. Thereto, a modified ultrasound beamforming process using conventional-focused transmit beams is proposed that exploits the properties of received signals containing specular reflections (as arising from these devices). This new beamforming approach referred to as delay and standard deviation beamforming (DASD) was quantitatively tested using simulated as well as experimental data using a linear array transducer. Furthermore, the influence of different imaging settings (i.e., transmit focus, imaging depth, and scan angle) on the obtained image contrast was evaluated. The study showed that the image contrast of specular regions improved by 5-30 dB using DASD beamforming compared with traditional delay and sum (DAS) beamforming. The highest gain in contrast was observed when the interventional device was tilted away from being orthogonal to the transmit beam, which is a major limitation in standard DAS imaging. As such, the proposed beamforming methodology can offer an improved visualization of interventional devices in the ultrasound image with potential implications for ultrasound-guided interventions.

  14. Delay and Standard Deviation beamforming to enhance specular reflections in Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Raja Sekhar; Sornes, Anders; Hermans, Jeroen; Samset, Eigil; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-09-27

    Although interventional devices such as needles, guide wires and catheters are best visualized by X-ray, real-time volumetric echography could offer an attractive alternative as it avoids ionizing radiation; it provides good soft tissue contrast and it is mobile and relatively cheap. Unfortunately, as echography is traditionally used to image soft tissue and blood flow, the appearance of interventional devices in conventional ultrasound images remains relatively poor which is a major obstacle towards ultrasound-guided interventions. The objective of the current study was therefore to enhance the appearance of interventional devices in ultrasound images. Thereto a modified ultrasound beamforming process using conventional focused transmit beams is proposed that exploits the properties of received signals containing specular reflections (as arising from these devices). This new beamforming approach referred to as Delay and Standard Deviation beamforming (DASD) was quantitatively tested using simulated as well as experimental data using a linear array transducer. Furthermore, the influence of different imaging settings (i.e. transmit focus, imaging depth and scan angle) on the obtained image contrast was evaluated. The study showed that the image contrast of specular regions improved by 5 to 30dB using DASD beamforming compared to traditional delay and sum (DAS) beamforming. The highest gain in contrast was observed when the interventional device was tilted away from being orthogonal to the transmit beam, which is a major limitation in standard DAS imaging. As such, the proposed beamforming methodology can offer an improved visualization of interventional devices in the ultrasound image with potential implications for ultrasound-guided interventions.

  15. Transverse flowmetry of carbon particles based on photoacoustic Doppler standard deviation using an auto-correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Sun, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    In order to measure the flow velocity of carbon particle suspension perpendicular to the receiving axis of ultrasound transducer, the standard deviation of photoacoustic Doppler frequency spectrum is used to estimate the bandwidth broadening, and the spectrum standard deviation is calculated by an auto-correlation method. A 532 nm pulsed laser with the repetition rate of 20 Hz is used as a pumping source to generate photoacoustic signal. The photoacoustic signals are detected using a focused PZT ultrasound transducer with the central frequency of 10 MHz. The suspension of carbon particles is driven by a syringe pump. The complex photoacoustic signal is calculated by Hilbert transformation from time domain signal before auto-correlation. The standard deviation of the Doppler bandwidth broadening is calculated by averaging the auto-correlation results of several individual A scans. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the spectrum standard deviation of the transversal carbon particle flow from 5.0 mm/s to 8.4 mm/s. The experimental results show that the auto-correlation result is approximately linearly distributed within the measuring range.

  16. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  17. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  18. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  19. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  20. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  1. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  2. Methodological Issues in Meta-Analyzing Standard Deviations: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Wu, Meng-Jia

    2008-01-01

    In this comment on C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo, the authors raise methodological concerns about the approach used to analyze the data. The authors suggest further refinement of the procedures used, and they compare the approach taken by Bond and DePaulo with standard methods for meta-analysis. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  3. An improved offset generator developed for Allan deviation measurement of ultra stable frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.; Sydnor, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Measuring the performance of ultra stable frequency standards such as the Superconducting Cavity Maser Oscillator (SCMO) necessitates improvement of some test instrumentation. The frequency stability test equipment used at JPL includes a 1 Hz Offset Generator to generate a beat frequency between a pair of 100 MHz signals that are being compared. The noise floor of the measurement system using the current Offset Generator is adequate to characterize stability of hydrogen masers, but it is not adequate for the SCMO. A new Offset Generator with improved stability was designed and tested at JPL. With this Offset Generator and a new Zero Crossing Detector, recently developed at JPL, the measurement flow was reduced by a factor of 5.5 at 1 second tau, 3.0 at 1000 seconds, and 9.4 at 10,000 seconds, compared against the previous design. In addition to the new circuit designs of the Offset Generator and Zero Crossing Detector, tighter control of the measurement equipment environment was required to achieve this improvement. The design of this new Offset Generator are described, along with details of the environment control methods used.

  4. A Statistical Framework to Identify Deviation from Time Linearity in Epigenetic Aging

    PubMed Central

    Snir, Sagi; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    In multiple studies DNA methylation has proven to be an accurate biomarker of age. To develop these biomarkers, the methylation of multiple CpG sites is typically linearly combined to predict chronological age. By contrast, in this study we apply the Universal PaceMaker (UPM) model to investigate changes in DNA methylation during aging. The UPM was initially developed to study rate acceleration/deceleration in sequence evolution. Rather than identifying which linear combinations of sites predicts age, the UPM models the rates of change of multiple CpG sites, as well as their starting methylation levels, and estimates the age of each individual to optimize the model fit. We refer to the estimated age as the “epigenetic age”, which is in contrast to the known chronological age of each individual. We construct a statistical framework and devise an algorithm to determine whether a genomic pacemaker is in effect (i.e rates of change vary with age). The decision is made by comparing two competing likelihood based models, the molecular clock (MC) and UPM. For the molecular clock model, we use the known chronological age of each individual and fit the methylation rates at multiple sites, and express the problem as a linear least squares and solve it in polynomial time. For the UPM case, the search space is larger as we are fitting both the epigenetic age of each individual as well as the rates for each site, yet we succeed to reduce the problem to the space of individuals and polynomial in the more significant space—the methylated sites. We first tested our algorithm on simulated data to elucidate the factors affecting the identification of the pacemaker model. We find that, provided with enough data, our algorithm is capable of identifying a pacemaker even when a weak signal is present in the data. Based on these results, we applied our method to DNA methylation data from human blood from individuals of various ages. Although the improvement in variance across sites

  5. Using the Standard Deviation of a Region of Interest in an Image to Estimate Camera to Emitter Distance

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Angel E.; Lazaro, José Luis; Infante, Arturo; Fernández, Pedro; Pompa-Chacón, Yamilet; Espinoza, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a camera to infrared diode (IRED) distance estimation problem was analyzed. The main objective was to define an alternative to measures depth only using the information extracted from pixel grey levels of the IRED image to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. In this paper, the standard deviation of the pixel grey level in the region of interest containing the IRED image is proposed as an empirical parameter to define a model for estimating camera to emitter distance. This model includes the camera exposure time, IRED radiant intensity and the distance between the camera and the IRED. An expression for the standard deviation model related to these magnitudes was also derived and calibrated using different images taken under different conditions. From this analysis, we determined the optimum parameters to ensure the best accuracy provided by this alternative. Once the model calibration had been carried out, a differential method to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED was defined and applied, considering that the camera was aligned with the IRED. The results indicate that this method represents a useful alternative for determining the depth information. PMID:22778608

  6. Reducing the Standard Deviation in Multiple-Assay Experiments Where the Variation Matters but the Absolute Value Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A.

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems’ averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158

  7. [Deviation of the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries due to aging and kidney dystopia].

    PubMed

    Zhelobtsov, P M

    1982-12-01

    A specific peculiarity in the relief changeability and position of the abdominal aorta, the common iliac arteries is a segmentary deformity occurring in aged persons as a result of atherosclerotic alterations in their walls. A congenital homolateral dystopia, horseshoe and double kidney are rather seldom developmental anomalies in mature persons. In newborns, however, they are found 6-7 times more often and together with other congenital defects of the kidneys make evidently an often cause of the fetal and infantile death.

  8. Relationship between Standard Deviation and Maximum Fluctuation Width of Ensemble Average Insolation Observed at Multi-points in Large Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Kazumasa; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    For the detailed impact assessment of the total power output fluctuation of high penetration photovoltaic power generation system in terms of the load-frequency control, this study evaluated the relationship between the standard deviation (STD) including only shorter cycles than 32 minute and the maximum fluctuation width (MFW) calculated with various window width by using the two data-sets of multi-points observed insolation data. The main results are as follows. The R2 of regression line of STD - MFW correlation diagram is larger than 0.85 for various seasons, while the slope of regression line slightly varies with seasons. The slope of regression line is almost the same for various area sizes during the same season, although the variation ranges of both STD and MFW reduce with larger window width due to a so-called smoothing effect. The results suggest that if the STD of geographical average insolation can be calculated by using stochastic method, the MFW can be calculated with a linear function of STD because of the good correlation between STD and MFW independently of seasons and area sizes.

  9. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncaré plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincaré plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states.

  10. Geographical Extent Feasible for Standard Deviation Calculation using 1/√N Rule regarding Ensemble Average Insolation Fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Kazumasa; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    In this study, we evaluated the practical usability of so-called 1/√N rule, focusing on three factors, i.e. the geographical extent, the location of representative point, and the topological difference. First, by using the insolation data observed at 37 points mainly located in the Nobi Plain, we calculated the correlation diagram between two different standard deviations (STDs) of geographical average insolation fluctuation, i.e. STD of ensemble average insolation of N points (σe) and STD calculated with the representative point data by using 1/√N rule (σN). As the results of evaluating the slope and R2 values of regression line of correlation diagram and the P-value of χ2-test regarding frequency distribution of σe and σN, the 1/√N rule would be applicable for the area of around 20km radius. The representative point for calculating σN should be carefully selected even within the area of 15km radius. Because the difference in weather condition is much larger in the Matsumoto Basin area than in the Nobi Plain area even if the area size is the same, the 1/√N rule should be applied to smaller area than the area of 20km radius available for the Nobi Plain area.

  11. Standard deviation of the mean and other time series properties of voltages measured with a digital lock-in amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Thomas J.; Fletcher, N. E.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate some statistical properties of ac voltages from a white noise source measured with a digital lock-in amplifier equipped with finite impulse response output filters which introduce correlations between successive voltage values. The main goal of this work is to propose simple solutions to account for correlations when calculating the standard deviation of the mean (SDM) for a sequence of measurement data acquired using such an instrument. The problem is treated by time series analysis based on a moving average model of the filtering process. Theoretical expressions are derived for the power spectral density (PSD), the autocorrelation function, the equivalent noise bandwidth and the Allan variance; all are related to the SDM. At most three parameters suffice to specify any of the above quantities: the filter time constant, the time between successive measurements (both set by the lock-in operator) and the PSD of the white noise input, h0. Our white noise source is a resistor so that the PSD is easily calculated; there are no free parameters. Theoretical expressions are checked against their respective sample estimates and, with the exception of two of the bandwidth estimates, agreement to within 11% or better is found.

  12. The most common deviations in the development of hand motoricity in children from birth to one year of age.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Valentina; Secić, Ana; Zivković, Tamara Kauzlarić; Borosak, Jesenka; Kolak, Zeljka; Dimić, Zdenka

    2013-09-01

    The early child development, from birth until the age of one year is, amongst other changes, characterized by intense motor learning. During that period, the voluntary learning patterns evolve from reflexive patterns to coordinated voluntary patterns. All of the child's voluntary movements present active forms in which the child communicates with the environment. In this communication, the hand plays an important role. Its brain representation covers one-third of the entire motor region, situated in the close proximity to the speech region. For this reason, some authors refer to hand as a "speech organ". According to numerous studies, each separate finger also has a relatively large representation in the cerebral cortex, which points to the importance of the fine motor skills development, or precise, highly differentiated movements of hand muscles following the principles of differentiation and hierarchical integration. Development of the fine motor skills in the hand is important for the overall child development, and it also serves as a predictor pointing to immaturity of the central nervous system. The aim of this paper is to present the development of hand motoricity from birth until the age of one year, as well as the most frequent deviations observed in children hospitalized at Children's Department of Rehabilitation, Clinical Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center.

  13. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  14. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  15. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  16. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  17. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  18. Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…

  19. Internal quality control system for non-stationary, non-ergodic analytical processes based upon exponentially weighted estimation of process means and process standard deviation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rob T P; Laeven, Mark; Kardol, Wim

    2002-06-01

    The analytical processes in clinical laboratories should be considered to be non-stationary, non-ergodic and probably non-stochastic processes. Both the process mean and the process standard deviation vary. The variation can be different at different levels of concentration. This behavior is shown in five examples of different analytical systems: alkaline phosphatase on the Hitachi 911 analyzer (Roche), vitamin B12 on the Access analyzer (Beckman), prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time on the STA Compact analyzer (Roche) and PO2 on the ABL 520 analyzer (Radiometer). A model is proposed to assess the status of a process. An exponentially weighted moving average and standard deviation was used to estimate process mean and standard deviation. Process means were estimated overall and for each control level. The process standard deviation was estimated in terms of within-run standard deviation. Limits were defined in accordance with state of the art- or biological variance-derived cut-offs. The examples given are real, not simulated, data. Individual control sample results were normalized to a target value and target standard deviation. The normalized values were used in the exponentially weighted algorithm. The weighting factor was based on a process time constant, which was estimated from the period between two calibration or maintenance procedures. The proposed system was compared with Westgard rules. The Westgard rules perform well, despite the underlying presumption of ergodicity. This is mainly caused by the introduction of the starting rule of 12s, which proves essential to prevent a large number of rule violations. The probability of reporting a test result with an analytical error that exceeds the total allowable error was calculated for the proposed system as well as for the Westgard rules. The proposed method performed better. The proposed algorithm was implemented in a computer program running on computers to which the analyzers were

  20. Phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography: simultaneous imaging of in situ tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and Stokes vectors in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongwu; Ding, Zhihua; Zhao, Yonghua; Miao, Jianjun; Nelson, J. Stuart; Chen, Zhongping

    2002-10-01

    We describe a phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography system that can simultaneously yield in situ images of tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and the Stokes vectors in human skin. Multifunctional images were obtained by processing of analytical interference fringe signals derived from two perpendicular polarization-detection channels. The blood flow velocity and standard deviation images were obtained by comparison of the phases from pairs of analytical signals in neighboring A-lines in the same polarization state. The analytical signals from two polarization-diversity detection channels were used to determine the four Stokes vectors for four reference polarization states. From the four Stokes vectors, the birefringence image, which is not sensitive to the orientation of the optical axis in the sample, was obtained. Multifunctional in situ images of a port wine stain birthmark in human skin are presented.

  1. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  2. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  3. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  4. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  5. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  6. MARK-AGE standard operating procedures (SOPs): A successful effort.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Villanueva, María; Capri, Miriam; Breusing, Nicolle; Siepelmeyer, Anne; Sevini, Federica; Ghezzo, Alessandro; de Craen, Anton J M; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Schön, Christiane; Grune, Tilman; Franceschi, Claudio; Bürkle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Within the MARK-AGE project, a population study (3337 subjects) was conducted to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any single marker. The MARK-AGE project involves 14 European countries and a total of 26 research centres. In such a study, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an essential task, which are binding for all MARK-AGE Beneficiaries. The SOPs cover all aspects of subject's recruitment, collection, shipment and distribution of biological samples (blood and its components, buccal mucosa cells or BMC and urine) as well as the anthropometric measurements and questionnaires.

  7. Ar/Ar Dating Independent of Monitor Standard Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, S.; Hemming, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Because the reported age of an analyzed sample is dependent on the age of the co-irradiated monitor standard(s), Ar/Ar dating is a relative dating technique. There is disagreement at the 1% scale in the age of commonly used monitor standards, and there is a great need to improve the inter-laboratory calibrations. Additionally, new approaches and insights are needed to meet the challenge of bringing the Ar/Ar chronometer to the highest possible precision and accuracy. In this spirit, we present a conceptual framework for Ar/Ar dating that does not depend on the age of monitor standards, but only on the K content of a solid standard. The concept is demonstrated by introducing a re-expressed irradiation parameter (JK) that depends on the ratio of 39ArK to 40Ar* rather than the 40Ar*/39ArK ratio. JK is equivalent to the traditional irradiation parameter J and is defined as JK = (39Ar/40K) • (λ/λe). The ultimate precision and accuracy of the method will depend on how precisely and accurately the 39Ar and 40K can be estimated, and will require isotope dilution measurements of both from the same aliquot. We are testing the workability of our technique at the 1% level by measuring weighed and irradiated hornblende and biotite monitor standards using GLO-1 glauconite to define a calibration curve for argon signals versus abundance.

  8. Properties of pattern standard deviation in open-angle glaucoma patients with hemi-optic neuropathy and bi-optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Dong Won; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lee, Min Woo; Lee, Sung Bok; Kim, Chang-sik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the properties of pattern standard deviation (PSD) according to localization of the glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Methods We enrolled 242 eyes of 242 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, with a best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/25, and no media opacity. Patients were examined via dilated fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field examination, and divided into those with hemi-optic neuropathy (superior or inferior) and bi-optic neuropathy (both superior and inferior). We assessed the relationship between mean deviation (MD) and PSD. Using broken stick regression analysis, the tipping point was identified, i.e., the point at which MD became significantly associated with a paradoxical reversal of PSD. Results In 91 patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, PSD showed a strong correlation with MD (r = −0.973, β = −0.965, p < 0.001). The difference between MD and PSD (“−MD−PSD”) was constant (mean, −0.32 dB; 95% confidence interval, −2.48~1.84 dB) regardless of visual field defect severity. However, in 151 patients with bi-optic neuropathy, a negative correlation was evident between “−MD−PSD” and MD (r2 = 0.907, p < 0.001). Overall, the MD tipping point was −14.0 dB, which was close to approximately 50% damage of the entire visual field (p < 0.001). Conclusions Although a false decrease of PSD usually begins at approximately 50% visual field damage, in patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, the PSD shows no paradoxical decrease and shows a linear correlation with MD. PMID:28249022

  9. Toward "Our Ways of Knowing" in the Age of Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz; De Moed, Simone Tuinhof

    2011-01-01

    Current neoliberal educational policies are impacting young children and their teachers in the United States in many ways. Young children and teachers find themselves in vulnerable positions within a framework of an imperialist education in the age of standardization. Part of the struggle is to open spaces of decolonization that include home…

  10. Autocorrelation standard deviation and root mean square frequency analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to monitor for hydrogen and air undersupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bates, Alex; Zickel, Benjamin; Park, Sam; Son, Byung Rak; Choi, Jae Sung; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Dong Ha; Chung, Hyun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising energy conversion device which can help to solve urgent environmental and economic problems. Among the various types of fuel cells, the air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which minimizes the balance of plant, has drawn a lot of attention due to its superior energy density. In this study a compact, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based on Nafion and a Pt/C membrane electrode assembly was designed. The fuel cell was tested using a Scribner Associates 850e fuel cell test station. Specifically, the hydrogen fuel and oxygen starvation of the fuel cell were accurately and systematically tested and analyzed using a frequency analysis method which can analyze the input and output frequency. The analysis of the frequency variation under a fuel starvation condition was done using RMSF (root mean square frequency) and ACSD (autocorrelation standard deviation). The study reveals two significant results: first, the fuel starvations show entirely different phenomenon in both RMSF and ACSD and second, the results of the Autocorrelation show clearer results for fuel starvation detection than the results with RMSF.

  11. Recommendations for the treatment of aging in standard technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Allen, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the standard technical specifications for nuclear power plants to determine whether the current surveillance requirements (SRs) were effective in detecting age-related degradation. Nuclear Plant Aging Research findings for selected systems and components were reviewed to identify the stressors and operative aging mechanisms and to evaluate the methods available to detect, differentiate, and trend the resulting aging degradation. Current surveillance and testing requirements for these systems and components were reviewed for their effectiveness in detecting degraded conditions and for potential contributions to premature degradation. When the current surveillance and testing requirements appeared ineffective in detecting aging degradation or potentially could contribute to premature degradation, a possible deficiency in the SRs was identified that could result in undetected degradation. Based on this evaluation, PNL developed recommendations for inspection, surveillance, trending, and condition monitoring methods to be incorporated in the SRs to better detect age- related degradation of these selected systems and components.

  12. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  13. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  14. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  15. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  16. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  17. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  18. Typical and Optimal Aging in Women and Men: Is There a Double Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetto, Silvia Sara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined gender stereotypes of typical and optimal mentally healthy aging. Respondents--young adults (n=232) and their older adult relatives/acquaintances (n=233)--reported more gender stereotypes than age stereotypes. Perceptions of typical aging varied with certain factors. Findings suggest a double standard of aging for typical but not for…

  19. Caudal septal deviation.

    PubMed

    Haack, Jason; Papel, Ira D

    2009-06-01

    The nasal septum is a structure poorly understood and appreciated by the lay public and the nonotolaryngologist--head and neck surgeon alike. Deviation of the caudal portion of the nasal septum may result in nasal obstruction, a crooked nose, and columellar irregularities. The correction of a severely deviated caudal septum is one of the most difficult challenges of the otolaryngologist and facial plastic surgeon. A variety of options are available for correction of mild, to the most severe, deflections. This condition, as with all challenges in medicine, should not be a one size fits all or one surgery fits all situation. The skilled surgeon should understand the multiple options available for surgical correction and tailor fit the procedure to the deformity.

  20. Analyzing Vehicle Operator Deviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    related to vehicle operator deviations ( VODs ). VODs occur when a vehicle enters the airport movement area without ATC approval. We developed a VOD ...prediction model to help understand the human factors causes associated with different types of VODs . We then examined the validity of the model, using...the data that we needed was missing due to incomplete reporting of the human factors associated with a given VOD . To aid in the development of a

  1. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-01-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods (“Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions” [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the ‘ranking’ and ‘which-won-where’ plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields. PMID:27222865

  2. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems.

    PubMed

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-06-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.

  3. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    PubMed

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  4. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  5. Varying Teacher Expectations and Standards: Curriculum Differentiation in the Age of Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability grouping and tracking have been a major focus in educational research because of its role in promoting curriculum differentiation. However, there has been limited attention to how this differentiation occurs in contemporary schools involved with reform efforts including those focused on subject specific academic standards designed to…

  6. Interventions for dissociated vertical deviation

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Wang, Xue; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “strabismus” describes misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may deviate inward, outward, upward, or downward. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a well-recognized type of upward drifting of one or both eyes, which can occur in children or adults. DVD often develops in the context of infantile- or childhood-onset horizontal strabismus, either esotropia (inward-turning) or exotropia (outward-turning). For some individuals, DVD remains controlled and can only be detected during clinical testing. For others, DVD becomes spontaneously “manifest” and the eye drifts up of its own accord. Spontaneously manifest DVD can be difficult to control and often causes psychosocial concerns. Traditionally, DVD has been thought to be asymptomatic, although some individuals have double vision. More recently it has been suggested that individuals with DVD may also suffer from eyestrain. Treatment for DVD may be sought either due to psychosocial concerns or because of these symptoms. The standard treatment for DVD is a surgical procedure; non-surgical treatments are offered less commonly. Although there are many studies evaluating different management options for the correction of DVD, a lack of clarity remains regarding which treatments are most effective. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of various surgical and non-surgical interventions in randomized controlled trials of participants with DVD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), PubMed (1948 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 3

  7. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  8. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  9. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  10. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  12. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  13. Age-standardized incidence rates of primordial cyst (keratocyst) on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Rachanis, C C; Shear, M

    1978-11-01

    Cases of primordial cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965-74. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. Age-specific morbidity rates for each sex and race were calculated, as well as age-standardized incidence rates standardized against African, World and European standard populations. The age-standardized incidence rates for primordial cysts, standardized against a World standard population, per million per year are 0.61, 0, 4.86 and 3.50 for Black males and females and White males and females, respectively. In the population at risk, primordial cysts are much more common in Whites than in Blacks, the incidence being eight times higher in White males than in Black males. The present study confirms that there is a bimodal age distribution but with a higher incidence of the cyst in the age group 50-64 years than previously suspected. This may be either because a substantial number of cases remain undiagnosed for many years or because there are two groups of primordial cyst: one which is triggered in young patients and the other in older patients.

  14. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.M.; McGee, V.E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order approximation formula for the propagation of error in the fission track age equation is given by PA = C[P2s+P2i+P2??-2rPsPi] 1 2, where PA, Ps, Pi and P?? are the percentage error of age, of spontaneous track density, of induced track density, and of neutron dose, respectively, and C is a constant. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age. In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method. ?? 1979.

  15. Age standardization in mapping adult overweight and obesity trends in the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Doak, C M; Wijnhoven, T M A; Schokker, D F; Visscher, T L S; Seidell, J C

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to improve comparability of available data within the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region taking into account differences related to the aging of the population. Surveys were included if they were conducted on adults aged 25-64 years between 1985 and 2010 in the WHO European Region. Overweight/obesity prevalences were adjusted to the European standard population aged 25-64. Data were entered for each of the 5-year categories between 1981 and 2010. Measured height and weight data were available for males in 16 and females in 24 of the 53 countries. The 50-64-year-olds had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared to the 25-49-year-olds. This pattern occurs in every country, by male and female, in almost all surveys. Age-standardized overweight prevalence was higher among males than females in all countries. Trend data showed increases in most countries. Age-standardized maps were based on self-reported data because of insufficient availability of measured data. Results showed more countries with available data as well as the higher category of obesity in the later surveys. Measured values are needed and age adjustment is important in documenting emerging overweight and obesity trends, independent of demographic changes, in the WHO European Region.

  16. Explorations in Statistics: Standard Deviations and Standard Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in "Advances in Physiology Education" provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle…

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  18. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  19. Societal integration and age-standardized suicide rates in 21 developed countries, 1955-1989.

    PubMed

    Fernquist, R M; Cutright, P

    1998-01-01

    Gender-specific age-standardized suicide rates for 21 developed countries over seven 5-year periods (1955-59...1985-89) form the two dependent variables. Durkheim's theory of societal integration is the framework used to generate the independent variables, although several recent theories are also examined. The results from a MGLS multiple regression analysis of both male and female rates provide overwhelming support for a multidimensional theory of societal integration and suicide, as first suggested by Durkheim.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  1. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  2. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  3. Large deviations in Taylor dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlen, Marcel; Engel, Andreas; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We establish a link between the phenomenon of Taylor dispersion and the theory of empirical distributions. Using this connection, we derive, upon applying the theory of large deviations, an alternative and much more precise description of the long-time regime for Taylor dispersion.

  4. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  5. Large Deviations for Random Trees

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Christine

    2010-01-01

    We consider large random trees under Gibbs distributions and prove a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for the distribution of degrees of vertices of the tree. The LDP rate function is given explicitly. An immediate consequence is a Law of Large Numbers for the distribution of vertex degrees in a large random tree. Our motivation for this study comes from the analysis of RNA secondary structures. PMID:20216937

  6. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  7. Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  8. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  9. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  10. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  11. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  12. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  13. Factors that affect final height and change in height standard deviation scores in survivors of childhood cancer treated with growth hormone: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Carrie M; Mertens, Ann C; Mitby, Pauline A; Stovall, Marilyn; Qin, Jing; Heller, Glenn; Robison, Leslie L; Sklar, Charles A

    2004-09-01

    GH deficiency is a common late complication in survivors of pediatric malignancies, particularly those who are treated with radiation (RT) to the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Nonetheless, few reports have assessed final height outcomes in survivors treated with GH. In the present study, we investigated which patient and treatment variables correlate with final height and change in height sd score (SDS) in a large cohort of cancer survivors treated with GH. We previously identified 361 participants in the multicenter Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were treated with GH. Final height data were available in 183 survivors (120 males). Diagnoses included: central nervous system tumors (n = 90), acute leukemia (n = 64), soft tissue sarcomas (n = 23), and miscellaneous (n = 6). The median age at diagnosis of the primary cancer was 4.6 yr, and the median age at start of GH treatment was 11.3 yr. Mean height SDS at start of GH therapy was -2.03 +/- 0.8, and the mean final height SDS was -1.48 +/- 0.10 (P < 0.001). Final height SDS was positively associated with target height and dose of GH but negatively associated with the presence of concomitant endocrinopathies and dose of spinal RT. Change in height SDS (start of GH-final height) was positively associated with male gender, younger bone age at start of GH, and dose of GH; presence of concomitant endocrinopathies and dose of spinal RT were negatively associated with change in height SDS. Risk factors associated with a final height of -2.0 sd or less included lower doses of GH and exposure to higher doses of spinal RT. Thus, to maximize final height, our findings emphasize the importance of beginning GH therapy at the earliest bone age that is clinically feasible; treating with conventional higher doses of GH; and, when possible, minimizing the dose of spinal RT.

  14. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations.

  15. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  18. 14 CFR § 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. § 1260.7 Section § 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  20. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case deviations from this part may be authorized in writing by...

  1. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  2. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  3. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  4. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  5. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  6. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case deviations from this part may be authorized in writing by...

  7. 48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2801.404 Section 2801.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.404 Class deviations....

  8. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 2901.404 Section 2901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a) The...

  9. Teaching Traditional and Non-Traditional Age Individuals: How Should Methods, Expectations, and Standards Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.

    A study examined achievement and attitudes of traditional and nontraditional age students enrolled in an undergraduate behavioral sciences statistics course. Performance and attitude data were collected from a class of 25 traditional students (average age 22) and from a class of 15 nontraditional students (average age 35). The two groups were…

  10. Age of Exploration. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.2. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 5.2 is delineated as: Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas. The Age of Exploration, which began in the late 1400s, was an important era in the discovery and development of land yet unknown to Europeans. During this period, Europeans sought new sea routes to Asia…

  11. Is Greulich and Pyle standards of skeletal maturation applicable for age estimation in South Indian Andhra children?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Goud, Alampur Srinivas; Sailaja, S.; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Now-a-day age determination has gained importance for various forensic and legal reasons. Skeletal age (SA) of a test population can be estimated by comparing with established standards of Greulich and Pyle (G-P). As this atlas has been prepared using data from upper-class children born between 1917 and 1942 in the USA and the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on Andhra children living in India. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the reliability of bone age calculated by G-P atlas in estimation of age in selected population. Materials and Methods: A total of 660 children (330 girls, 330 boys) between ages 9 and 20 years were randomly selected from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine in GITAM Dental College, Andhra Pradesh. Digital hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and assessed for SA using G-P atlas and the difference between estimated SA and chronological age (CA) were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: G-P method underestimated the SA by 0.23 ± 1.53 years for boys and overestimated SA by 0.02 ± 2 years in girls and mild underestimation was noted in the total sample of about 0.1 ± 1.78 years. Spearman rank test showed significant correlation between SA and CA (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that G-P standards were reliable in assessing age in South Indian Andhra children of age 9–20 years with unknown CA. PMID:26229357

  12. The Relationship between Using Electronic Health Records and Meeting Accreditation Standards for Client Safety in Residential Aged Care Homes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the benefits of using electronic health records (EHR) for client safety in residential aged care (RAC) homes. The aged care accreditation reports published between 27 April 2011 and 3 December 2013 were downloaded and analysed. It could be seen from these reports that only 1,031(37.45%) RAC homes in Australia had adopted an EHR system by 2013. 13 RAC homes failed one or more accreditation standards. Only one of these was using an EHR system and this one met the accreditation standards on information systems. Our study provides empirical evidence to suggest that adopting and using EHR can be one of the effective organisational mechanisms to meeting accreditation standards in RAC homes.

  13. Age-standardized Incidence Rates for Leukemia Associated with Consanguineous Marriages in 68 Countries, an Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage that defines as a union between biologically related persons has a variety of known deleterious correlations with factors that affect public health within human populations. To investigate the association between the mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and incidence of leukemia, the present ecological study on 68 countries was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia positively correlated with log10GNI per capita (r=0.699, df=66, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with log10α (r=−0.609, df=66, P<0.001). Controlling log10GNI per capita, a significant negative correlation between log10α and the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia was observed (r=−0.392, df=65, P=0.001). The countries were stratified according to their annual GNI per capita, low and high-income countries with GNI per capita less than and more than 10,000$, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that in high-income countries, after controlling for log10GNI per capita, the correlation between the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia and log10α was still significant (r=−0.600, df=36, P<0.001). It should be noted that there was no significant association between the age-standardized mortality rate due to leukemia and log10α (P>0.05). The present finding indicates that the rate of leukemia, age-standardized for incidence, is lower in countries with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. PMID:25960855

  14. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

  15. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-11-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.

  16. Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

  17. Deviation from Standard Inflationary Cosmology and the Problems in Ekpyrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chien-Yao

    There are two competing models of our universe right now. One is Big Bang with inflation cosmology. The other is the cyclic model with ekpyrotic phase in each cycle. This paper is divided into two main parts according to these two models. In the first part, we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes ( alma*l'm') of the spherical-harmonic coefficients. We then provide a model and study the two-point correlation of a massless scalar (the inflaton) when the stress tensor contains the energy density from an infinitely long straight cosmic string in addition to a cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss if inflation can reconcile with the Liouville's theorem as far as the fine-tuning problem is concerned. In the second part, we find several problems in the cyclic/ekpyrotic cosmology. First of all, quantum to classical transition would not happen during an ekpyrotic phase even for superhorizon modes, and therefore the fluctuations cannot be interpreted as classical. This implies the prediction of scale-free power spectrum in ekpyrotic/cyclic universe model requires more inspection. Secondly, we find that the usual mechanism to solve fine-tuning problems is not compatible with eternal universe which contains infinitely many cycles in both direction of time. Therefore, all fine-tuning problems including the flatness problem still asks for an explanation in any generic cyclic models.

  18. When flux standards go wild: white dwarfs in the age of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, JJ

    2017-01-01

    White dwarfs have been used as flux standards for decades, thanks to their staid simplicity. We have tested their photometric stability by analyzing the light curves of several hundred spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs, through K2 Campaign 8. We find that the vast majority (>90%) are <1% stable in the Kepler bandpass on 0.04-d to 10-d timescales, confirming that these stellar remnants are generally excellent flux standards. From the cases that do exhibit significant (several percent) variability, we caution that binarity and magnetism are two extremely important attributes to rule out when establishing a white dwarf as a photometric standard.

  19. The Compounding Impact of Age on Sex--Another Dimension of the Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Tish

    1974-01-01

    An examination of the multiple problems of discrimination confronting elderly women which argues that aging must be redefined in a way that is more functionally accurate for women and is not based upon male chronology. (EH)

  20. 10 CFR 609.18 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 609.18 Section 609.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that such requirements are not specified by the Act or...

  1. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  2. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  3. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  4. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  5. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  6. Alternating Skew Deviation from Traumatic Intracranial Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Moster, Stephen J.; Moster, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 56-year-old woman developed progressive headache, mental status changes, and diplopia after trauma. She was diagnosed with alternating skew deviation caused by intracranial hypotension. This is the first case of alternating skew deviation reported from intracranial hypotension and perhaps a differential pressure between intracranial and intraspinal spaces plays a role in the development of these findings. PMID:27928294

  7. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  8. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  9. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  10. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  11. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  12. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  13. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  14. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  15. 48 CFR 1480.403 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition: For a proposed contract action . . . The following official may authorize a deviation . . . Exceeding $25,000 but not exceeding $550,000 The CCO (or the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA Competition...

  16. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  17. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  18. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  19. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  20. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  1. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  2. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  3. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  4. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  5. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  6. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  7. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  8. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  9. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  10. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  11. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  12. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  13. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  14. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  15. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  16. 48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 1401.404 Section 1401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.404 Class...

  17. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 3001.404 Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and...

  18. Common medical terminology comes of age, Part One: Standard language improves healthcare quality.

    PubMed

    Rose, J S; Fisch, B J; Hogan, W R; Levy, B; Marshal, P; Thomas, D R; Kirkley, D

    2001-01-01

    It has become abundantly clear that standards of recording clinical terms in human-readable, computer-processable format are indispensable. Controlled medical terminology is the missing link in health information standards (in fact, medical terminology can be viewed as the mother of all standards); its absence interferes with the business of healthcare and impedes the core processes of healing and maintaining health. Medicine has lacked the controlled common medical vocabulary that would enable universal sharing of data at the point of care and ensure reliable information for determining health intervention effectiveness. Simple clinical and code content alone has proven insufficient for healthcare enterprises to successfully manage the terminology problem; the "lexical runtime engine," formerly called a vocabulary server (VOSER), which manages the vocabulary ontology and serves up the relevant vocabulary to users of applications in the clinical environment, has recently become a reality.

  19. Metrologically-Calibrated 40Ar Concentrations and Ages of Mineral Standards Used in 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Davidheiser-Kroll, B.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Mark, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    In geochronology, isotopic ages are determined from the ratio of parent and daughter nuclide concentrations in minerals. For dating of geological material using the K-Ar system, the simultaneous determination of 40Ar and 40K concentrations on the same aliquot is not possible. Therefore, a widely used variant, the 40Ar/39Ar technique, involves the production of 39Ar from 39K by neutron bombardment and the reliance on indirect natural calibrators of the neutron flux, referred to as "mineral standards." Many mineral standards still in use rely on decades-old determinations of 40Ar concentrations; resulting uncertainties, both systematic and analytical, impede the determination of higher accuracy ages using the K-Ar decay system. We present results for the 40Ar concentrations and ages of mineral standards determined based on a modern gas delivery system (Morgan et al. 2011), which delivers metrologically-traceable amounts of 40Ar and thus allows for the sensitivity calibration of noble gas mass spectrometers.

  20. This Is Only a Test: Teaching for Mathematical Understanding in an Age of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litton, Nancy; Wickett, Maryann

    2009-01-01

    "This Is Only a Test" helps teachers plan a year of instruction that takes testing into account while staying focused on a curriculum that encourages students to love and understand mathematics. Transform teachers' and students' feelings toward standardized tests from panic and anxiety to control and confidence. This book's proven strategies help…

  1. Teacher Collaboration in the Age of Teaching Standards: The Study of a Small, Suburban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Adam Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of new teaching standards and evaluation systems introduced in the United States, teacher collaboration has emerged as a common theme. However, despite these recent changes, teaching is still largely a private act, in which teachers are often secluded from their colleagues. This study investigated the range and variation of the…

  2. Homes for the Aged: Supervision and Standards. A Report on the Legal Situation in European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Ernst

    The International Center for Social Gerontology (ICSG) is making available this translation of a timely study by Ernst Noam which describes and compares legislation, policies, and procedures for licensing, supervision, and inspection of homes for the aged in various Western and Eastern European nations. This study is presented to help provide a…

  3. Assessing Changes in Attitudes about Aging: Personal Reflections and a Standardized Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Ann M.; Brookover, B. Cecile

    2002-01-01

    Sophomore (n=31) and senior (n=24) gerontology students completed the Aging Semantic Differential at the beginning of the semester and after conducting life-history interviews with older adults. Significant positive attitude changes resulted; the interviews were specifically cited as influencing changes. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  4. Age-standardized incidence rates of ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shear, M; Singh, S

    1978-07-01

    Although a great deal is known about the incidence of cancer, including oral cancer, no such study has been done on odontogenic tumors and jaw cysts. There are therefore no standardized data which would allow for comparative incidences in different countries and between different groups. In the present study, cases of ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965--1974. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. The annual incidence rates, standardized against the standard world population, for ameloblastomas per million population are 1.96, 1.20, 0.18 and 0.44 for Black males, females and White males, females, respectively. The equivalent four figures for dentigerous cysts are 1.18, 1.22, 9.92 and 7.26. These figures show that ameloblastoma is very much more common in Blacks than Whites in the population at risk. Conversely, dentigerous cysts are much more common in Whites. This makes it unlikely that dentigerous cysts predispose to ameloblastoma formation. These epidemiologic observations give rise to speculation as to whether some component of the South African Black diet or other environmental substance might possibly be an etiologic factor in ameloblastoma.

  5. 38 CFR 49.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 49.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may..., which are statutory. Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by Federal awarding...

  6. 32 CFR 32.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... class deviations. (1) For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director of Defense Research... part: (i) With the written concurrence of the Office of the Management and Budget (OMB). The DDR&E,...

  7. 32 CFR 32.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... class deviations. (1) For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director of Defense Research... part: (i) With the written concurrence of the Office of the Management and Budget (OMB). The DDR&E,...

  8. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2341(2)), or with United Nations or NATO organizations; and (ii) Such governments or organizations will...). (2) Contracting officers outside the United States may deviate from prescribed nonstatutory FAR...

  9. Response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention by age of onset of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, S. E.; Lang, W.; Jakicic, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self‐reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. Methods Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m−2) engaged in an 18‐month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial. BMI, physical activity, fitness and diet were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Separate adjusted mixed models were constructed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results There was significant weight loss, increased physical activity, improved fitness and reduced caloric intake over time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in these outcome variables by obesity onset group. However, there was a significant group by time interaction for fitness (p = 0.001), with the adult onset making significantly greater gains in fitness from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001); however, this difference was no longer present at 12 or 18 months. Conclusions With the exception of fitness at 6 months, weight loss, physical activity and diet did not differ between juvenile onset and adult onset participants, suggesting that those with juvenile onset obesity are equally responsive to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adulthood. PMID:27708841

  10. Role of Extracorporeal Septoplasty in Deviated Noses.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Virendra; Parab, Sapna Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    Severe gross septal deviations present big surgical challenges for operating surgeon. Septal deviations has direct effect on aesthetic and functional part of nose. Correcting septal deviations during rhinoplasty is basic procedure. Extreme deviations of septum especially on dorsal and caudal end of cartilaginous septum are difficult to treat. The classical septoplasty approach becomes unsuitable for such severe deviations. Gubisch has first reported in 1995 about extracorporeal septoplasty. To report the experience of Extracorporeal septoplasty and the complication rates with the technique. Retrospective study of 112 patients who underwent extracorporeal septoplasty in primary rhinoplasty from May 2009 to June 2014. Patient's pre and postoperatively evaluation was done by photographs, nasal endoscopy and subjective by symptoms evaluation satisfaction scale 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Nasal endoscopy revealed significant improvement in nasal airway and nasal valve and subjective evaluation satisfaction score was very encouraging. Complications like septal perforation, bleeding, aesthetic complications were minimal (9 %) On basis of results obtained, shows that this technique, increases patients nasal airway and aesthetic look of the patients. Irrespective of extreme nasal deviations.

  11. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  12. Latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS.

    PubMed

    España-Gregori, E; Montés-Micó, R; Bueno-Gimeno, I; Díaz-Llopi, M; Menezo-Rozalén, J L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine horizontal latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS (CD4+ count <0.050 x 10(9)/l) and to compare with normal values by means of the von Graefe technique. Twenty patients aged between 17 and 44 years with AIDS and aged-matched control groups were submitted to study. The AC/A ratio was also measured in both groups using the Gradient test. The AIDS patients showed a horizontal latent deviation value of 0.28+/-1.07delta exo at near (40 cm.) and 2.12+/-1.37delta eso at distance (6 m). The AC/A ratio obtained was 2.03+/-0.65. Statistically significant differences were obtained in relation to aged-matched control group at near and at distance (p<0.01). The horizontal latent ocular deviation at near and at distance in advanced AIDS patients showed lower values than the expected. The AC/A relationship also was lower. The results obtained in this study indicate that AIDS patients suffer a divergence insufficiency, which could add to other visual complaints such as blurred vision, photophobia, nyctalopia and reading difficulty.

  13. The BALB/c mouse: Effect of standard vivarium lighting on retinal pathology during aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Bonilha, Vera L.; Rayborn, Mary E.; Shadrach, Karen; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2015-01-01

    BALB/cJ mice housed under normal vivarium lighting conditions can exhibit profound retinal abnormalities, including retinal infoldings, autofluorescent inflammatory cells, and photoreceptor degeneration. To explore the sensitivity of the outer retina to cyclic lighting during aging, a cohort of BALB/cJ mice was evaluated with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and conventional histopathology. Mice were bred and reared in a low-illuminance (extracage/intracage: 13 lx/1 lx) vivarium under cyclic light (14 h light: 10 h dark). Retinal imaging (around postnatal day 70) was performed to screen for any pre-existing abnormalities and to establish a baseline. Mice with normal retinas were separated into groups (A, B, C) and placed on bottom (Groups A & B) or top (Group C) of the cage racks where cage illumination was <10 & 150 lx respectively. Experimental groups B & C were imaged multiple times over a 17 month period. Mice from group A (controls) were imaged only once post-baseline at various times for comparison to groups B & C. Mice were assessed by histology at 8, 15, 20, 36, and 56 weeks and immunohistochemistry at 15 weeks post-baseline. SLO and OCT retinal images were measured and the resulting trends displayed as a function of age and light exposure. Retinal lesions (RL) and autofluorescent foci (AFF) were identified with histology as photoreceptor layer infoldings (IF) and localized microglia/macrophages (MM), respectively. Few RL and AFF were evident at baseline. Retinal infoldings were the earliest changes followed by subjacent punctate autofluorescent MM. The colocalization of IF and MM suggests a causal relationship. The incidence of these pathological features increased in all groups relative to baseline. OCT imaging revealed thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in all groups at 1 year relative to baseline. ONL thinning followed an exponential rate of change but the decay constant varied depending on

  14. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0–6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness. PMID:26346963

  15. The ageing and myasthenic thymus: a morphometric study validating a standard procedure in the histological workup of thymic specimens.

    PubMed

    Ströbel, Philipp; Moritz, Regina; Leite, Maria Isabel; Willcox, Nick; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Gold, Ralf; Nix, Wilfred; Schalke, Berthold; Kiefer, Reinhard; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Jaretzki Iii, Alfred; Newsom-Davis, John; Marx, Alexander

    2008-09-15

    The thymus is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). The 80% of MG patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies fall into three clinical subgroups: 1) thymoma; 2) early-onset MG (<age of 40; EOMG) and 3) late-onset (LOMG; onset after 40). Thymectomy is widely used in EOMG, but its benefits have not been established in randomized controlled trials. A multicenter international trial (MGTX) currently seeks to determine whether thymectomy reduces corticosteroid requirements, and to look for correlations with thymic histology. We here describe the validated, standardized histological workup and reporting system used in this trial.

  16. Reliability and factorial validity of the standard progressive matrices among Kuwaiti children ages 8 to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2005-10-01

    The Raven Standard Progressive Matrices was administered to a sample of 6,529 children in Kuwait ranging in age from 8 to 15 years. Test-retest reliability (N = 968) ranged between .69 and .85, while Cronbach coefficients alpha ranged from .88 to .93, showing from acceptable to good temporal stability and from good to high internal consistency. The loadings of the five sets of matrices on the only salient factor ranged from .73 to .89 indicating the good factorial validity of the scale. The rtest seems useful in the Kuwaiti context.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years in Bahrain: a comparison between two reference standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Raees, Ghada Y; Al-Amer, Maryam A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on Bahraini preschoolers aged 2-5 years (354 males and 344 females) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity using the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force cut-off values. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated to determine the proportion of overweight and obesity. Using the World Health Organization percentile cut-off values, overweight (12.3%) and obesity (8.4%) was higher in females between 2 and <4 years of age whereas, the proportion of both overweight (8.4%) and obesity (7.2%) were higher in males between 4 and <6 years of age. Relative to the International Obesity Task Force indicators, the World Health Organization cut-off values produced nearly a 2-fold increase in both overweight and obesity at most ages. It is therefore important to ensure that the same cut-off reference values are used to define overweight and obesity particularly in preschoolers. Shifting to the new World Health Organization child growth standards may have important implications for child health programmes.

  18. Apophyseal Ossification of the Iliac Crest in Forensic Age Estimation: Computed Tomography Standards for Modern Australian Subadults.

    PubMed

    Lottering, Nicolene; Alston-Knox, Clair L; MacGregor, Donna M; Izatt, Maree T; Grant, Caroline A; Adam, Clayton J; Gregory, Laura S

    2017-03-01

    This study contrasts the ontogeny of the iliac crest apophysis using conventional radiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), providing probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian subadults. Retrospective abdominopelvic MSCT data acquired from 524 Australian individuals aged 7-25 and surveillance radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients included in the Paediatric Spine Research Group Progression Study (n = 531) were assessed. Ossification scoring of pseudo-radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered reconstructions using Risser (1958) quantitative descriptors indicate discrepancies in age estimates, stage allocation, and conflicting morphological progression. To mitigate visualization limitations associated with two-dimensional radiographs, we provide and validate a modified 3D-MSCT scoring tier of ossification, demonstrating complete fusion between 17.3-19.2 and 17.1-20.1 years in males and females. Legal demarcation for doli incapax presumption and age of majority (18 years) can be achieved using probability estimates from a fitted cumulative probit model for apophyseal fusion using the recalibrated standards.

  19. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343

  1. [Fibrin glue for operative correction of septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Boenisch, M; Nolst Trenité, G J

    2004-11-01

    The routine procedure after correction of septal deviations is the utilization of endonasal packing in order to avoid septal haematoma. However, the mechanical pressure of this packing damages the mucociliar activity of the mucosa and causes lymphoedema by blocking the lymphatic vessels. Besides it represents a foreign body within the nose causing pain and unpleasant feeling for the patient. In order to avoid these disadvantages, in 57 patients we used fibrin glue instead of nasal packing. After correction of the septal deviation the two mucoperichondrium blades where fixed together with Tissucol Duo Quick. This technique not only leads to haemostasis, but also provides fixation of the newly modeled septum. In only one patient we found a small unilateral septal haematoma, in all other cases the postoperative period showed no complications. Patients had a significant reduction of endonasal crusts and postoperative swelling. Patients comfort increased significant without the (standard) nasal packing.

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  3. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  4. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...

  5. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  6. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  7. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  8. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  9. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...

  10. Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

  11. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  12. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  13. 15 CFR 14.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS General § 14.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for.... Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by the Assistant Secretary. An exception made on a case-by-case basis will apply to a single award....

  14. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for... awarding small awards, except for those requirements which are statutory. Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by the USAID Deputy Assistant Administrator for Management....

  15. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  16. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  17. 48 CFR 1480.403 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officials may authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition: For a proposed contract action . . . The... the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA... solicitation when IA makes the following determinations and the appropriate official takes the...

  18. 7 CFR 2502.3 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 2502.3 Section 2502.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CAREER AND EMPLOYMENT (ACE) GRANTS PROGRAM General Information § 2502.3...

  19. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  20. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  1. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  2. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  3. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  4. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  5. [The Russian and international standards of age-related allocation of population for medical statistics, medical demographic analysis and risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Demin, V F; Paltsev, M A

    2013-01-01

    The actual European standard of age-related allocation of population in action is largely implemented in medical demographic studies of international (WHO etc.) and national organizations. The Rosstat also implements this standard in its demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in computing the standardized indicator of population mortality in different countries and territories and also in assessing risk factors. The standard is based on the idea of evaluating mortality with an integrated standard in order to compare between different countries mortality of population, genders and calendar years. The analysis of results of testing calculations of values of standardized indicator of mortality of population of Russia and EU countries applying European standard in action revealed serious shortcomings. For example. unfounded overstating of values of standardized indicator, of mortality for males and its understating for females artificially increases already wide difference in mortality of males and females in the Russian Federation. The calculation on this background of standardized indicator of mortality for particular causes of death results in erroneous values due to neglected concurrence of risks. Because of necessity of improvement of standard a new concept of development of national and international standards is proposed. This concept is based on application of notion of balanced age-related allocation of population and its number values.

  6. Standardization and Digital Enclosure: The Privatization of Standards, Knowledge, and Policy in the Age of Global Information Technology. Part of the Advances in IT Standards and Standardization Research (AISSR) Book Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoechle, Timothy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends have shown increasing privatization of standardization activities under various corporations, trade associations, and consortia, raising significant public policy issues about how the public interest may be represented. This book establishes a framework of analysis for public policy discussion and debate. Discussing topics such as…

  7. Exploring Pre-K Age 4 Learning Standards and Their Role in Early Childhood Education: Research and Policy Implications. Research Report. ETS RR-16-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin-Parecki, Andrea; Slutzky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    Currently in the United States, 50 states, 5 territories, and the District of Columbia have established prekindergarten (pre-K) age 4 learning standards that are intended to outline skills and knowledge that set children on a path to success in kindergarten and upcoming grades. These standards are emphasized as a centralizing force in early…

  8. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  9. Craniofacial Deviations in the Children With Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ant, Ayca; Kemaloglu, Yusuf Kemal; Yilmaz, Metin; Dilci, Alper

    2017-01-20

    Nasal obstruction mainly caused by adenoid hypertrophy in children affects the craniofacial growth and development process, and the craniofacial deviations and/or differences reported in the children are very similar to those in the adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The authors aimed to look for relationships of the linear craniofacial dimensions in the children suffering from nasal obstruction with age, degree of clinical nasal obstruction score (CNOS), and relative size of the adenoid mass within the nasopharynx in their study.Fifty-five children suffering from nasal obstruction were retrospectively enrolled, and clinical data was used to calculate CNOS. On the lateral cephalometric radiographies, 9 linear variables were measured and adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR) was calculated.The data presented that, not CNOS, but ANR shown decrease by age, while many skeletal variables with exception of the nasopharyngeal and adenoidal postero-anterior dimensions were increased by age. Further, it was found that while CNOS were negatively correlated with the anterior cranial base length, anterior-superior facial height, and maxillary depth, ANR disclosed significant correlation only with the anteriorsuperior facial height. The authors' results support that nasal obstruction in the children was related not only to the adenoidal hypertrophy. Although relative size of the adenoidal mass in relation to the nasopharynx decreased by age, nasal obstruction was still present. Further, these results support that craniofacial deviations and/or differences in the children with nasal obstruction is similar to the adult OSAS patients. Smaller dimensions related to the naso-maxillary complex in the children with more severe nasal obstruction appear to be continuous by age. Hence, it could be said that narrow naso-maxillary complex could contribute to proceed nasal obstruction by age, which may contribute to OSAS in the adults.

  10. On large deviations for ensembles of distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Khrychev, D A

    2013-11-30

    The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ε>0 the nonempty set P{sub ε} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ε}, ε>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  11. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  12. Introducing Computed Tomography Standards for Age Estimation of Modern Australian Subadults Using Postnatal Ossification Timings of Select Cranial and Cervical Sites(.).

    PubMed

    Lottering, Nicolene; MacGregor, Donna M; Alston, Clair L; Watson, Debbie; Gregory, Laura S

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary, population-specific ossification timings of the cranium are lacking in current literature due to challenges in obtaining large repositories of documented subadult material, forcing Australian practitioners to rely on North American, arguably antiquated reference standards for age estimation. This study assessed the temporal pattern of ossification of the cranium and provides recalibrated probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian children. Fusion status of the occipital and frontal bones, atlas, and axis was scored using a modified two- to four-tier system from cranial/cervical DICOM datasets of 585 children aged birth to 10 years. Transition analysis was applied to elucidate maximum-likelihood estimates between consecutive fusion stages, in conjunction with Bayesian statistics to calculate credible intervals for age estimation. Results demonstrate significant sex differences in skeletal maturation (p < 0.05) and earlier timings in comparison with major literary sources, underscoring the requisite of updated standards for age estimation of modern individuals.

  13. Measuring and Plotting Surface-Contour Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Lino A.; Shuck, Thomas; Crockett, Leroy K.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held device measures deviation of contour of surface from desired contour and provides output to x-y plotter. Carriage on device rolled along track representing desired contour, while spring-loaded stylus on device deflects perpendicularly to track to follow surface. Operator moves carriage of contour-measuring device on beamlike track. Stylus on carriage traces contour of surface above it. Carriage of measuring device holds transducer measuring cross-track displacement of surface from desired contour, and multiple-turn potentiometer measuring position along track.

  14. Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid plants.

    PubMed

    Grandont, L; Jenczewski, E; Lloyd, A

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis is a fundamental process in all sexual organisms that ensures fertility and genome stability and creates genetic diversity. For each of these outcomes, the exclusive formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes is needed. This is more difficult to achieve in polyploid species which have more than 2 sets of chromosomes able to recombine. In this review, we describe how meiosis and meiotic recombination 'deviate' in polyploid plants compared to diploids, and give an overview of current knowledge on how they are regulated. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Stenberg and Saura in this themed issue.

  15. Penile ossification and acquired penile deviation.

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, W K; Schaefer, H E; Westenfelder, M

    1995-01-01

    We report on 3 patients with penile deviation during erection caused by ossification in the corpora cavernosa. In each case hard plaques could be palpated. These indurations were removed through a dorsal longitudinal incision. Histologically, solid bone was demonstrable. Two patients were able to resume normal sexual intercourse, but one became impotent following postoperative cavernitis. Penile ossification is rare in man, and its etiology is unknown. It bears no relationship to the os penis normally present in many other mammals. Diagnosis is best made by palpation and X-ray examination. The treatment of choice for symptomatic ossification is surgical excision.

  16. Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  17. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  18. Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    ARAB, Maliheh; NOGHABAEI, Giti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Female cancer, especially breast and gynecologic cancers are considered multistage disease, highly influenced by risk and protective factors and/or screening preventive modalities. Consequences of all these factors result in the trend of change over time. Methods In this comparative study, based on data of national cancer registry of Iran 2004 published by Iranian Ministry of Health, agestandard incidence rate (ASR) according to the world population was calculated in all reported gynecologic and breast cancers. Source of all subjects are pathologic based. In the next step, the calculated ASR of Iran and those of the other countries in 2004 were compared to GLOBOCAN ASR reports of 2008. Results In Iran ASR of breast cancer 2004 (24.93) changed to 18.4 in 2008. Ovarian cancer ASR of 2004, 3.07 was 3.1 in 2008. Endometrial cancer ASR in 2004 (2.29) was 1.7 in 2008. Cervical cancer ASR of 1.71 in 2004 was 2.2 in 2008. Conclusions In Iran incidence trend of breast and endometrium are decreasing in the same direction of USA and Australia. Increasing trend of ovary and cervix ASR in Iran is in the inverse direction of USA and Australia which are decreasing. Future studies to find out the same trend or any changes, might develop these findings and improve consequent practical decisions based on results of this study and complementary future studies. PMID:26060699

  19. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  20. T-wave axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rago, Livia; Badilini, Fabio; Vinetti, Giovanni; Gianfagna, Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) deviation are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a large sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 ± 11 years) and 8775 men (54 ± 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA deviation.

  1. Precise K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, Rb-Sr and U/Pb mineral ages from the 27.5 Ma fish canyon tuff reference standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Baadsgaard, H.

    2001-01-01

    The accuracy of ages measured using the 40Ar/39Ar technique is affected by uncertainties in the age of radiation fluence-monitor minerals. At present, there is lack of agreement about the ages of certain minerals used as fluence monitors. The accuracy of the age of a standard may be improved if the age can be measured using different decay schemes. This has been done by measuring ages on minerals from the Oligocene Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) using the K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar. Rb-Sr and U/Pb methods. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages of sanidine, biotite and hornblende yielded a mean age of 27.57 ?? 0.36 Ma. The weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of sanidine and biotite is 27.57 ?? 0.18 Ma. A biotite-feldspar Rb-Sr isochron yielded an age of 27.44 ?? 0.16 Ma. The U-Pb data for zircon are complex because of the presence of Precambrian zircons and inheritance of radiogenic Pb. Zircons with 207Pb/235U < 0.4 yielded a discordia line with a lower concordia intercept of 27.52 ?? 0.09 Ma. Evaluation of the combined data suggests that the best age for FCT is 27.51 Ma. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Ultra-high precision 40Ar/39Ar ages for Fish Canyon Tuff and Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine: New dating standards required?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D.; Matchan, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar dating technique is a high precision (<0.1%) method with wide application to geological samples. However, the method is predicated on the availability of natural mineral standards of known age. Widely used 40Ar/39Ar standards include sanidine from the (ca. 28 Ma) Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) and the (ca. 1.2 Ma) Alder Creek Rhyolite (ACR). Despite common usage, the ages of FCT and ACR sanidine have proven contentious, with reported values varying by >2%; well outside the ±0.1% aspiration of EARTHTIME (http://www.earth-time.org).

  3. Spotting deviations from R2 inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Elizalde, Emilio; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.

  4. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Assessing EL Students in the Age of Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Durán, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Subject-area standards such as Common Core State Standards for Language Arts and Mathematics and Next Generation Science Standards offer deeper, richer views of subject-area proficiency. In science, they underscore doing things with facts and concepts, such as explaining, planning, and investigating--activities that are intertwined with language,…

  5. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  6. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  7. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be interchangeable…

  8. Large deviations for nonlocal stochastic neural fields.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Christian; Riedler, Martin G

    2014-04-17

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers' law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20.

  9. Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.P. )

    1993-11-22

    A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

  10. Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid animals.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, P; Saura, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the different modes of meiosis and its deviations encountered in polyploid animals. Bisexual reproduction involving normal meiosis occurs in some allopolyploid frogs with variable degrees of polyploidy. Aberrant modes of bisexual reproduction include gynogenesis, where a sperm stimulates the egg to develop. The sperm may enter the egg but there is no fertilization and syngamy. In hybridogenesis, a genome is eliminated to produce haploid or diploid eggs or sperm. Ploidy can be elevated by fertilization with a haploid sperm in meiotic hybridogenesis, which elevates the ploidy of hybrid offspring such that they produce diploid gametes. Polyploids are then produced in the next generation. In kleptogenesis, females acquire full or partial genomes from their partners. In pre-equalizing hybrid meiosis, one genome is transmitted in the Mendelian fashion, while the other is transmitted clonally. Parthenogenetic animals have a very wide range of mechanisms for restoring or maintaining the mother's ploidy level, including gamete duplication, terminal fusion, central fusion, fusion of the first polar nucleus with the product of the first division, and premeiotic duplication followed by a normal meiosis. In apomictic parthenogenesis, meiosis is replaced by what is effectively mitotic cell division. The above modes have different evolutionary consequences, which are discussed. See also the sister article by Grandont et al. in this themed issue.

  11. Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

  12. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  13. Gait deviations and compensations in pediatric patients with increased femoral torsion.

    PubMed

    Bruderer-Hofstetter, Marina; Fenner, Verena; Payne, Erika; Zdenek, Katja; Klima, Harry; Wegener, Regina

    2015-02-01

    Coxa antetorta describes an abnormal torsion of the femur. It is commonly considered a cosmetic problem and is treated surgically only in severe cases and the presence of physical complaints. The purpose of this study was to identify deviations in gait kinematics and kinetics in pediatric patients caused by coxa antetorta and to categorize these deviations into primary and secondary deviations. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis study to detect gait deviations in adolescents (n = 18; age range 10.5-17.5 years) with coxa antetorta compared to age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 17). Principal component (PC) analysis was used for data reduction. Linear mixed models applied to PC-scores were used to estimate the main effects within retained PCs followed by a post-hoc subgroup analysis. Patients walked with smaller external foot progression angle, greater knee adduction, more internally rotated and flexed hips and greater anterior pelvic tilt. Subgroup analysis revealed that-depending on knee alignment-patients had higher knee and hip adduction moments. These deviations in joint kinematics and kinetics may be associated with physical complaints and accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Assessment of gait deviations related to coxa antetorta using 3D gait analysis may be an additional tool in individual clinical decision-making.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is a deviation? 63.1965 Section 63.1965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Requirements § 63.1965 What is a deviation? A deviation is defined in § 63.1990. For the purposes of...

  15. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph...

  16. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  17. NH3-SCR performance of fresh and hydrothermally aged Fe-ZSM-5 in standard and fast selective catalytic reduction reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Fudong; Xie, Lijuan; Shan, Wenpo; He, Hong

    2013-04-02

    Hydrothermal stability is one of the challenges for the practical application of Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 (NH(3)-SCR) for diesel engines. The presence of NO(3) in the exhaust gases can enhance the deNOx activity because of the fast SCR reaction. In this work, a Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst was prepared by a solid-state ion-exchange method and was hydrothermally deactivated at 800 °C in the presence of 10% H(2)O. The activity of fresh and hydrothermal aged Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts was investigated in standard SCR (NO(2)/NOx = 0) and in fast SCR with NO(2)/NOx = 0.3 and 0.5. In standard SCR, hydrothermal aging of Fe-ZSM-5 resulted in a significant decrease of low-temperature activity and a slight increase in high-temperature activity. In fast SCR, NOx conversion over aged Fe-ZSM-5 was significantly increased but was still lower than that over fresh catalyst. Additionally, production of N(2)O in fast SCR was much more apparent over aged Fe-ZSM-5 than over fresh catalyst. We propose that, in fast SCR, the rate of key reactions related to NO is slower over aged Fe-ZSM-5 than over fresh catalyst, thus increasing the probabilities of side reactions involving the formation of N(2)O.

  18. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  19. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  20. Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.

  1. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  2. Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114

  3. Radial fast-neutron fluence gradients during rotating 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation recorded with metallic fluence monitors and geological age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Koleška, Michal; Jonckheere, Raymond; Unterricker, Sepp

    2015-01-01

    the neutron-irradiation parameter J is one of the major uncertainties in 40Ar/39Ar dating. The associated uncertainty of the individual J-value for a sample of unknown age depends on the accuracy of the age of the geological standards, the fast-neutron fluence distribution in the reactor, and the distances between standards and samples during irradiation. While it is generally assumed that rotating irradiation evens out radial neutron fluence gradients, we observed axial and radial variations of the J-values in sample irradiations in the rotating channels of two reactors. To quantify them, we included three-dimensionally distributed metallic fast (Ni) and thermal- (Co) neutron fluence monitors in three irradiations and geological age standards in three more. Two irradiations were carried out under Cd shielding in the FRG1 reactor in Geesthacht, Germany, and four without Cd shielding in the LVR-15 reactor in Řež, Czech Republic. The 58Ni(nf,p)58Co activation reaction and γ-spectrometry of the 811 keV peak associated with the subsequent decay of 58Co to 58Fe allow one to calculate the fast-neutron fluence. The fast-neutron fluences at known positions in the irradiation container correlate with the J-values determined by mass-spectrometric 40Ar/39Ar measurements of the geological age standards. Radial neutron fluence gradients are up to 1.8 %/cm in FRG1 and up to 2.2 %/cm in LVR-15; the corresponding axial gradients are up to 5.9 and 2.1 %/cm. We conclude that sample rotation might not always suffice to meet the needs of high-precision dating and gradient monitoring can be crucial.

  4. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  5. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  6. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  7. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  8. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  9. MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Arnd

    2010-02-10

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  10. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  11. Development of modern human subadult age and sex estimation standards using multi-slice computed tomography images from medical examiner's offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michala K.; Stull, Kyra E.; Garvin, Heather M.; Klales, Alexandra R.

    2016-10-01

    Forensic anthropologists are routinely asked to estimate a biological profile (i.e., age, sex, ancestry and stature) from a set of unidentified remains. In contrast to the abundance of collections and techniques associated with adult skeletons, there is a paucity of modern, documented subadult skeletal material, which limits the creation and validation of appropriate forensic standards. Many are forced to use antiquated methods derived from small sample sizes, which given documented secular changes in the growth and development of children, are not appropriate for application in the medico-legal setting. Therefore, the aim of this project is to use multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data from a large, diverse sample of modern subadults to develop new methods to estimate subadult age and sex for practical forensic applications. The research sample will consist of over 1,500 full-body MSCT scans of modern subadult individuals (aged birth to 20 years) obtained from two U.S. medical examiner's offices. Statistical analysis of epiphyseal union scores, long bone osteometrics, and os coxae landmark data will be used to develop modern subadult age and sex estimation standards. This project will result in a database of information gathered from the MSCT scans, as well as the creation of modern, statistically rigorous standards for skeletal age and sex estimation in subadults. Furthermore, the research and methods developed in this project will be applicable to dry bone specimens, MSCT scans, and radiographic images, thus providing both tools and continued access to data for forensic practitioners in a variety of settings.

  12. Deviation of the fully protracted tongue: is it a reliable indicator for language cerebral dominance?

    PubMed

    Abu Ghaida, Jamaledin; Hani, Saleh Bani; Mustafa, Ayman; Eldwairi, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    Since its introduction in 1960, The Wada test has been considered the gold standard for language lateralization prior to ablative brain surgery. Due to the invasive nature of The Wada test several non-invasive techniques have been alternatively adopted. Recently, it has been suggested that the tongue deviates toward the language dominant cerebral hemisphere on full protraction. This suggestion is based on the important role the tongue plays in articulation and on the close anatomical relationship between the cortical tongue motor area and the motor speech area. It was proposed that this phenomenon could serve as a reliable and simple method for language brain lateralization. However, this hypothesis is still open for verification. In an attempt to correlate tongue deviation and language cerebral dominance we present and discuss in this paper the results of a study conducted on 339 free adult Jordanian volunteers. Tongue deviation and handedness were determined and statistically correlated. Our results showed that 62% of test subjects did not show any tongue deviation on full protrusion. Additionally, 9% of test subjects showed left-sided tongue deviation on full protraction in spite of 90% right handedness with presumed left language dominant cerebral hemisphere. We conclude that, at least in Jordanians, tongue deviation cannot be considered as a reliable indicator for language lateralization.

  13. Organizational strategy use in children aged 5-7: standardization and validity of the Rey Complex Figure Organizational Strategy Score (RCF-OSS).

    PubMed

    Martens, R; Hurks, P P M; Jolles, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated psychometric properties (standardization and validity) of the Rey Complex Figure Organizational Strategy Score (RCF-OSS) in a sample of 217 healthy children aged 5-7 years. Our results showed that RCF-OSS performance changes significantly between 5 and 7 years of age. While most 5-year-olds used a local approach when copying the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), 7-year-olds increasingly adopted a global approach. RCF-OSS performance correlated significantly, but moderately with measures of ROCF accuracy, executive functioning (fluency, working memory, reasoning), and non-executive functioning (visual-motor integration, visual attention, processing speed, numeracy). These findings seem to indicate that RCF-OSS performance reflects a range of cognitive skills at 5 to 7 years of age, including aspects of executive and non-executive functioning.

  14. Analysis of Production Errors in the Phonetic Performance of School-Age Standard-English-Speaking Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick, Ed.; And Others

    This study is concerned with misarticulated speech sounds of children and the phonetic realization of these sounds. The articulation errors of 384 standard-English-speaking school children were analyzed in speech samples obtained by the National Speech and Hearing Survey and were samples of both free speech and of performance on the…

  15. Pulling PreK into a K-12 Orbit: The Evolution of PreK in the Age of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Ryan, Sharon; Nocera, Amato; Northey, Kaitlin; Wilinski, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    We might call this decade the era of early childhood. In the US, federal and state governments invest in the creation of public pre-kindergarten (preK) programs and create standards that articulate goals for practice and benchmarks that can be used to evaluate success. How have these trends provided a context for the evolution of preK curriculum?…

  16. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal…

  17. A New Age Dawning? Australia's New Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Moves towards "Third Stage" Internationalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Minister for Education, Employment and Workplace Relations recently launched a new agency whose primary focus is the protection of the country's tertiary education system. The government is developing the new AUD$57 million (approximately US$51 million) agency, the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), in response to…

  18. Cranial base deviation in hemifacial microsomia by craniometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Paliga, James Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Wink, Jason; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2015-01-01

    Although facial asymmetry in hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is well documented in the literature, no studies have concentrated on the morphology of the cranial base. This study aimed to evaluate the endocranial morphology in patients with HFM. Consecutive patients with unilateral HFM treated at a craniofacial center from 2000 to 2012 were included. The patients were grouped according to severity on the basis of the Kaban-Pruzansky classification: mild (0-1), moderate (2a), and severe (2b-3). Skull base angulation and transverse craniometric measures were recorded and then compared with those of age-matched controls. A total of 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) averaging 7.5 years of age (range, 1.1-15.7 y) were included. Four patients were classified as mild; 12, as moderate; and 14, as severe. The mean cranial base angle was found to be between 179 and 181 degrees with no significant difference between the severity groups (P = 0.57). The mean cranial base angle did not differ significantly in the patients compared with the controls(179.6 vs 180.0; P = 0.51) No significant differences between the affected and unaffected sides in the patients were found in distances from the midline to hypoglossal canal, internal acoustic meatus, lateral carotid canal, medial carotid canal, foramen ovale, and rotundum. There were no significant differences in transverse measurements between the severity classes using the same landmarks (P = 0.46, P = 0.30, P = 0.40, P = 0.25, P = 0.57, and P = 0.76, respectively). The cranial base axis is not deviated in the patients with HFM compared with the age-matched controls, and there exists little difference in endocranial morphologic measurements with increasing severity of HFM. These data are interesting, given the role of the cranial base in facial growth and the varying hypotheses regarding the mechanism of disease in HFM.

  19. Who Works beyond the "Standard" Retirement Age and Why? A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    With life expectancy increasing, and changes to public policy aimed at encouraging older workers to stay in the workforce, the conditions under which people decide to retire have changed in recent years. This report describes the characteristics of those who continue to work beyond the age of 65. The findings show that two groups of workers, in…

  20. Normal aging increases cognitive heterogeneity: analysis of dispersion in WAIS-III scores across age.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2007-11-01

    Individual differences in cognitive decline during normal aging need further delineation. The purpose of this study was to find the score dispersions in the WAIS-III subtests at different ages. Norms presented in the Administration and Scoring Manual [Wechsler, D. (1997). WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation] were used. The WAIS-III was standardized and normalized using 2450 American adults divided into 13 age ranges and 4 education groups. Means and standard deviations for the different WAIS-III subtests were deduced and the ratio Percentage of the mean="(standard deviation/mean)x100" was calculated. It was hypothesized that during normal aging, whereas mean scores decrease, score dispersions increase, pointing to an increased heterogeneity in intellectual abilities in older individuals. In all subtests, except Digit Span, it was found that score dispersions indeed increased during aging. However, in some subtests, increase in dispersion was less than 20% (Block Design, Object Assembly, and Information), whereas in others, increase in dispersion was over 200% (Matrix Reasoning, L-N Sequencing, Digit-Symbol, Picture Completion, and Picture Arrangement). It was proposed that cognitive heterogeneity during normal aging is related to those abilities measured with these latter subtests, basically, executive functions, attention, and selected non-verbal abilities. In other abilities (e.g., visuoconstructive abilities and fund of general information), normal aging is associated with a more homogenous pattern of decline.

  1. Toward reliable biomarker signatures in the age of liquid biopsies - how to standardize the small RNA-Seq workflow

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Dominik; Haberberger, Anna; Kirchner, Benedikt; Spornraft, Melanie; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Schelling, Gustav; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful tool in transcriptomics, gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery. Sequencing cell-free nucleic acids, particularly microRNA (miRNA), from liquid biopsies additionally provides exciting possibilities for molecular diagnostics, and might help establish disease-specific biomarker signatures. The complexity of the small RNA-Seq workflow, however, bears challenges and biases that researchers need to be aware of in order to generate high-quality data. Rigorous standardization and extensive validation are required to guarantee reliability, reproducibility and comparability of research findings. Hypotheses based on flawed experimental conditions can be inconsistent and even misleading. Comparable to the well-established MIQE guidelines for qPCR experiments, this work aims at establishing guidelines for experimental design and pre-analytical sample processing, standardization of library preparation and sequencing reactions, as well as facilitating data analysis. We highlight bottlenecks in small RNA-Seq experiments, point out the importance of stringent quality control and validation, and provide a primer for differential expression analysis and biomarker discovery. Following our recommendations will encourage better sequencing practice, increase experimental transparency and lead to more reproducible small RNA-Seq results. This will ultimately enhance the validity of biomarker signatures, and allow reliable and robust clinical predictions. PMID:27317696

  2. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  3. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  4. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  5. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  6. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... number(s) of the DOE-PMR; (2) The reason why the deviation is considered necessary or would be in the...) Requests for deviations from applicable portions of the FPMR and DOE-PMR (except aviation related portions... related portions of the FPMR and DOE-PMR concerning aviation operations shall be forwarded by the OPMO...

  7. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  8. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  9. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  10. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  11. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  12. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  13. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  14. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  15. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  17. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  20. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section... Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There shall be written procedures for... in this subpart. These written procedures, including any changes, shall be drafted, reviewed,...

  1. Syntactic Deviations in the Novel "The Sound and the Fury"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alirezazadeh, Pooria; Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at William Faulkner's work "The Sound and the Fury." The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for…

  2. 7 CFR 3015.3 - Conflicting policies and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicting policies and deviations. 3015.3 Section... Conflicting policies and deviations. (a) Statutory provisions. Federal statutes that apply to some USDA grant..., when permissible under existing laws. In those instances where a program receives an exception to...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing Compliance... landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a) through (c.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  4. 10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requesting a deviation. 1017.5 Section 1017.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... create a potential or real vulnerability); or (3) An exception (i.e., an approved deviation from...

  5. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... deviation file. The establishment shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use...

  6. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... deviation file. The establishment shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use...

  7. Behavioral testing-related changes in the expression of Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptors in standard and enriched aged Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the changes in the Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression induced by behavioral testing in the dorsal and ventral hippocampi of standard and enriched aged Wistar rats. The environmental enrichment (EE) was carried out 3h/day over a period of two months and then, the rats were tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) and radial-arm water maze (RAWM). Behavioral results showed that, even at an advanced age, EE was able to reduce anxiety-related behaviors and improve the performance in the RAWM. Regarding the neurobiological data, Synapsin I expression in the dorsal CA3, but not in the ventral, was enhanced both in enriched and standard rats when they performed the behavioral testing. Interestingly, the EE exposure was enough to increase Synapsin I in the ventral CA3. The analysis of GR in the dorsal hippocampus showed an increase of this receptor in the dDG both in enriched and standard rats when they performed the behavioral testing, whereas in the dCA1 and dCA3, the effect of the testing depended on the previous housing condition. In the ventral region, we found that the effects of EE were higher because on the one hand, the GR expression induced by the behavioral testing was enhanced in the dSUB, vCA1 and vCA3 when the rats were previously enriched and on the other hand, EE, regardless of the behavioral testing, increased the GR expression in the vDG and vSUB. Therefore, our results suggest that the effect of the behavioral testing on the neurobiological mechanisms studied is different depending on the previous housing condition of aged rats.

  8. Vibrational investigation on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, IR intensity, Raman activity, peak resemblance, ideal estimation, standard deviation of computed frequencies analyses and electronic structure on 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene using HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, S.; Jayaprakash, A.; Mohan, S.; Karabacak, M.

    2011-11-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm -1) spectral measurements of 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene (3M12B) have been attempted in the present work. Ab-initio HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities and Raman activities. Complete vibrational assignments on the observed spectra are made with vibrational frequencies obtained by HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) at 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The results of the calculations have been used to simulate IR and Raman spectra for the molecule that showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The potential energy distribution (PED) corresponding to each of the observed frequencies are calculated which confirms the reliability and precision of the assignment and analysis of the vibrational fundamentals modes. The oscillation of vibrational frequencies of butadiene due to the couple of methyl group is also discussed. A study on the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures reveal the correlations between standard heat capacities ( C) standard entropies ( S), and standard enthalpy changes ( H).

  9. Metatarsal growth during the second trimester: a predictor of gestational age?

    PubMed Central

    DE VASCONCELLOS, HENRIQUE AYRES; FERREIRA, ELIANE

    1998-01-01

    Metatarsal growth was studied in 780 human fetal metatarsal bones, crown-rump length ranging from 120 to 260 mm and gestational age ranging from 14 to 23 wk postconception. Total length, diaphyseal length and diameter were measured and statistical analysis performed. Means and standard deviations for each measurement were calculated at 1 wk intervals. These data were correlated with crown-rump length and gestational age and an equation was constructed in an attempt to predict gestational age. PMID:9758145

  10. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  11. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Antony; Jagannath, Pushpa; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC) score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD) of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001) for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]). Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. PMID:26139742

  12. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  13. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  14. Vertical deviations of the midplane of the Galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.

    Besides the integral sign warp in the outer Galaxy, the gas in the Milky Way shows small, but systematic deviations from a flat z = 0 plane both in the inner and the outer Galaxy. In the inner Galaxy, the tangent points have no distance ambiguity, so their distances, and hence midplane deviations, can be measured. From the tangent point analysis the authors find that the molecular and atomic gas layers deviate from the z = 0 plane with an amplitude of ≅50 pc. Whether these deviations are due to a small, smooth inner warp or are similar to the m = 10 mode corrugations found in the outer Galaxy (Kulkarni, Blitz & Heiles, 1982) can be checked by looking at the two-dimensional (in Galactic radius and azimuthal angle) structure of the z deviations. For the inner Galaxy, distance ambiguity at points other than the tangent points makes the interpretation difficult, but these hypotheses can be checked in a limited way. Magnetic instabilities can cause vertical deviations of the gas, but if stars share the same deviations the origin has to be gravitational.

  15. Reflected beam's direction deviation induced by the corner cube retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Xian, Hao; Jang, WenHan

    2008-12-01

    The direction deviation of the reflected beam induced by the corner cube retroreflector (CCR) is respectively discussed by geometrical optics approach and the principle of physical optics in this paper. A mathematical model was built to calculate the beam's aberration due to the fabrication errors of the CCR. It can be concluded that the centroid direction error of far field spot is much more appropriate to describe the reflection beam's direction deviation for a broad incident beam, and the beam with even intensity distribution should be used to reduce its direction deviation.

  16. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.

    2005-05-01

    For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.

  17. Telomere length and age-at-menopause in the US

    PubMed Central

    Shenassa, Edmond D.; Rossen, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age-at-menopause and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) are both associated with biologic aging. Therefore, it would be reasonable to hypothesize that LTL may also serve as a marker for reproductive aging as shorter LTL may be associated with earlier age-at-menopause. Methods We analyzed data from 799 post-menopausal (ages 41–85) participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002), a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Results Controlling for behavioral, socio-demographic, and health-related determinants of menopause, we found that among non-Hispanic white women, an increase of one standard deviation in LTL was associated with a 0.43 year higher reported age-at-menopause. Among Mexican–Americans, an increase of one standard deviation in LTL was associated with a 1.56 year earlier menopause. There was no significant association between LTL and age-at-menopause among non-Hispanic black women. Conclusions Our main finding is evidence of a strong interaction by race/ethnicity in the association between LTL and age-at-menopause. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that shorter LTL is a predictor of earlier age-at-menopause, as the magnitude and direction of the associations between LTL and age-at-menopause varied across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:26297686

  18. The Need for Standardized Assessment of Muscle Quality in Skeletal Muscle Function Deficit and Other Aging-Related Muscle Dysfunctions: A Symposium Report.

    PubMed

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Harris-Love, Michael O; Miljkovic, Iva; Fragala, Maren S; Anthony, Brian W; Manini, Todd M

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions. The present article provides an expanded introduction concerning the emerging definitions of muscle quality and a potential framework for scientific inquiry within the field. Changes in muscle tissue composition, based on excessive levels of inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids, have been found to adversely impact metabolism and peak force generation. However, methods to easily and rapidly assess muscle tissue composition in multiple clinical settings and with minimal patient burden are needed. Diagnostic ultrasound and other assessment methods continue to be developed for characterizing muscle pathology, and enhanced sonography using sensors to provide user feedback and improve reliability is currently the subject of ongoing investigation and development. In addition, measures of relative muscle force such as specific force or grip strength adjusted for body size have been proposed as methods to assess changes in muscle quality. Furthermore, performance-based assessments of muscle power via timed tests of function and body size estimates, are associated with lower extremity muscle strength may be responsive to age-related changes in muscle quality. Future aims include reaching consensus on the definition and standardized assessments of muscle quality, and

  19. The Need for Standardized Assessment of Muscle Quality in Skeletal Muscle Function Deficit and Other Aging-Related Muscle Dysfunctions: A Symposium Report

    PubMed Central

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Harris-Love, Michael O.; Miljkovic, Iva; Fragala, Maren S.; Anthony, Brian W.; Manini, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions. The present article provides an expanded introduction concerning the emerging definitions of muscle quality and a potential framework for scientific inquiry within the field. Changes in muscle tissue composition, based on excessive levels of inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids, have been found to adversely impact metabolism and peak force generation. However, methods to easily and rapidly assess muscle tissue composition in multiple clinical settings and with minimal patient burden are needed. Diagnostic ultrasound and other assessment methods continue to be developed for characterizing muscle pathology, and enhanced sonography using sensors to provide user feedback and improve reliability is currently the subject of ongoing investigation and development. In addition, measures of relative muscle force such as specific force or grip strength adjusted for body size have been proposed as methods to assess changes in muscle quality. Furthermore, performance-based assessments of muscle power via timed tests of function and body size estimates, are associated with lower extremity muscle strength may be responsive to age-related changes in muscle quality. Future aims include reaching consensus on the definition and standardized assessments of muscle quality, and

  20. Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2001-12-01

    Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations

  1. Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itto, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.

  2. Large Deviations and a Fluctuation Symmetry for Chaotic Homeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    We consider expansive homeomorphisms with the specification property. We give a new simple proof of a large deviation principle for Gibbs measures corresponding to a regular potential and we establish a general symmetry of the rate function for the large deviations of the antisymmetric part, under time-reversal, of the potential. This generalizes the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem to a larger class of chaotic systems.

  3. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; da Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation. PMID:28125140

  4. Computerized inspection of real surfaces and minimization of their deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, Chihping; Handschuh, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for the minimization of gear tooth surface deviations between theoretical and real surfaces for the improvement of precision of surface manufacture. Coordinate measurement machinery is used to determine a grid of surface coordinates. Theoretical calculations are made for the grid points. A least-square method is used to minimize the deviations between real and theoretical surfaces by altering the manufacturing machine-tool settings. An example is given for a hypoid gear.

  5. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  6. Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, αCaMKII, p-αCaMKII, and PSD-95.

  7. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, Prakash; Thea, Donald M.; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Fox, Matthew P.; Coovadia, H. M.; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites with high HIV prevalence in Durban, South Africa and Ndola, Zambia. Primary outcome measures were clinical treatment failure at day 2 and day 14. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: CT00227331http://www.clinicaltrialsgov/show/NCT00227331). FINDINGS: Of the 523 children enrolled, HIV status was known for 464 participants; 106 (23%) of these were infected with HIV. By day 2, 57 (12.3%) children had failed treatment and 110 (23.7%) failed by day 14. Twenty (18.9%) HIV-infected children failed by day 2 compared with 37 (10.3%) uninfected children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.00). Thirty-four (32.1%) HIV-infected children failed treatment by day 14 compared with 76 (21.2%) uninfected children (adjusted OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.11-3.17). Analysis stratified by age showed that the greatest differential in treatment failure at day 2 and day 14 occurred in the children aged 3-5 months. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children with severe pneumonia fail WHO-standard treatment with parenteral penicillin or amoxicillin at day 2 and day 14 more often than do HIV-uninfected children, especially young infants. Standard case management of acute respiratory infection (ARI) using WHO treatment guidelines is inadequate in areas of high HIV prevalence and reappraisal of empiric antimicrobial therapy is urgently needed for severe pneumonia associated with HIV-1. PMID:16628299

  8. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  9. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.

    2006-09-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.

  10. Cosolvency and deviations from log-linear solubilization.

    PubMed

    Rubino, J T; Yalkowsky, S H

    1987-06-01

    The solubilities of three nonpolar drugs, phenytoin, diazepam, and benzocaine, have been measured in 14 cosolvent-water binary mixtures. The observed solubilities were examined for deviations from solubilities calculated by the equation log Sm = f log Sc + (1 - f) log Sw, where Sm is the solubility of the drug in the cosolvent-water mixture, Sc is the solubility of the drug in neat cosolvent, f is the volume fraction of cosolvent, and Sw is the solubility of the drug in water. When presented graphically, the patterns of the deviations were similar for all three drugs in mixtures of amphiprotic cosolvents (glycols, polyols, and alcohols) and water as well as nonpolar, aprotic cosolvents (dioxane, triglyme, dimethyl isosorbide) and water. The deviations were positive for phenytoin and benzocaine but negative for diazepam in mixtures of dipolar, aprotic cosolvents (dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and dimethylacetamide) and water. The source of the deviations could not consistently be attributed to physical properties of the cosolvent-water mixtures or to alterations in the solute crystal. Similarities between the results of this study and those of previous investigations suggest that changes in the structure of the solvent play a role in the deviations from the expected solubilities.

  11. Young to Middle-Aged Dogs with High Amyloid-β Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid are Impaired on Learning in Standard Cognition tests

    PubMed Central

    Borghys, Herman; Van Broeck, Bianca; Dhuyvetter, Deborah; Jacobs, Tom; de Waepenaert, Katja; Erkens, Tim; Brooks, Melissa; Thevarkunnel, Sandy; Araujo, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding differences in Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers before the pathology becomes evident can contribute to an improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. A decrease in amyloid-β (Aβ)42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to be a biomarker for Aβ deposition in brain. However, the relevance of CSF Aβ levels prior to deposition is not entirely known. Dogs are similar to man with respect to amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP)-processing, age-related amyloid plaque deposition, and cognitive dysfunction. In the current study, we evaluated the relation between CSF Aβ42 levels and cognitive performance in young to middle-aged dogs (1.5–7 years old). Additionally, CSF sAβPPα and sAβPPβ were measured to evaluate AβPP processing, and CSF cytokines were measured to determine the immune status of the brain. We identified two groups of dogs showing consistently low or high CSF Aβ42 levels. Based on prior studies, it was assumed that at this age no cerebral amyloid plaques were likely to be present. The cognitive performance was evaluated in standard cognition tests. Low or high Aβ concentrations coincided with low or high sAβPPα, sAβPPβ, and CXCL-1 levels, respectively. Dogs with high Aβ concentrations showed significant learning impairments on delayed non-match to position (DNMP), object discrimination, and reversal learning compared to dogs with low Aβ concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that high levels of CSF Aβ in dogs coincide with lower cognitive performance prior to amyloid deposition. Further experiments are needed to investigate this link, as well as the relevance with respect to Alzheimer’s disease pathology progression. PMID:28035921

  12. Young to Middle-Aged Dogs with High Amyloid-β Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid are Impaired on Learning in Standard Cognition tests.

    PubMed

    Borghys, Herman; Van Broeck, Bianca; Dhuyvetter, Deborah; Jacobs, Tom; de Waepenaert, Katja; Erkens, Tim; Brooks, Melissa; Thevarkunnel, Sandy; Araujo, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding differences in Alzheimer's disease biomarkers before the pathology becomes evident can contribute to an improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. A decrease in amyloid-β (Aβ)42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to be a biomarker for Aβ deposition in brain. However, the relevance of CSF Aβ levels prior to deposition is not entirely known. Dogs are similar to man with respect to amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP)-processing, age-related amyloid plaque deposition, and cognitive dysfunction. In the current study, we evaluated the relation between CSF Aβ42 levels and cognitive performance in young to middle-aged dogs (1.5-7 years old). Additionally, CSF sAβPPα and sAβPPβ were measured to evaluate AβPP processing, and CSF cytokines were measured to determine the immune status of the brain. We identified two groups of dogs showing consistently low or high CSF Aβ42 levels. Based on prior studies, it was assumed that at this age no cerebral amyloid plaques were likely to be present. The cognitive performance was evaluated in standard cognition tests. Low or high Aβ concentrations coincided with low or high sAβPPα, sAβPPβ, and CXCL-1 levels, respectively. Dogs with high Aβ concentrations showed significant learning impairments on delayed non-match to position (DNMP), object discrimination, and reversal learning compared to dogs with low Aβ concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that high levels of CSF Aβ in dogs coincide with lower cognitive performance prior to amyloid deposition. Further experiments are needed to investigate this link, as well as the relevance with respect to Alzheimer's disease pathology progression.

  13. Analytical Ferrography Standardization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    normalized density readings versus slide position * Lease Squares Line: Y = ax + b * Mean Value of Density: YBAR * Standard Deviation of Density Distribution...11 =ZU U) y U)U 0 z w) LU Rip > -(0> > < cn z -U cc L c 0D CD Cl)>> >< > = 0 0 facilities, as illustrated in Figure 5. Upon receipt of the sample set...the standard deviation of the y population for a given x. The definition is: n-2 where Yi = actual values of y yic = values of y computed from the

  14. Large deviation theory for coin tossing and turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Saha, Arnab; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K

    2009-11-01

    Large deviations play a significant role in many branches of nonequilibrium statistical physics. They are difficult to handle because their effects, though small, are not amenable to perturbation theory. Even the Gaussian model, which is the usual initial step for most perturbation theories, fails to be a starting point while discussing intermittency in fluid turbulence, where large deviations dominate. Our contention is: in the large deviation theory, the central role is played by the distribution associated with the tossing of a coin and the simple coin toss is the "Gaussian model" of problems where rare events play significant role. We illustrate this by applying it to calculate the multifractal exponents of the order structure factors in fully developed turbulence.

  15. Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-11-01

    Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.

  16. On the cubic velocity deviations in lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Házi, Gábor; Kávrán, Péter

    2006-03-01

    The macroscopic equations derived from the lattice Boltzmann equation are not exactly the Navier-Stokes equations. Here the cubic deviation terms and the methods proposed to eliminate them are studied. The most popular two- and three-dimensional models (D2Q9, D3Q15, D3Q19, D3Q27) are considered in the paper. It is demonstrated that the compensation methods provide only partial elimination of the deviations for these models. It is also shown that the compensation of Qian and Zhou (1998 Europhys. Lett. 42 359) using the compensation parameter K = 1 in a D2Q9 or D3Q27 model can eliminate all the cross terms perfectly, but the deviation terms ∂xρu3x, ∂yρu3y and ∂zρu3z still survive the compensation.

  17. Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    1998-01-01

    By an extension of the Bethe ansatz method used by Gwa and Spohn, we obtain an exact expression for the large deviation function of the time averaged current for the fully asymmetric exclusion process in a ring containing N sites and p particles. Using this expression we easily recover the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution of the deviation y of the average current is, in the limit N-->∞, skew and decays like exp-\\(Ay5/2\\) for y-->+∞ and exp-\\(A'\\|y\\|3/2\\) for y-->-∞. Surprisingly, the large deviation function has an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3D.

  18. Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S; George, M; Balmer, J; Davison, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age. Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a race recognised by the British Orienteering Federation. Peak heart rate (HRPEAK), mean heart rate (HRMEAN), standard deviation of her heart rate during each orienteering race (HRSD), and mean change in heart rate at each control point (ΔHRCONTROL) were identified. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. Results: National standard orienteers displayed a lower within orienteering race standard deviation in heart rate (6 (2) v 12 (2) beats/min, p<0.001) and a lower ΔHRCONTROL (5 (1) v 17 (4) beats/min, p<0.001). The mean heart rate during competition was higher in the national standard group (170 (11) v 158 (11) beats/min, p = 0.025). The HRMEAN for the national and club standard groups were 99 (8)% and 88 (9)% of their age predicted maximum heart rate (220-age) respectively. All orienteers aged >55 years (n = 4) recorded HRMEAN greater than their age predicted maximum. Conclusions: The heart rate responses indicate that national and club standard women orienteers of all ages participate in the sport at a vigorous intensity. The higher ΔHRCONTROL of club standard orienteers is probably due to failing to plan ahead before arriving at the controls and this, coupled with slowing down to navigate or relocate when lost, produced a higher HRSD. PMID:12782552

  19. Phase transitions in large deviations of reset processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rosemary J.; Touchette, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    We study the large deviations of additive quantities, such as energy or current, in stochastic processes with intermittent reset. Via a mapping from a discrete-time reset process to the Poland–Scheraga model for DNA denaturation, we derive conditions for observing first-order or continuous dynamical phase transitions in the fluctuations of such quantities and confirm these conditions on simple random walk examples. These results apply to reset Markov processes, but also show more generally that subleading terms in generating functions can lead to non-analyticities in large deviation functions of ‘compound processes’ or ‘random evolutions’ switching stochastically between two or more subprocesses.

  20. MUSiC - A Generic Search for Deviations from Monte Carlo Predictions in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hof, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    We present a model independent analysis approach, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Standard Model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. We outline the importance of systematic uncertainties, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons have been used as an input to the search algorithm.

  1. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production...

  2. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  3. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  4. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  5. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  6. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  11. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  12. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  13. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  14. Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.

    PubMed Central

    Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

    1975-01-01

    Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

  15. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  16. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  17. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  18. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  19. Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.

  20. 46 CFR 385.9 - Exceptions, deviations, or waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions, deviations, or waivers. 385.9 Section 385.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT... Management and Budget when required by law or other applicable Federal requirement. Definition of Terms...

  1. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  2. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  4. Deviation-Amplifying Processes and Individual Human Growth and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, Doreen Ray; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to inquire into the relation of intellectual and/or psycho-linguistic development and apparent improvement in other behavior factors such as affective and social behavior and development. Thus consideration is given to the second cybernetics (i.e. the concept of positive feedback or deviation-amplifying relationships…

  5. Current Large Deviations for Asymmetric Exclusion Processes with Open Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2006-04-01

    We study the large deviation functional of the current for the Weakly Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process in contact with two reservoirs. We compare this functional in the large drift limit to the one of the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, in particular to the Jensen-Varadhan functional. Conjectures for generalizing the Jensen-Varadhan functional to open systems are also stated.

  6. Moderate- and Large- Deviation Probabilities in Actuarial Risk Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Large Deviations, Springer-Verlag, New York. Thorin, 0. (1982), Probabilities of ruin, Scand. Actuar . Jour. 65-102. 25 *% 0 I S 0 S 3 9 I bJ\\~ S S I’ C..., S L2JI1C S ~

  7. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  8. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description of the corrective actions... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use...

  9. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description of the corrective actions... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use...

  10. SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Arroyo, Alberto; Querol, Jorge; Lopez-Martinez, Carlos; Zavorotny, Valery U; Park, Hyuk; Pascual, Daniel; Onrubia, Raul; Camps, Adriano

    2017-01-19

    This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform's peak variability is computed, which determines the system's capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK) TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1) and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS) (GEROS-ISS) scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions.

  11. SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Arroyo, Alberto; Querol, Jorge; Lopez-Martinez, Carlos; Zavorotny, Valery U.; Park, Hyuk; Pascual, Daniel; Onrubia, Raul; Camps, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform’s peak variability is computed, which determines the system’s capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK) TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1) and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS) (GEROS-ISS) scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions. PMID:28106825

  12. A Vertical Wind Angle Standard Deviation Calculation Method for the Unstable Surface Boundary Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    UT C ILTOFT RUG 63 UNCLASSIFIED DPG-TR -3 41 F6 4/ 2L .41 L5.04 1111LA. 1 1112.0- 11111 .5 ~ ?"IIIII 111111. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL ...equation (16). R-Fg = F1 + Fh (16) Swinbank (1964) tabulated R and F data taken at an open field near Kerang, Australia under a variety of weater ...Addressee Copies Di rector 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Boulder, CO 80302 Cooperative

  13. Rating Slam Dunks to Visualize the Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nick W.; Castle Bell, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Among the many difficulties beleaguering the communication research methods instructor is the problem of contextualizing abstract ideas. Comprehension of variable operationalization, the utility of the measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, and the visual distribution of data sets are difficult, since students have not handled data.…

  14. Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher; Shen, Qimin; Xiang, Shaohua; Boer, Johannes F. de; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-09-15

    We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity (10 {mu}m/s) and high spatial resolution (10 {mu}m) to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors' knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  15. 78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Loretta A. Carey, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food and Drug..., and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 341). ] The permit covers limited interstate marketing tests of products... panels on the labels of the test products must bear nutrition labeling in accordance with 21 CFR...

  16. Application of Mean of Absolute Deviation Method for the Selection of Best Nonlinear Component Based on Video Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anees, Amir; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is to make use of the mean of absolute deviation (MAD) method for the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard. In this paper, we use the MAD technique to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, MAD is applied to advanced encryption standard (AES), affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J., Residue Prime, S8 AES, SKIPJACK, and Xyi substitution boxes.

  17. Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, R. V.; Reznikoff, M. G.; vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2005-08-01

    We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed or ramped by an external field; in the special and physically relevant case of multiple-pulse experiments, on the other hand, short-time switching can lead to non-Arrhenius behavior. We show how large deviation theory can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrinking and sharpening as the number of applied pulses is increased. We also investigate the influence of the dynamics, in particular the relative importance of the gyromagnetic and the damping terms. Finally, we discuss some issues and open questions regarding spatially nonuniform magnetization.

  18. Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. ); Jakobsen, J. )

    1991-08-26

    Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

  19. Deviations from liquidlike behavior in molten polymer films at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Soo; Koga, T; Sokolov, J; Rafailovich, M H; Tolan, M; Sinha, S

    2005-04-22

    We have performed x-ray specular and diffuse scattering on liquid polymer films and analyzed the spectra as a function of film thickness and molecular weight. The results show that films whose molecular weight is close to the entanglement length behave as simple liquids except that the shortest wavelength is determined by the radius of gyration (R(g)) rather than the monomer-monomer distance. When the molecular weight is higher than the entanglement length, the strong deviations from liquidlike behavior are observed. We find that the long wavelength cutoff vector, q(l,c), scales with film thickness, d as d(-1.1+/-0.1) rather than the usual d(-2) expected for simple liquids. If we assume that these deviations are due to surface pinning of the polymer chains, then our results are consistent with the formalism developed by Fredrickson et al. to explain the capillary wave spectrum that can propagate in a polymer brush.

  20. Contiguous Uniform Deviation for Multiple Linear Regression in Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriana, A. S.; Prihatmanto, D.; Hidaya, E. M. I.; Supriana, I.; Machbub, C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding images by recognizing its objects is still a challenging task. Face elements detection has been developed by researchers but not yet shows enough information (low resolution in information) needed for recognizing objects. Available face recognition methods still have error in classification and need a huge amount of examples which may still be incomplete. Another approach which is still rare in understanding images uses pattern structures or syntactic grammars describing shape detail features. Image pixel values are also processed as signal patterns which are approximated by mathematical function curve fitting. This paper attempts to add contiguous uniform deviation method to curve fitting algorithm to increase applicability in image recognition system related to object movement. The combination of multiple linear regression and contiguous uniform deviation method are applied to the function of image pixel values, and show results in higher resolution (more information) of visual object detail description in object movement.

  1. Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, John T., Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-12-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  2. Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.

  3. Powered endoscopic septoplasty for septal deviation and isolated spurs.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Eileen M

    2005-01-01

    Septoplasty is commonly performed for nasal airway obstruction or rhinologic headache due to contact irritation, often in conjunction with other nasal procedures, including cosmetic rhinoplasty and endoscopic sinus surgery.Traditionally, it is performed before these procedures via a "headlight" technique. This article describes the use of the microdebrider in 29 cases of endoscopic septoplasty. Many of the procedures were performed in conjunction with functional endoscopic sinus surgery; however, several were performed as an isolated procedure or with inferior turbinoplasty. The technique is described in detail. All 29 patients had significant improvement in their symptoms, and no patient developed a perforation or postoperative hematoma. Conversion to a traditional septoplasty was required in 1 case because of the severity of the deviation. Power-assisted endoscopic septoplasty is a useful adjunct in cases involving isolated septal spurs or moderate septal deviations. Patients with severe nasal obstruction due to caudal deflection of the septum off the nasal spine are better served with traditional headlight septoplasty.

  4. Large Deviation Functional of the Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.

    2004-02-01

    We obtain the large deviation functional of a density profile for the asymmetric exclusion process of L sites with open boundary conditions when the asymmetry scales like 1/L. We recover as limiting cases the expressions derived recently for the symmetric (SSEP) and the asymmetric (ASEP) cases. In the ASEP limit, the non linear differential equation one needs to solve can be analysed by a method which resembles the WKB method.

  5. Effect of Deviated Nasal Septum on Mean Platelet Volume: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Poorey, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Pooja

    2014-12-01

    In E.N.T clinical practice, patients with nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common presentation. Nasal airway obstruction is a common cause of upper airway obstruction further leading to obstructive and hypoxic manifestations. Mean platelet volume (MPV) levels increase in hypoxic conditions. MPV is one of the platelet activation index which reflects the platelet production rate. Present prospective study conducted in the department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck surgery, Gandhi Medical College and Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, on 63 patients with the clinical evidence of DNS and 63 healthy age matched subjects as control group, aimed to evaluate the relationship between MPV levels and nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum (DNS). The diagnosis of patients with DNS was based on anterior rhinoscopy and endoscopic nasal examination. Blood samples were collected before surgical correction. In present study, the authors found that there is preponderance of DNS in the age group of 25-45 years being the most active age group, males having the higher incidence. Majority of cases of DNS being left sided and of obstructed type. MPV were significantly higher in patients with DNS than the control group. Among the cases MPV being higher in females and in the impacted type of DNS. Present study reemphasized the concept that MPV is increased in chronic nasal obstruction due to DNS and this increase is in accordance with the severity of DNS.

  6. A comparative study of the deviation of the menton on posteroanterior cephalograms and three-dimensional computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Sungeun; Lee, Eun Joo; Song, In Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Seo; Lim, Hoi-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Facial asymmetry has been measured by the severity of deviation of the menton (Me) on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to compare PA cephalograms and 3D CT regarding the severity of Me deviation and the direction of the Me. Materials and Methods PA cephalograms and 3D CT images of 35 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery (19 males and 16 females, with an average age of 22.1±3.3 years) were retrospectively reviewed in this study. By measuring the distance and direction of the Me from the midfacial reference line and the midsagittal plane in the cephalograms and 3D CT, respectively, the x-coordinates (x1 and x2) of the Me were obtained in each image. The difference between the x-coordinates was calculated and statistical analysis was performed to compare the severity of Me deviation and the direction of the Me in the two imaging modalities. Results A statistically significant difference in the severity of Me deviation was found between the two imaging modalities (Δx=2.45±2.03 mm, p<0.05) using the one-sample t-test. Statistically significant agreement was observed in the presence of deviation (k=0.64, p<0.05) and in the severity of Me deviation (k=0.27, p<0.05). A difference in the direction of the Me was detected in three patients (8.6%). The severity of the Me deviation was found to vary according to the imaging modality in 16 patients (45.7%). Conclusion The measurement of Me deviation may be different between PA cephalograms and 3D CT in some patients. PMID:27051637

  7. Deviated nasal septum hinders intranasal sprays: A computer simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Cannon, Daniel; Pawar, Sachin S.; Rhee, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates how deviated nasal septum affects the quantity and distribution of spray particles, and examines the effects of inspiratory airflow and head position on particle transport. Methods Deposition of spray particles was analysed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model created from a computed tomography scan of a human nose with leftward septal deviation and a right inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Five simulations were conducted using Fluent™ software, with particle sizes ranging from 20-110μm, a spray speed of 3m/s, plume angle of 68°, and with steady state inspiratory airflow either present (15.7L/min) or absent at varying head positions. Results With inspiratory airflow present, posterior deposition on the obstructed side was approximately four times less than the contralateral side, regardless of head position, and was statistically significant (p<0.05). When airflow was absent, predicted deposition beyond the nasal valve on the left and right sides were between 16% and 69% lower and positively influenced by a dependent head position. Conclusions Simulations predicted that septal deviation significantly diminished drug delivery on the obstructed side. Furthermore, increased particle penetration was associated with presence of nasal airflow. Head position is an important factor in particle deposition patterns when inspiratory airflow is absent. PMID:22888490

  8. Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi

    2015-09-01

    Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.

  9. Detecting deviations from pure EOF during CE separations.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, John F; Noonan, Kathryn Y; McDonnell, Patrick; Mancuso, Aaron J; Frederick, Kimberley A

    2007-07-01

    CE separations are known for their high separation efficiencies. In systems with EOF, the high efficiencies benefit from the flat, plug profile that is characteristic of EOF. When a velocity gradient is present, such as in separations which have nonuniform buffer ionic strength, surface adsorption or differences in the height of the ends of the capillary, a parabolic flow component is introduced. This deviation from purely EOF yields increased peak dispersion and a subsequent decrease in separation performance. This work details a rapid method for detecting deviations from ideal plug flow during the course of a separation using the radially averaged flow profile of a photobleached fluorophore added to the BGE. By comparing the ratio of two different data analysis procedures, deviations from ideal plug flow can be detected. This method allows rapid measurement of flow character and does not interfere with the concurrent separation. We demonstrate easy detection of the onset of hydrodynamic flow induced by both gravity siphoning and an ionic strength buffer discontinuity. A brief analysis of the radially averaged peak shapes is also presented.

  10. The nasal septum deviation index (NSDI) based on CBCT data

    PubMed Central

    Codari, Marina; Zago, Matteo; Guidugli, Giulia A; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ottaviani, Francesco; Righini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether three-dimensional morphometric parameters could be useful in nasal septal deviation (NSD) diagnosis and, secondarily, whether CBCT could be considered an adequate imaging technique for the proposed task. Methods: We analysed images of 46 subjects who underwent CBCT for reasons not related to this study. Two experienced operators divided all the images into healthy and NSD subjects. Subsequently, the images were segmented using ITK Snap in order to obtain the three-dimensional model of the nasal airways and compute four morphological parameters: septal deviation angle (SDA), percentage of volume difference between right and left side of the nasal airways, nasal airway total volume and a new synthetic septal deviation index (SDI). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to unveil relationships between each variable and the global nasal airway variability. Results: Differences between the groups were found in SDA (p < 0.001), in volume percentage difference (p < 0.05) and in SDI (p < 0.001). PCA showed high correlation between the SDI and the first principal component (0.97, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Among the analysed parameters, SDI seemed to be the most suitable for the quantitative assessment of NSD, and CBCT allowed accurate assessment of airway morphology. PMID:26783044

  11. Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814

  12. Influence of estrogen cycle on temporomandibular joint synovial membrane in rat with deviated mandible.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Giovanna; Hosomichi, Jun; Muramoto, Takeshi; Kanno, Zuisei; Soma, Kunimichi

    2007-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are known to be more prevalent and severe in women than in men, especially in those who are in their reproductive age. In those patients reproductive hormones may play a vital role in the host adaptive capacity of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In order to clarify the relationship between TMD prevalence and estrogen cycle, a mandible deviated animal model was carried out, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an essential enzyme in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis, was investigated in the rat's synovial tissue. An appliance was attached to the rat's incisors to produce a lateral deviation of the mandible during the metestrus phase, and the animals were sacrificed in the proestrus and estrus phase, when the estrogen was at the highest and lowest level, respectively. Immunostaining was then performed for 2 consecutive estrous cycles to demonstrate iNOS expression in the synovial membrane of the TMJ. The immunoreactivity for iNOS was more intense in the synovial membrane on the contralateral side in the proestrus phase (estrogen peak phase). These observations suggest that iNOS expression in the synovial membrane with mandibular deviation may be exacerbated in the presence of estrogen.

  13. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline.

  14. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  15. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

  16. Correlation between Chronological Age, Dental Age and Skeletal Age among Monozygoyic and Dizygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mohit; Divyashree, R; Abhilash, PR; A Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem; Murali, KV

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronological age, dental development, height and weight measurements, sexual maturation characteristics and skeletal age are some biological indicators that have been used to identify time of growth. Many researchers have agreed that skeletal maturity is closely related to the craniofacial growth, and bones of hand and wrist are reliable parameters in assessing it. The complete hand and wrist radiograph involves 30 bones and assessment of these bones is one elaborate task. The present study is therefore, undertaken to assess the correlation between the chronological age, dental age and skeletal ages among different types of twins. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 subjects (30 twins) aged 8 to 16 years, divided into group of 10 monozygotic, 10 dizygotic and 10 mixed sex twins. The sample was selected from Twin Survey- 2008 conducted by Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Their zygosity was determined by sex, blood groups and by the parent. The chronological age was measured by the date of birth given by the parents. Panoramic and hand wrist x-rays were taken. Dental age was assessed by Demerjian et al method and skeletal age by Greulich and Pyle method. The correlation among twins in dental and skeletal ages with the chronological age was assessed using Correlation Coefficient and Student's't' Test. Results: The obtained data was fed into the computer and statistical analysis was done for the same using the SPSS version 10.0. Statistical significance was tested at P<0.05 level. Mean and Standard Deviation, Correlation Coefficient, Student's't' Test statistical methods were employed. The result showed highly significant 'p' value as <0.001 in all the correlations except for mixed pairs. Descriptive statistics in most of the areas demonstrated a non-significant result between zygosity groups. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between the individual

  17. Large Deviations in Weakly Interacting Boundary Driven Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijland, Frédéric; Rácz, Zoltán

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional, boundary-driven lattice gases with local interactions are studied in the weakly interacting limit. The density profiles and the correlation functions are calculated to first order in the interaction strength for zero-range and short-range processes differing only in the specifics of the detailed-balance dynamics. Furthermore, the effective free-energy (large-deviation function) and the integrated current distribution are also found to this order. From the former, we find that the boundary drive generates long-range correlations only for the short-range dynamics while the latter provides support to an additivity principle recently proposed by Bodineau and Derrida.

  18. Large deviation approach to the generalized random energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorlas, T. C.; Dukes, W. M. B.

    2002-05-01

    The generalized random energy model is a generalization of the random energy model introduced by Derrida to mimic the ultrametric structure of the Parisi solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of a spin glass. It was solved exactly in two special cases by Derrida and Gardner. A complete solution for the thermodynamics in the general case was given by Capocaccia et al. Here we use large deviation theory to analyse the model in a very straightforward way. We also show that the variational expression for the free energy can be evaluated easily using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.

  19. Large Deviations and Applications: The Finite Dimensional Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    convex set . Then prove that H(.IjL) is a strictly convex function in AMl(C, ). 2.1.4 Find a closed set r for which both of the limits in (2.1.18) do not... sets . 2.1.12 Prove that the rate function I~,() is a convex function . 2.1.13 Prove that the large deviations principle of Theorem 2.1.3 holds for , = 0...Ai’() is a convex rate function , A’(yr) - A’(x) and as Br,5 is an open set , eventually By,,sr C G for some 6, > 0. Finally, apply

  20. Tunability versus deviation sensitivity in a nonlinear vortex oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. Y.; Thirion, C.; Hoarau, C.; Baraduc, C.; Diény, B.

    2013-07-01

    Frequency modulation experiments were performed on a spin torque vortex oscillator for a wide range of modulation frequencies, up to 10% of the oscillator frequency. A thorough analysis of the intermodulation products shows that the key parameter that describes these experiments is the deviation sensitivity, which is the dynamical frequency-current dependence. It differs significantly from the oscillator tunability discussed so far in the context of spin-transfer oscillators. The essential difference between these two concepts is related to the response time of the vortex oscillator, driven either in quasisteady state or in a transient regime.

  1. Light deviation based optical techniques applied to solid propellant combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauty, F.; Eradès, C.; Desse, J.-M.

    2011-10-01

    The Investigation in Combustion of Energetic Materials (InCoME) program is aimed at validating the numerical simulation of composite propellant combustion using nonintrusive optical techniques. The Focusing Schlieren Technique (FST) was selected; it allows catching light deviation from a thin vertical planar section centered above the propellant combustion surface. The optical system is described in the paper. Significant results are presented showing the capabilities of this technique when applied to solid propellant combustion in terms of studying flame structure, flame propagation, and particle tracking.

  2. Quenched Large Deviations for Interacting Diffusions in Random Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luçon, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish a large deviation principle (LDP) for the empirical measure of mean-field interacting diffusions in a random environment. The point is to derive such a result once the environment has been frozen (quenched model). The main theorem states that a LDP holds for every sequence of environment satisfying appropriate convergence condition, with a rate function that does not depend on the disorder and is different from the rate function in the averaged model. Similar results concerning the empirical flow and local empirical measures are provided.

  3. A novel method for reconstruction of severe caudal nasal septal deviation: Marionette septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Nacar, Alpen; Yilmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Altundag, Aytug; Guven, Mehmet

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to compare open and endonasal (closed) approaches to extracorporeal reconstruction of severe caudal septal deviations. From January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2013, 78 patients with severe caudal septal deviation underwent corrective surgery at our hospital. Of this group, 33 patients (mean age: 32 yr) underwent extracorporeal septoplasty via an open approach, and 45 patients (mean age: 35 yr) underwent treatment with a new procedure that we developed: subtotal extracorporeal septoplasty through a closed approach, which we call "marionette septoplasty." In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on surgical time, the duration of postoperative edema, the degree of postoperative pain, and differences between pre- and postoperative nasal function and tip support in both groups. We found that our marionette septoplasty procedure required significantly less surgical time and resulted in a significantly shorter duration of postoperative edema than did open septoplasty, while there was no statistically significant difference between the two procedures in the degree of pain. Following surgery, nasal function in both groups improved significantly, without any significant difference between the two. Finally, we documented improved tip support in all 78 patients. Our results show that marionette septoplasty produces the same functional results as does open septoplasty while requiring less surgical time and shortening the healing period.

  4. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs.

  5. A Valid Indication and the Effect of Bilateral Inferior Oblique Transposition on Recurrent or Consecutive Horizontal Deviation in Infantile Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Suk-Gyu; Na, Gun-Hoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of bilateral inferior oblique transposition (BIOT) on horizontal deviation from primary position among patients with bilateral dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) associated with inferior oblique overaction (IOOA) in infantile strabismus. Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted among 19 patients with infantile strabismus. All patients had DVD and IOOA with consecutive or recurrent horizontal deviation and underwent modified BIOT surgery. Patients were divided into three subgroups: patients who underwent BIOT (BIOT group, n = 9) alone, BIOT with medial rectus recession or lateral rectus resection simultaneously (ET BIOT group, n = 6), or BIOT with lateral rectus recession or medial rectus resection simultaneously (XT BIOT group, n = 4). Postoperative angle of horizontal deviation (prism diopter, PD) and corrected magnitude of horizontal deviation (PD) at final visit after surgery were analyzed in each group. Results The mean age was 55.11 ± 21.05 months (range, 32 to 115). The mean follow-up period was 8.68 ± 2.87 months (range, 6 to 18). Preoperative horizontal deviation was 4.23 ± 5.99 PD (range, 0 to 16) in BIOT, −17.33 ± 6.76 PD (range, −30 to −10) in ET BIOT, and 17.50 ± 2.52 PD (range, 14 to 20) in XT BIOT. Esodeviation is represented by negative values. DVD and IOOA were reduced less than +1 in all patients. The corrected amount of horizontal deviation was 3.56 ± 5.18 PD (range, 0 to 16) in BIOT surgery alone and larger in XT BIOT (18.50 ± 3.41 PD) than in ET BIOT (12.33 ± 5.57 PD, p = 0.004). Conclusions Minimal exodeviation was corrected by BIOT alone. In addition, secondary eso- or exodeviation at great magnitudes should be corrected with proper horizontal muscle surgery along with BIOT. PMID:28367042

  6. DEVIATIONS IN INFLUENZA SEASONALITY: ODD COINCIDENCE OR OBSCURE CONSEQUENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Mahesh; Castronovo, Denise; Abraham, Asha; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Gradus, Steve; Gorski, Jack; Naumov, Yuri N.; Fefferman, Nina H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2012-01-01

    In temperate regions, influenza typically arrives with the onset of colder weather. Seasonal waves travel over large spaces covering many climatic zones in a relatively short period of time. The precise mechanism for this striking seasonal pattern is still not well understood and the interplay of factors that influence the spread of infection and the emergence of new strains is largely unknown. The study of influenza seasonality has been fraught with problems. One of these is the ever shifting description of illness due to influenza and the use of both the historical definitions and new definitions based on actual isolation of the virus. The compilation of records describing influenza oscillations on a local and global scale is massive, but the value of these data is a function of the definitions used. In this review we argue that both observations of seasonality and deviation from the expected pattern stem from the nature of this disease. Heterogeneity in seasonal patterns may arrive from differences in behavior of specific strains, emergence of a novel strain or cross-protection from previously observed strains. Most likely the seasonal patterns emerge from interactions of individual factors behaving as coupled resonators. We emphasize that both seasonality and deviations from it may merely be a reflection of our inability to disentangle signal from noise, be it due to ambiguity in measurement and/or terminology. We conclude the review with suggestions for new promising and realistic directions with tangible consequences to model complex influenza dynamics in order to effectively control infection. PMID:22958213

  7. Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

    1993-01-01

    Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

  8. Large-deviation achromatic Risley prisms pointing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoursiere, Jean; Doucet, Michel; Curatu, Eugene O.; Savard, Maxime; Verreault, Sonia; Thibault, Simon; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benoit

    2002-06-01

    As part of the Infrared Eye project, this article describes the design of large-deviation, achromatic Risley prisms scanning systems operating in the 0.5 - 0.92 and 8 - 9.5 μm spectral regions. Designing these systems is challenging due to the large deviation required (zero - 25 degrees), the large spectral bandwidth and the mechanical constraints imposed by the need to rotate the prisms to any position in 1/30 second. A design approach making extensive use of the versatility of optical design softwares is described. Designs consisting of different pairs of optical materials are shown in order to illustrate the trade-off between chromatic aberration, mass and vignetting. Control of chromatic aberration and reasonable prism shape is obtained over 8 - 9.5 μm with zinc sulfide and germanium. The design is more difficult for the 0.5 - 0.92 μm band. Trade-offs consist in using sapphire with Cleartran« over a reduced bandwidth (0.75 - 0.9 μm ) or acrylic singlets with the Infrared Eye in active mode (0.85 - 0.86 μm). Non-sequential ray-tracing is used to study the effects of fresnelizing one element of the achromat to reduce its mass, and to evaluate detector narcissus in the 8 - 9.5 μm region.

  9. Validity of EuroQOL-5D, time trade-off, and standard gamble for age-related macular degeneration in the Singapore population

    PubMed Central

    Au Eong, K G; Chan, E W; Luo, N; Wong, S H; Tan, N W H; Lim, T H; Wagle, A M

    2012-01-01

    Background/aims Utility values of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Asian patients are unknown. This study aims to assess utility values and construct validity of the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D), time trade-off (TTO), and standard gamble (SG) instruments in the Singapore multi-ethnic AMD population. Methods Cross-sectional, two-centre, institution-based study. Visual acuity (VA), clinical AMD severity, and utility scores on the EQ-5D, TTO, and SG were obtained from 338 AMD patients. VA was analysed in terms of the better-seeing eye (BEVA), worse-seeing eye (WEVA), and weighted average of both eyes (WVA). We evaluated SG on the perfect health-death (SG(death)) and binocular perfect vision-binocular blindness (SG(blindness)) scales. Construct validity was determined by testing a priorihypotheses relating the EQ-5D, TTO, and SG utility scores to VA and clinical AMD severity. Results The mean utilities on the EQ-5D, TTO, SG(death), and SG(blindness) were 0.89, 0.81, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively. EQ-5D scores correlated weakly with BEVA, WEVA, and WVA (Pearson's correlation coefficients −0.291, −0.247, and −0.305 respectively, P<0.001 for all). SG(death) and SG(blindness) demonstrated no correlation with BEVA, WEVA, or WVA (Pearson's correlation coefficients, range −0.06 to −0.125). TTO showed weak association only with WEVA and WVA (correlation coefficients −0.237, −0.228, P<0.0001), but not with BEVA (correlation coefficient −0.161). Clinical AMD severity correlated with EQ-5D and SG(death), but not with TTO and SG(blindness) (P=0.004, 0.002, 0.235, and 0.069, respectively). Conclusions AMD has a negative impact on utilities, although utility scores were high compared with Western cohorts. EQ-5D, TTO, and SG showed suboptimal construct validity, suggesting that health status utilities may not be sufficiently robust for cost-utility analyses in this population. PMID:22222257

  10. Why do I dread looking old?: A test of social identity theory, terror management theory, and the double standard of aging.

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M; Teater, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    Outward appearance is one of the means by which age is determined, and fear of looking old may stem from fears about social identity and death. This study explored how social identity theory and terror management theory may help to explain the dread of looking old. University students from the United States, England, and Australia (N = 1,042) completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes about aging and older adults. Results indicated that sex, age, beliefs about personal aging, and death anxiety explained 30.4% of the variance for participants' dread of looking old. Theoretical hypotheses were supported by our findings.

  11. 7 CFR 1728.20 - Establishment of standards and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Institute (ANSI), American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA), the various national engineering societies... equipment, or in the more effective use of engineering services. (b) Deviations from Standards. No member...

  12. Intensity Thresholds on Raw Acceleration Data: Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Kishan; Yates, Thomas; Rowlands, Alex V.; Esliger, Dale W.; Bunnewell, Sarah; Sanders, James; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Edwardson, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop and internally-validate Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) thresholds for separating sedentary behaviours from common light-intensity physical activities using raw acceleration data collected from both hip- and wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometers; and (2) to compare and evaluate the performances between the ENMO and MAD metrics. Methods Thirty-three adults [mean age (standard deviation (SD)) = 27.4 (5.9) years; mean BMI (SD) = 23.9 (3.7) kg/m2; 20 females (60.6%)] wore four accelerometers; an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the right hip; and an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the non-dominant wrist. Under laboratory-conditions, participants performed 16 different activities (11 sedentary behaviours and 5 light-intensity physical activities) for 5 minutes each. ENMO and MAD were computed from the raw acceleration data, and logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were implemented to derive thresholds for activity discrimination. Areas under ROC curves (AUROC) were calculated to summarise performances and thresholds were assessed via executing leave-one-out-cross-validations. Results For both hip and wrist monitor placements, in comparison to the ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors, the ENMO and MAD values derived from the GENEActiv devices were observed to be slightly higher, particularly for the lower-intensity activities. Monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD thresholds showed excellent ability for separating sedentary behaviours from motion-based light-intensity physical activities (in general, AUROCs >0.95), with validation indicating robustness. However, poor classification was experienced when attempting to isolate standing still from sedentary behaviours (in general, AUROCs <0.65). The ENMO and MAD metrics tended to perform similarly across activities and accelerometer brands. Conclusions Researchers can utilise these robust monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD

  13. Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J

    2015-11-01

    Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data.

  14. Large deviations of heat flow in harmonic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Anupam; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

    2011-03-01

    We consider heat transport across a harmonic chain connected at its two ends to white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. In the steady state of this system the heat Q flowing from one reservoir into the system in a finite time τ has a distribution P(Q, τ). We study the large time form of the corresponding moment generating function lange - λQrang ~ g(λ)eτμ(λ). Exact formal expressions, in terms of phonon Green's functions, are obtained for both μ(λ) and also the lowest order correction g(λ). We point out that, in general, a knowledge of both μ(λ) and g(λ) is required for finding the large deviation function associated with P(Q, τ). The function μ(λ) is known to be the largest eigenvector of an appropriate Fokker-Planck type operator and our method also gives the corresponding eigenvector exactly.

  15. The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310Ω/□ and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

  16. Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J.

    2015-11-01

    Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data.

  17. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  18. Does Nasal Septal Deviation Affect the Success of Tympanoplasty Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Kalcioglu, MT; Akarcay, M; Toplu, Y; Karaca, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This paper deals with the investigation of the effects of nasal septal deviation evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (ARM) in the success of tympanoplasty surgery. Subject and Methods: All patients who underwent tympanoplasty surgery by the same surgeon were reviewed. The patients with nasopharyngeal or nasal masses, polyps, symptoms of allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, or concha bullosa were excluded from the study. Forty patients who underwent tympanoplasty at least one year ago were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the graft success results. Acoustic rhinometry evaluations of the patients were performed. Results: There were 25 and 15 cases in the intact graft (group A) and re-perforated group (group B), respectively. For the same side of the operated ear, ARM values of group A were 0.47 cm 2 at the first narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 1), 0.43 cm2 at the second narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 2), 1.51 cm3 volume at the first 2 cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 1) and 3.33 cm3 volume between the second and fifth cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 2). Acoustic rhinometry values of group B were 0.50 cm2, 0.47 cm2, 1.60 cm3 and 3.19 cm3 for MCA 1, MCA 2, Vol 1, and Vol 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that nasal septal deviation may not affect the success of tympanoplasty surgery, and septoplasty may not be necessary before ear surgery. PMID:26624593

  19. Deviation of Earth threatening asteroids using tether and ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David B.

    The effects of the collision of a Near-Earth-Object (NEO) with the Earth could be catastrophic on a local, regional or global scale depending on the size of the NEO. Therefore, there is considerable interest in determining ways to mitigate the threat posed by these objects. This dissertation presents a method utilizing a tethered ballast mass for altering the trajectory of a NEO with an Earth-intersecting orbit so that it avoids hitting the Earth. The method is simulated using four different methods. The first method assumes a rigid massless tether. Using this method, a parametric study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the technique over a wide parametric space. Specifically, this study provided results in terms of deviation rates over the parametric space. After this, the massless inelastic method was used to study actual miss distances assuming the asteroid was on a collision course with the Earth. After this, a study was conducted, using the massless, inelastic model, in which the mass of the ballast was made constant, in order to determine the minimum tether length required to divert asteroids simulated based on actual asteroids from NASA's potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) database, again assuming a massless inelastic tether. Finally, it was desired to determine how relaxing the constraints of the massless inelastic model would affect system performance. Therefore, three more models were introduced: massive inelastic, massless elastic, and massive elastic. Using these models, a study was performed to explore the effects of the changed model on system performance and to compare the results in terms of deviation, with those of the massless inelastic model. This was desired because the numerical cost of the new models was much higher than that of the massless inelastic model, so rather than conduct the study over a much larger parametric space, a smaller space was chosen, so that the results could be compared.

  20. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  1. Effects of Push-up Exercise with Hip Adduction on the COP Deviation and the Serratus Anterior and L1 Paraspinal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of push-up exercise with hip adduction on the COP deviation and SA and L1 spinal muscle activation. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20-30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured the COP deviation and SA and L1 spinal muscle activities during push-up exercise with and without hip adduction [Results] The COP deviation significantly decreased and the SA and L1 spinal muscles were significantly increased during push-ups with hip adduction when compared with push-ups without hip adduction. [Conclusion] We thought that the push-up exercise with hip adduction might help to selectively strengthen the SA.

  2. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  3. Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Andy

    1995-01-01

    Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

  4. The Bender-Gestalt test in an Italian sample: an analysis of Koppitz's Developmental Bender Scoring System deviations.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, C; Lis, A

    2000-04-01

    This study extended the research of the psychometric characteristics of Koppitz's 1963/1975 Developmental Scoring System of the Bender-Gestalt test. Attention was paid to relations among the 7 deviations. The test was administered by licensed psychologists to 1,065 white children, aged from 3 yr., 6 mo. to 11 yr., 5 mo., enrolled in the regular education track of kindergarten and elementary school in Italy.

  5. Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law

  6. Force responses of strongly intrinsically curved DNA helices deviate from worm-like chain predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompitak, M.; Schiessel, H.; Barkema, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    DNA sequences with nontrivial intrinsic curvature are of interest for a range of biological and artificial DNA systems. We design both intrinsically strongly curved and intrinsically straight sequences. We find that such sequences with opposing curvatures can be designed even under constraints that would naively lead one to assume that those sequences would be highly similar in their mechanical properties. We then characterize the force response of those sequences and find that their force-extension curves deviate significantly in the low-force regime, and that the standard worm-like chain description is inadequate to describe the low-force response of the strongly bent sequences. We propose a modified description that takes the intrinsic curvature into account, making the DNA act, in the low-force regime, like a nanoscale helical spring. We find strongly improved agreement between the model and the simulated force-extension curves.

  7. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  8. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  9. Characterizing pathological deviations from normality using constrained manifold-learning.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Nicolas; De Craene, Mathieu; Piella, Gemma; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-01-01

    We propose a technique to represent a pathological pattern as a deviation from normality along a manifold structure. Each subject is represented by a map of local motion abnormalities, obtained from a statistical atlas of motion built from a healthy population. The algorithm learns a manifold from a set of patients with varying degrees of the same pathology. The approach extends recent manifold-learning techniques by constraining the manifold to pass by a physiologically meaningful origin representing a normal motion pattern. Individuals are compared to the manifold population through a distance that combines a mapping to the manifold and the path along the manifold to reach its origin. The method is applied in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), focusing on a specific motion pattern of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony called septal flash (SF). We estimate the manifold from 50 CRT candidates with SF and test it on 38 CRT candidates and 21 healthy volunteers. Experiments highlight the need of nonlinear techniques to learn the studied data, and the relevance of the computed distance for comparing individuals to a specific pathological pattern.

  10. Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

  11. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter and the mean area have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P (A ) and P (L ) . In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P (A ) and P (L ) are as small as 10-300. We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T , a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A /T and L /√{T } , respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  12. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A. While the mean perimeter 〈L〉 and the mean area 〈A〉 have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P(A) and P(L). In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P(A) and P(L) are as small as 10(-300). We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T, a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A/T and L/√[T], respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  13. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766

  14. Gait deviations in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords "gait" and "autism," and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  15. A survey of the physical health status of pupils aged 10-14 years in Standards 3-5 at three schools in New Crossroads, near Cape Town in the Western Cape.

    PubMed

    Ramphele, M A; Heap, M; Trollip, D K

    1995-10-01

    Although adolescence is most commonly associated with risk-taking behaviour, mortality due to poverty-related conditions is high among black African children aged 10-14 years. This paper describes a study carried out in October 1991 to assess the physical health status of 860 underprivileged pupils aged 10-14 years in Standards 3-5 at three schools in New Crossroads, near Cape Town. Data on nutritional status, age at menarche, blood pressure, eyesight, physical abnormalities, injuries and use of hospitals were obtained. The response rate was 90%. Of all the children, 7.2% were below the 5th percentile weight-for-age. The proportion of boys (13.1%) below the 5th percentile weight-for-age was significantly higher than that of girls (3.7%). Of all the children, 19.5% were below the 5th percentile height-for-age. The proportion of boys (24.4%) below the 5th percentile height-for-age was also significantly higher than that of girls (16.7%). The average age at menarche was 13 years, similar to that (12.8 years) reported for the UK. In 5% of the children, the diastolic blood pressure was > 90 mmHg and the findings show some increase with age. Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital accounted for 30.9% of hospital attendances. 'Chest' complaints (19.5%) were frequent reasons for consultations, while 15.2% of the children reported being injured, with car accidents (16.0%), fractures (27.5%) and burns (20.6%) being the most common injuries. It is suggested that the provision of a 24-hour day hospital will ease the load on the referral hospital, i.e. Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  17. Numerical solution of the Penna model of biological aging with age-modified mutation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical calculation of the Penna bit-string model of biological aging, modified for the case of a -dependent mutation rate m(a) , where a is the parent’s age. The mutation rate m(a) is the probability per bit of an extra bad mutation introduced in offspring inherited genome. We assume that m(a) increases with age a . As compared with the reference case of the standard Penna model based on a constant mutation rate m , the dynamics of the population growth shows distinct changes in age distribution of the population. Here we concentrate on mortality q(a) , a fraction of items eliminated from the population when we go from age (a) to (a+1) in simulated transition from time (t) to next time (t+1) . The experimentally observed q(a) dependence essentially follows the Gompertz exponential law for a above the minimum reproduction age. Deviation from the Gompertz law is however observed for the very old items, close to the maximal age. This effect may also result from an increase in mutation rate m with age a discussed in this paper. The numerical calculations are based on analytical solution of the Penna model, presented in a series of papers by Coe [J. B. Coe, Y. Mao, and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288103 (2002)]. Results of the numerical calculations are supported by the data obtained from computer simulation based on the solution by Coe

  18. Analysis of measurement deviations for the patient-specific quality assurance using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang; Hsi, Wen C.

    2017-04-01

    To analyze measurement deviations of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams, a commercial radiation dosimeter using 24 pinpoint ionization chambers was utilized. Before the clinical trial, validations of the radiation dosimeter and treatment planning system were conducted. During the clinical trial 165 measurements were performed on 36 enrolled patients. Two or three fields of particle beam were used for each patient. Measurements were typically performed with the dosimeter placed at special regions of dose distribution along depth and lateral profiles. In order to investigate the dosimeter accuracy, repeated measurements with uniform dose irradiations were also carried out. A two-step approach was proposed to analyze 24 sampling points over a 3D treatment volume. The mean value and the standard deviation of each measurement did not exceed 5% for all measurements performed on patients with various diseases. According to the defined intervention thresholds of mean deviation and the distance-to-agreement concept with a Gamma index analysis using criteria of 3.0% and 2 mm, a decision could be made regarding whether the dose distribution was acceptable for the patient. Based measurement results, deviation analysis was carried out. In this study, the dosimeter was used for dose verification and provided a safety guard to assure precise dose delivery of highly modulated particle therapy. Patient-specific QA will be investigated in future clinical operations.

  19. Ages and uvbybeta photometry of wide visual binaries. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblak, E.; Chareton, M.

    1980-08-01

    Visual magnitudes and color indices b-y, m1, c1 and beta have been obtained for the members of 39 double or multiple systems containing stars with magnitudes greater than 4m. Relationships between stellar ages, spectral types and photometric indices are given from a sample of about 3,500 stars. Data is presented with regard to MK spectral types, the separation, and absolute magnitudes; also tabulated are the mean values of photometric unreddened indices with their standard deviation for intervals of 0.2 in log age. From calculations for each binary of the relative difference in the ages of the components and the difference in the effective temperatures, an increase in the relative differences in ages with the differences in temperatures is noted.

  20. Age and Its Effect on Language Arts Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of California Standards Tests (CST) for 2nd through 6th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBerry, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Entrance age in kindergarten has been a controversial issue as the range from the youngest to the oldest student spans up to 24 months. This range leaves a heterogeneous gap for teachers who are already differentiating for their English Language Learners, struggling students, and high achieving students. This is compounded by the fact that the…

  1. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  2. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (−0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

  3. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Reλ=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  4. Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females

    PubMed Central

    Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

  5. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  6. 48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...

  7. 48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...

  8. 32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers...

  9. 32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers...

  10. Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccines in US residents aged 65 years and older from 2012 to 2013 using Medicare data: a retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, Hector S; Thadani, Nicole; Shay, David K; Lu, Yun; Maurer, Aaron; Foppa, Ivo M; Franks, Riley; Pratt, Douglas; Forshee, Richard A; MaCurdy, Thomas; Worrall, Chris; Howery, Andrew E; Kelman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was licensed in 2009 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the basis of serological criteria. We sought to establish whether high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine was more effective for prevention of influenza-related visits and hospital admissions in US Medicare beneficiaries than was standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccine. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older who received high-dose or standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines from community pharmacies that offered both vaccines during the 2012–13 influenza season. Outcomes were defined with billing codes on Medicare claims. The primary outcome was probable influenza infection, defined by receipt of a rapid influenza test followed by dispensing of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. The secondary outcome was a hospital or emergency department visit, listing a Medicare billing code for influenza. We estimated relative vaccine effectiveness by comparing outcome rates in Medicare beneficiaries during periods of high influenza circulation. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models were used for analyses. Findings Between Aug 1, 2012 and Jan 31, 2013, we studied 929 730 recipients of high-dose vaccine and 1 615 545 recipients of standard-dose vaccine. Participants enrolled in each cohort were well balanced with respect to age and presence of underlying medical disorders. The high-dose vaccine (1·30 outcomes per 10 000 person-weeks) was 22% (95% CI 15–29) more effective than the standard-dose vaccine (1·01 outcomes per 10 000 person-weeks) for prevention of probable influenza infections (rapid influenza test followed by oseltamivir treatment) and 22% (95% CI 16–27%) more effective for prevention of influenza hospital admissions (0·86 outcomes per 10 000 person-weeks in the high-dose cohort vs 1·10 outcomes per 10 000 person-weeks in the

  11. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses.

  12. Relation Between ITPA Average Deviation and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    1976-01-01

    The relation between average deviation, as determined using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, and Stanford-Binet intelligence scores was examined using a preschool sample. Results revealed a curvilinear relation between total average deviation and Stanford-Binet intelligence scores. Use of average deviation as an index of…

  13. The effect of septoplasty on pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular function in nasal septum deviation.

    PubMed

    Ozkececi, Gulay; Akci, Onder; Bucak, Abdulkadir; Ulu, Sahin; Yalım, Zafer; Aycicek, Abdullah; Onrat, Ersel; Avsar, Alaettin

    2016-11-01

    Nasal septum deviation (NSD) can cause obstruction of the upper airway, which may lead to increased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and right ventricle dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of septoplasty on right ventricular function and mean PAP of patients with marked NSD. 25 patients with marked NSD (mean age = 31.8 ± 12.3 years) and 27 healthy volunteers (mean age = 34.5 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed for all subjects and right ventricular function and mean PAP were evaluated before and 3 months after septoplasty. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annulus early diastolic myocardial velocity (E') were significantly lower in patients with NSD than control subjects, while right ventricle myocardial performance index (RVMPI) and mean PAP were significantly higher (respectively, p = 0.006, 0.037, 0.049, 0.046). When preoperative and postoperative findings were compared, the mean PAP decreased whereas TAPSE increased significantly (respectively, p = 0.007, 0.03). The results of the present study demonstrated that mean PAP increased and right ventricular function worsened in patients with NSD. However, mean PAP decreased and right ventricular function tended to recover after septoplasty.

  14. Dispersion measurements with minimum and maximum deviated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghussein, F.; Wrobel, J. M.; Kruger, M. B.

    2006-10-01

    The prism spectrometer has been the standard apparatus for index of refraction measurements and a typical instrument in undergraduate laboratories for dispersion experiments. Because much care must be employed when aligning a prism spectrometer, a more robust method for measuring index of refraction is needed. By using a laser, prism, rotating platform, and tape measure, we can measure the index of refraction to five significant figures. Due to its ease of use, undergraduates can make more accurate measurements with this method than by using a poorly aligned prism spectrometer. Although a tunable laser is preferable for easily changing wavelengths, two laser pointers, one red and one green, may be used, allowing for an inexpensive method of accurately obtaining the constants in the two-term Cauchy equation relating the index of refraction to the wavelength.

  15. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    PubMed Central

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh I.S.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues. PMID:25909343

  16. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    PubMed

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2015-08-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues.

  17. Validity of Footprint Analysis to Determine Flatfoot Using Clinical Diagnosis as the Gold Standard in a Random Sample Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Martín, Cristina; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to determine the prevalence and variables associated with the diagnosis of flatfoot, and to evaluate the validity of three footprint analysis methods for diagnosing flatfoot, using clinical diagnosis as a benchmark. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of a population-based random sample ≥40 years old (n = 1002) in A Coruña, Spain. Anthropometric variables, Charlson’s comorbidity score, and podiatric examination (including measurement of Clarke’s angle, the Chippaux-Smirak index, and the Staheli index) were used for comparison with a clinical diagnosis method using a podoscope. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Results Prevalence of flatfoot in the left and right footprint, measured using the podoscope, was 19.0% and 18.9%, respectively. Variables independently associated with flatfoot diagnosis were age (OR 1.07), female gender (OR 3.55) and BMI (OR 1.39). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) showed that Clarke’s angle is highly accurate in predicting flatfoot (AUC 0.94), followed by the Chippaux-Smirak (AUC 0.83) and Staheli (AUC 0.80) indices. Sensitivity values were 89.8% for Clarke’s angle, 94.2% for the Chippaux-Smirak index, and 81.8% for the Staheli index, with respective positive likelihood ratios or 9.7, 2.1, and 2.0. Conclusions Age, gender, and BMI were associated with a flatfoot diagnosis. The indices studied are suitable for diagnosing flatfoot in adults, especially Clarke’s angle, which is highly accurate for flatfoot diagnosis in this population. PMID:25382154

  18. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Dubner, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD.

  19. The development of MUAC-for-age reference data recommended by a WHO Expert Committee.

    PubMed Central

    de Onis, M.; Yip, R.; Mei, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Low mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), determined on the basis of a fixed cut-off value, has commonly been used as a proxy for low weight-for-height (wasting). The use of a fixed cut-off value was based on the observation that MUAC showed small age- and sex-specific differences. However, in 1993, a WHO Expert Committee concluded that age independence is not reflected in the true pattern of mid-upper arm growth, recommended the use of MUAC-for-age, and presented age- and sex-specific MUAC reference data developed with observations obtained from a representative sample of children in the USA aged 6-59 months. In this article, we explain the methodology for the development of these data, present age- and sex-specific growth curves and tables and discuss the applications and limitations of MUAC as a nutritional indicator. To develop the reference data, estimates were first obtained for the mean and standard deviation of MUAC for each month of age using 7-month segmental regression equations; a 5th-degree and a 3rd-degree polynomial in age was then used to describe the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of MUAC-for age. These curves show important age-specific differences, and significant sex-specific differences for boys and girls < 24 months of age. Correct interpretation of MUAC with regard to nutritional status requires the use of MUAC-for-age reference data such as those presented here. PMID:9141745

  20. Memorizing while walking: increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Marsiske, M; Baltes, P B

    2000-09-01

    The dual task of memorizing word lists while walking was predicted to become more difficult with age because balance and gait are in greater need of "attentional resources." Forty-seven young (ages 20-30 years), 45 middle-aged (40-50), and 48 old (60-70) adults were trained to criterion in a mnemonic technique and instructed to walk quickly and accurately on 2 narrow tracks of different path complexity. Then. participants encoded the word lists while sitting, standing, or walking on either track; likewise, speed and accuracy of walking performance were assessed with and without concurrent memory encoding. Dual-task costs increased with age in both domains; relative to young adults, the effect size of the overall increase was 0.98 standard deviation units for middle-aged and 1.47 standard deviation units for old adults. It is argued that sensory and motor aspects of behavior are increasingly in need of cognitive control with advancing age.

  1. Fractional dissipative standard map.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Edelman, M

    2010-06-01

    Using kicked differential equations of motion with derivatives of noninteger orders, we obtain generalizations of the dissipative standard map. The main property of these generalized maps, which are called fractional maps, is long-term memory. The memory effect in the fractional maps means that their present state of evolution depends on all past states with special forms of weights. Already a small deviation of the order of derivative from the integer value corresponding to the regular dissipative standard map (small memory effects) leads to the qualitatively new behavior of the corresponding attractors. The fractional dissipative standard maps are used to demonstrate a new type of fractional attractors in the wide range of the fractional orders of derivatives.

  2. Effect of a modified grip angle of a walker on the wrist deviation angle, muscle activation and palmar load during walker-assisted gait in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Young-Ik

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop a new handle holder by modifying the inclination of the existing handle holder to reduce load on the wrist joints. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study consisted of 25 elderly people aged 65 years or older accustomed to a walker-assisted gait. Two types of handle holders ((1) standard handle holder (2) inclination handle holder) were applied to all subjects and their wrist joint movement and muscle activity were measured while they conducted 10 cycle walker-assisted gait. [Results] The use of an inclination handle holder during the walker-assisted gait decreased considerably the extensor carpi radialis longus activity and angles of the ulnar deviation and wrist extension. [Conclusion] Improvements in the overall structure of a walker may be a new tool for improving existing walker users but the replacement cost will be expensive. The inclination handle holder presented in this study decreases the burden on the wrist joints of walker users without any overall structural changes in the walker, thereby reducing the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases of the wrist joint during the walker-assisted gait of elderly people. PMID:28356620

  3. Nasal Septal Deviation and Concha Bullosa – Do They Have an Impact on Maxillary Sinus Volumes and Prevalence of Maxillary Sinusitis?

    PubMed Central

    Kucybała, Iwona; Janik, Konrad Adam; Ciuk, Szymon; Storman, Dawid; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the study was to assess if the presence of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa is connected with the development of sinuses and the incidence of inflammation within them. Material/Methods We retrospectively analysed 214 patients who underwent paranasal sinus computed tomography. There were 125 females and 89 males, the mean age being 47.67±16.74 years (range 18–97). Exclusion criteria included: age under 18 years, prior sinonasal surgery and S-shaped septum. Results Mean volume of the right maxillary sinus was 17.794 cm3, while for the left one it was 17.713 cm3. Nasal septal deviation was found in 79.9% of computed tomography examinations and concha bullosa was observed in 42.1% of the patients’ examinations. There was an association between the presence of unilateral or dominant concha bullosa and contralateral direction of septal deviation [right-sided (p=0.039), left-sided (p=0.003)]. There was higher incidence of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in patients with septal deviation (p=0.007). Bilateral concha bullosa did not influence the incidence of bilateral maxillary sinusitis (p=0.495). Neither septal deviation (right sided: p=0.962; left-sided: p=0.731), nor unilateral/dominant concha bullosa (right: p=0.512; left: p=0,430) affected the asymmetry in volumes of maxillary sinuses. Bilateral concha bullosa was connected with larger volume of maxillary sinuses (right sinus: p=0.005; left sinus: p=0.048). Conclusions Nasal septal deviation, contrary to concha bullosa, has influence on the development of maxillary sinusitis. There is a connection between the presence of concha bullosa and direction of septal deviation. Only bilateral concha bullosa affects maxillary sinus volumes. PMID:28348652

  4. Agreement between 2 pain visual analogue scales, by age and area of complaint in neck and low back pain subjects: the standard pen and paper VAS versus plastic mechanical sliderule VAS

    PubMed Central

    Hagino, Carol; Thompson, Marylee; Advent, Jolayne; Rivet, Lyne

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This study endeavoured to determine the agreement between the standard pencil and paper pain VAS (pVAS) and a relatively newly designed plastic mechanical (slide-rule) VAS (mVAS) in assessing cervical and lumbar pain intensity in cervical pain vs low back pain (LBP) patients stratified by age (< 65 years of age (yoa) and ≥ 65 yoa). Design Architecture: This was a concurrent validity study assessing the agreement between the gold standard pVAS and the experimental mVAS. Sample Size: A sample size estimate revealed that a minimum of 9 subjects for each of 4 age-complaint subgroups (< 65 yoa) neck pain, ≥ 65 yoa neck pain, <65 yoa low back pain, ≥ 65 yoa low back pain) would be necessary. Sample Profile: All adults (≥ 18 yrs of age) presenting to the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College’s Herbert K. Lee Outpatient Clinic with low back (LBP) pain or neck pain were considered eligible for the study. Three (3) essentially asymptomatic subjects were also recruited in order to provide a complete spectrum of pain severities. Outcome Measure: Pain intensity was measured in centimetres (to nearest one tenth) on the pVAS and in ten units on the mVAS (to the nearest one tenth unit). Method: The pVAS was administered by including it with either the standard intake forms which all new patients are required to complete, or by presenting it to patients visiting the Clinic for a subsequent treatment. The subject made a visual estimation of his/her pain intensity and marked it on the pVAS accordingly. The response was then measured in centimetres. One of the investigators presented the mVAS to the subject after arrival in the examination room. The mVAS instrument was presented to the subject with instructions as to how to indicate his/her level of present pain intensity. Every attempt was made to ensure that no less than five minutes and no more than 15 minutes elapsed between the completion of the two forms of Visual Analogue Scale. The data were categorized

  5. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  6. Dietary Diversity Is Positively Associated with Deviation from Expected Height in Rural Nepal123

    PubMed Central

    Rehfuess, Eva A; Harthan, Jayne; Chaube, Shiva Shankar; Bhandari, Bishnu; Costello, Harry; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has highlighted the need for additional studies on the nutrition input required to stabilize growth. Objective: Our objective was to examine the association between dietary diversity and conditional growth in children aged 0–89 mo. Methods: We analyzed cohort data from 529 mothers and children living in a remote and food-insecure region in the mountains of Nepal. Children were aged 0–59 mo at baseline and were followed up after 9 and 29 mo. Conditional growth was calculated as the deviation from the expected height-for-age difference (HAD) trajectory based on previous measures of HAD and the pattern of growth in the population. Dietary diversity was assessed with the use of a count of the foods consumed from 7 food groups in the previous 7 d. The association between dietary diversity and conditional growth during the 2 follow-up periods (of 9 and 20 mo, respectively) was estimated with the use of ordinary least-squares regressions. Results: Prevalence of stunting and absolute height deficits was very high and increased over the course of the study. At the last measurement (age range 29–89 mo), 76.5% were stunted and the mean ± SD HAD was −11.7 ± 4.6 cm. Dietary diversity was associated positively with conditional growth in the later (May 2012–December 2013) but not the earlier (July 2011–May 2012) growth period. Children’s ages ranged from 0 to 59 mo in July 2011, 9 to 69 mo in May 2012, and 29 to 89 mo in December 2013. After adjustment, increasing the dietary diversity by one food group was associated with a 0.09 cm (95% CI: 0.00, 0.17 cm) increase in conditional growth in the second growth period. Conclusions: Increasing dietary diversity for children reduces the risk of stunting and improves growth after growth faltering. Future efforts should be directed at enabling families in food-insecure areas to feed their children a more diverse diet. PMID:27306894

  7. Full-field transmission-type angle-deviation optical microscope with reflectivity-height transformation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs. PMID:26504645

  8. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  9. Minimization of deviations of gear real tooth surfaces determined by coordinate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Kuan, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Handschuh, R. F.; Masseth, J.; Maruyama, N.

    1992-01-01

    The deviations of a gear's real tooth surface from the theoretical surface are determined by coordinate measurements at the grid of the surface. A method was developed to transform the deviations from Cartesian coordinates to those along the normal at the measurement locations. Equations are derived that relate the first order deviations with the adjustment to the manufacturing machine-tool settings. The deviations of the entire surface are minimized. The minimization is achieved by application of the least-square method for an overdetermined system of linear equations. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example for hypoid gear and pinion.

  10. Control of deviations and prediction of surface roughness from micro machining of THz waveguides using acoustic emission signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James M.; Diaz, Fernanda; Geerling, Edgar; Clasing, Matias; Ponce, Vicente; Taylor, Chris; Turner, Sam; Michael, Ernest A.; Patricio Mena, F.; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2017-02-01

    By using acoustic emission (AE) it is possible to control deviations and surface quality during micro milling operations. The method of micro milling is used to manufacture a submillimetre waveguide where micro machining is employed to achieve the required superior finish and geometrical tolerances. Submillimetre waveguide technology is used in deep space signal retrieval where highest detection efficiencies are needed and therefore every possible signal loss in the receiver has to be avoided and stringent tolerances achieved. With a sub-standard surface finish the signals travelling along the waveguides dissipate away faster than with perfect surfaces where the residual roughness becomes comparable with the electromagnetic skin depth. Therefore, the higher the radio frequency the more critical this becomes. The method of time-frequency analysis (STFT) is used to transfer raw AE into more meaningful salient signal features (SF). This information was then correlated against the measured geometrical deviations and, the onset of catastrophic tool wear. Such deviations can be offset from different AE signals (different deviations from subsequent tests) and feedback for a final spring cut ensuring the geometrical accuracies are met. Geometrical differences can impact on the required transfer of AE signals (change in cut off frequencies and diminished SNR at the interface) and therefore errors have to be minimised to within 1 μm. Rules based on both Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Neural Networks (NN) were used to implement a simulation displaying how such a control regime could be used as a real time controller, be it corrective measures (via spring cuts) over several initial machining passes or, with a micron cut introducing a level plain measure for allowing setup corrective measures (similar to a spirit level).

  11. Fit to WHO weight standard of European infants over time

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Daniel; Marryat, Louise; Cole, Tim J; McColl, John; Harjunmaa, Ulla; Ashorn, Per; Wright, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The 2006 WHO growth charts were created to provide an international standard for optimal growth, based on healthy, breastfed populations, but it has been suggested that Northern European children fit them poorly. This study uses infant weight data spanning 50 years to determine how well-nourished preschool children from different eras fit the WHO standard, and discuss the implications of deviations. Design Four longitudinal datasets from the UK and one from Finland were used comprising over 8000 children born between1959 and 2003. Weights from birth to 2 years were converted to age–sex-adjusted Z scores using the WHO standard and summarised using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape. Results Weights showed a variable fit to the WHO standard. Mean weights for all cohorts were above the WHO median at birth, but dipped by up to 0.5 SD to a nadir at 8 weeks before rising again. Birth weights increased in successive cohorts and the initial dip became slightly shallower. By age 1 year, cohorts were up to 0.75 SD above the WHO median, but there was no consistent pattern by era. Conclusions The WHO standard shows an acceptable, but variable fit for Northern European infants. While birth weights increased over time, there was, unexpectedly, no consistent variation by cohort beyond this initial period. Discrepancies in weight from the standard may reflect differences in measurement protocol and trends in infant feeding practice. PMID:26883079

  12. Immunomodulation in Middle-Aged Humans Via the Ingestion of Physta® Standardized Root Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack--A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Study.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Suzuki, Naoko; Abas, Azreena Binti; Mohri, Kiminori; Utsuyama, Masanori; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the capacity of a standardized root water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), Physta® to modulate human immunity in a middle-aged Japanese population. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted for 4 weeks. Eighty-four of 126 subjects had relatively lower scores according to Scoring of Immunological Vigor (SIV) screening. Subjects were instructed to ingest either 200 mg/day of TA or rice powder as a placebo for 4 weeks [TA and Placebo (P) groups] and to visit a clinic in Tokyo twice (weeks 0 and 4). SIV, immunological grade, immunological age, and other immune parameters were measured. Eighty-three subjects completed the study; 40 in the TA group and 41 in the P group were statistically analyzed, whereas two were excluded from the analyses. At week 4, the SIV and immunological grade were significantly higher in the TA group than those in P group (p < 0.05). The numbers of total, naïve, and CD4(+) T cells were also higher in the TA group than those in P group (p < 0.05). No severe adverse events were observed. The results suggest that ingestion of the root water extract of TA (Physta®) enhances comprehensive immunity in both middle-aged men and women. This study is registered in UMIN-CTR (UMIN000011753).

  13. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  14. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  15. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  16. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  17. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  18. Back in the saddle: large-deviation statistics of the cosmic log-density field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, C.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; Reimberg, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few per cent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellent agreement with N-body simulations for a wide range of densities. This formalism should prove valuable for accurately probing the quasi-linear scales of low-redshift surveys for arbitrary primordial power spectra.

  19. Cosmological constraints on deviations from Lorentz invariance in gravity and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Audren, B.; Lesgourgues, J.; Sibiryakov, S.; Ivanov, M.M. E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2015-03-01

    We consider a scenario where local Lorentz invariance is violated by the existence of a preferred time direction at every space-time point. This scenario can arise in the context of quantum gravity and its description at low energies contains a unit time-like vector field which parameterizes the preferred direction. The particle physics tests of Lorentz invariance preclude a direct coupling of this vector to the fields of the Standard Model, but do not bear implications for dark matter. We discuss how the presence of this vector and its possible coupling to dark matter affect the evolution of the Universe. At the level of homogeneous cosmology the only effect of Lorentz invariance violation is a rescaling of the expansion rate. The physics is richer at the level of perturbations. We identify three effects crucial for observations: the rescaling of the matter contribution to the Poisson equation, the appearance of an extra contribution to the anisotropic stress and the scale-dependent enhancement of dark matter clustering. These effects result in distinctive features in the power spectra of the CMB and density fluctuations. Making use of the data from Planck and WiggleZ we obtain the most stringent cosmological constraints to date on departures from Lorentz symmetry. Our analysis provides the first direct bounds on deviations from Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector.

  20. To what extent do deviations from an ideal occlusion constitute a health risk?

    PubMed

    Mohlin, Bengt; Kurol, Juri

    2003-01-01

    Selection of patients for orthodontic treatment should be based on a thorough analysis of the consequences of malocclusions for the individual. The mere presence of deviations from the concept of the ideal occlusion should have no influence on orthodontic treatment decisions. According to available studies, the influence of malocclusion on periodontal health, speech and chewing is fairly minor. Neither can orthodontic treatment be justified as an effective means of preventing TMD but it may be indicated to reduce existing signs and symptoms of TMD in certain carefully selected cases. Interceptive or preventive orthodontic treatment may be indicated to reduce the negative influence on growth and occlusal development of functional malocclusions (anterior or lateral forced bite) or ectopic tooth eruption. Similarly, early correction of large overjet may be valuable in order to reduce the risk of traumatic injuries. Such treatment is usually motivated during the primary or mixed dentition periods. From the teenage period and onwards, psychosocial or aesthetic reasons for orthodontic treatment are dominating. Decisions to start orthodontic treatment in order to improve aesthetics should usually not be taken before the child has reached sufficient maturity for these decisions, normally after the age of 12 years. Special consideration needs to be given to subjects with craniofacial syndromes or handicap in order to develop effective treatment methods to promote as normal growth and occlusal development as possible.

  1. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  2. Determination of real machine-tool settings and minimization of real surface deviation by computerized inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  3. 33 CFR 164.53 - Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations from rules and... Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment. (a) If during a voyage any equipment required by this part stops operating properly, the person directing the movement of the vessel may...

  4. 33 CFR 164.53 - Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations from rules and... Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment. (a) If during a voyage any equipment required by this part stops operating properly, the person directing the movement of the vessel may...

  5. 17 CFR 230.508 - Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation D. 230.508 Section 230.508 Commodity and Securities... Securities Act of 1933 § 230.508 Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of...

  6. Seismic velocity deviation log: An effective method for evaluating spatial distribution of reservoir pore types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmohamadi, Mohamad; Kadkhodaie, Ali; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Faraji, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Velocity deviation log (VDL) is a synthetic log used to determine pore types in reservoir rocks based on a combination of the sonic log with neutron-density logs. The current study proposes a two step approach to create a map of porosity and pore types by integrating the results of petrographic studies, well logs and seismic data. In the first step, velocity deviation log was created from the combination of the sonic log with the neutron-density log. The results allowed identifying negative, zero and positive deviations based on the created synthetic velocity log. Negative velocity deviations (below - 500 m/s) indicate connected or interconnected pores and fractures, while positive deviations (above + 500 m/s) are related to isolated pores. Zero deviations in the range of [- 500 m/s, + 500 m/s] are in good agreement with intercrystalline and microporosities. The results of petrographic studies were used to validate the main pore type derived from velocity deviation log. In the next step, velocity deviation log was estimated from seismic data by using a probabilistic neural network model. For this purpose, the inverted acoustic impedance along with the amplitude based seismic attributes were formulated to VDL. The methodology is illustrated by performing a case study from the Hendijan oilfield, northwestern Persian Gulf. The results of this study show that integration of petrographic, well logs and seismic attributes is an instrumental way for understanding the spatial distribution of main reservoir pore types.

  7. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National…

  8. Heritability of strabismus: genetic influence is specific to eso-deviation and independent of refractive error.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hammond, Christopher J; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Melissa Liew, S H; Barbour, Julie M; Hewitt, Alex W; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Lorenz, Birgit; Spector, Tim D; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Mackey, David A

    2012-10-01

    Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent ('phoria') and manifest ('tropia') strabismus using cover-uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and

  9. Center extraction deviation correction of SMD-LEDs in the target-based vision measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yueyang; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Bu, Penghui

    2017-04-01

    Surface mounted device-type light emitting diodes (SMD-LEDs) are commonly utilized as feature points in target-based vision measurement systems (T-VMSs) due to their high luminance. The non-uniform characteristics of said luminance introduce deviation errors in image center extraction, however, which degrades the positioning precision of the T-VMS. In this study, we first analyzed two factors responsible for deviation errors: The deflection angle between the LED’s normal direction and the observation direction, and the distance between the LED and the observer. We then established a correction method based on a lookup table to compensate for deviation errors according to these two factors. We also analyzed the correction direction of the deviation error. We applied the proposed method in an actual T-VMS to confirm its feasibility and effectiveness, and found that it does indeed correct deviation errors effectively.

  10. Detection and compensation of basis deviation in satellite-to-ground quantum communications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jincai; Yang, Shiji; Wan, Xiong; He, Zhiping; Jia, Jianjun; Citrin, D S; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-04-21

    Basis deviation is the reference-frame deviation between a sender and receiver caused by satellite motion in satellite-to-ground quantum communications. It increases the quantum-bit error ratio of the system and must be compensated for to guarantee reliable quantum communications. We present a new scheme for compensating for basis deviation that employs a BB84 decoding module to detect basis deviation and half-wave plate to provide compensation. Based on this detection scheme, we design a basis-deviation compensation approach and test its feasibility in a voyage experiment. Unlike other polarization-correction schemes, this compensation scheme is simple, convenient, and can be easily implemented in satellite-to-ground quantum communications without increased burden to the satellite.

  11. The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-02-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  12. Excess of autorefraction over subjective refraction: dependence on age.

    PubMed

    Joubert, L; Harris, W F

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between subjective refraction and autorefraction for different age groups. We call the difference (autorefraction minus subjective refraction) the excess of autorefraction over subjective refraction or the autorefractive excess. Five age groups of 50 subjects each were used. Subjects in group 1 were aged between 1 and 10 years, group 2 between 11 and 20 years, group 3 between 21 and 30 years, group 4 between 31 and 40 years, and group 5 consisted of subjects over 41 years of age. Automatic refraction was performed with an Allergan Humphrey model 580 autorefractor. The data were analyzed using recently developed statistical methods for the analyzing of dioptric power. These methods include the use of the coordinate vector h as a representation of dioptric power. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant mean autorefractive excess and that the mean is different for different age groups. The behavior of the left and right eyes appears to be essentially the same. In terms of vector h the mean autorefractive excess for both the left and the right eyes of group 1 (1 to 10 years of age) is approximately (-0.25 0.00-0.43)'. It increases by roughly delta h = (0.10 0.00 0.10)' per decade. In more conventional terms the nearest equivalent sphere of the mean excess for group 1 is approximately -0.34 D for the right and for the left eyes. The mean autorefractive excess for group 1 is approximately -0.25 -0.18 x 180. The astigmatic component appears to be the same for all age groups, whereas the spherical component increases by approximately 0.1 D per decade. The standard deviations of the autorefractive excesses are relatively large for components h1, and h3 of h: they were between approximately 0.4 and 0.7 D, possibly decreasing slightly with age. The standard deviation of h2 remains at 0.2 D or less for all age groups. The greatest variation of autorefractive excess appears to be approximately in the

  13. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  14. Development and validation of a continuously age-adjusted measure of patient condition for hospitalized children using the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Michael J; Tepas, Joseph J; Nowalk, Andrew J; Levin, James E; Rimar, Joan M; Marchetti, Albert; Hsiao, Allen L

    2017-02-01

    Awareness of a patient's clinical status during hospitalization is a primary responsibility for hospital providers. One tool to assess status is the Rothman Index (RI), a validated measure of patient condition for adults, based on empirically derived relationships between 1-year post-discharge mortality and each of 26 clinical measurements available in the electronic medical record. However, such an approach cannot be used for pediatrics, where the relationships between risk and clinical variables are distinct functions of patient age, and sufficient 1-year mortality data for each age group simply do not exist. We report the development and validation of a new methodology to use adult mortality data to generate continuously age-adjusted acuity scores for pediatrics. Clinical data were extracted from EMRs at three pediatric hospitals covering 105,470 inpatient visits over a 3-year period. The RI input variable set was used as a starting point for the development of the pediatric Rothman Index (pRI). Age-dependence of continuous variables was determined by plotting mean values versus age. For variables determined to be age-dependent, polynomial functions of mean value and mean standard deviation versus age were constructed. Mean values and standard deviations for adult RI excess risk curves were separately estimated. Based on the "find the center of the channel" hypothesis, univariate pediatric risk was then computed by applying a z-score transform to adult mean and standard deviation values based on polynomial pediatric mean and standard deviation functions. Multivariate pediatric risk is estimated as the sum of univariate risk. Other age adjustments for categorical variables were also employed. Age-specific pediatric excess risk functions were compared to age-specific expert-derived functions and to in-hospital mortality. AUC for 24-h mortality and pRI scores prior to unplanned ICU transfers were computed. Age-adjusted risk functions correlated well with similar

  15. Comparison of Surgical Outcomes with Unilateral Recession and Resection According to Angle of Deviation in Basic Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soon Young; Jung, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the surgical outcomes and near stereoacuities after unilateral medial rectus (MR) muscle resection and lateral rectus (LR) recession according to deviation angle in basic intermittent exotropia, X(T). Methods Ninety patients with basic type X(T) were included in this study. They underwent unilateral recession of the LR and resection of the MR and were followed postoperatively for at least 12 months. Patients were divided into three groups according to their preoperative deviation angle: group 1 ≤20 prism diopter (PD), 20 PD< group 2 <40 PD, and group 3 ≥40 PD. Surgical outcomes and near stereoacuities one year after surgery were evaluated. Surgical success was defined as having a deviation angle range within ±10 PD for both near and distance fixation. Results Among 90 patients, groups 1, 2, and 3 included 30 patients each. The mean age in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 9.4 years, 9.4 years, and 11.0 years, respectively. The surgical success rates one year after surgery for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 80.0%, 73.3%, and 73.3% (chi-square test, p = 0.769), respectively. The undercorrection rates for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 16.7%, 23.3%, and 26.7%, and the overcorrection rates were 3.3%, 3.3%, and 0%, respectively. The mean preoperative near stereoacuities for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 224.3 arcsec, 302.0 arcsec, and 1,107.3 arcsec, and the mean postoperative near stereoacuities were 218.3 arcsec, 214.7 arcsec, and 743.0 arcsec (paired t-test; p = 0.858, p = 0.379, p = 0.083), respectively. Conclusions In basic X(T) patients, the amount of angle deviation has no influence on surgical outcomes in unilateral LR recession and MR resection. The near stereoacuities by one year after LR recession and MR resection for intermittent X(T) were not different among patient groups separated by preoperative deviation angle. PMID:26635458

  16. Deviated Septum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written ... Copyright 2017. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, VA 22314 tel (703) ...

  17. Estimation and evidence in forensic anthropology: age-at-death.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Wescott, Daniel J; Kimmerle, Erin H

    2008-05-01

    A great deal has previously been written about the use of skeletal morphological changes in estimating ages-at-death. This article looks in particular at the pubic symphysis, as it was historically one of the first regions to be described in the literature on age estimation. Despite the lengthy history, the value of the pubic symphysis in estimating ages and in providing evidence for putative identifications remains unclear. This lack of clarity primarily stems from the fact that rather ad hoc statistical methods have been applied in previous studies. This article presents a statistical analysis of a large data set (n = 1766) of pubic symphyseal scores from multiple contexts, including anatomical collections, war dead, and victims of genocide. The emphasis is in finding statistical methods that will have the correct "coverage."Coverage" means that if a method has a stated coverage of 50%, then approximately 50% of the individuals in a particular pubic symphyseal stage should have ages that are between the stated age limits, and that approximately 25% should be below the bottom age limit and 25% above the top age limit. In a number of applications it is shown that if an appropriate prior age-at-death distribution is used, then "transition analysis" will provide accurate "coverages," while percentile methods, range methods, and means (+/-standard deviations) will not. Even in cases where there are significant differences in the mean ages-to-transition between populations, the effects on the stated age limits for particular "coverages" are minimal. As a consequence, more emphasis needs to be placed on collecting data on age changes in large samples, rather than focusing on the possibility of inter-population variation in rates of aging.

  18. Improving regions of deviation gait symmetry analysis with pointwise T tests.

    PubMed

    DiBerardino, Louis A; Ragetly, Chantal A; Hong, Sungjin; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    The regions of deviation method has been proposed as a technique for identifying regions of the gait cycle where joint motion deviates from normal (Shorter et al., 2008). The original statistical analysis distinguished only peak values during stance and swing. In the current article, we extend the approach by examining deviations from normal throughout the entire gait cycle using pointwise t tests. These methods were demonstrated on hind-limb joint angles of 21 Labrador Retrievers without and with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Results were compared with peak difference analysis previously performed on these subjects. All points in the gait cycle where symmetry deviations were significantly affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (via pointwise t tests) were defined as regions of deviation from symmetry. Discriminant function analysis was used to consider single subjects and validate that these regions were truly areas of difference between groups. Regions of deviation encompassed previously determined significant peak differences, while extending analysis to additional areas of asymmetry. Discriminant function analysis suggested that the region of deviation method is a viable approach for distinguishing motion pattern differences. This enhanced method may help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind lameness and compensation.

  19. Welding deviation detection algorithm based on extremum of molten pool image contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yong; Jiang, Lipei; Li, Yunhua; Xue, Long; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The welding deviation detection is the basis of robotic tracking welding, but the on-line real-time measurement of welding deviation is still not well solved by the existing methods. There is plenty of information in the gas metal arc welding(GMAW) molten pool images that is very important for the control of welding seam tracking. The physical meaning for the curvature extremum of molten pool contour is revealed by researching the molten pool images, that is, the deviation information points of welding wire center and the molten tip center are the maxima and the local maxima of the contour curvature, and the horizontal welding deviation is the position difference of these two extremum points. A new method of weld deviation detection is presented, including the process of preprocessing molten pool images, extracting and segmenting the contours, obtaining the contour extremum points, and calculating the welding deviation, etc. Extracting the contours is the premise, segmenting the contour lines is the foundation, and obtaining the contour extremum points is the key. The contour images can be extracted with the method of discrete dyadic wavelet transform, which is divided into two sub contours including welding wire and molten tip separately. The curvature value of each point of the two sub contour lines is calculated based on the approximate curvature formula of multi-points for plane curve, and the two points of the curvature extremum are the characteristics needed for the welding deviation calculation. The results of the tests and analyses show that the maximum error of the obtained on-line welding deviation is 2 pixels(0.16 mm), and the algorithm is stable enough to meet the requirements of the pipeline in real-time control at a speed of less than 500 mm/min. The method can be applied to the on-line automatic welding deviation detection.

  20. Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    The deviations of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films.