Science.gov

Sample records for age standardised incidence

  1. Standard errors of non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; Hakulinen, T; Brenner, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Relative survival estimates cancer survival in the absence of other causes of death. Previous work has shown that standard errors of non-standardised relative survival may be substantially overestimated by the conventionally used method. However, evidence was restricted to non-standardised relative survival estimates using Hakulinen's method. Here, we provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of standard errors including age-standardised survival and estimation by the Ederer II method. Methods: Five- and ten-year non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival was estimated for patients diagnosed with 25 common forms of cancer in Finland in 1989–1993, using data from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. Standard errors of mutually comparable non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival were computed by the conventionally used method and compared with bootstrap standard errors. Results: When using Hakulinen's method, standard errors of non-standardised relative survival were overestimated by up to 28%. In contrast, standard errors of age-standardised relative survival were accurately estimated. When using the Ederer II method, deviations of the standard errors of non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival were generally small to negligible. Conclusion: In most cases, overestimations of standard errors are effectively overcome by age standardisation and by using Ederer II rather than Hakulinen's method. PMID:22173672

  2. Increased Standardised Incidence Ratio of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Taiwanese Asbestos Workers: A 29-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Chang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Jung-Der; Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This paper aimed to determine the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in workers exposed to asbestos in Taiwan. Methods. All workers employed in asbestos-related factories and registered by the Bureau of Labour Insurance between 1 March, 1950, and 31 December, 1989, were included in the study and were followed from 1 January, 1980, through 31 December, 2009. Incident cases of all cancers, including MPM (ICD-9 code: 163), were obtained from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. SIRs were calculated based on comparison with the incidence rate of the general population of Taiwan and adjusted for age, calendar period, sex, and duration of employment. Results. The highest SIR of MPM was found for male workers first employed before 1979, with a time since first employment more than 30 years (SIR 4.52, 95% CI: 2.25–8.09). After consideration of duration of employment, the SIR for male MPM was 5.78 (95% CI: 1.19–16.89) for the workers employed for more than 20 years in asbestos-related factories. Conclusions. This study corroborates the association between occupational asbestos exposure and MPM. The highest risk of MPM was found among male asbestos workers employed before 1979 and working for more than 20 years in asbestos-related factories. PMID:26290869

  3. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer after renal transplant in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and non-SLE recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Brar, Amarpali; Richardson, Carrie; Salifu, Moro O; Clarke, Ann; Bernatsky, Sasha; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Jindal, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated malignancy risk after renal transplantation in patients with and without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Using the United States Renal Data System from 2001 to 2009, 143 652 renal transplant recipients with and without SLE contributed 585 420 patient-years of follow-up to determine incident cancers using Medicare claims codes. We calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer by group using age, sex, race/ethnicity-specific and calendar year-specific cancer rates compared with the US population. Results 10 160 cancers occurred at least 3 months after renal transplant. Overall cancer risk was increased in both SLE and non-SLE groups compared with the US general population, SIR 3.5 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.7) and SIR 3.7 (95% CI 2.4 to 5.7), respectively. Lip/oropharyngeal, Kaposi, neuroendocrine, thyroid, renal, cervical, lymphoma, liver, colorectal and breast cancers were increased in both groups, whereas only melanoma was increased in SLE and lung cancer was increased in non-SLE. In Cox regression analysis, SLE status (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.3) was not associated with increased risk of developing cancer, adjusted for other independent risk factors for developing cancer in renal transplant recipients. We found that smoking (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0), cytomegalovirus positivity at time of transplant (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), white race (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) and older recipient age at time of transplantation (HR 1.0 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) were associated with an increased risk for development of cancer, whereas shorter time on dialysis, Epstein-Barr virus or HIV were associated with a lower risk for development of cancer. Conclusions Cancer risk in renal transplant recipients appeared similar in SLE and non-SLE subjects, aside from melanoma. Renal transplant recipients may need targeted counselling regarding surveillance and modifiable risk factors. PMID:27335659

  4. Changing Literacies, Changing Populations, Changing Places--English Teachers' Work in an Age of Rampant Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    School-age populations in many nations are becoming increasingly diverse (in terms of languages, countries of origin, ethnicity, faith traditions and so on) especially in low socio-economic communities where recent arrivals tend to be accommodated. In Australian classrooms, it is not unusual for a single classroom to include children who speak…

  5. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  6. Standardisation and Its Discontents

    PubMed Central

    Wears, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    In discussions of the quality and safety problems of modern, Western healthcare, one of the most frequently heard criticisms has been that: “It is not standardised.” This paper explores issues around standardisation that illustrate its surprising complexity, its potential advantages and disadvantages, and its political and sociological implications, in the hope that discourses around standardisation might become more fruitful. PMID:25667566

  7. Uveitis in the Aging Eye: Incidence, Patterns, and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaal, Marwan R.; Abiad, Bachir H.; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is a vision threatening inflammation of the eye that carries considerable morbidity. It is responsible for 10% of legal blindness in the United States and up to 25% in the developing world. Uveitis in patients more than 60 years of age is less common. The aging body has a changing response of the immune system, which might reflect a different pattern of uveitis in the elderly population. In this paper we review the incidence and patterns of uveitis in the elderly as reported in the literature and discuss changes with time. We also delineate a thorough differential diagnosis of de novo uveitis in the elderly. PMID:26090218

  8. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  9. Sexual incidents in an extended care unit for aged men.

    PubMed

    Szasz, G

    1983-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the nursing staff of a 400-bed extended-care unit for aged men by questionnaire to find out what patient behaviors were identified as sexual by the staff and how they reacted to these behaviors. Three types of behavior were identified as sexual and as "causing problems": sex talk (e.g., using foul language); sexual acts (e.g., touching or grabbing, exposing genitalia); and implied sexual behavior (e.g., openly reading pornographic magazines). As many as 25 per cent of the residents were thought to create such incidents. Acceptable sexual behavior identified by the staff were limited to hugging and kissing on the cheek, although their answers implied that residents could need more intimate touching and affection. The survey raised questions about the nature and causes of different types of sexual behavior in the institutionalized elderly and about the roles nursing staff, physicians, and administrators can play in recognizing individual needs while safeguarding both the residents and the staff from the consequences of unacceptable incidents. PMID:6863791

  10. Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface area burned is an adequate quality indicator in burn care: An exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke

    2016-02-01

    Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. Burn-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with burns as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface area burned (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate burn centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine burn-specific models was tested by comparing values from the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National Burn Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in burn care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. PMID:26700877

  11. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care. PMID:25526960

  13. Standardisation of crown-rump length measurement.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, C; Sarris, I; Hoch, L; Salomon, L J; Papageorghiou, A T

    2013-09-01

    Correct estimation of gestational age is essential for any study of ultrasound biometry and for everyday clinical practice. However, inconsistency in pregnancy dating may occur through differences in measurement methods or errors during measurement. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, pregnancies are dated by the last menstrual period, provided that it is certain and associated with a regular menstrual cycle, and the gestational age by dates concurs with a first-trimester ultrasound crown-rump length (CRL) estimation. Hence, there was a need to standardise CRL measurement methodology across the study sites in this international, multicentre project to avoid systematic differences in dating. To achieve uniformity we undertook the following steps: the ultrasound technique was standardised by disseminating an illustrated, operating manual describing CRL plane landmarks and calliper application, and posters describing the correct acquisition technique were disseminated for quick reference. To ensure that all ultrasonographers understood the methodology, they forwarded a log-book to the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Ultrasound Coordinating Unit, containing the answers to a written test on the manual material and five images of a correctly acquired CRL. Interpretation of CRL was also standardised by ensuring that the same CRL regression formula was used across all study sites. These methods should minimise potential systematic errors in dating associated with pooling data from different health institutions, and represent a model for standardising CRL measurement in future studies. PMID:23678951

  14. Standardised Tests: Wristwatch or Dipstick?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    If US education is to be improved a tool is needed that will measure quality. Standardised tests are the only serious contender for the job. This article explores in detail why standardised tests are such a powerful, if limited, tool. It discusses the following three topics: (1) a brief history of tests: the start of the controversy, (2) the…

  15. Sunlight Exposure, Pigmentation, and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Howard, Kerri P.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD. Methods. Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color. Results. Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD. Conclusions. Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype. PMID:25125603

  16. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, N K; Linn, F H H; van der Plas, J A; Algra, A; Rinkel, G J E

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. Results We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45 821 896 person‐years. Incidences per 100 000 person‐years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45–55 years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25 years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85 years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55 years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. Conclusions The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100 000 person‐years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45 years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general. PMID:17470467

  17. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  18. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  19. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  20. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  1. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  3. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  4. Colorado IDDM Registry. Incidence and validation of IDDM in children aged 0-17 yr.

    PubMed

    Hamman, R F; Gay, E C; Cruickshanks, K J; Cook, M; Lezotte, D C; Klingensmith, G J; Chase, H P

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged 0-17 yr for age, sex, season, and urban and rural residence of onset in Colorado. Retrospective registration of new-onset cases was conducted from 1978 to 1980, and then prospective registration continued through 1983 with the use of physician reporting with hospital validation. The annual incidence of IDDM was 15.2/100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1, 16.3), with little difference between the sexes. The highest incidence was in the 10- to 14-yr age-group for both sexes. There was a seasonal peak of winter onset in those aged 10-17 yr, with similar patterns between sex and ethnic groups. No temporal trend over the 6 yr was seen, although an excess of cases was seen for 15- to 17-yr-old boys in 1980-1982. Rates were similar for urban and rural areas of the state. Case ascertainment was estimated to be 93.2% complete (95% CI 91.5, 95.5). Incidence was similar in Colorado to other populations in the United States at similar latitudes. These data serve as a baseline for evaluation of changes in incidence over time, by region, and for the identification of possible outbreaks. PMID:2351028

  5. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  6. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and incidence of airflow limitation per 1000 person-years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  7. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  8. Incidence of Dementia Among Participants and Nonparticipants in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  9. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Incident Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Antonio B.; Panza, Gregory A.; Cramer, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Saurav; Jayaraman, Ramya; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness in people over 65 years old in the United States and has been associated with cardiovascular risk and decreased survival. There is conflicting data, however, regarding the contribution of AMD to the prediction of stroke. Aim To determine whether AMD is a risk indicator for incident stroke in a meta-analysis of available prospective and retrospective cohort studies published in the English literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of all studies published in English with Pub Med and other databases from 1966 to August 2014, reporting stroke incidence in patients with macular degeneration. Two investigators independently extracted the data. A random effects model was used to report Odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-regression using a mixed linear model was used to understand potential heterogeneity amongst studies. Results We identified 9 studies that reported stroke incidence in patients with and without early AMD (N = 1,420,978). No significant association was found between early AMD with incident stroke. Combined, these 9 studies demonstrated random effects (OR, 1.12; CI, 0.86–1.47; I2 = 96%). Meta-regression on baseline covariates of age, sex, and year of publication did not significantly relate to heterogeneity. Conclusions We found no significant relationship between AMD and incident stroke. Further studies are needed to clarify other causes of decreased survival in patients with AMD. PMID:26580396

  10. Age incidence and site distribution of mammary dysplasias in young beagle bitches.

    PubMed

    Warner, M R

    1976-07-01

    The age incidence and site distribution of 2,142 mammary dysplasias were documented for 39 beagle bitches 6 months to 4 years of age. Lesion onset was at 2-3 years of age, at which time more than 50% of the females had dysplasias. Dysplasias appeared before palpable tumors. Posterior mammae developed more lesions than did anterior mammae. Thus the gradient for early onset of lesions coincided with the gradient for tumor frequency reported previously; a preneoplastic potential is suggested for (some) dysplasias. Problems of defining normal tissue are discussed. PMID:1034018

  11. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  12. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  13. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  14. Cognitive Reserve, Incident Dementia, and Associated Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Bello, Toyin; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe factors associated with incident dementia and dementia mortality over 5 years in a large community sample of elderly persons. Design Longitudinal investigation of a household multistage probability sample. Setting Eight contiguous states of the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older (N=2,149). Measurements Dementia was diagnosed using tools previously validated in the population. Incident cases of dementia over three follow-up waves were determined after censoring cases in the preceding wave. Information on mortality was collected from key informants in subjects’ households. Results A dementia incident rate was found of 20.9 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI)=17.7–24.9). The adjusted mortality hazard for those with dementia was 1.5 (95% CI=1.1–2.1). Along with previously identified social and demographic factors, poor predementia cognitive function (hazard ratio (HR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.1–2.8) and low occupational complexity (HR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3–8.0) were associated with incident dementia. Conclusion The findings confirm the low incidence of dementia in this population, as previously reported. The condition is nevertheless associated with higher risk of mortality. Along with some features of social disadvantage, proxies of lower cognitive reserve were risk factors for incident dementia. PMID:26926137

  15. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  16. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  17. A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, F. E.; Stephan, B. C. M.; Robinson, L.; Jagger, C.; Barnes, L. E.; Arthur, A.; Brayne, C.; Comas-Herrera, A.; Wittenberg, R.; Dening, T.; McCracken, C.F.M.; Moody, C.; Parry, B.; Green, E.; Barnes, R.; Warwick, J.; Gao, L.; Mattison, A.; Baldwin, C.; Harrison, S.; Woods, B.; McKeith, I.G.; Ince, P.G.; Wharton, S.B.; Forster, G.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic global increases in future numbers of people with dementia have been predicted. No multicentre population-based study powered to detect changes over time has reported dementia incidence. MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) undertook baseline interviews in populations aged 65+ years in England and Wales (1989–1994). Three areas (CFAS I) were selected for new sampling two decades later (2008–2011) with same geographical boundaries, sampling and approach methods (CFAS II). At 2 years CFAS I interviewed 5,156 (76% response) with 5,288 interviewed in CFAS II (74% response). Here we report a 20% drop in incidence (95% CI: 0–40%), driven by a reduction in men across all ages above 65. In the UK we estimate 209,600 new dementia cases per year. This study was uniquely designed to test for differences across geography and time. A reduction of age-specific incidence means that the numbers of people estimated to develop dementia in any year has remained relatively stable. PMID:27092707

  18. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  19. Exploring the relationship between incidence and the average age of infection during seasonal epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the incidence and the average age of first infection for immunizing agents has become a basic tenet in the theory underlying the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. However, this relationship assumes that the infection has reached an endemic equilibrium. In reality, most infectious diseases exhibit seasonal and/or long-term oscillations in incidence. We use a seasonally-forced age-structured SIR model to explore the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection over a single epidemic cycle. Contrary to the relationship for the equilibrium dynamics, we find that the average age of first infection is greatest at or near the peak of the epidemic when mixing is homogeneous. We explore the sensitivity of our findings to assumptions about the natural history of infection, population mixing behavior, the mechanism of seasonality, and of the timing of case reporting in relation to the infectious period. We conclude that seasonal variation in the average age of first infection tends to be greatest for acute infections, and the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection can vary depending on the nature of population mixing and the natural history of infection. PMID:19527734

  20. Age-related incidence and other epidemiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aul, C; Gattermann, N; Schneider, W

    1992-10-01

    Although most haematologists perceive a rising prevalence and incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), reliable epidemiological data on these disorders are largely lacking. The bone marrow register of the University of Düsseldorf allowed us to assess among other epidemiological features the incidence of MDS, which was compared to that of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Among a total of 18,416 different patients registered between 1975 and 1990, 584 cases of MDS (3.2%) and 506 cases of AML (2.8%) were identified. Over the study period, the percentage of newly diagnosed MDS rose from 1.3% to 4.5%, while there was no upward trend for AML. Among all patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy, the proportion of those over 60 years of age increased from 41.9% in 1975 to 54.1% in 1990. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of elderly patients and the relative frequency of MDS diagnoses. Thirty-one patients (5.3%) were classified as a secondary MDS because of previous treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or irradiation for a variety of malignancies. Twelve patients were identified in whom occupational exposure to organic solvents could not be ruled out. For calculating age-specific incidence rates, the analysis was confined to the town district of Düsseldorf (575,000 inhabitants), because exact demographical data were available for this population. In the last quinquennium of the study period (1986-90), myelodysplastic syndromes were more frequent than AML in the age group 50-70 years (4.9 v 1.8/100,000/year). In patients over 70, the incidence of MDS was more than 3 times that of AML (22.8 v 6.7/100,000). In this group, men had a higher incidence of MDS (33.9/100,000) than women (18/100,000). Crude annual incidence (all age groups) was also higher for MDS (4.1/100,000) than for AML (2.1/100,000) in recent years. We conclude that MDS are relatively common haematological neoplasias. The rising incidence in recent years is probably not due to changes in

  1. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  2. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  3. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

  4. Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Background Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological wellbeing may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological wellbeing was associated with incidence of physical frailty. Methods We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relation between psychological wellbeing, assessed using the CASP-19 questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria, in 2557 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results Men and women with higher levels of psychological wellbeing were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological wellbeing at baseline, the relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 (0.40, 0.54). There was a significant association between psychological wellbeing and risk of pre-frailty: 0.69 (0.63, 0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) wellbeing showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in wellbeing, suggesting that the relationship is bi-directional. Conclusions Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological wellbeing in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:23822897

  5. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  6. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  7. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  8. Lipids, Lipid Genes and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Three Continent Age-Related Macular Degeneration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Meta-analysis. Methods Setting Three population-based cohorts. Population 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and Rotterdam Study (RS). Observation Procedures Participants were followed over 20 years and examined at 5-year intervals. Hazard ratios (HRs) associated with lipid levels per standard deviation above the mean or associated with each additional risk allele for each lipid pathway gene were calculated using random-effects inverse-weighted meta-analysis models, adjusting for known AMD risk factors. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of AMD. Results The average 5-year incidences of early AMD were 8.1%, 15.1%, and 13.0% in the BDES, BMES, and RS, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cholesterol and lipid pathway genes on the incidence and progression of AMD was evident when the data from the three studies were combined in meta-analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find a statistically significant association between any of the cholesterol measures, statin use, or serum lipid genes and any of the AMD outcomes in the meta-analysis. Conclusion In a meta-analysis, there were no associations of cholesterol measures, history of statin use, or lipid pathway genes to the incidence and progression of AMD. These findings add to inconsistencies in earlier reports from our studies and others showing weak associations, no associations, or inverse associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol with AMD. PMID:24879949

  9. Well-Being and Chronic Disease Incidence: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Okely, Judith A.; Gale, Catharine R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Previous research suggests that greater well-being may protect against onset of chronic disease. However, it is unclear whether this association is similar across different types of disease. Method We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the prospective relationship between well-being (measured using the CASP-19 quality of life questionnaire) and incidence of arthritis, cancer, stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease over 8 years. The sample consisted of 8182 participants 50 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results After adjustments for established risk factors, a standard deviation increase in CASP-19 score was associated with a decrease in arthritis risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83–0.96) and, in those younger than 65 years, a decrease in diabetes risk (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70–0.95) and chronic lung disease risk (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.97). Higher CASP-19 scores were associated with reduced risk for stroke and myocardial infarction; however, these associations were no longer significant after adjustments for established risk factors. No association was observed for cancer incidence. An age interaction was observed for diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease, with a stronger association between CASP-19 score and disease incidence at younger ages. Conclusions The extent of association between well-being and incident disease risk is not consistent across different chronic diseases. Future studies should examine the cause of this variation. PMID:26569542

  10. Anthropogenic pollutants may increase the incidence of neurodegenerative disease in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    The current world population contains an ever-increasing increased proportion of the elderly. This is due to global improvements in medical care and access to such care. Thus, a growing incidence of age-related neurodegenerative disorders is to be expected. Increased longevity also allows more time for interaction with adverse environmental factors that have the potential exert a gradual pressure, facilitating the onset of organismic aging. Nearly all neurodegenerative disorders have a relatively minor genetic element and a larger idiopathic component. It is likely that some of the unknown factors promoting neurological disease involve the appearance of some deleterious aspects of senescence, elicited prematurely by low but pervasive levels of toxic materials present in the environment. This review considers the nature of such possible toxicants and how they may hasten neurosenescence. An enhanced rate of emergence of normal age-related changes in the brain can lead to increased incidence of those specific neurological disorders where aging is an essential requirement. In addition, some xenobiotic agents appear to have the capability of engendering specific neurodegenerative disorders and some of these are also considered. PMID:26812399

  11. The incidence of cervical spondylosis decreases with aging in the elderly, and increases with aging in the young and adult population: a hospital-based clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanling; Tian, Fuming; Zhou, Yingjun; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cervical spondylosis is well accepted as a common degenerative change in the cervical spine. Compelling evidence has shown that the incidence of cervical spondylosis increases with age. However, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis through more and more clinical data. Methods In the case-controlled study reported here, retrospective clinical analysis of 1,276 cases of cervical spondylosis has been conducted. We analyzed the general clinical data, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis, and the relationship between age-related risk factors and the incidence of cervical spondylosis. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of less than 0.05. Results The imaging examination demonstrated the most prominent characteristic features of cervical spondylosis: bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6. The incidence of cervical spondylosis increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially in the elderly after 60 years old. The occurrence rate of bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially after 60 years. Moreover, the incidence of hyperosteogeny and spinal stenosis increased with aging before age 60 years and decreased with aging after age 60 years, although there was no obvious change in calcification. The age-related risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking, have no relationship with the incidence of cervical spondylosis. Conclusion A decreasing proportion of cervical spondylosis with aging occurs in the elderly, while the proportion of

  12. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  13. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  14. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  15. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  16. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  17. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  18. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  19. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  20. Relationship between Age and Timely Placement of Vascular Access in Incident Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Placement of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) prior to initiating dialysis can affect clinical outcomes for patients who subsequently initiate chronic hemodialysis treatments. Age-related variation in receipt of a functioning AVF prior to initiating dialysis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related rates in use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment among U.S. incident patients on hemodialysis. Findings Among 526,145 identified, the use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment was lower in the youngest (<55 year) and oldest (≥80 year) vs. both 55–66 year and 67–79 year age groups. These findings persisted after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle behavior, employment and insurance status, physical/functional conditions, and comorbid conditions. Conclusions The presence of a functioning AVF at initial dialysis treatment varies by age. Modifying healthcare policy and/or expanding the role of the renal nurse practitioner should be considered to address this issue. PMID:25802137

  1. Parallel Professionalism in an Era of Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-Johnson, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Today's American educational context is characterised by increasing standardisation coupled with heightened accountability. While some view standardisation as a lever for equity, many view it as problematic for the work of teachers. Efforts to improve student achievement by focusing on the activities of teachers have resulted in an…

  2. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  3. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  4. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  5. Does Older Age Confer an Increased Risk of Incident Neurocognitive Disorders Among Persons Living with HIV Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, David P.; Woods, Steven Paul; Bondi, Mark W.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Massman, Paul J.; Doyle, Katie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. Method A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV−, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV−, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14.3 ±0.2 months later. Results A logistic regression predicting incident neurocognitive disorders from HIV, age group, and their interaction was significant (χ2[4] = 13.56, p = .009), with a significant main effect of HIV serostatus (χ2[1] = 5.01, p = .025), but no main effect of age or age by HIV interaction (ps > .10). Specifically, 15.7 percent of the HIV+ individuals had an incident neurocognitive disorder as compared to 3.2 percent of the HIV− group (odds ratio = 4.8 [1.2, 32.6]). Among older HIV+ adults, lower baseline cognitive reserve, prospective memory, and verbal fluency each predicted incident neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Conclusions Independent of age, HIV infection confers a nearly 5-fold risk for developing a neurocognitive disorder over approximately one year. Individuals with lower cognitive reserve and mild weaknesses in higher-order neurocognitive functions may be targeted for closer clinical monitoring and preventative measures. PMID:26367342

  6. Mortality and Incidence of Hospital Admissions for Stroke among Brazilians Aged 15 to 49 Years between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Fernando; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter dos Santos; Paiva, Laércio da Silva; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Santos, Edige Felipe de Sousa; Martins, Bruno Luis; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to analyze rates of stroke-related mortality and incidence of hospital admissions in Brazilians aged 15 to 49 years according to region and age group between 2008 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis was performed in 2014 using data from the Hospital and Mortality Information Systems and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Stroke was defined by ICD, 10th revision (I60–I64). Crude and standardized mortality (WHO reference) and incidence of hospital admissions per 100,000 inhabitants, stratified by region and age group, were estimated. Absolute and relative frequencies; and linear regression were also used. The software used was Stata 11.0. Results There were 35,005 deaths and 131,344 hospital admissions for stroke in Brazilians aged 15–49 years old between 2008 and 2012. Mortality decreased from 7.54 (95% CI 7.53; 7.54) in 2008 to 6.32 (95% CI 6.31; 6.32) in 2012 (β = -0.27, p = 0.013, r2 = 0.90). During the same time, incidence of hospital admissions stabilized: 24.67 (95% CI 24.66; 24.67) in 2008 and 25.11 (95% CI 25.10; 25.11) in 2012 (β = 0.09, p = 0.692, r2 = 0.05). There was a reduction in mortality in all Brazilian regions and in the age group between 30 and 49 years. Incidence of hospitalizations decreased in the South, but no significant decrease was observed in any age group. Conclusion We observed a decrease in stroke-related mortality, particularly in individuals over 30 years old, and stability of the incidence of hospitalizations; and also regional variation in stroke-related hospital admission incidence and mortality among Brazilian young adults. PMID:27332892

  7. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  8. Relationship between pelvic incidence and osteoarthritis of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, D. S.; Bohl, M. S.; Liu, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral spine, and specifically pelvic incidence (PI), has been implicated in the development of spine pathology, but generally ignored with regards to diseases of the hip. We aimed to determine if increased PI is correlated with higher rates of hip osteoarthritis (HOA). The effect of PI on the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) was used as a negative control. Methods We studied 400 well-preserved cadaveric skeletons ranging from 50 to 79 years of age at death. Each specimen’s OA of the hip and knee were graded using a previously described method. PI was measured from standardised lateral photographs of reconstructed pelvises. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between age and PI with HOA and KOA. Results The mean age was 60.2 years (standard deviation (sd) 8.1), and the mean PI was 46.7° (sd 10.7°). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between increased PI and HOA (standardised beta = 0.103, p = 0.017). There was no correlation between PI and KOA (standardised beta = 0.003, p = 0.912). Conclusion Higher PI in the younger individual may contribute to the development of HOA in later life. Cite this article: Dr J. J. Gebhart. Relationship between pelvic incidence and osteoarthritis of the hip. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:66–72. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000552. PMID:26912384

  9. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  10. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  11. Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ye; Li, Hua; Wu, Yu-Fei; Xu, Ji; Lv, Sha; Li, Ge; Liu, Shi-Chun; Song, Sheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia. Results Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was −2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of −0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher myopic or hyperopic refractive error at baseline. The cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refractive error of −0.50 D or more, among initial emmetropes and hyperopes was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.2%–63.5%), with an annual incidence of 10.6% (95% CI, 8.7%–13.1%). Myopia was found more likely to happen in female and older children. Conclusions In Western China, both myopic progression and incidence of myopia were higher than those of children from most other locations in China and from the European Caucasian population. Compared with a previous study in China, there was a relative increase in annual myopia progression and annual myopia incidence, a finding which is consistent with the increasing trend on prevalence of myopia in China. PMID:26875599

  12. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  13. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  14. Declines in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence and Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Tanner, Rikki M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P.; Woolley, J. Michael; Thacker, Evan L.; Levitan, Emily B.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate secular changes in CHD incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. Methods We analyzed data on participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–1996 (early time period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003–2009 (late time period). Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of diabetes and time period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for socio-demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. Results After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR=1.99,95% CI=1.59,2.49) and late (HR=2.39,95% CI=1.69,3.35) time periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late time periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Conclusions Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. PMID:24970491

  15. Age-Period-Cohort approaches to back-calculation of cancer incidence rate

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Cheongeun; Holford, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    A compartment model for cancer incidence and mortality is developed in which healthy subjects may develop cancer, and subsequently die of cancer or another cause. In order to adequately represent the experience of a defined population, it is also necessary to allow for subjects who are diagnosed at death, as well as subjects who migrate and are subsequently lost to follow-up. Expressions are derived for the number of cancer deaths as a function of the number of incidence cases and vice versa, which allows for the use of mortality statistics to obtain estimates of incidence using survival information. In addition, the model can be used to obtain estimates of cancer prevalence, which is useful for health care planning. The method is illustrated using data on lung cancer among males in Connecticut. PMID:25715831

  16. Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Karakaş, Hakkı Muammer; Ozsunar, Yelda; Altın, Levent; Ceken, Kağan; Alıcıoğlu, Banu; Sönmez, Iclal; Alparslan, Ahmet; Yürümez, Belde; Celik, Tayfun; Kazak, Eda; Geyik, Pınar Özdemir; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the incidence of pineal gland calcification (PGC), to investigate the interaction of PGC and aging, and to compare the incidence of PGC among the populations living in Turkey. In a prospective study the rate of PGC on CT scans of 1376 individuals in six referral centers from different regions of Turkey was investigated, with emphasis on effects of climatological parameters and aging on PGC. It was found that the incidence of PGC increased rapidly after first decade and the increase remains gradual thereafter, higher in males than in females for all age groups. There was a significant difference for incidence and degree of PGC between different clinics and between both sexes (p<0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference for the degree of PGC between the clinics in low altitude group and those in high altitude group (p<0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and intensity of sunlight exposure significantly affected the risk of PGC (odds ratios (OR) 1.335, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.261-1.414, p<0.001; OR 1.900, 95% CI 1.486-2.428, p<0.001; OR 0.715, 95% CI 0.517-0.990, p<0.05; OR 0.997, 95% CI 0.994-0.999, p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, by multiple linear regression analysis, high altitude and increased intensity of sunlight exposure were found to affect the degree of PGC (beta=0.003, p<0.001). It is concluded that there is a close relationship between PGC and the aforementioned parameters, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these. This study provides some reference data for new clinical studies on the putative role of pineal gland in future. PMID:18420391

  17. Age at First Drink and the First Incidence of Adult-Onset DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing studies of the association between age at first drink (AFD) and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) suffer from inconsistent levels of control and designs that may inflate associations by failure to control for duration of exposure to risk. Methods This study examined associations between AFD (ages <15 and 15-17 versus 18+ years) and first incidence of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, abuse, and specific AUD criteria over a 3-year follow-up in a longitudinal study of U.S. drinkers 18 years of age and older at baseline (n=22,316), controlling for duration of exposure, family history and a wide range of baseline and childhood risk factors. Results After adjusting for all risk factors, the incidence of dependence was increased for AFD <15 years (OR=1.38) and for women only with AFD at ages 15-17 (OR=1.54). The incidence of abuse was increased at AFD <15 and 15-17 years (OR=1.52 and 1.30, respectively). Most dependence criteria showed significant associations with AFD, but hazardous drinking and continued drinking despite interpersonal problems were the only abuse criteria to do so. All associations were nonsignificant after controlling for volume of consumption, except that AFD at all ages <18 combined was associated with a reduced likelihood of impaired control and AFD at ages 15-17 was associated with lower odds of drinking more/longer than intended among heavy-volume drinkers. In a population of low-risk drinkers that excluded those with positive family histories, personality disorders and childhood risk factors, there were strong associations between early AFD (<18) and the incidence of dependence (OR=3.79) and continued drinking despite physical/psychological problems (OR=2.71), but no association with incidence of abuse. Conclusions There is a robust association between AFD and the risk of AUD that appears to reflect willful rather than uncontrolled heavy drinking, consistent with misuse governed by poor decision-making and/or reward

  18. Bone tumors in a population of 400 000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 y of age: incidence and survival

    PubMed Central

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; von Euler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of, survival until, and survival after the diagnosis of canine bone tumors by breed, sex, age, and geographic location of residence. Dogs under 10 y old and insured by a Swedish insurance company between 1995 and 2002 were studied. In total, 764 dogs had claims for bone tumors, and the incidence rate was 5.5 cases per 10 000 dog-years at risk (DYAR). At ages 6, 8, and 10 y, the proportions of dogs with bone tumors were 0.13%, 0.30%, and 0.64%. The top 3 breeds at risk were Irish wolfhound, St. Bernard, and leonberger (incidence rates 99, 78, and 53 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively). Median survival time after diagnosis was 56 d in the 419 dogs that survived ≥ 1 d. With a Cox regression model controlling for breed and age, females were shown to be at decreased risk of bone tumors, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (99% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.87). PMID:17955904

  19. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Donaldson, Anna L; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  20. Severity of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in 1 Eye and the Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Fellow Eye

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Importance Previous studies of the implications of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity in one eye on prognosis for the fellow eye have focused on incidence of neovascular AMD in the fellow eye of subjects with neovascular AMD in the other eye. It is unclear to what extent AMD severity in one eye impacts incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in its fellow eye across the entire range of AMD severity. Objective To investigate the impact of severity of AMD in one eye on incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in the fellow eye. Design, Setting and Participants The Beaver Dam Eye Study, a longitudinal population-based study of age-related eye diseases conducted in the city and township of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988-1990 through 2008-2010). Study participants (N=4379) were aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination. At baseline and up to 4 subsequent examinations, retinal photographs were taken. Exposures Age, sex, and the Y402H polymorphism in the Complement Factor H gene on chromosome 1q; AMD severity in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, progression, and regression of AMD assessed in retinal photographs according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System; mortality. Results More severe AMD in one eye was associated with increased incidence and progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 1 to 2: hazard ratio [HR] 4.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.26-5.63; Level 2 to 3: HR 2.09, CI 1.42-3.06; Level 3 to 4: HR 2.38, CI 1.74-3.25; Level 4 to Level 5: HR 2.46, CI 1.65-3.66). Less severe AMD in one eye was associated with less progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 2 to 3: HR 0.42, CI 0.33-0.55; Level 3 to 4: HR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.83). We estimate that 51% of subjects who develop any AMD always maintain AMD severity states within 1 step of each other between eyes; 90% stay within 2 steps. Conclusions and Relevance Using multi-state models, we

  1. [Cancer incidence estimates for Germany via log-linear models].

    PubMed

    Haberland, J; Bertz, J; Görsch, B; Schön, D

    2001-01-01

    In Germany presently no nationwide cancer registration exists. To estimate national cancer incidence, Poisson regression models were fitted to incidence/mortality ratios using age and sex specific data of the cancer registry of Saarland, Germany and were then applied to national mortality. The models estimate the absolute number of incident cases at a given point in time and moreover allow the assessment of time trends. Applied to nationwide mortality the models imply a total of 347,000 new cancer cases in Germany for 1998 with 179,000 females and 168,000 males. During the nineties the age-standardised rate (European standard) has slightly decreased for males and slightly increased for females. PMID:11561205

  2. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Incident Dementia: Evidence from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Megan; Mather, Karen A; Xu, Jing; Assareh, Amelia A; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-03-29

    Alcohol consumption is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, but the literature is not completely consistent. This inconsistency may be partly due to an interaction with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, an established risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident dementia or decline in specific cognitive domains over 4 years, and if this effect is modified by APOEɛ4 status. Non-demented community dwelling older adults (70-90 years) from an ongoing longitudinal study were assessed for cognitive impairment in attention/processing speed, language, executive function, visuospatial ability, and memory. Incident dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Compared to those who did not drink in the previous 12 months, neither low consumption (HR 0.64 95% CI 0.3-1.4) or risky consumption (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.2-1.5) was associated with incident dementia. Carriers of the APOEɛ4 allele were more likely to develop dementia, but there was no significant interaction with alcohol consumption. PMID:27031466

  4. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  5. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753

  6. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  7. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  8. Standardised (plain) packaging: the time for implementation has come.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Daube A O, Mike

    2015-07-01

    Although a growing number of countries have passed legislation to introduce standardised (or 'plain') packaging, New Zealand's legislation is currently stalled. The research evidence supporting standardised packaging is strong. Furthermore, evaluations from Australia, the first country to introduce this measure, show standardised packaging is reducing the appeal of smoking. Tobacco consumption in Australia has also fallen since the introduction of standardised packaging. The government should reassert its commitment to New Zealand's Smokefree 2025 goal by recognising the Australian evidence and passing and implementing standardised packaging as soon as possible. PMID:26149904

  9. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  10. Incidence of Elderly Eye Injuries in Automobile Crashes: The Effects of Lens Stiffness as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gail A.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Stefan M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the incidence of eye injuries with respect to occupant age in frontal automobile crashes as well as to investigate possible injury mechanisms of the elderly eye and the effects of lens stiffness. The National Automotive Sampling System was searched from years 1993–2000 for three separate occupant age groups of 16–35 years old, 36–65 years old, and 66 years old and greater in order to compare the total number of weighted occupants who sustained an eye injury to the number of occupants who sustained an eye injury per age group. Three separate impact scenarios simulating a foam particle (30 m/s), a steering wheel (15 m/s), and an air bag (67 m/s), were applied to a finite element eye model in order to elucidate the effects of aging on the eye when subjected to blunt trauma. The lens stiffness of the model was varied according to human lens stiffness values determined for each age group. Occupants aged 66 years old and greater were two to three times more likely to incur an eye injury than younger occupants. The computational eye model demonstrated that increased risk was related to the increasing stiffness of the lens, producing up to a 120% larger stress in the ciliary body. PMID:12941223

  11. Age- and gender-specific associations between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population: the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Liu, X; Wang, X; Wu, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the age- and sex-dependent association between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population. The Kailuan prospective cohort study recruited 101 510 participants. Those participants were followed for an average of 3.98 years and the data obtained from 32 137 participants out of 101 510 were analyzed in this study. Sleep duration was categorized as five groups of⩽5, 6, 7, 8 and ⩾9 h. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze the association of sleep duration with incident hypertension. The 3.98 years' follow-up data showed that 12 732 out of 32 137 participants developed hypertension. Short duration of sleep (⩽5 h per night) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in woman (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.58) and participants aged <60 years (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), when compared with the group reported with 7 h of sleep per day. This study suggested that short sleep duration could cause an increased risk of hypertension in Chinese females and population aged <60 years. PMID:26763887

  12. Five-year incidence, progression and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Fridbert; Fisher, Diana E.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Klein, Ronald; Launer, Lenore J; Harris, Tamara; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and progression of age related m acular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and five-year follow-up. Methods Digital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main outcome measures AMD, defined as early or late. Results Among 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year 1.14 (95% CI 1.11, 1.17)), current smoking (OR 2.07 (1.38, 3.11)), former smoking (OR 1.36 (1.04, 1.79)), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR 1.62 per mmol/L (1.19, 2.22)), and body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.04 per kg/m2 (1.01, 1.07)). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy (GA) and 11.7% exudative AMD). In multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14 (1.07, 1.21)) and exudative AMD (OR 1.08 (1.01, 1.14)). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR 2.10 (1.10, 3.98)) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR 2.03 per mmol/L (1.02, 4.05)). Conclusion By age 85 years, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development. PMID:24768241

  13. Age-Varying Association Between Statin Use and Incident Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Shofer, Jane B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kukull, Walter A.; Peskind, Elaine R.; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Crane, Paul K.; Breitner, John C.S.; Larson, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier post hoc analysis suggested possible benefits of statins in reducing risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in younger participants (< age 80 years) with the APOE ε4 allele. We further investigated these findings with more follow-up time and more recently enrolled participants. Design A cohort of cognitively intact elderly was assessed biennially for dementia and AD. Setting Community based. Participants 3,392 non-demented member of a health maintenance organization (HMO) aged ≥ 65 years. Measurements We identified statin use from the HMO pharmacy database and applied proportional hazards models with statin use as a time-dependent covariate to assess the statin-AD association and the modifying effects of age and the APOE ε4 allele. Results Over an average of 6.1 years of follow-up of 3099 participants, 263 participants developed probable AD. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for statin use was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 – 0.97) for AD in models including demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors as covariates. The strength of the statin-AD association diminished with age (statin × age-at-entry interaction p = 0.04); the aHR in those younger than 80 was 0.44 (CI 0.25 – 0.78) vs. 1.22 (CI 0.61 – 2.42) for those older than 80. The interaction term for statin use × APOE ε4 was not significant (p = 0.65). Conclusion This enlarged study confirms earlier findings that statin therapy in early old age, but not in late age, may be associated with reduced risk of AD. The relationship between statin use and AD was consistent across APOE genotypes. PMID:20533968

  14. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  15. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Holford, T R

    1991-01-01

    Time trends for population-based disease rates often are summarized by using direct adjustment by period of diagnosis or death. Similarly, the effect of age often is presented graphically as age-specific rates for a given period of diagnosis. These approaches may be necessary if there is an absence of long-term data, as they provide a natural way for annually updating information when monitoring trends, or they may be a convenient way of summarizing a large amount of data (7, 10, 11, 39, 45). However, these summaries only can adjust for the effect of age in a given period; they implicitly ignore the cohort effect. The effect of cohort is an important factor in understanding time trends for many diseases. Thus, it is not advisable to use data analytic strategies that routinely ignore it. Another alternative to modeling is to give a graphical presentation of the age-specific rates themselves. As I noted in the introduction, some of the first analyses to identify the effect of cohort on diseases, such as tuberculosis and lung cancer, relied entirely on a graphical analysis. Although graphs certainly are an important part of the interpretation of time trends, it would be a mistake to limit your analysis to impressions of points on a graph. For example, such a perusal would not give an objective indication of the statistical significance of a particular pattern. Regression analysis forces us to recognize a fundamental problem with interpreting time trends in disease rates--a problem that you should remember, even when trying to understand a graphical display of time trends in age-specific rates. PMID:2049144

  16. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  17. Adult onset motor neuron disease: worldwide mortality, incidence and distribution since 1950.

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, A M; Warlow, C P

    1992-01-01

    This review examines the commonly held premise that, apart from the Western Pacific forms, motor neuron disease (MND), has a uniform worldwide distribution in space and time; the methodological problems in studies of MND incidence; and directions for future epidemiological research. MND is more common in men at all ages. Age-specific incidence rises steeply into the seventh decade but the incidence in the very elderly is uncertain. A rise in mortality from MND over recent decades has been demonstrated wherever this has been examined and may be real rather than due to improved case ascertainment. Comparison of incidence studies in different places is complicated by non-standardised methods of case ascertainment and diagnosis but there appear to be differences between well studied populations. In developed countries in the northern hemisphere there is a weak positive correlation between standardised, age-specific incidence and distance from the equator. There is now strong evidence for an environmental factor as the cause of the Western Pacific forms of MND. A number of clusters of sporadic MND have been reported from developed countries, but no single agent identified as responsible. Images PMID:1479386

  18. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  19. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  20. Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in School-Aged Children in Puerto Rico: A Prospective Seroepidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, D. Fermín; Tomashek, Kay M.; Quiñones, Luz; Beltran, Manuela; Acosta, Luz; Santiago, Luis M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Pollissard-Gadroy, Laurence; Luxemburger, Christine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by the mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4). To estimate DENV seroincidence in school-aged children, a 1-year prospective cohort study was conducted in Patillas, Puerto Rico; 10- to 18-year-olds (N = 345) were randomly selected from 13 public schools. At enrollment, 49.8% of the entire cohort had DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-DENV antibodies, and there were individuals with neutralizing antibodies specific to each of the four DENV. The mean age of participants with incident DENV infection was 13.4 years. The 1-year seroincidence rate was 5.6%, and 61.1% of infections were inapparent. Having IgG anti-DENV at enrollment was associated with seroincidence (risk ratio = 6.8). Acute febrile illnesses during the study period were captured by a fever diary and an enhanced and passive surveillance system in the municipios of Patillas and Guayama. In summary, at enrollment, nearly one-half of the participants had a prior DENV infection, with the highest incidence in the 10- to 11-year-olds, of which most were inapparent infections, and symptomatic infections were considered mild. PMID:25646256

  1. Analysis of retinoblastoma age incidence data using a fully stochastic cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Stiller, Charles A.; Li, Guangquan; Kroll, Mary E.; Murphy, Michael F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is an important ocular malignancy of childhood. It has been commonly accepted for some time that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is the principal molecular target associated with the occurrence of RB. In this paper, we examine the validity of the two-hit theory for retinoblastoma by comparing the fit of a stochastic model with two or more mutational stages. Unlike many such models, our model assumes a fully stochastic stem cell compartment, which is crucial to its behavior. Models are fitted to a population-based dataset comprising 1,553 cases of retinoblastoma for the period 1962–2000 in Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales). The population incidence of retinoblastoma is best described by a fully stochastic model with two stages, although models with a deterministic stem cell compartment yield equivalent fit; models with three or more stages fit much less well. The results strongly suggest that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is necessary and may be largely sufficient for the development of retinoblastoma, in support of Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis. PMID:21387305

  2. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  3. Incidence of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Fellow Eye in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Maureen G.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Shah, Ankoor R.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Avery, Robert L.; Huang, Jiayan; Martin, Revell W.; Roth, Daniel B.; Castellarin, Alessandro A.; Bakri, Sophie J.; Fine, Stuart L.; Martin, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of drug, dosing regimen, and traditional, non-traditional, and genetic risk factors on the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the fellow eye of patients treated for CNV with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Design Cohort study of patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Participants Patients with no CNV in the fellow eye at the time of enrollment in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Methods Eligibility criteria for the clinical trial required that study eyes have evidence on fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual acuity between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to three different regimens for dosing over a two-year period. The genotypes for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) associated with risk of AMD were determined. Only patients without CNV in the fellow eye at baseline were considered at risk. CATT ophthalmologists examined patients every four weeks through two years and recorded treatment for CNV in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Development of CNV in the fellow eye. Results Among 1185 CATT participants, 727 (61%) had no CNV in the fellow eye at enrollment. At two years, CNV had developed in 75 (20.6%) of 365 patients treated with ranibizumab and 60 (16.6%) of 362 patients treated with bevacizumab (absolute difference 4.0%, 95% confidence interval (−1.7%, 9.6%); p=0.17). The risk ratio for pro re nata (PRN) dosing relative to monthly dosing was 1.1 (95% confidence interval (0.8, 1.6)). Greater elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluid in the foveal center of the study eye were associated with increased incidence of CNV in the fellow eye. Incidence was not associated with genotype on rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3

  4. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  5. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A.; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Methods Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Results Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Conclusions Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD. PMID:26906160

  6. Is There Relationship between Brain Atrophy and Higher Incidence of Hip Fracture in Old Age? -A Preliminary Study-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Suh, Seung Woo; Yoon, Tae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The studies on the correlation between incidence of fall and brain atrophy have been going on to find out the cause of fall and its prevention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between incidence of hip fracture and brain volume, measured by magnetic resonance image. Materials and Methods A total of 14 subjects with similar conditions (age, height, weight, and past history) were selected for this study. Fracture group (FG) was consisted of 5 subjects with intertrochanteric fracture. Control group (CG) had 9 subjects without intertrochanteric fracture. MRI-based brain volumetry was done in FG and CG with imaging software (V-works, CyberMed Co., Korea). Total brain (tBV), absolute cerebellar volumes (aCV) and relative cerebellar volumes (rCV) were compared between two groups. Student t-test was used to statistically analyze the results. Results In FG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were 1034.676±38.80, 108.648±76.80 and 10.50±0.72 cm3, respectively. In CG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were found to be 1106.459±89.15, 114.899±98.06 and 10.39±0.53 cm3, respectively, having no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the fracture and control groups. Patients with neurologic disease such as cerebellar ataxia definitely have high incidence of fall that causes fractures and have brain changes as well. However, FG without neurologic disease did not have brain volume change. We consider that high risk of fall with hip fracture might decrease brain function which is not obvious to pickup on MRI. PMID:24142659

  7. With increasing ageing in Western populations, what are the prospects for lowering the incidence of coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Walker, A R

    2001-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), rare in the early 1900s, in the 1970s was responsible for almost a third of deaths in Western populations. Although its mortality rate has fallen in the last 20 years, considerably in certain populations, it remains the leading cause of death, and there is little evidence of any fall in its incidence rate. The primary risk factors, which include pattern of diet, smoking practice, and level of physical activity, are well known, but explain only approximately 50% of variation in its occurrence. Despite the numerous health improvement recommendations made, alterations in diet have been relatively slight. Although smoking practice has halved in some populations, its prevalence is now rising in the young. The extent of physical activity is low, compared with that in the past, and may even be decreasing in the young. With the general ageing of populations, the near absence of strong encouragement from the state, and individuals' general failure to reduce risk factors significantly, the chances of decreases in the incidence of CHD appear remote. PMID:11181987

  8. Practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in normal aging vs. incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Machulda, Mary M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in a population based cohort classified as clinically normal at their initial evaluation. We examined 1390 individuals with a median age of 78.1 years and re-evaluated them up to four times at approximate 15 month intervals, with an average follow-up time of five years. Of the 1390 participants, 947 (69%) individuals remained cognitively normal, 397 (29%) progressed to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 46 (3%) to dementia. The stable normal group showed an initial practice effect in all domains which was sustained in memory and visuospatial reasoning. There was only a slight decline in attention and language after visit 3. We combined individuals with incident MCI and dementia to form one group representing those who declined. The incident MCI/dementia group showed an unexpected practice effect in memory from baseline to visit 2, with a significant decline thereafter. This group did not demonstrate practice effects in any other domain and showed a downward trajectory in all domains at each evaluation. Modeling cognitive change in an epidemiologic sample may serve as a useful benchmark for evaluating cognitive change in future intervention studies. PMID:24041121

  9. Managing EEE part standardisation and procurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serieys, C.; Bensoussan, A.; Petitmangin, A.; Rigaud, M.; Barbaresco, P.; Lyan, C.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents the development activities in space components selection and procurement dealing with a new data base tool implemented at Alcatel Space using TransForm softwaa re configurator developed by Techform S.A. Based on TransForm, Access Ingenierie has devv eloped a software product named OLG@DOS which facilitate the part nomenclatures analyses for new equipment design and manufacturing in term of ACCESS data base implementation. Hi-Rel EEE part type technical, production and quality information are collected and compiled usingproduction data base issued from production tools implemented for equipment definition, description and production based on Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II Control Open) and Parametric Design Manager (PDM Work Manager). The analysis of any new equipment nomenclature may be conducted through this means for standardisation purpose, cost containment program and management procurement activities as well as preparation of Component reviews as Part Approval Document and Declared Part List validation.

  10. Standardised animal models of host microbial mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A J; McCoy, K D

    2015-01-01

    An appreciation of the importance of interactions between microbes and multicellular organisms is currently driving research in biology and biomedicine. Many human diseases involve interactions between the host and the microbiota, so investigating the mechanisms involved is important for human health. Although microbial ecology measurements capture considerable diversity of the communities between individuals, this diversity is highly problematic for reproducible experimental animal models that seek to establish the mechanistic basis for interactions within the overall host-microbial superorganism. Conflicting experimental results may be explained away through unknown differences in the microbiota composition between vivaria or between the microenvironment of different isolated cages. In this position paper, we propose standardised criteria for stabilised and defined experimental animal microbiotas to generate reproducible models of human disease that are suitable for systematic experimentation and are reproducible across different institutions. PMID:25492472

  11. Minority Language Standardisation and the Role of Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Developing a standard for a minority language is not a neutral process; this has consequences for the status of the language and how the language users relate to the new standard. A potential inherent problem with standardisation is whether the language users themselves will accept and identify with the standard. When standardising minority…

  12. Standardised Library Instruction Assessment: An Institution-Specific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Shannon M.; Branch, Nicole A.; Hewitt, Tom L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We explore the use of a psychometric model for locally-relevant, information literacy assessment, using an online tool for standardised assessment of student learning during discipline-based library instruction sessions. Method: A quantitative approach to data collection and analysis was used, employing standardised multiple-choice…

  13. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  14. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Christian; Rajab, Taufiek K.; Brochhausen, Christoph; Wallwiener, Markus; Rothmund, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1), brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2), sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3), ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4), bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5), and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6). Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P < 0.01). Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0%) and 5 (4%) were significantly less than the other groups (P < 0.01). Furthermore, group 6 (69%) was significantly higher than group 1 (48%) (P < 0.05) and group 4 (47%) (P < 0.05). There was no difference between group 3 (60%) and group 6 (P = 0.2). From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models. PMID:24809049

  15. First incident hospitalisation for Australian women aged 70 and beyond: A 10 year examination using competing risks.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding high hospital use among older adults and the capacity to manage the economic impact of the ageing population trend on healthcare systems. First hospitalisation in old age may act as a catalyst for ongoing intensification of health problems and acute care use. This study examined factors associated with first incident hospitalisation in women aged over 70, accounting for the health inequalities associated with geographic location. Survey data from 3780 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the Admitted Patients Data Collection and National Death Index. Days to first event (hospitalisation or death) were modelled using competing risks methods. A total of 3065 (80.3%) women had at least one hospital admission. More than half of the top 15 reasons for first hospitalisation were related to cardiovascular disease, with atrial fibrillation the most common. Proportional subdistribution hazards models showed that first hospital admission was driven by enabling and need factors including asthma/bronchitis diagnosis (HR=1.16; p=0.047), private health insurance (HR=1.16; p=0.004) more than two prescribed medications in previous month (HR=1.31; p=0.001), more than four general practitioner visits in previous year (HR=1.50; p=0.034), lower physical functioning (HR=0.99; p<0.001) and living in an inner regional area (HR=1.17; p=0.003). First overnight hospitalisation was primarily related with potentially preventable and treatable chronic diseases. Primary and secondary strategies aimed at chronic disease generally, and better chronic disease management particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, may play a vital role in disease prevention or delay in readmissions among this population. PMID:26952374

  16. The Contribution of Mammography Screening to Breast Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States: An Updated Age-period-cohort Model

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Alagoz, Oguz; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Holford, Theodore R.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of screening mammography on breast cancer incidence is difficult to disentangle from cohort- and age-related effects on incidence. Methods We developed an age-period-cohort model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer incidence in U.S. females using cancer registry data. Five functions were included in the model to estimate stage-specific effects for age, premenopausal birth cohorts, postmenopausal birth cohorts, period (for all years of diagnosis), and a mammography period effect limited to women aged ≥40 years after 1982. Incidence with and without the mammography period effect was calculated. Results More recent birth cohorts have elevated underlying risk compared to earlier cohorts for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Comparing models with and without the mammography period effect showed that overall breast cancer incidence would have been 23.1% lower in the absence of mammography in 2010 (95% CI 18.8, 27.4), including 14.7% (9.5, 19.3) lower for invasive breast cancer and 54.5% (47.4, 59.6) lower for DCIS. Incidence of distant-staged breast cancer in 2010 would have been 29.0% (13.1, 48.1) greater in the absence of mammography screening. Conclusions Mammography contributes to markedly elevated rates of DCIS and early stage invasive cancers, but also contributes to substantial reductions in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. Impact Mammography is an important tool for reducing the burden of breast cancer, but future work is needed to identify risk factors accounting for increasing underlying incidence and to distinguish between indolent and potentially lethal early stage breast cancers that are detected via mammography. PMID:25787716

  17. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  18. Risk Factors for Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    CHOUDHURY, FARZANA; VARMA, ROHIT; MCKEAN-COWDIN, ROBERTA; KLEIN, RONALD; AZEN, STANLEY P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify risk factors for 4-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in adult Latinos. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS Participants, aged 40 or older, from The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent standardized comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at 4 years of follow-up. Age-related macular degeneration was detected by grading 30-degree stereoscopic fundus photographs using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of incidence and progression of AMD and baseline sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and ocular characteristics. RESULTS Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR per decade of age: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.85) and higher pulse pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.76) were independently associated with the incidence of any AMD. The same factors were associated with early AMD, soft indistinct drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Additionally, presence of clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus was independently associated with increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.85), and male gender was associated with retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.23). Older age (OR per decade of age: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.67) and current smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.66, 4.90) were independently associated with progression of AMD. CONCLUSIONS Several modifiable risk factors were associated with 4-year incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos. The results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing pulse pressure and promoting smoking cessation may reduce incidence and progression of AMD, respectively. PMID:21679916

  19. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0–98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children <5 years of age (outpatient incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per

  20. Incidences of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Japanese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older From a Community-based Prospective Cohort Study: The SHEZ Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Yano, Shuichiro; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cross-sectional studies have examined the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but prospective studies in Japanese older adults are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a community-based prospective cohort study to determine the incidence in Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. Methods We recruited 12 522 participants from Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, between December 2008 and November 2009 and followed participants for 3 years. When a subject presented with symptoms suggestive of HZ, they were examined at collaborating medical institutions and cooperated with onset and recovery surveys (eg, measurement of varicella zoster virus-specific immunity and a pain survey). The hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ and PHN according to sex and age were analyzed by Cox regression analysis with a significance level of 5%. Results The incidence of HZ was 10.9/1000 person-years (men: 8.5/1000 person-years; women: 12.8/1000 person-years) and was significantly higher in women than in men (HR 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8). The incidence of PHN was 2.1/1000 person-years (men: 1.7/1000 person-years; women: 2.4/1000 person-years), with no significant sex differences. A total of 19% of HZ cases progressed to PHN; no sex-specific difference in the proportion of PHN cases was observed. Conclusions We clarified the accurate incidences of HZ and PHN in a population of Japanese older adults. These incidences increased with age. HZ incidence was higher in women than in men, while PHN incidence did not differ markedly between the sexes. PMID:26399445

  1. Age-Dependent Sex Difference of the Incidence and Mortality of Status Epilepticus: A Twelve Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Sheu, Shew-Meei; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Wong, Yi-Sin; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurologic emergency associated with a significant mortality. The objective of this study is to investigate its epidemiology in terms of age- and sex-specific incidences and mortality. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2000 to 2011, we identified hospitalized patients with a discharged diagnosis of SE and calculated the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE with respect to age and sex. The overall incidence of SE was 4.61 per 100,000 person-years, which displayed a “J-shaped” distribution by age with a little higher under the age of 5 and highest over 60 years. The male-to-female rate ratio was 1.57 and it demonstrated a “mountain-shape” across ages with the peak at 45 to 49 years old. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in males (7.38%) than in females (11.12%) with an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72). Notably, the in-hospital mortality for females increased rapidly after the age of 40 to 45 years. The multivariate analysis found males had a significantly lower risk of mortality than females after, but not before, 45 years of age with an odds ratio of 0.56 (95% CI 0.49-0.65). Sex and age are crucial factors associated with the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE. The females over 45 years of age have a higher risk of occurrence and mortality from SE. The underlying mechanism deserves further study. PMID:25826701

  2. Incidence and recovery of neurosensory disturbances after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in different age groups: a retrospective study of 263 patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, J P; Mensink, G; Fiocco, M; van Merkesteyn, J P R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of neurosensory disturbance (NSD) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in different age groups and to assess the probability of sensory recovery in patients aged <19 years, 19-30 years, and >30 years. Hypoaesthesia of the lower lip was assessed subjectively and objectively immediately after BSSO and at 1 week and 1, 6, and 12 months after BSSO. Hypoaesthesia was considered permanent if it was present 1 year after BSSO. The frequency of NSD immediately after surgery was significantly higher in older patients. The cumulative incidence of recovery at 1 year was lower and the mean time to recovery was longer in the older patients, although these differences were not statistically significant. Older age was a significant risk factor for permanent hypoaesthesia, with an incidence of 4.8% per patient aged <19 years, 7.9% per patient aged 19-30 years, and 15.2% per patient aged >30 years. These findings show that the risk of NSD after BSSO is significantly higher in older patients. These results may aid surgeons in preoperative patient counselling and in deciding the optimal age at which to perform BSSO. PMID:26846794

  3. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Trends in the Incidence of In Situ and Invasive Cervical Cancer by Age Group and Histological Type in Korea from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Sang-yoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study aims to describe changes in carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in Korean women diagnosed between 1993 and 2009. Methods All cases of CIS and invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in the Korean National Cancer Incidence database were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) in incidence rates were compared according to age and histological type. Additionally, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to know the association between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate of cervical cancer. Results Between 1993 and 2009, 72,240 cases of ICC were reported in Korea. Total incidence rate of ICC was 14.7 per 100,000 females. ASRs of ICC declined 3.8% per year, from 19.3 per 100,000 in 1993 to 10.5 per 100,000 in 2009. Although the overall incidence rate of adenocarcinoma remained stable, invasive squamous cell carcinoma showed a decreasing trend (APC −4.2%). For women aged 60–79 years, ASRs for squamous cell carcinoma increased from 1993 to 2001, and decreased from 2001 to 2009 (APC: −4.6%). Total 62,300 cases of CIS were diagnosed from 1993 to 2009. Total incidence rate of CIS was 12.2 per 100,000 females. ASRs of CIS increased 5.7% per year, from 7.5 per 100,000 in 1993 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2009. Adenocarcinoma in situ increased 13.2% per year. There was a strong positive correlation between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate for CIS (p-value = 0.03) whereas screening rate showed a strong negative correlation with incidence rate for squamous ICC (p-value = 0.04). Conclusions The increasing trend in CIS, coupled with a decreasing trend in ICC, suggests the important role of cervix cancer screening. The incidence of adenocarcinoma showed a plateau, but the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ showed an increasing trend. PMID:23977194

  5. ["Fitness for public service" - results of standardised acceptance examinations].

    PubMed

    Arndt, K- H; Roth, M

    2002-01-01

    From Nov. 1 1990 to Dec. 31 2001 4928 applicants (61 % female, 39 % male) were examined, totalling 6580 pre-employment examinations, to decide whether they fulfilled the health requirement criteria for civil servants. Standardised aptitude criteria were used, career-specific requirements taken into account. To exclude with a high probability were any risks of premature disability for service or frequent disorders. In 394 cases (= 5.99 %) the results were negative. This assessment was final in 298 cases (= 4.53 % of all examinations) or was confirmed negative in repeated examinations even after special conditions had been imposed. Main reasons for disqualification were second- and third-degree adipositas with additional risk factors or a metabolic syndrome, chronic cardio-vascular and metabolic diseases requiring permanent treatment, malignant neoplasms or non-fulfilment of the criteria for special careers. The comparatively high rate of disqualification is mainly due to the high average age of the applicants examined (40 % of all applicants were over 40, 13 % were older than 50). Purpose, sensitivity and specifics of such examinations are discussed. Taking into consideration the high rate of civil servants prematurely unfit for work, such pre-employment examinations are regarded as highly justified. Moreover, it is necessary to have clear guidelines, aptitude criteria and examination procedures for individual careers. It is also important to adhere strictly to local responsibility for pre-employment examinations. PMID:12221615

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of Memory Complaints in Employed Compared to Non-Employed Aged 55–64 Years and the Role of Employment Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC) in 55–64-year-olds. Methods Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525) and employment characteristics (n = 1071) with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline). Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526) and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain) with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up). Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits). Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population. Results At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC. Conclusions Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55–64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work. PMID:25742133

  7. Standardised Embedded Data framework for Drones [SEDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, J.; Barbieri, L.; Peterson, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    A number of barriers to entry remain for UAS use in science. One in particular is that of implementing an experiment and UAS specific software stack. Currently this stack is most often developed in-house and customised for a particular UAS-sensor pairing - limiting its reuse. Alternatively, when adaptable a suitable commercial package may be used, but such systems are both costly and usually suboptimal.In order to address this challenge the Standardised Embedded Data framework for Drones [SEDD] is being developed in μpython. SEDD provides an open source, reusable, and scientist-accessible drop in solution for drone data capture and triage. Targeted at embedded hardware, and offering easy access to standard I/O interfaces, SEDD provides an easy solution for simply capturing data from a sensor. However, the intention is rather to enable more complex systems of multiple sensors, computer hardware, and feedback loops, via 3 primary components.A data asset manager ensures data assets are associated with appropriate metadata as they are captured. Thereafter, the asset is easily archived or otherwise redirected, possibly to - onboard storage, onboard compute resource for processing, an interface for transmission, another sensor control system, remote storage and processing (such as EarthCube's CHORDS), or to any combination of the above.A service workflow managerenables easy implementation of complex onboard systems via dedicated control of multiple continuous and periodic services. Such services will include the housekeeping chores of operating a UAS and multiple sensors, but will also permit a scientist to drop in an initial scientific data processing code utilising on-board compute resources beyond the autopilot. Having such capabilities firstly enables easy creation of real-time feedback, to the human- or auto- pilot, or other sensors, on data quality or needed flight path changes. Secondly, compute hardware provides the opportunity to carry out real-time data triage

  8. Incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer in England and Wales: Changing patterns and ethnic variations

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Khan, Shahid A; Crossey, Mary ME; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore recent trends, modes of diagnosis, ethnic distribution and the mortality to incidence ratio of primary liver cancer by subtypes in England and Wales. METHODS: We obtained incidence (1979-2008) and mortality (1968-2008) data for primary liver cancer for England and Wales and calculated age-standardised incidence and mortality rates. Trends in age-standardised mortality (ASMR) and incidence (ASIR) rates and basis of diagnosis of primary liver cancer and subcategories: hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct and unspecified liver tumours, were analysed over the study period. Changes in guidelines for the diagnosis of primary liver cancer (PLC) may impact changing trends in the rates that may be obtained. We thus explored changes in the mode of diagnosis as reported to cancer registries. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of these tumours by ethnicity. Most of the statistical manipulations of these data was carried out in Microsoft excel® (Seattle, Washington, United Sttaes). Additional epidemiological statistics were done in Epi Info software (Atlanta, GA, United Sttaes). To define patterns of change over time, we evaluated trends in ASMR and ASIR of PLC and intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (IHBD) using a least squares regression line fitted to the natural logarithm of the mortality and incidence rates. We estimated the patterns of survival over subsequent 5 and 10 years using complement of mortality to incidence ratio (1-MIR). RESULTS: Age-standardised mortality rate of primary liver cancer increased in both sexes: from 2.56 and 1.29/100000 in 1968 to 5.10 and 2.63/100000 in 2008 for men and women respectively. The use of histology for diagnostic confirmation of primary liver cancer increased from 35.7% of registered cases in 1993 to plateau at about 50% during 2005 to 2008. Reliance on cytology as a basis of diagnosis has maintained a downward trend throughout the study period. Although approximately 30% of the PLC registrations had

  9. Effect of Walking Distance on 8-Year Incident Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Men With and Without Chronic Disease: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Toby L.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Fong, Kaon; Abbott, Robert D.; Ross, George W.; Petrovitch, Helen; Blanchette, Patricia L.; White, Lon R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of walking on incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men with and without chronic disease Design Prospective cohort study Setting The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study Participants Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 years at baseline Measurements Physical activity was assessed by self-reported distance walked per day. Depressive symptoms were measured with an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at the 4th exam (n=3196) and again at the 7th exam 8 years later (1999-2000, n=1417). Presence of incident depressive symptoms was defined as CESD-11 score ≥ 9 or taking anti-depressants at Exam 7. Subjects with prevalent depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Results Age adjusted 8-year incident depressive symptoms were 13.6%, 7.6% and 8.5% for low (< ¼ miles/day), intermediate (¼ to 1.5 miles/day) and high (> 1.5 miles/day) walking groups at baseline, p=0.008. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, marital status, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent diseases and functional impairment found that those in the intermediate and highest walking groups had significantly lower odds for developing 8-year incident depressive symptoms (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.32-0.83, p=0.006; and OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.39-0.97, p=0.04 respectively). Analysis found that this association was only significant in those without chronic diseases (CHD, CVA, Cancer, PD, Dementia or cognitive impairment) at baseline. Conclusion Daily physical activity (≥¼ mile/day) is significantly associated with a lower risk for 8-year incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men who do not have chronic disease at baseline. PMID:20670378

  10. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Lloyd D; Middleton, Rod M; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69-8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44-13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80-9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  11. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena, Lloyd D.; Middleton, Rod M.; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69–8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44–13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80–9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08–1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  12. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  13. Childhood leukaemia incidence around French nuclear installations using geographic zoning based on gaseous discharge dose estimates

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, A-S; Hémon, D; Morin, A; Laurier, D; Tirmarche, M; Backe, J-C; Chartier, M; Clavel, J

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated for the first time the incidence of childhood leukaemia (1990–2001) around French nuclear installations using a geographic zoning based on estimated doses to the red bone marrow due to gaseous radioactive discharges. The observed number of cases of acute leukaemia (O=750) in 40 km2 centred on 23 French nuclear installations between 1990 and 2001 was lower than expected (E=795.01), although not significantly so (standardised incidence ratio SIR=0.94, 95% confidence interval=(0.88–1.01)). In none of the five zones defined on the basis of the estimated doses was the SIR significantly >1. There was no evidence of a trend in SIR with the estimated doses for all the children or for any of the three age groups studied. This study confirmed that there was no evidence of an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia around the 23 French nuclear sites. PMID:16622448

  14. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  15. Increasing proportion of female patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based study of trends in the incidence and prevalence of AS

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Nisha N; Paterson, J Michael; Li, Ping; Haroon, Nigil

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the introduction of MRI in diagnosis and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors for treatment, the field of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has undergone significant changes. We carried out a population-based study of the trends in incidence and prevalence of AS over the past 15 years. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of provincial health administrative databases. Residents of Ontario, Canada aged 15 years or older diagnosed with AS between 1995 and 2010 were included in the study. Crude as well as age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence and prevalence of AS between 1995 and 2010 were calculated. Trends in prevalence and incidence of male and female patients with AS were separately analysed. Results We identified 24 976 Ontarians with AS. Age/sex-standardised AS prevalence increased from 79/100 000 in 1995 to 213/100 000 in 2010. Men had higher prevalence than women, but the male/female prevalence ratio decreased from 1.70 in 1995 to 1.21 by 2010. A higher proportion of male compared with female patients with AS were diagnosed in the 15–45 age group. Annual incidence rates revealed increasing diagnosis of AS among women after 2003. Conclusions The prevalence of AS in Ontario has nearly tripled over the past two decades. The proportion of women with new diagnosis of AS is increasing, a trend that began around the year 2003. A higher proportion of male compared with female patients with AS are diagnosed at an earlier age. PMID:25510888

  16. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. Methods This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P < 0.05. All reported P-values were two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). Results The highest SIR of ovarian cancer was observed in Singapore, Kazakhstan, and Brunei respectively. Indonesia, Brunei, and Afghanistan had the highest SMR. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). Conclusion According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI. PMID:27110284

  17. Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction and the 20-year Cumulative Incidence of Early Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Danforth, Lorraine G.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Modifying levels of factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may decrease risk of visual impairment in older persons. Objective To examine the relationships of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. Design Longitudinal population-based cohort study. Setting Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Participants A random sample of 975 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study without signs of AMD who participated in the baseline examination in 1988-1990 and up to four follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2008-2010. Exposures Serum markers of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 [TNF-αR2], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and white blood cell count), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and total carbonyl content), and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were measured. Interactions with Complement Factor H (rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (rs10490924), C3 (rs2230199) and C2/CFB (rs4151667) were examined using multiplicative models. AMD was assessed from fundus photographs. Main Outcome Measure Early AMD defined by the presence of any size drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities, or by the presence of large-sized drusen (≥125 μm diameter), in the absence of late AMD. Results The 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 23.0%. Adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, hsCRP (odds ratio [OR] comparing 4th to 1st quartile 2.18, P=0.005), TNF-αR2 (1.78, P=0.04), and IL-6 (1.78, P=0.03) were associated with the incidence of early AMD. Increased incidence of early AMD was associated with sVCAM-1 (OR per standard deviation on the log ng/mL scale 1.21, P=0.04). Conclusions and Relevance We found modest evidence of relationships of serum hsCRP, TNF-αR2, and IL-6 and sVCAM-1 to the 20

  18. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. PMID:25363616

  19. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Parametric Cox models and pooled logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CKD. We observed 238 incident cases of CKD during 70,515.8 person-years of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, the hazard ratios for CKD comparing quartiles 2–4 vs. quartile 1 of serum direct bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  20. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  1. Incidence and familial risk of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-09-01

    Familial clustering of pleural mesothelioma was reported previously, but none of the reports quantified the familial risk of mesothelioma or the association with other cancers. The contributions of shared environmental or genetic factors to the aggregation of mesothelioma were unknown.We used a number of Swedish registers, including the Swedish Multigeneration Register and the Swedish Cancer Register, to examine the familial risk of mesothelioma in offspring. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to calculate the risk. Age standardised incidence rates of mesothelioma were calculated from the Swedish Cancer Registry.The incidence of mesothelioma reached its peak rate in 2000 and decreased thereafter. Risk of mesothelioma was significantly increased when parents or siblings were diagnosed with mesothelioma, with SIRs of 3.88 (95% CI 1.01-10.04) and 12.37 (95% CI 5.89-22.84), respectively. Mesothelioma was associated with kidney (SIR 2.13, 95% CI 1.16-3.59) and bladder cancers (SIR 2.09, 95% CI 1.32-3.14) in siblings. No association was found between spouses.Family history of mesothelioma, including both parental and sibling history, is an important risk factor for mesothelioma. Shared genetic factors may contribute to the observed familial clustering of mesothelioma, but the contribution of shared environmental factors could not be neglected. The association with kidney and bladder cancers calls for further study to explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27174879

  2. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired hepatitis C infection from birth to 5 years of age in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Doa’a A.; Shebl, Fatma M.; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Magder, Laurence S.; Allam, Alif; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Hashem, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Strickland, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A prospective study in three Egyptian villages (A, B and C) having a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection examined incidence of community-acquired HCV infection in children; 2852 uninfected infants were prospectively followed from birth for up to 5.5 years. Fifteen seroconverted for either HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA (incidence of 0.53%). Ten had both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA; four had only anti-HCV; and one had HCV-RNA in the absence of antibody. The incidence rate at all ages was 2.7/1000 person-years (PY). It was 3.8/1000 PY during infancy and 2.0/1000 PY for the 1–5-years age group. Hospitalization and low birth weight increased the risk of infection; while living in village B, the family having a higher socioeconomic status, and advanced maternal education were protective. Six of eight HCV-infected infants reported iatrogenic exposures (e.g. hospitalization, therapeutic injections, ear piercing) prior to infection whereas only 2/7 children older than 1 year reported these exposures. Having an HCV-positive mother was the only other reported risk in two of these older children. The virus cleared in six (40%) children by the end of follow-up. Health education targeting iatrogenic exposures and focusing on risk factors could reduce HCV infection in children in high-risk populations. PMID:20153495

  3. Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Areum; Kim, Ha Young; Lee, Yong Beom; Ha, Yong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012. Results Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012. Conclusions Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory. PMID:25774360

  4. [The incidence of caries in a school-age population sample of U.S.L. n. 15 Alta Val di Cecina-Volterra].

    PubMed

    Benetti, G L; Dini, M

    1990-01-01

    It was made a screening on children of some filter classes (1st and 3d class of primary school and 1st class of secondary school) of the Volterra's schools to estimate the incidence of caries and, if necessary, to activate programs for an adequate prevention. We examined 749 children arrived to the Dental Department of the Sanitary District owing an invitation letter; a set of question was given to their parents testing mainly alimentary and oral hygienic uses of the children examined by dentists. Elaboration of data obtained from replies and demonstrated that caries incidence in our population is of 65.29%, prevailing on male sex, and that this pathology is predominant on people taking insufficient care of oral hygiene, making no use of fluoridated toothpaste and eating any of cakes (especially between meals). These data show the high incidence of caries in evolutional age and how much this is strictly connected with wrong alimentary and hygienic uses. Therefore, to reduce this phenomenon, it's necessary to operate interventions of sanitary education and dental checking examinations, at least every 6-12 months, beginning in preschool age. PMID:2075102

  5. Analysis of 151 agricultural driveline-related incidents resulting in fatal and non-fatal injuries to U.S. children and adolescents under age 18 from 1970 through 2004.

    PubMed

    Beer, S R; Deboy, G R; Field, W E

    2007-04-01

    Agricultural driveline-related incidents have been identified as an important cause of farm-related injury resulting in death and permanently disabling conditions to children and adolescents. A database of driveline-related injuries, including both PTO drivelines and secondary shafts and drivelines on agricultural equipment, developed at Purdue University was mined to identify all cases involving children and adolescents under age 18 who had been involved in a driveline-related incident from 1970 through 2004. Although these incidents did not account for a high percentage of all childhood farm-related injuries, this age group was found to make up nearly one in four documented agricultural driveline incidents. Of the 685 cases in the database with known ages, 151 were identified as youth under age 18. Findings indicated that these incidents often resulted in catastrophic injuries including amputation, spinal cord injuries, and compound bone fractures. Over the period studied, the trend in documented cases is declining, with recent years reporting below the yearly average and 2004 reporting no fatalities. Youth, primarily males, age 13 had the highest frequency of incidents, and over 50% of all cases occurred to youth ages 12 to 17. Fall was identified as the season with the most reported incidents. Amputations were documented in nearly 50% of all cases, and augers, elevators, and conveyors were the machines most frequently identified as being involved in the incident. Recommendations and strategies that specifically target the childhood injury problem related to agricultural drivelines are provided. PMID:17555204

  6. Internationalisation and Standardisation of European Environmental Assessment. Relevance to India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazzola, Paola; Jha-Thakur, Urmila

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the rationale underlying "PENTA", an EU funded Erasmus Mundus project. In doing so, it explores the challenges of internationalising and standardising European environmental assessment (EA) practice and education to a third country audience, looking at India as a case study. It is argued that the EU EA Directives are…

  7. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  8. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  9. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  10. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  11. High incidence of adverse cerebral blood flow responses to spreading depolarization in the aged ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Menyhárt, Ákos; Makra, Péter; Szepes, Borbála É; Tóth, Orsolya M; Hertelendy, Péter; Bari, Ferenc; Farkas, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the brain after stroke, exacerbate ischemic injury, and thus emerge as a potential target of intervention. Aging predicts worse outcome from stroke; yet, the impact of age on SD evolution is not clear. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in young (8-9 weeks old, n = 8) and old (2 year olds, n = 6) anesthetized rats. Sham-operated animals of both age groups served as control (n = 12). Electrocorticogram, direct current potential, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) variations were acquired via a small craniotomy above the parietal cortex. SDs were elicited by KCl through a second craniotomy distal to the recording site. Ischemia and age delayed the recovery from SD. CBF decreased progressively during ischemia in the old animals selectively, and inverse neurovascular coupling with SD evolved in the old but not in the young ischemic group. We propose that (mal)adaptation of cerebrovascular function with aging impairs the SD-related CBF response, which is implicated in the intensified expansion of ischemic damage in the old brain. PMID:26346140

  12. Immune-inflammatory Dysregulation Modulates the Incidence of Progressive Fibrosis and Diastolic Stiffness in the Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Taffet, George E.; Carlson, Signe; Hermosillo, Jesus; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in the aging heart is a grave condition that challenges the life and lifestyle of a growing segment of our population. This report seeks to examine the role and interrelationship of inflammatory dysregulation in interstitial myocardial fibrosis and progressive diastolic dysfunction in aging mice. We studied a population of C57BL/6 mice that developed progressive diastolic dysfunction over 30 months of life. This progressive dysfunction was associated with increasing infiltration of CD45+ fibroblasts of myeloid origin. In addition, increased rates of collagen expression as measured by cellular procollagen were apparent in the heart as a function of age. These cellular and functional changes were associated with progressive increases in mRNA for MCP-1 and IL-13 which correlated both temporally and quantitatively with changes in fibrosis and cellular procollagen levels. MCP-1 protein was also increased and found to be primarily in the venular endothelium. Protein assays also demonstrated elevation of IL-4 and IL-13 suggesting a shift to a Th2 phenotype in the aging heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that IL-13 markedly enhanced monocyte fibroblast transformation. Our results indicate that immunoinflammatory dysregulation in the aging heart induces progressive MCP-1 production and an increased shift to a Th2 phenotype paralleled by an associated increase in myocardial interstitial fibrosis, cellular collagen synthesis, and increased numbers of CD45+ myeloid-derived fibroblasts that contain procollagen. The temporal association and functional correlations suggests a causative relationship between age-dependent immunoinflammatory dysfunction, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20974150

  13. Improving Information Exchange in the Chicken Processing Sector Using Standardised Data Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Kathryn Anne-Marie; van der Roest, Joop; Höskuldsson, Stefán Torfi; Olsen, Petter; Karlsen, Kine Mari

    Research has shown that to improve electronic communication between companies, universal standardised data lists are necessary. In food supply chains in particular there is an increased need to exchange data in the wake of food safety incidents. Food supply chain companies already record numerous measurements, properties and parameters. These records are necessary for legal reasons, labelling, traceability, profiling desirable characteristics, showing compliance and for meeting customer requirements. Universal standards for name and content of each of these data elements would improve information exchange between buyers, sellers, authorities, consumers and other interested parties. A case study, carried out for the chicken sector, attempted to identify the most relevant parameters including which of these were already communicated to external bodies.

  14. International long-term trends and recent patterns in the incidence of leukemias and lymphomas among children and adolescents ages 0-19 years.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Brown, Linda M; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Check, David; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Landgren, Annelie; Devesa, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences in rates for non-Hodgkin and for Hodgkin lymphoma have diminished in some regions. Lymphoid leukemia rates during 2003-2007 in 54 populations varied about 10-fold, with rates highest in US white Hispanics (50.2 per million person-years) and Ecuador (48.3) and lowest in US blacks (20.4), Tunisia (17.7) and Uganda (6.9). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 30-fold, with very high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (146.0 in Malawi and 54.3 in Uganda) and low rates (≤ 10) in some Asian populations (China, Japan, India, the Philippines and Thailand) and U.S. Asian-Pacific Islanders, eastern and northern European populations and Puerto Rico. Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 15-fold, with rates highest in Italy (21.3) and lowest in China (1.7). Myeloid leukemia rates varied only about fivefold, with rates highest in the Philippines and Korea (exceeding 14.0) and lowest in Eastern Europe (5.9 in Serbia and 5.3 in the Czech Republic) and Uganda (2.7). The boy/girl average incidence rate ratios were 2.00 or lower. Age-specific patterns differed among the four hematopoietic malignancies, but were generally consistent within major categories world-wide, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic world-wide approach comparing postulated etiologic factors in low- versus high-risk populations may help clarify the etiology of these childhood malignancies. PMID:26562742

  15. Educating Students About Standardisation Relating to Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Darzentas, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Standardisation education is rarely taught to students in the design disciplines in academic settings, and consequently there is not much evidence about best practices. This paper examines this situation, and elaborates on some of the possible reasons for this situation. Further, it gives an example of how students may be instructed and encouraged to further their interests in standards and the standardization-making process as a means for increasing Universal Design in practice. PMID:27534303

  16. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms. PMID:26751864

  17. Medical practice, procedure manuals and the standardisation of hospital death.

    PubMed

    Hadders, Hans

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines how death is managed in a larger regional hospital within the Norwegian health-care. The central focus of my paper concerns variations in how healthcare personnel enact death and handle the dead patient. Over several decades, modern standardised hospital death has come under critique in the western world. Such critique has resulted in changes in the standardisation of hospital deaths within Norwegian health-care. In the wake of the hospice movement and with greater focus on palliative care, doors have gradually been opened and relatives of the deceased are now more often invited to participate. I explore how the medical practice around death along with the procedure manual of post-mortem care at Trondheim University Hospital has changed. I argue that in the late-modern context, standardisation of hospital death is a multidimensional affair, embedded in a far more comprehensive framework than the depersonalized medico-legal. In the late-modern Norwegian hospital, interdisciplinary negotiation and co-operation has allowed a number of different agendas to co-exist, without any ensuing loss of the medical power holder's authority to broker death. I follow Mol's notion of praxiographic orientation of the actor-network approach while exploring this medical practice. PMID:19228301

  18. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  19. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ‘‘concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication”. We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. Results The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80–104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17–1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09–1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12–1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of

  20. A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age

    PubMed Central

    Moro, G; Arslanoglu, S; Stahl, B; Jelinek, J; Wahn, U; Boehm, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. Aims To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto‐ and long chain fructo‐oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of atopy. Methods Prospective, double‐blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; 259 infants at risk for atopy were enrolled. A total of 102 infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. If bottle feeding was started, the infant was randomly assigned to one of two hydrolysed protein formula groups (0.8 g/100 ml prebiotics or maltodextrine as placebo). All infants were examined for clinical evidence of atopic dermatitis. In a subgroup of 98 infants, faecal flora was analysed. Results Ten infants (9.8%; 95 CI 5.4–17.1%) in the intervention group and 24 infants (23.1%; 95 CI 16.0–32.1%) in the control group developed AD. The severity of the dermatitis was not affected by diet. Prebiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher number of faecal bifidobacteria compared with controls but there was no significant difference in lactobacilli counts. Conclusion Results show for the first time a beneficial effect of prebiotics on the development of atopic dermatitis in a high risk population of infants. Although the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation, it appears likely that oligosaccharides modulate postnatal immune development by altering bowel flora and have a potential role in primary allergy prevention during infancy. PMID:16873437

  1. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of HIV Infection, Trends, and Risk Factors Among Persons Aged 15–64 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimanga, Davies O.; Ogola, Samuel; Umuro, Mamo; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Kimondo, Lucy; Murithi, Patrick; Muttunga, James; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Sharrif, Shahnaaz; De Cock, Kevin M.; (UK), FRCP; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently. Methods From October 2012 to February 2013, we conducted a 2-stage cluster sampling survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years in 9 geographic regions in Kenya. Participants answered questionnaires and provided blood for HIV testing. We estimated HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, described trends in HIV prevalence over the past 5 years, and identified factors associated with HIV infection. This analysis was restricted to persons aged 15–64 years. Results HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35–39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence has declined in Kenya since 2007. With improved access to treatment, HIV prevalence has become more challenging to interpret without data on new infections and mortality. Correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide important information on where to prioritize prevention interventions to reduce transmission of HIV in the broader population. PMID:24445338

  3. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects. PMID:21427880

  4. Incidence of Chromosome Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

  5. Association of Serum Vitamin D with the Risk of Incident Dementia and Subclinical Indices of Brain Aging: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Ioannis; Pase, Matthew P.; Beiser, Alexa; Booth, Sarah L.; Jacques, Paul F.; Rogers, Gail; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Annweiler, Cedric; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer’s disease (AD), MRI markers of brain aging, and neuropsychological function. Methods Framingham Heart Study participants had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured between 1986 and 2001. Vitamin D status was considered both as a continuous variable and dichotomized as deficient (<10 ng/mL), or at the cohort-specific 20th and 80th percentiles. Vitamin D was related to the 9-year risk of incident dementia (n= 1663), multiple neuropsychological tests (n= 1291) and MRI markers of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and silent cerebral infarcts (n = 1139). Results In adjusted models, participants with vitamin D deficiency (n = 104, 8% of the cognitive sample) displayed poorer performance on Trail Making B-A (β = −0.03 to −0.05 ±0.02) and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (β = −0.09 to −0.12 ±0.05), indicating poorer executive function, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. These associations remained when vitamin D was examined as a continuous variable or dichotomized at the cohort specific 20th percentile. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with lower hippocampal volumes (β = −0.01 ±0.01) but not total brain volume, white matter hyperintensities, or silent brain infarcts. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and incident all-cause dementia or clinically characterized AD. Conclusions In this large community-based sample, low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and poorer neuropsychological function. PMID:26890771

  6. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy’s Classes– A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy’s Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  7. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Atkinson, Hal H.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yaffe, Kristine; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Rubin, Susan M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Houston, Denise K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score ≥10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23–2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥30ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25326643

  8. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Lucy J.; Hannaford, Jamie; Chiverton, Andrew; Svensson, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M & EW) systems are a crucial component of drought preparedness. M & EW systems typically make use of drought indicators such as the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), but such indicators are not widely used in the UK. More generally, such tools have not been well developed for hydrological (i.e. streamflow) drought. To fill these research gaps, this paper characterises meteorological and hydrological droughts, and the propagation from one to the other, using the SPI and the related Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI), with the objective of improving understanding of the drought hazard in the UK. SPI and SSI time series were calculated for 121 near-natural catchments in the UK for accumulation periods of 1-24 months. From these time series, drought events were identified and for each event, the duration and severity were calculated. The relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought was examined by cross-correlating the 1-month SSI with various SPI accumulation periods. Finally, the influence of climate and catchment properties on the hydrological drought characteristics and propagation was investigated. Results showed that at short accumulation periods meteorological drought characteristics showed little spatial variability, whilst hydrological drought characteristics showed fewer but longer and more severe droughts in the south and east than in the north and west of the UK. Propagation characteristics showed a similar spatial pattern with catchments underlain by productive aquifers, mostly in the south and east, having longer SPI accumulation periods strongly correlated with the 1-month SSI. For catchments in the north and west of the UK, which typically have little catchment storage, standard-period average annual rainfall was strongly correlated with hydrological drought and propagation characteristics. However, in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage (such as base flow

  9. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, L. J.; Hannaford, J.; Chiverton, A.; Svensson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW) systems are a crucial component of drought preparedness. M&EW systems typically make use of drought indicators such as the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), but such indicators are not widely used in the UK. More generally, such tools have not been well developed for hydrological (i.e. streamflow) drought. To fill these research gaps, this paper characterises meteorological and hydrological droughts, and the propagation from one to the other using the SPI and the related Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI), with the objective of improving understanding of the drought hazard in the UK. SPI and SSI time series were calculated for 121 near-natural catchments in the UK for accumulation periods of 1-24 months. From these time series, drought events were identified and for each event, the duration and severity was calculated. The relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought was examined by cross-correlating the one month SSI with various SPI accumulation periods. Finally, the influence of climate and catchment properties on the drought characteristics and propagation were investigated. Results showed that at short accumulation periods meteorological drought characteristics showed little spatial variability, whilst hydrological drought characteristics showed fewer but longer and more severe droughts in the south and east than in the north and west of the UK. Propagation characteristics showed a similar spatial pattern with catchments underlain by productive aquifers, mostly in the south and east, having longer SPI accumulation periods strongly correlated with the one-month SSI. For catchments in the north and west of the UK, which typically have little catchment storage, standard-period annual average rainfall was strongly correlated to drought and propagation characteristics. However, in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage, such as base flow index, percentage of highly productive

  10. Student Standardised Testing: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning student standardised testing in which there are no-stakes for students ("standardised testing") through a literature review and a review of the trends in standardised testing in OECD countries. Unlike standardised tests in which there are high-stakes for students, no-stakes implies that…

  11. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  12. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  13. Six direct methods for standardisation of 152Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Sibbens, G.; Denecke, B.; Reher, D. F. G.

    2003-08-01

    In the course of the past 40 years, IRMM has developed a large number of direct methods for the accurate standardisation of radionuclide solutions, all providing traceability to the SI unit. Six different measurement methods were employed to standardise a 152Eu solution in the frame of a BIPM key comparison: 4πβ(PPC)-γ-coincidence counting, using a modified version of the 'Funck' pressurised proportional counter (Ar-CH 4) for counting the electrons and low-energy photons, and a 15×15 cm NaI(Tl) well crystal for counting the γ-rays; 4πβ(PPC)-γ-sum counting using the same equipment as above; 4πβ-γ-coincidence counting, using a 2D shaped proportional counter (Kr-CH 4) sandwiched between two 7.5×7.5 cm 2 NaI(Tl) crystals; 4πγ counting, using a 15×15 cm 2 NaI(Tl) well crystal; 4πCsI(Tl) counting; Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) using the CIEMAT/NIST method. The methods will be described and compared, with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. In the case of 152Eu, we were able to achieve a standard deviation of the weighted mean of 0.14% among all methods, or 0.11% when excluding the LSC result.

  14. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases. PMID:26433299

  15. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

  16. Therapeutic and diagnostic outcomes of a standardised, comprehensive care pathway for patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Meijs, Jessica; Schouffoer, Anne A; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Kroft, Lucia J M; Stijnen, Theo; Ninaber, Maarten K; Huizinga, Tom W J; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; de Vries-Bouwstra, Jeska K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the outcomes, including number of medical interventions and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment of a standardised, comprehensive, diagnostic care pathway for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patient characteristics associated with need for medical interventions and with need for immunosuppressive treatment were determined. Methods Data were routinely gathered in connection with a 2-day care pathway combining multidisciplinary care and complete diagnostic work-up of organ involvement in SSc. The number of patients in whom the pathway resulted in medical interventions, and/or initiation of immunosuppressives was recorded. Patient characteristics and diagnostic tests results were compared between patients with and without medical interventions, and patients with and without initiation of immunosuppressives by means of multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results During a period of 44 months, 226 patients with SSc were referred to the care pathway. They included 186 (82%) women with mean age of 54 (SD 14.5) years, and median disease duration of 4 years (range 1–11); 73 (32%) of them had diffuse cutaneous SSc. Medical interventions were initiated in 191 (85%) patients, including initiation of immunosuppressive treatment in n=49 (22%). Presence of telangiectasias and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate were associated with any medical intervention. Of commonly available variables, lower age, higher skin score and absence of anticentromere antibody were associated with initiation of immunosuppressives. Conclusions A standardised comprehensive 2-day care pathway for patients with SSc resulted in additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in 85% of the patients, regardless of SSc subtype and disease duration. In 22% of the patients, immunosuppressive treatment was initiated. PMID:27042333

  17. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  18. Use and abuse of statistics in tobacco industry-funded research on standardised packaging.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Anthony A; Diethelm, Pascal; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Watt, Hilary C; McKee, Martin

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised packaging should have an immediate large impact on smoking prevalence. PMID:25650186

  19. Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident?

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, M.; Hjalmarsson, P.; Hardell, L.; Carlsson, G.; Axelson, O.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden? Design: A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988–1996. Setting: In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: <3 (reference), 3–29, 30–39, 40–59, 60–79, and 80–120 kiloBecquerel/m2. Participants: All people 0–60 years living in these parishes in 1986 to 1987 were identified and enrolled in a cohort of 1 143 182 persons. In the follow up 22 409 incident cancer cases were retrieved in 1988–1996. A further analysis focused on the secular trend. Main results: Taking age and population density as confounding factors, and lung cancer incidence in 1988–1996 and total cancer incidence in 1986–1987 by municipality as proxy confounders for smoking and time trends, respectively, the adjusted relative risks for the deposition categories were 1.00 (reference <3 kiloBecquerel/m2), 1.05, 1.03, 1.08, 1.10, and 1.21. The excess relative risk was 0.11 per 100 kiloBecquerel/m2 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.20). Considering the secular trend, directly age standardised cancer incidence rate differences per 100 000 person years between 1988 to 1996 and the reference period 1986–1987, were 30.3 (indicating a time trend in the reference category), 36.8, 42.0, 45.8, 50.1, and 56.4. No clear excess occurred for leukaemia or thyroid cancer. Conclusions: Unless attributable to chance or remaining uncontrolled confounding, a slight exposure related increase in total cancer incidence has occurred in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:15547062

  20. Spatial analysis of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region in the period 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Lorenzo; Busolin, Anna; Barbone, Fabio; Serraino, Diego; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Biggeri, Annibale; Catelan, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Incidence distribution of cutaneous melanoma depends on phenotypic characteristics of population and geographic location. In Italy, in the period 1999-2003 Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region had the second highest incidence rates for males and the third for females. We analysed melanoma and lip cancer incidence data of the FVG cancer registry for the period 1995-2005. We used Bayesian hierarchical spatial models to describe the spatial pattern by gender. We decomposed the geographical distribution of the risk in two parts: a component linked to chronic exposure and a component related to intermittent exposure. In order to model the chronic component we considered the geographical distribution of incidence cases of lip cancer, for which chronic occupational solar radiation exposure is a documented risk factor. We also analysed the distribution by site and we calculated standardised rates for body surface area. This study documents a significant gradient in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma in FVG. Highstandardisedincidence rates are present in the area of Trieste and in the coastal area. The descriptive analysis by age group and by site, showed risks associated with intermittent exposures in both genders. For the coastal area the risk is especially high for sites traditionally linked to high cumulative exposures (face and neck), especially among men. The results suggest diagnostic preventive interventions in the populations living in the area of Trieste, given the high rates observed in the young age groups. PMID:27087039

  1. Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality by HIV status in a Georgia, USA, prisoner cohort during the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Zlotorzynska, Maria; Spaulding, Anne C; Messina, Lauren C; Coker, Daniella; Ward, Kevin; Easley, Kirk; Baillargeon, Jacques; Mink, Pamela J; Simard, Edgar P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer mortality and morbidity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because NADCs are also associated with many social and behavioural risk factors that underlie HIV, determining the extent to which each of these factors contributes to NADC risk is difficult. We examined cancer incidence and mortality among persons with a history of incarceration, because distributions of other cancer risk factors are likely similar between prisoners living with HIV and non-infected prisoners. Design Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Participants Cohort of 22 422 persons incarcerated in Georgia, USA, prisons on 30 June 1991, and still alive in 1998. Outcome measures Cancer incidence and mortality were assessed between 1998 and 2009, using cancer and death registry data matched to prison administrative records. Age, race and sex-adjusted standardised mortality and incidence ratios, relative to the general population, were calculated for AIDS-defining cancers, viral-associated NADCs and non-infection-associated NADCs, stratified by HIV status. Results There were no significant differences in cancer mortality relative to the general population in the cohort, regardless of HIV status. In contrast, cancer incidence was elevated among the PLWH. Furthermore, incidence of viral-associated NADCs was significantly higher among PLWH versus those without HIV infection (standardised incidence ratio=6.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.7, p<0.001). Conclusions Among PLWH with a history of incarceration, cancer incidence was elevated relative to the general population, likely related to increased prevalence of oncogenic viral co-infections. Cancer prevention and screening programmes within prisons may help to reduce the cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:27067888

  2. Standardisation and half-life measurements of (111)In.

    PubMed

    Dziel, Tomasz; Listkowska, Anna; Tymiński, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The standardisation of (111)In by 4π(LS)-γ coincidence and anticoincidence counting is presented. Absolute measurements were performed for samples with different concentrations of carrier solution and for different window settings in the gamma channel. The radioactive concentration of the master solution determined on the same reference date was consistent for all measurements performed. The evaluated typical uncertainty was 0.43%. The half-life of (111)In was determined using a time series of measurements performed with an ionisation chamber. A least squares fit of the measured data resulted in a half-life of 2.8067 (34) days consistent with Decay Data Evaluation Project recommended value (0.064% higher than the DDEP value). PMID:26651174

  3. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts.

    PubMed

    Tinker, M

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of coloured indicator lights and coloured print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm colour scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the colour blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing set-ups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered. PMID:20858682

  4. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of colored indicator lights and colored print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm color scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the color blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing setups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  5. Incidence of Community-Acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and Pneumonia among Older Adults in the United Kingdom: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Elizabeth R. C.; Quint, Jennifer K.; Smeeth, Liam; Daniel, Rhian M.; Thomas, Sara L.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and pneumonia (CAP) are common causes of morbidity and mortality among those aged ≥65 years; a growing population in many countries. Detailed incidence estimates for these infections among older adults in the United Kingdom (UK) are lacking. We used electronic general practice records from the Clinical Practice Research Data link, linked to Hospital Episode Statistics inpatient data, to estimate incidence of community-acquired LRTI and CAP among UK older adults between April 1997-March 2011, by age, sex, region and deprivation quintile. Levels of antibiotic prescribing were also assessed. LRTI incidence increased with fluctuations over time, was higher in men than women aged ≥70 and increased with age from 92.21 episodes/1000 person-years (65-69 years) to 187.91/1000 (85-89 years). CAP incidence increased more markedly with age, from 2.81 to 21.81 episodes/1000 person-years respectively, and was higher among men. For both infection groups, increases over time were attenuated after age-standardisation, indicating that these rises were largely due to population aging. Rates among those in the most deprived quintile were around 70% higher than the least deprived and were generally higher in the North of England. GP antibiotic prescribing rates were high for LRTI but lower for CAP (mostly due to immediate hospitalisation). This is the first study to provide long-term detailed incidence estimates of community-acquired LRTI and CAP in UK older individuals, taking person-time at risk into account. The summary incidence commonly presented for the ≥65 age group considerably underestimates LRTI/CAP rates, particularly among older individuals within this group. Our methodology and findings are likely to be highly relevant to health planners and researchers in other countries with aging populations. PMID:24040394

  6. Malignancy incidence in 5294 patients with juvenile arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi Niaki, Omid; Clarke, Ann E; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Yeung, Rae; Hayward, Kristen; Oen, Kiem; Duffy, Ciarán M; Rosenberg, Alan; O'Neil, Kathleen M; von Scheven, Emily; Schanberg, Laura; Labrecque, Jeremy; Tse, Shirley M L; Hasija, Rachana; Lee, Jennifer L F; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine cancer incidence in a large clinical juvenile-onset arthritis population. Methods We combined data from 6 existing North American juvenile-onset arthritis cohorts. Patients with juvenile-onset arthritis were linked to regional cancer registries to detect incident cancers after cohort entry, defined as first date seen in the paediatric rheumatology clinic. The expected number of malignancies was obtained by multiplying the person-years observed (defined from cohort entry to end of follow-up) by the geographically matched age, sex and calendar year-specific cancer rates. The standardised incidence ratios (SIR; ratio of cancers observed to expected) were generated, with 95% CIs. Results The 6 juvenile arthritis registries provided a total of 5294 patients. The mean age at cohort entry was 8.9 (SD 5.0) years and 68% of participants were female. The mean duration of follow-up was 6.8 years with a total of 36 063 person-years spanning 1978–2012. During follow-up, 9 invasive cancers occurred, compared with 10.9 expected (SIR 0.82, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.5). 3 of these were haematological (Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia). 6 of the patients with cancer were exposed to disease-modifying drugs; 5 of these had also been exposed to biological agents. Conclusions We did not clearly demonstrate an increase in overall malignancy risk in patients with juvenile-onset arthritis followed for an average of almost 7 years. 3 of the 9 observed cancers were haematological. 5 of the cancers arose in children exposed to biological agents. Longer follow-up of this population is warranted, with further study of drug effects. PMID:27175293

  7. Population-based incidences of non-fatal injuries - results of the German-wide telephone survey 2004

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To plan preventive measures against accident-related injuries, it is important to have detailed epidemiological data on this topic. The aim of this report was to present population-based incidence estimates of injuries due to non-fatal accidents in relation to age, gender and educational level. Methods We performed a cross-sectional telephone survey from 2003 to 2004 of the resident adult population of Germany, which included 7,341 subjects (response rate: 32.6 to 39.4%). The interview included 13 questions about injuries caused by accidents that happened in the 12 months preceding the interview. We estimated one-year cumulative incidences of injuries by gender, age and educational level. Results Overall, 10.3% of the subjects reported an unintentional injury requiring medical treatment in the previous 12 months. The age-standardised incidence of injuries was higher among men than women (men: 11.3%, women: 8.9%). Generally, accidents at home were the most frequently reported (27.4%). Men and women aged 18 to 29 years suffered accident-related injuries (and also repeated injuries) the most often during the preceding 12 months. Although the overall incidence of injuries caused by accidents did not differ by educational level, the incidences of accidents at different places differed by educational level. The incidence of work-related injuries was higher among people with a low educational level. Conclusions Our age- and gender-specific results provide detailed insight into specific patterns of accident-related injuries in Germany. Young men are especially at high risk of injuries. This information is valuable because a nationwide comprehensive recording of injuries caused by accidents does not exist. The data highlight the target groups for injury prevention measures. PMID:23607782

  8. Fallout from Chernobyl and incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland, 1976-92.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, A.; Hakama, M.; Arvela, H.; Hakulinen, T.; Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Söderman, B.; Rytömaa, T.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effects of fallout from Chernobyl on incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland. DESIGN--Nationwide cohort study. External exposure measured for 455 Finnish municipalities with instruments driven 19,000 km throughout the country. Values specific to municipalities corrected for shielding due to houses and fallout from A bomb testing. Internal exposure estimated from whole body measurements on a random sample of 81 children. Mean effective dose for two years after incident calculated from these measurements. Data on childhood leukaemia obtained from Finnish cancer registry and verified through hospitals treating childhood cancers. SETTING--Finland, one of the countries most heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl accident; the population was divided into fifths by exposure. SUBJECTS--Children aged 0-14 years in 1976-92. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised incidence ratio of childhood leukaemia and relative excess risk of childhood leukaemia per mSv. From incidence data of Finnish cancer registry for 1976-85, expected numbers specific to sex and age group (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years) were calculated for each municipality for three periods (1976-85, 1986-8, and 1989-92) and pooled as exposure fifths. Dose response was estimated as regression slope of standardised incidence ratios on mean doses for fifths for each period. RESULTS--Population weighted mean effective doses for first two years after the accident were 410 microSv for the whole country and 970 microSv for the population fifth with the highest dose. In all Finland the incidence of childhood leukaemia did not increase 1976-92. The relative excess risk 1989-92 was not significantly different from zero (7% per mSv; 95% confidence interval -27% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS--An important increase in childhood leukaemia can be excluded. Any effect is smaller than eight extra cases per million children per year in Finland. The results are consistent with the magnitude of effect expected. PMID:8044092

  9. Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in UK Petroleum Distribution and Oil Refinery Workers, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, Tom; Mohammed, Nuredin

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) experienced by cohorts of 16,467 petroleum distribution workers and 28,554 oil refinery workers has been investigated. Study subjects were all those male employees first employed at one of 476 UK petroleum distribution centres or eight UK oil refineries in the period 1946–1974; all subjects had a minimum of twelve months employment with some employment after 1st January, 1951. Observed numbers (Obs) of MDS cases were compared with expectations based on national incidence rates for the period 1995–2011. The overall standardised registration ratio (SRR) was 73 (Obs = 17) in petroleum distribution workers for the age-range 15–84 years, and 77 (Obs = 21) for the age-range 15–99 years. The overall SRR was 81 (Obs = 29) in oil refinery workers for the age-range 15–84 years, and 83 (Obs = 36) for the age-range 15–99 years. More detailed analyses were carried out in terms of year of registration, period from hire, decade of hire, and duration of employment. The overall SRR findings did not provide clear evidence for the presence of an occupational cancer hazard, and provide no support for the hypothesis that low-level benzene exposure has an important effect on the risks of MDS. PMID:27164123

  10. Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in UK Petroleum Distribution and Oil Refinery Workers, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, Tom; Mohammed, Nuredin

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) experienced by cohorts of 16,467 petroleum distribution workers and 28,554 oil refinery workers has been investigated. Study subjects were all those male employees first employed at one of 476 UK petroleum distribution centres or eight UK oil refineries in the period 1946-1974; all subjects had a minimum of twelve months employment with some employment after 1st January, 1951. Observed numbers (Obs) of MDS cases were compared with expectations based on national incidence rates for the period 1995-2011. The overall standardised registration ratio (SRR) was 73 (Obs = 17) in petroleum distribution workers for the age-range 15-84 years, and 77 (Obs = 21) for the age-range 15-99 years. The overall SRR was 81 (Obs = 29) in oil refinery workers for the age-range 15-84 years, and 83 (Obs = 36) for the age-range 15-99 years. More detailed analyses were carried out in terms of year of registration, period from hire, decade of hire, and duration of employment. The overall SRR findings did not provide clear evidence for the presence of an occupational cancer hazard, and provide no support for the hypothesis that low-level benzene exposure has an important effect on the risks of MDS. PMID:27164123

  11. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  12. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Statin Medication Use and Incident Mobility Limitation in Community Older Adults. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Shorr, Ronald I; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Hanlon, Joseph T

    2012-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statin medications have been proposed as potential agents to prevent or delay physical disability; yet limited research has evaluated whether such use in older community dwelling adults is associated with a lower risk of incident mobility limitation. Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Participants 3055 participants who were well functioning at baseline (e.g., no mobility limitations). Measurements Summated standardized daily doses (low, medium and high) and duration of ACE inhibitor and statin use was computed. Mobility limitation (two consecutive self-reports of having any difficulty walking 1/4 mile or climbing 10 steps without resting) was assessed every 6 months after baseline. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted adjusting for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Results At baseline, ACE inhibitors and statins were used by 15.2% and 12.9%, respectively and both increased to over 25% by year 6. Over 6.5 years of follow-up, 49.8% had developed mobility limitation. In separate multivariable models, neither ACE inhibitor (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82–1.09) nor statin use (multivariate HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.87–1.17) was associated with a lower risk for mobility limitation. Similar findings were seen in analyses examining dose- and duration-response relationships and sensitivity analyses restricted to those with hypertension. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACE inhibitors and statins widely prescribed to treat hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively do not lower risk of mobility limitation, an important life quality indicator. PMID:22092102

  13. Standardisation of the USGS Volcano Alert Level System (VALS): analysis and ramifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnley, C. J.; McGuire, W. J.; Davies, G.; Twigg, J.

    2012-11-01

    The standardisation of volcano early warning systems (VEWS) and volcano alert level systems (VALS) is becoming increasingly common at both the national and international level, most notably following UN endorsement of the development of globally comprehensive early warning systems. Yet, the impact on its effectiveness, of standardising an early warning system (EWS), in particular for volcanic hazards, remains largely unknown and little studied. This paper examines this and related issues through evaluation of the emergence and implementation, in 2006, of a standardised United States Geological Survey (USGS) VALS. Under this upper-management directive, all locally developed alert level systems or practices at individual volcano observatories were replaced with a common standard. Research conducted at five USGS-managed volcano observatories in Alaska, Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley and Yellowstone explores the benefits and limitations this standardisation has brought to each observatory. The study concludes (1) that the process of standardisation was predominantly triggered and shaped by social, political, and economic factors, rather than in response to scientific needs specific to each volcanic region; and (2) that standardisation is difficult to implement for three main reasons: first, the diversity and uncertain nature of volcanic hazards at different temporal and spatial scales require specific VEWS to be developed to address this and to accommodate associated stakeholder needs. Second, the plural social contexts within which each VALS is embedded present challenges in relation to its applicability and responsiveness to local knowledge and context. Third, the contingencies of local institutional dynamics may hamper the ability of a standardised VALS to effectively communicate a warning. Notwithstanding these caveats, the concept of VALS standardisation clearly has continuing support. As a consequence, rather than advocating further commonality of a standardised

  14. Probability density functions for use when calculating standardised drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Time series of drought indices like the standardised precipitation index (SPI) and standardised flow index (SFI) require a statistical probability density function to be fitted to the observed (generally monthly) precipitation and river flow data. Once fitted, the quantiles are transformed to a Normal distribution with mean = 0 and standard deviation = 1. These transformed data are the SPI/SFI, which are widely used in drought studies, including for drought monitoring and early warning applications. Different distributions were fitted to rainfall and river flow data accumulated over 1, 3, 6 and 12 months for 121 catchments in the United Kingdom. These catchments represent a range of catchment characteristics in a mid-latitude climate. Both rainfall and river flow data have a lower bound at 0, as rains and flows cannot be negative. Their empirical distributions also tend to have positive skewness, and therefore the Gamma distribution has often been a natural and suitable choice for describing the data statistically. However, after transformation of the data to Normal distributions to obtain the SPIs and SFIs for the 121 catchments, the distributions are rejected in 11% and 19% of cases, respectively, by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Three-parameter distributions traditionally used in hydrological applications, such as the Pearson type 3 for rainfall and the Generalised Logistic and Generalised Extreme Value distributions for river flow, tend to make the transformed data fit better, with rejection rates of 5% or less. However, none of these three-parameter distributions have a lower bound at zero. This means that the lower tail of the fitted distribution may potentially go below zero, which would result in a lower limit to the calculated SPI and SFI values (as observations can never reach into this lower tail of the theoretical distribution). The Tweedie distribution can overcome the problems found when using either the Gamma or the above three-parameter distributions. The

  15. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Methods Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. Results The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26–39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. Conclusion This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010. PMID:25592123

  16. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  17. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Simple exact analysis of the standardised mortality ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Liddell, F D

    1984-01-01

    The standardised mortality ratio is the ratio of deaths observed, D, to those expected, E, on the basis of the mortality rates of some reference population. On the usual assumptions--that D was generated by a Poisson process and that E is based on such large numbers that it can be taken as without error--the long established, but apparently little known, link between the Poisson and chi 2 distributions provides both an exact test of significance and expressions for obtaining exact (1-alpha) confidence limits on the SMR. When a table of the chi 2 distribution gives values for 1-1/2 alpha and 1/2 alpha with the required degrees of freedom, the procedures are not only precise but very simple. When the required values of chi 2 are not tabulated, only slightly less simple procedures are shown to be highly reliable for D greater than 5; they are more reliable for all D and alpha than even the best of three approximate methods. For small D, all approximations can be seriously unreliable. The exact procedures are therefore recommended for use wherever the basic assumptions (Poisson D and fixed E) apply. PMID:6707569

  19. Integrated interpretation of overlapping AEM datasets achieved through standardisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Camilla C.; Munday, Tim; Heinson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Numerous airborne electromagnetic surveys have been acquired in Australia using a variety of systems. It is not uncommon to find two or more surveys covering the same ground, but acquired using different systems and at different times. Being able to combine overlapping datasets and get a spatially coherent resistivity-depth image of the ground can assist geological interpretation, particularly when more subtle geophysical responses are important. Combining resistivity-depth models obtained from the inversion of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data can be challenging, given differences in system configuration, geometry, flying height and preservation or monitoring of system acquisition parameters such as waveform. In this study, we define and apply an approach to overlapping AEM surveys, acquired by fixed wing and helicopter time domain electromagnetic (EM) systems flown in the vicinity of the Goulds Dam uranium deposit in the Frome Embayment, South Australia, with the aim of mapping the basement geometry and the extent of the Billeroo palaeovalley. Ground EM soundings were used to standardise the AEM data, although results indicated that only data from the REPTEM system needed to be corrected to bring the two surveys into agreement and to achieve coherent spatial resistivity-depth intervals.

  20. Incidence of primary liver cancer and aetiological aspects: a study of a defined population from a low-endemicity area.

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, J.; Hansson, G.; Wallerstedt, S.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of primary liver cancer (PLC) varies throughout the world. It has been attributed to variations in incidence of the predominant histological type, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The incidence of PLC types other than HCC such as cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) is far less known, especially in low-incidence areas. The aetiology of HCC and other PLC types is obscure, with the exception of the association between HCC and cirrhosis as well as chronic viral hepatitis. The present retrospective incidence and aetiology study concerns a well-defined population from a period with a high autopsy frequency. Preserved biopsy specimens were re-evaluated histopathologically and patient records were studied. Among 590 histologically verified cases of PLC, HCC constituted 90%, CCC 8% and a mixed form of these types 1%. At the end of the study period the annual age-standardised incidence rate of HCC was 3.6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Other PLC types were hepatoblastoma (n = 3), fibrolamellar carcinoma (n = 2), angiosarcoma (n = 1) and infantile haemangioendothelioma (n = 1), each constituting less than 1% of the PLC cases. Comparing HCC with CCC we found that cirrhosis (70%) and alcoholism (21%) was significantly more frequent in HCC, and cholelithiasis was significantly more common (60%) in patients with CCC. In the majority of the PLC cases with liver cirrhosis this disorder was unknown before diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:8554975

  1. Young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging: a comparison of EU Tobacco Products Directive & Ireland's Standardisation of Tobacco Act

    PubMed Central

    Babineau, Kate; Clancy, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging according to two current pieces of legislation: The EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) and Ireland's Public Health (Standardisation of Tobacco Products) Act. Design Within-subject experimental cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of secondary school students. School-based pen and paper survey. Setting 27 secondary schools across Ireland, randomly stratified for size, geographic location, gender, religious affiliation and school-level socioeconomic status. Data were collected between March and May 2014. Participants 1378 fifth year secondary school students aged 16–17 in Ireland. Main outcome measures Young people's perceptions of attractiveness, health risk and smoker characteristics of packs according to EU and Irish branding and packaging guidelines. Results Packs with more branding elements were thought to be healthier than standardised packs for Silk Cut (χ2=158.58, p<0.001), Marlboro (χ2=113.65, p<0.001), and Benson and Hedges (χ2=137.95, p<0.001) brands. Generalized estimating equation binary regressions found that gender was a significant predictor of pack attractiveness for Silk Cut, with females being more likely to find the EU packs attractive (β=−0.45, p=0.007). Gender was a significant predictor for females with regards to the perceived popularity of the Silk Cut brand (β=−0.37, p=0.03). Conclusions The removal of brand identifiers, including colour, font and embossing, reduces the perceived appeal of cigarette packs for young people across all three tested brands. Packs standardised according to Irish legislation are perceived as less attractive, less healthy and smoked by less popular people than packs which conform to the EU TPD 2014 guidelines. PMID:26048206

  2. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Arends, Mark J.; Brownstein, David G.; Luo Feijun; Devenney, Paul S.; Rose, Lorraine; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; Berry, Rachel L.; Harrison, David J.; Hooper, Martin L.; Patek, Charles E. . E-mail: Charles.Patek@ed.ac.uk

    2006-01-01

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras {sup -/-} (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} and K-ras {sup -/-} ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras {sup -/-} cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras {sup -/-} cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice.

  3. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing: is standardisation possible?

    PubMed

    Retamar, Pilar; Martín, M Luisa; Molina, José; del Arco, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    The quality of antimicrobial prescribing refers to the optimal way to use antibiotics in regard to their benefits, safety (e.g., resistance generation and toxicity) and cost. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing in a way that focuses not only on reducing antimicrobial consumption but also on using them in a more optimal way allows us to understand patterns of use and to identify targets for intervention. The lack of standardisation is the primary problem to be addressed when planning an evaluation of antimicrobial prescribing. There is little information specifically describing an evaluation methodology. Information related to prescription evaluation can be obtained from the guidelines of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) and from local and international experience. The criteria used to evaluate the quality of prescription should include the indication for antimicrobial therapy, the timeliness of initiation, the correct antibiotic choice (according to local guidelines), the dosing, the duration, the route of administration and the time at which to switch to oral administration. A locally developed guideline on antimicrobial therapy should preferably be the gold standard by which to evaluate the appropriatenes of prescriptions. Various approaches used to carry out the evaluations have been described in the literature. Repeated point-prevalence surveys (PPS) have been proven to be effective in identifying targets for quality improvement. Continuous prospective monitoring allows the identification of more precise intervention points at different times during prescription. The design of the study chosen to perform the evaluation should be adapted according to the resources available in each centre. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing should be the first step to designing ASPs, as well as to evaluating their impact and the changes in prescribing trends over time. PMID:24129286

  4. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Venter, Carina; Meyer, Rosan; deJong, Nicolette W; Fox, Adam T; Groetch, Marion; Oude Elberink, J N; Sprikkelman, Aline; Diamandi, Louiza; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J

    2015-01-01

    The disparity between reported and diagnosed food allergy makes robust diagnosis imperative. The allergy-focussed history is an important starting point, but published literature on its efficacy is sparse. Using a structured approach to connect symptoms, suspected foods and dietary intake, a multi-disciplinary task force of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology developed paediatric and adult diet history tools. Both tools are divided into stages using traffic light labelling (red, amber and green). The red stage requires the practitioner to gather relevant information on symptoms, atopic history, food triggers, foods eaten and nutritional issues. The amber stage facilitates interpretation of the responses to the red-stage questions, thus enabling the practitioner to prepare to move forward. The final green stage provides a summary template and test algorithm to support continuation down the diagnostic pathway. These tools will provide a standardised, practical approach to support food allergy diagnosis, ensuring that all relevant information is captured and interpreted in a robust manner. Future work is required to validate their use in diverse age groups, disease entities and in different countries, in order to account for differences in health care systems, food availability and dietary norms. PMID:25741437

  5. Cancer incidence in migrants to New South Wales from England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    McCredie, M.; Coates, M. S.; Ford, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer incidence in migrants to New South Wales (NSW) from individual countries within the British Isles has been compared with that in the Australian-born population using data from the NSW Central Cancer Registry for the period 1972-84. Indirectly age-standardised incidence ratios (SIR) showed that, for cancer at all sites combined, Scottish migrants had a significantly higher, and English migrants a lower, incidence than the native-born Australians. Melanoma of skin was less common in migrants from all four countries while lung cancer was more common. In all except the Irish migrants, stomach cancer was more frequent than in the Australian-born. Raised SIRs for bladder cancer were found in men from all the countries and for breast cancer in all except the Irish women but only in the English migrants were these ratios significant. English migrants differed from those from Wales, Scotland and Ireland in that, compared with the Australian-born, they had significantly lower SIRs for cancer of the colon (both sexes), head and neck, larynx and prostate (men), gallbladder and kidney (women), and a higher SIR for ovarian cancer. Bone cancer was relatively more common in men born in Wales. 'Other genital' cancers (penis and scrotum; vulva and vagina) tended to be more frequent in migrants from each country than in the Australian-born. PMID:2257232

  6. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  7. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of 92 Hospitalized Adults with Down's Syndrome: Incidence of Cognitive Decline, Its Relationship to Age and Neuropathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margallo-Lana, M. L.; Moore, P. B.; Kay, D. W. K.; Perry, R. H.; Reid, B. E.; Berney, T. P.; Tyrer, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The clinical and neuropathological features associated with dementia in Down's syndrome (DS) are not well established. Aims: To examine clinico-pathological correlations and the incidence of cognitive decline in a cohort of adults with DS. Method: A total of 92 hospitalized persons with DS were followed up from 1985 to December 2000.…

  8. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should be used, or TLCO should be corrected to a standard inspired oxygen concentration. The range of gas mixtures used in practice and the implications for cost and accuracy have been investigated. METHODS--A questionnaire was sent to 185 respiratory units in the UK requesting information on (1) the method used to estimate TLCO, (2) the manufacturer of the equipment, (3) the mixture used, (4) whether "medical quality" gas was ordered, and (5) the level of satisfaction with supplier service. RESULTS--Replies were received from 106 units. Most used the single breath breath holding method for which 17 different test mixtures were ordered. One unit also used the single breath exhalation method. Inspired oxygen ranged from 17.94% to 25%, giving a wide variation in alveolar oxygen and hence TLCO. Forty seven units ordered a specific inspired oxygen, the rest ordering "air" as balance. The cost per litre of gas varied greatly, with the mixture 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (17.9% oxygen) and 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (18.8% oxygen) being cheapest to produce. Ordering a specific inspired oxygen concentration increased the cost. Large cylinders of gas were cheaper for the same mixture. The mixture for the exhalation method was the most expensive. Sixty seven units ordered "medical quality" gas and six assumed this was supplied. Twenty nine (27%) were dissatisfied with their supplier due to (1) poor service, (2) long delivery times, (3) costs, or (4

  9. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Pozio, E; Boes, J; Boireau, P; Boué, F; Claes, M; Cook, A J C; Dorny, P; Enemark, H L; van der Giessen, J; Hunt, K R; Howell, M; Kirjusina, M; Nöckler, K; Rossi, P; Smith, G C; Snow, L; Taylor, M A; Theodoropoulos, G; Vallée, I; Viera-Pinto, M M; Zimmer, I A

    2011-05-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case, if present, must be high (>95 or >99%) to ensure that there is a low or negligible risk of transmission to humans through the food chain. In MS where the probability of a positive pig is demonstrated to be negligible, testing of fattening pigs from a sub-population consisting of pigs from controlled housing can be considered unnecessary. Furthermore, reduced testing of finishers from the sub-population consisting of pigs from non-controlled housing might even be

  10. The Faroese IBD Study: Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Across 54 Years of Population-based Data

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Turid; Nielsen, Kári R.; Munkholm, Pia; Burisch, Johan; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs] include Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and IBD unclassified [IBDU]. In 2010 and 2011, the ECCO-EpiCom study found the worldwide highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the Faroe Islands: 83 per 100 000 [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. Methods: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed between July 1960 and July 2014. Patients of all ages were included and diagnoses were defined according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria. Results: A total of 664 incident IBD patients were diagnosed: 113 with CD, 417 with UC, and 134 with IBDU. Of these, 51 [8%] were diagnosed with paediatric-onset IBD. Between 1960 and 1979, a total of 55 persons were diagnosed; 105 in 1980–89; 166 in 1990–99; 180 in 2000–09; and 158 in 2010–14. This represented an increase in the age-standardised IBD incidence rate from 7, 25, 40, and 42 to 74 per 100 000 [ESP]. For CD, the increase was from 1 to 10, for UC from 4 to 44, and for IBDU from 2 to 21 per 100 000 [ESP]. Conclusions: The high IBD incidence was found to be a relatively new phenomenon. The observed increase is unlikely to be an artefact resulting from, for instance, better registration. Our study indicated a real and increasing disease burden resulting from changing—so far unidentified—exposures. PMID:26933031

  11. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Graber, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. PMID:23771902

  12. A qualitative analysis of New Zealand retailers’ responses to standardised packaging legislation and tobacco industry opposition

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John; Hoek, Janet; Darroch, Ella; Wood, Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many of the approximately 8000 New Zealand retailers selling tobacco are small stores that tobacco companies have represented as victims of policy measures designed to reduce smoking. Despite this depiction, many retailers experience considerable ambivalence in selling tobacco, a product they know harms their customers. We explored how retailers perceived the proposed introduction of standardised (or ‘plain’) packaging and their assessment of arguments made by tobacco companies in submissions on proposed standardised packaging legislation. Participants Using qualitative in-depth interviews, we recruited and interviewed 23 retailers of dairies (small convenience stores), small supermarkets, and service stations. Analyses Data were analysed using a protocol-driven approach; this stance enabled direct analysis of tobacco companies’ arguments, particularly those purporting to represent retailers’ concerns. Results Retailers were concerned about the financial implications of standardised packaging and the effects it may have on their ability to provide rapid and efficient customer service. However, few thought standardised packaging would foster illicit trade or spawn further regulation; most placed public health goals ahead of tobacco companies’ ‘rights’, and many supported government intervention to protect population health. Conclusions Retailers held ambivalent views on standardised packaging; while they were concerned about short-term effects on their business, they recognised the harm smoking causes. Policymakers and health researchers could collaborate more effectively with retailers by assisting them to create financially viable roles more compatible with public health objectives. PMID:26553840

  13. Minor influence of lifelong voluntary exercise on composition, structure, and incidence of osteoarthritis in tibial articular cartilage of mice compared with major effects caused by growth, maturation, and aging.

    PubMed

    Närhi, Tommi; Siitonen, Ulrika; Lehto, Lauri J; Hyttinen, Mika M; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J; Julkunen, Petro

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of lifelong voluntary exercise on articular cartilage of mice. At the age of 4 weeks C57BL mice (n = 152) were divided into two groups, with one group serving as a sedentary control whereas the other was allowed free access to a running wheel from the age of 1 month onward. Mice were euthanized at four different time points (1, 2, 6, and 18 months of age). Articular cartilage samples were gathered from the load-bearing area of the tibial medial plateaus, and osteoarthritis was graded. Additionally, the proteoglycan content distribution was assessed using digital densitometry, collagen fibril orientation, and parallelism with polarized light microscopy, and collagen content using Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy. The incidence of osteoarthritis increased with aging, but exercise had no effect on this trend. Furthermore, the structure and composition revealed significant growth, maturation, and age-dependent properties. Exercise exerted a minor effect on collagen fibril orientation in the superficial zone. Fibril orientation at 2 months of age was more perpendicular to surface (p < 0.05) in controls compared with runners, whereas the situation was reversed at the age of 18 months (p < 0.05). The collagen content of the superficial zone was higher (p < 0.01) at the age of 18 months in controls compared with runners but the proteoglycan content did not display any exercise-dependent changes. In conclusion, growth, maturation, and aging exerted a clear effect on integrity, structure, and composition of medial tibial plateau articular cartilage in mice, whereas lifelong voluntary exercise had only a minor effect on collagen architecture and content. PMID:21405978

  14. An increased incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with adult-onset sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare, often fatal malignancies of connective tissues that can occur in genetic predisposition syndromes or result from carcinogen exposure. Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is not known to contribute to any recognised familial cancer syndrome comprising sarcomas, but is known to be associated with a variety of second cancers, including sarcomas. This study describes the prevalence of HL in families affected by sarcoma. Methods The International Sarcoma Kindred Study (ISKS) is a prospective cohort of 561 families ascertained via a proband with adult-onset sarcoma. Cancer-specific standardised incidence ratios (SIR) for multiple primary malignancies in probands were estimated. Clinical characteristics of individuals reporting both sarcoma and HL were described. Standardised incidence ratios for the occurrence of cancer in ISKS families were also estimated. Results Multiple primary cancers were reported in 16% of probands, significantly higher than in the general population. The risk of HL in probands was increased 15.8-fold (95%CI 7.9-31.6) and increased risks were also seen for breast cancer (SIR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9-4.4) and thyroid cancer (SIR 8.4, 95%CI 4.2-16.8). In 8 probands with both HL and sarcoma, the diagnosis of HL preceded that of sarcoma in 7 cases, and occurred synchronously in one case. Only 3 cases of sarcoma occurred in or close to prior radiotherapy fields. The overall incidence of HL in the ISKS cohort was not significantly increased by comparison with age- and gender-specific population estimates (SIR 1.63, 95%CI 1.05-2.43), suggesting that the association between HL and sarcomas did not extend to other family members. The age of onset of non-sarcoma, non-HL cancers in families affected by both HL and sarcoma was younger than the general population (56.2 y vs 65.6 y, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The basis for the association between HL and sarcomas may include the carcinogenic effects of therapy combined with excellent survival rates for HL

  15. Validation of a standardised gait score to predict the healing of tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Macri, F; Marques, L F; Backer, R C; Santos, M J; Belangero, W D

    2012-04-01

    There is no absolute method of evaluating healing of a fracture of the tibial shaft. In this study we sought to validate a new clinical method based on the systematic observation of gait, first by assessing the degree of agreement between three independent observers regarding the gait score for a given patient, and secondly by determining how such a score might predict healing of a fracture. We used a method of evaluating gait to assess 33 patients (29 men and four women, with a mean age of 29 years (15 to 62)) who had sustained an isolated fracture of the tibial shaft and had been treated with a locked intramedullary nail. There were 15 closed and 18 open fractures (three Gustilo and Anderson grade I, seven grade II, seven grade IIIA and one grade IIIB). Assessment was carried out three and six months post-operatively using videos taken with a digital camera. Gait was graded on a scale ranging from 1 (extreme difficulty) to 4 (normal gait). Bivariate analysis included analysis of variance to determine whether the gait score statistically correlated with previously validated and standardised scores of clinical status and radiological evidence of union. An association was found between the pattern of gait and all the other variables. Improvement in gait was associated with the absence of pain on weight-bearing, reduced tenderness over the fracture, a higher Radiographic Union Scale in Tibial Fractures score, and improved functional status, measured using the Brazilian version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (all p < 0.001). Although further study is needed, the analysis of gait in this way may prove to be a useful clinical tool. PMID:22434473

  16. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in age groups above 15 years: facts, hypothesis and prospects for future epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Gruden, G; Songini, M

    2016-06-01

    Although onset of type 1 diabetes can occur in adulthood, epidemiological data are scarce, limiting our potential to identify unknown determinants of the disease. Paucity of registries expanding the recruitment of incident cases up to adulthood, atypical clinical features of type 1 diabetes at onset, misclassification of type 1 as type 2 diabetes and little use of markers of β-cell autoimmunity represents major obstacles in studying the risk of type 1 diabetes in adults. New strategies in study design, data collection and analyses may overcome these problems in the future. Population-based surveys and registries including adulthood; use of etiological rather than clinical criteria to define type 1 diabetes; availability of electronic health records as prescription data sources to avoid missing data; and application of proper statistical methods will be instrumental to gain better insight on the epidemiology and natural history of the disease. PMID:26787492

  17. Comparative performance of current definitions of sarcopenia against the prospective incidence of falls among community dwelling seniors age 65 and older

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To compare the extent to which 7 available definitions of sarcopenia and 2 related definitions predict the prospective rate of falling. Methods: We studied a cohort of 445 seniors (mean age 71 years, 45% men) living in the community who were followed with a detailed fall assessment for 3 ...

  18. Standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations – an Australasian group consensus 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Standardised parenteral nutrition formulations are routinely used in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. In 2010, a multidisciplinary group was formed to achieve a consensus on the formulations acceptable to majority of the neonatal intensive care units. Literature review was undertaken for each nutrient and recommendations were developed in a series of meetings held between November 2010 and April 2011. Three standard and 2 optional amino acid/dextrose formulations and one lipid emulsion were agreed by majority participants in the consensus. This has a potential to standardise neonatal parenteral nutrition guidelines, reduce costs and prescription errors. PMID:24548745

  19. Incidence and survival trends of lip, intra-oral cavity and tongue base cancers in south-east England

    PubMed Central

    Ekrikpo, U; Lyne, O; Wiseberg, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cavity cancers are on the increase in the UK. Understanding site-specific epidemiological trends is important for cancer control measures. This study demonstrates the changing epidemiological trends in lip, intra-oral cavity and tongue base cancers in south-east England from 1987 to 2006. Aim: Methods This was a retrospective study using anonymised data obtained from the Thames Cancer Registry (TCR) London. Data were analysed using SPSS v.17 and survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Age standardisation of the incidence rates was performed. It was conducted in south-east England, which has an average population of 12 million. The study analysed 9,318 cases (ICD-10 code C00–C06, C14). Kent Research Ethics Committee UK granted ethical approval. Results Oral cancers were more common in men, with male: female ratio of 1.6:1. Tongue cancers had the highest frequency at 3,088 (33.1%). Incidence varied with each cancer type. Mean incidence (per 1,000,000) ranged from 2.3 (lip cancer) to 13.8 (tongue cancer). There has been a statistically significant increase in incidence for cancers of the tongue base, other parts of tongue, gum and palate (p<0.001). Median survival time varied by sub-site, with lip cancer having the best median survival time (11.09 years) compared with tongue base cancer (2.42 years). Survival analyses showed worse prognosis for men, older age at diagnosis, and presence of synchronous tumours (p<0.001). Conclusion There is a rising incidence of tongue and tongue base, gum and palate cancers in south-east England with wide variability in survival. Oral cancer awareness and screening programmes should be encouraged. PMID:26263810

  20. Decreasing incidence and changes in serotype distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease in persons aged under 18 years since introduction of 10-valent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines in Portugal, July 2008 to June 2012.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, S I; Brito, M J; Horacio, A N; Lopes, J P; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2014-01-01

    The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) became available in Portugal in mid-2009 and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in early 2010. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients aged under 18 years decreased from 8.19 cases per 100,000 in 2008–09 to 4.52/100,000 in 2011–12. However, IPD incidence due to the serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children aged under two years remained constant. This fall resulted from significant decreases in the number of cases due to: (i) the additional serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 (1, 5, 7F; from 37.6% to 20.6%), particularly serotype 1 in older children; and (ii) the additional serotypes included in PCV13 (3, 6A, 19A; from 31.6% to 16.2%), particularly serotype 19A in younger children. The decrease in serotype 19A before vaccination indicates that it was not triggered by PCV13 administration. The decrease of serotype 1 in all groups, concomitant with the introduction of PCV10, is also unlikely to have been triggered by vaccination, although PCVs may have intensified and supported these trends. PCV13 serotypes remain major causes of IPD, accounting for 63.2% of isolates recovered in Portugal in 2011–12, highlighting the potential role of enhanced vaccination in reducing paediatric IPD in Portugal. PMID:24698140

  1. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  2. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S

    1986-01-01

    The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed. PMID:3964572

  3. Vocational Training and European Standardisation of Qualifications: The Case of Aircraft Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Joachim; Ourtau, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Initiatives to standardise the conditions for practising certain regulated activities are being taken at European level, particularly in light of the free movement of people and the recognition of qualifications in Member states. This paper looks at the introduction of european licences for aircraft maintenance engineers. It follows an in-depth…

  4. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  5. Standardisation a Considerable Force behind Language Death: A Case of Shona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhute, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The paper assesses the contribution of standardisation towards language death taking Clement Doke's resolutions on the various Shona dialects as a case study. It is a qualitative analysis of views gathered from speakers of the language situated in various provinces of Zimbabwe, the country in which the language is spoken by around 75% of the…

  6. Emphysema- and airway-dominant COPD phenotypes defined by standardised quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Deepak R; Gupta, Sumit; Burggraf, Dorothe; Vom Silberberg, Suzan J; Heimbeck, Irene; Heiss-Neumann, Marion S; Haeussinger, Karl; Newby, Chris; Hargadon, Beverley; Raj, Vimal; Singh, Dave; Kolsum, Umme; Hofer, Thomas P; Al-Shair, Khaled; Luetzen, Niklas; Prasse, Antje; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Benea, Giorgio; Leprotti, Stefano; Boschetto, Piera; Gorecka, Dorota; Nowinski, Adam; Oniszh, Karina; Castell, Wolfgang Zu; Hagen, Michael; Barta, Imre; Döme, Balázs; Strausz, Janos; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas R; Gut, Ivo; Hohlfeld, Jens; Welte, Tobias; Lavae-Mokhtari, Mahyar; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Brightling, Christopher; Parr, David G

    2016-07-01

    EvA (Emphysema versus Airway disease) is a multicentre project to study mechanisms and identify biomarkers of emphysema and airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to delineate objectively imaging-based emphysema-dominant and airway disease-dominant phenotypes using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) indices, standardised with a novel phantom-based approach.441 subjects with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages 1-3) were assessed in terms of clinical and physiological measurements, laboratory testing and standardised QCT indices of emphysema and airway wall geometry.QCT indices were influenced by scanner non-conformity, but standardisation significantly reduced variability (p<0.001) and led to more robust phenotypes. Four imaging-derived phenotypes were identified, reflecting "emphysema-dominant", "airway disease-dominant", "mixed" disease and "mild" disease. The emphysema-dominant group had significantly higher lung volumes, lower gas transfer coefficient, lower oxygen (PO2 ) and carbon dioxide (PCO2 ) tensions, higher haemoglobin and higher blood leukocyte numbers than the airway disease-dominant group.The utility of QCT for phenotyping in the setting of an international multicentre study is improved by standardisation. QCT indices of emphysema and airway disease can delineate within a population of patients with COPD, phenotypic groups that have typical clinical features known to be associated with emphysema-dominant and airway-dominant disease. PMID:27230444

  7. Standardised Speech-Language Tests and Students with Intellectual Disability: A Review of Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascella, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Before a school speech-language pathologist (SLP) utilises a standardised speech-language test with a student with intellectual disability (ID), the clinician should carefully consider the purpose of the test and whether the test includes students with ID in the normative group. Method: This project reviewed 49 tests published between…

  8. Walking and Talking with Living Texts: Breathing Life against Static Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise Gwenneth; Willis, Linda-Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Current educational reform, policy and public discourse emphasise standardisation of testing, curricula and professional practice, yet the landscape of literacy practices today is fluid, interactive, multimodal, ever-changing, adaptive and collaborative. How then can English and literacy educators negotiate these conflicting terrains? The nature…

  9. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  10. The Person over Standardisation: A Humanistic Framework for Teacher Learning in Diverse School-Based Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher J.; Choi, Su-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the purpose of education is to help students realise their unique potentials and pursue inner directions. With this assumption, we critique the inadequacy of the current emphasis on standardisation and provide a theoretical framework for teacher education based on humanistic psychology. Three tenets of humanistic psychology,…

  11. Problematising the Standardisation of Leadership and Management Development in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…

  12. Tensions and Fissures: The Politics of Standardised Testing and Accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While Ontario has received international accolades for its enactment of province-wide standardised testing upon the formation of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), a closer look at provincial assessments over a 20-year span reveals successes as well as systemic tensions and fissures. The purpose of this paper is twofold.…

  13. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  14. Cancer incidence in Rabat, Morocco: 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No population-based data of cancer incidence from Morocco have been published before. This is the first report of cancer incidence in Rabat from a population-based cancer registry for the period 2006–2008. Materials and methods The cancer registry collects data on all new cases of cancer diagnosed in the resident population of the Rabat area. Data collection is an active process involving visits by registry staff to all data sources, essentially hospitals, pathological laboratories, and private clinics in Rabat. Results A total of 2,473 new cases of cancer were registered among residents in Rabat during the period 2006–2008. The overall world age-standardised rate (ASR) for all sites combined was 136.6/100,000 for men and 114.5/100,000 for women. The most frequently diagnosed malignancies in males were lung cancer (19.0%, ASR 24.8/105), followed by prostate cancer (15.5%, ASR 22.9/105), colorectal cancer (8.8%, ASR 12.0/105), bladder cancer (6.9%, ASR 9.7/105), and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (6.0%, ASR 8.2/105). In females, the most frequently reported malignancies were breast cancer (39.9%, ASR 43.4/105), followed by cervix uteri cancer (11.4%, ASR 13.0/105), colorectal cancer (7.5%, ASR 9.0/105), NHL (3.4, ASR 4.2/105), and thyroid cancer (3.4%, ASR 3.9/105). Of all cancers, 2% are observed in childhood (0–14 years), and ~43% of them are malignant haemopathies. Conclusion The data reported by Rabat Cancer Registry indicate that cancers of the breast, cervix, uteri, and colon and rectum in females and the lung, prostate, and colon and rectum in men are major cancers in the population of Rabat. The Incidences observed are sometimes different from those observed in the neighbouring North African countries. PMID:23940493

  15. Incident-level analysis of 703 retrospective self-reports of ordinary violence recalled by 334 Swedes aged 6 to 45 years.

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter Edward; Larsson, Paula

    2015-07-01

    There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos. PMID:25304671

  16. Gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in an Asian population: Secular trends of a population-based cancer registry from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Loy, En Yun; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Zheng, Huili; Chow, Khuan Yew; Lim, Soon Thye

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology on incidence and survival by lymphoid neoplasm (LN) subtypes using the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification remained limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of LN subtypes existed using the Singapore Cancer Registry (SCR) from 1998 to 2012. We derived age standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) by the direct standardisation method and 5-year relative survival (RSR) by the Ederer II method and period approach. Five-year observed survival (OS) was obtained for each ethnicity. Malays had the highest ASIR of total LNs among the three ethnicities for each time period. The largest increase in 5-year RSR subtypes was follicular lymphoma from 43.8% in 1998-2002 to 82.3% in 2008-2012; followed by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) from 48.1% in 1998-2002 to 77.9% in 2008-2012. Although males had higher incidence than females in each time period, females had greater 5-year RSR for follicular lymphoma (89.8% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.6% in 2008-2012 for males) and CLL/SLL (78.7% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.7% in 2008-2012 for males). All three ethnicities experienced an overall increase in 5-year OS for mature B-cell lymphoma, with Indians experiencing the greatest increase (37.1% in 1998-2002 to 61.1% in 2008-2012), followed by Malays (30.8% in 1998-2002 to 48.7% in 2008-2012) and then Chinese (36.4% in 1998-2002 to 51.3% in 2008-2012). Our study demonstrated that improved mature B-cell lymphoma survival was not only observed in the West, but also in Singapore. PMID:26061168

  17. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  18. Evaluating a standardised tool to explore the nature and extent of foot and ankle injuries in amateur and semi-professional footballers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, S.; Walker-Bone, K.; Otter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Football is a popular sport amongst amateurs as well as professionals. To date, most studies of football injuries have included only professional players and data have been collected in a variety of different ways. There is currently no single validated, standardised tool for the assessment of injures. Therefore, we developed a standardised questionnaire based upon an instrument used in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers and used it in a group of semi-professional and amateur footballers. We quantified the prevalence of foot/ankle injuries and evaluated risk factors for these injuries. Method A trained recorder administered a 33-item questionnaire (recording quantitative and qualitative data) in three football teams, 1 amateur and 2 semi-professional. The questionnaire enquired about demography, football specific information such as footwear and orthoses, and nature & extent of injuries. Results 42/42 eligible footballers completed the questionnaire. 34/42 respondents (81%) reported that they had experienced a total of 273 football-related injuries, 114 of which occurred at the foot or ankle. 70 injuries occurred at the ankle and 44 at the foot and 44% of the footballers had suffered one or more foot/ankle injuries in the past 12 months. Statistically significant relationships were seen between occurrence of lower limb and foot/ankle injuries and age, (p=0.03) weight (p=0.01) height (p=0.01) and shorter duration of warm-up (p). Conclusion The standardised tool performed well with an excellent response rate. Foot and ankle injuries were common in semi-professional and amateur footballers. Amongst this relatively small sample, statistically significant risk factors were identified which may be potential targets for prevention strategies but larger studies will be required. PMID:25605413

  19. Multivariate standardisation for non-linear calibration range in the chemiluminescence determination of chromium.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2007-05-15

    Multivariate standardisation is proposed for the successful chemiluminescence determination of chromium based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction. In an extended concentration range, non-linear calibration model is needed. The studied instrumental situations were different detection cells, instruments, assemblies, time and their possible combinations. Chemiluminescence kinetic registers have been transferred using piecewise direct standardisation (PDS) method. The optimisation of transfer parameters has been carried out based on the prediction residual error criteria. Non-linear principal component regression (NL-PCR) and non-linear partial least square regression (NL-PLS) were chosen for modelling the relationship signal-concentration of transferred registers. Good accuracy and precision were obtained for water samples. The concentrations of chromium were statistically in agreement with reference method values and with recovery studies. Therefore, it is possible to transfer chemiluminescence curves without loosing ability of prediction, even the presence of a non-linear behaviour. PMID:19071716

  20. Cancer incidence among workers in the Norwegian ferroalloy industry.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S; Knudsen, K E

    1986-01-01

    The total mortality and the incidence of cancer was studied among a cohort of employees at the six oldest ferrosilicon and ferromanganese plants in Norway. The cohort consisted of 6494 men employed for more than 18 months before 1970 and has been followed up from 1953 to 1982. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer (all sites) was 0.94. The observed number of cancers was as expected for lung cancer (SIR = 0.99) and for most of the other cancer sites studied. A statistically significant reduction of stomach cancer was found (SIR = 0.72). There was an increased incidence of lung cancer (SIR = 1.75) and cancer of the prostate (SIR = 1.56) in the workers at one ferrosilicon plant and of colonic cancer (SIR = 1.90) at another ferrosilicon plant. PMID:3964571

  1. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  2. Multicentre chest computed tomography standardisation in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wieying; Kemner-van de Corput, Mariette P C; Perez-Rovira, Adria; de Bruijne, Marleen; Fajac, Isabelle; Tiddens, Harm A W M; van Straten, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Progressive cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is the main cause of mortality in CF patients. CF lung disease starts in early childhood. With current standards of care, respiratory function remains largely normal in children and more sensitive outcome measures are needed to monitor early CF lung disease. Chest CT is currently the most sensitive imaging modality to monitor pulmonary structural changes in children and adolescents with CF. To quantify structural lung disease reliably among multiple centres, standardisation of chest CT protocols is needed. SCIFI CF (Standardised Chest Imaging Framework for Interventions and Personalised Medicine in CF) was founded to characterise chest CT image quality and radiation doses among 16 participating European CF centres in 10 different countries. We aimed to optimise CT protocols in children and adolescents among several CF centres. A large variety was found in CT protocols, image quality and radiation dose usage among the centres. However, the performance of all CT scanners was found to be very similar, when taking spatial resolution and radiation dose into account. We conclude that multicentre standardisation of chest CT in children and adolescents with CF can be achieved for future clinical trials. PMID:27076593

  3. Clinical handover improvement in context: exploring tensions between user-centred approaches and standardisation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2013-01-01

    User-centred approaches in the development and evaluation of health information systems promote the importance of involving users and understanding their social contexts to optimise the quality and safety of these systems for patient care. Simultaneously, the standardisation of clinical practices has also been advocated to improve the quality and safety of patient care. In the context of clinical handover improvement within three different departments in one tertiary teaching hospital, this paper highlights the potential for tensions between these two approaches and explores their implications. Based on a user-centred approach, the paper reports on the unique requirements identified within each of the three departments for an information system to support improved clinical handover. Each department had clinical practices, work cultures and user requirements that needed to be considered and accommodated. This led to the project developing distinct minimum data sets for each of the three departments that posed challenges for efforts to standardise handover practices across the hospital and for building an integrated information system. While on the one hand accommodating unique departmental user requirements was valuable, they revealed the potential for the introduction of quality and safety risks at the organisational level. To resolve these tensions, the project team developed an approach called flexible standardisation that has now been embedded in Australia' s national guidelines on clinical handover improvement. PMID:23941929

  4. Towards standardised evaluative measurement of nature impacts: two spatial planning case studies for major Dutch lakes.

    PubMed

    van Puijenbroek, P J T M; Sijtsma, F J; Wortelboer, F G; Ligtvoet, W; Maarse, M

    2015-02-01

    In the assessment of complex spatial planning projects, the ecological impacts and socio-economic impacts are fundamental to the evaluation. The measurements of ecological impacts of spatial plans have to be integrated in a standardised way. In the present paper, we analyse two Dutch case studies and apply the standardised Threat-Weighted Ecological Quality Area measurement. This measurement is developed to evaluate projects with terrestrial impacts but has not yet been applied for water evaluations. We aim to show how the use of a common measurement tool incorporates both ecological quality and degree of threat on criteria in the EU Water Framework Directive and Nature 2000. The measurements discussed here derive from two cases of cost-benefit analysis: The first case is the Markermeer, the second largest lake of The Netherlands, and a study on water quality improvement and nature restoration; an artificial island will also be the setting for a new residential area. The second case study is on water level management carried out on the IJsselmeer, the largest lake in the country. Results of our analysis show the potential impacts with a standardised method to the spatial distribution and quality of the ecosystems. PMID:24770926

  5. Latitude of the study place and age of the patient are associated with incidence of mediastinitis and microbiology in open-heart surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnoor, M; Vengen, Ø A; Johansen, O; Sandven, I; Abdelnoor, AM

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to summarize the pooled frequency of mediastinitis following open-heart surgery caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative bacteria. Design This study was a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods We searched the literature, and a total of 97 cohort studies were identified. Random-effect model was used to synthesize the results. Heterogeneity between studies was examined by subgroup and meta-regression analyses, considering study and patient-level variables. Small-study effect was evaluated. Results Substantial heterogeneity was present. The estimated incidence of mediastinitis evaluated from 97 studies was 1.58% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.42, 1.75) and that of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and MRSA bacteria evaluated from 63 studies was 0.90% (95% CI 0.81, 1.21), 0.24% (95% CI 0.18, 0.32), and 0.08% (95% CI 0.05, 0.12), respectively. A meta-regression pinpointed negative association between the frequency of mediastinitis and latitude of study place and positive association between the frequency of mediastinitis and the age of the patient at operation. Multivariate meta-regression showed that prospective cohort design and age of the patients and latitude of study place together or in combination accounted for 17% of heterogeneity for end point frequency of mediastinitis, 16.3% for Gram-positive bacteria, 14.7% for Gram-negative bacteria, and 23.3% for MRSA bacteria. Conclusion Evidence from this study suggests the importance of latitude of study place and advanced age as risk factors of mediastinitis. Latitude is a marker of thermally regulated bacterial virulence and other local surgical practice. There is concern of increasing risk of mediastinitis and of MRSA in elderly patients undergoing sternotomy. PMID:27330329

  6. The impact of cannabis use on age of onset and clinical characteristics in first-episode psychotic patients. Data from the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS).

    PubMed

    Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Marrella, Giovanna; Lamonaca, Dario; Riolo, Rosanna; Gardellin, Francesco; Urbani, Anna; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis use is frequent among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and has been associated with several clinical features. This study aimed in an FEP sample to determine whether cannabis use is associated with (1) a higher level of positive symptoms, a lower level of depression and a better premorbid adjustment, (2) an earlier age of onset, and a better premorbid IQ. The study was conducted within the framework of the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS), a multisite collaborative research on FEP patients who attended the psychiatric services in Veneto Region, Italy. Standardized instruments were used to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and drug use data. A total of 555 FEP patients met the inclusion criteria, 517 of whom received an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychosis; 397 (55% males; mean age: 32 yrs ± 9.5) were assessed. Out of these, 311 patients agreed to be interviewed on drug and alcohol misuse; 20.3% was positive for drug misuse: cannabis (19.0%), cocaine (3.9%), and hallucinogens (3.9%). Cannabis use was not associated with a higher level of positive symptoms, but correlated with less severe depressive symptoms. No relationship was observed between premorbid adjustment or IQ and cannabis use. FEP patients who used cannabis had an earlier age of onset than abstinent patients, even after adjusting for gender and diagnosis. Our results suggest a possible causal role of cannabis in triggering psychosis in certain vulnerable subjects. Particular attention must be paid to this behaviour, because reducing cannabis use can delay or prevent some cases of psychosis. PMID:23290558

  7. Follow-up Reality for Breast Cancer Patients – Standardised Survey of Patients and Physicians and Analysis of Treatment Data

    PubMed Central

    Feiten, S.; Dünnebacke, J.; Friesenhahn, V.; Heymanns, J.; Köppler, H.; Meister, R.; Thomalla, J.; van Roye, C.; Wey, D.; Weide, R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently, about 360 000 breast cancer patients who could, after completion of their primary therapy, take advantage of follow-up options are living in Germany. Up to now very little is known about the extent to which the available options are used and as to how the follow-up reality is experienced and evaluated. Thus, an explorative examination among the patients and their physicians was undertaken. Patients and Methods: All patients who underwent surgery in a certified breast centre between 2007 and 2013 received a standardised questionnaire; at the same time the physicians responsible for the follow-up were invited to answer a standardised questionnaire. Results: 920 patients (response rate: 61 %) with a median age of 65 years (32–95) could be analysed. 99 % of the participants stated that they regularly attended follow-ups. The personal contact with the physician (mean value: 4.4) and the reassurance that the cancer disease had not recurred (mean value: 4.5) were described on a scale of 0 to 5 to be two of the most important factors of the follow-up. Deficits were expressed with regard to psychosocial care (70 %) and the perception and treatment of physical complaints (55 %). In addition, 105 physicians returned completed questionnaires (response rate: 12 %). For asymptomatic patients the physicians performed the following examinations most frequently: anamnesis (92 %), physical examination (87 %) as well as laboratory tests (63 %) and tumour marker determinations (40 %). Conclusion: On the whole it became clear that the vast majority of the patients took advantage of the follow-up options. From the patientʼs perspective the importance of the follow-up lies in contact to the physician and the comforting assurance that the breast cancer has not relapsed. Deficits are seen in the psychosocial care and the perception and treatment of physical impairments. Not recommended examinations were employed by a significant proportion of

  8. Factors influencing general practitioner referral of patients developing end-stage renal failure: a standardised case-analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Anthony J; McGee, Hannah M; Shannon, William; Donohoe, John

    2006-01-01

    Background To understand why treatment referral rates for ESRF are lower in Ireland than in other European countries, an investigation of factors influencing general practitioner referral of patients developing ESRF was conducted. Method Randomly selected general practitioners (N = 51) were interviewed using 32 standardised written patient scenarios to elicit referral strategies. Main outcome measures: General practitioner referral levels and thresholds for patients developing end-stage renal disease; referral routes (nephrologist vs other physicians); influence of patient age, marital status and co-morbidity on referral. Results Referral levels varied widely with the full range of cases (0–32; median = 15) referred by different doctors after consideration of first laboratory results. Less than half (44%) of cases were referred to a nephrologist. Patient age (40 vs 70 years), marital status, co-morbidity (none vs rheumatoid arthritis) and general practitioner prior specialist renal training (yes or no) did not influence referral rates. Many patients were not referred to a specialist at creatinine levels of 129 μmol/l (47% not referred) or 250 μmol/l (45%). While all patients were referred at higher levels (350 and 480 μmol/l), referral to a nephrologist decreased in likelihood as scenarios became more complex; 28% at 129 μmol/l creatinine; 28% at 250 μmol/l; 18% at 350 μmol/l and 14% at 480 μmol/l. Referral levels and routes were not influenced by general practitioner age, sex or practice location. Most general practitioners had little current contact with chronic renal patients (mean number in practice = 0.7, s.d. = 1.3). Conclusion The very divergent management patterns identified highlight the need for guidance to general practitioners on appropriate management of this serious condition. PMID:16970805

  9. A comparison of trends in melanoma mortality in New Zealand and Australia: the two countries with the highest melanoma incidence and mortality in the world

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New Zealand and Australia have the highest incidence and mortality rates from cutaneous melanoma in the world. The predominantly fair-skinned New Zealanders and Australians both enjoy sun, tanned skin and the outdoors, and differences in these activities among generations have been important determinants of trends in melanoma mortality. We examined whether New Zealand trends in melanoma mortality mirror those in Australia, through detailed comparison of the trends in both countries from 1968 to 2007. Methods Five-year age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates were calculated for each country for 5-year time periods. Tests for trends in age-specific rates were performed using the Mantel-Haenszel extension chi-square test. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratios for New Zealand/Australia were plotted against period of death to show relative changes in mortality over time. Age-specific mortality rates were plotted against period and the median year of birth to illustrate age-group and birth cohort effects. To compare the mortality of birth cohorts, age-adjusted melanoma mortality rate ratios were calculated for the birth cohorts in the quin-quennial tables of mortality rates. Results The age-standardised mortality rate for melanoma increased in both sexes in New Zealand and Australia from 1968 to 2007, but the increase was greater in New Zealanders and women in particular. There was evidence of recent significant decreases in mortality in younger Australians and less so in New Zealand women aged under 45 years. Mortality from melanoma increased in successive generations born from about 1893 to 1918. In Australia, a decline in mortality started for generations born from about 1958 but in New Zealand there is possibly a decrease only in generations born since 1968. Conclusions Mortality trends in New Zealand and Australia are discrepant. It is too early to know if the pattern in mortality rates in New Zealand is simply a delayed response to melanoma

  10. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  11. Standardised studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM): a need.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L

    2015-06-01

    In November 2014, a review of literature concerning prevalence data of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) was performed. A search of PubMed online databases was conducted for relevant articles published until November 2014. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. Out of 1078 manuscripts, a total of 157 English written publications were selected based on title and abstract. Of these 157, 60 were included in the study and allocated as 52 MIH and 5 HSPM, and 3 for both MIH and HSPM. These studies utilised the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria, the modified index of developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) and self-devised criteria, and demonstrated a wide variation in the reported prevalence (MIH 2.9-44 %; HSPM 0-21.8 %). Most values mentioned were representative for specific areas. More studies were performed in cities compared with rural areas. A great variation was found in calibration methods, number of participants, number of examiners and research protocols between the studies. The majority of the prevalence studies also investigated possible aetiological factors. To compare MIH and HSPM prevalence and or aetiological data around the world, standardisation of such studies seems essential. Standardisation of the research protocol should include a clearly described sample of children (minimum number of 300 for prevalence and 1000 for aetiology studies) and use of the same calibration sets and methods whereas aetiological studies need to be prospective in nature. A standardised protocol for future MIH and HSPM prevalence and aetiology studies is recommended. PMID:25894247

  12. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Plotz, Roan D.; Grecian, W. James; Kerley, Graham I.H.; Linklater, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004–2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km2, 53 ±1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km2 ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  13. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Plotz, Roan D; Grecian, W James; Kerley, Graham I H; Linklater, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004-2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km(2), 53 ± 1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km(2) ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  14. Anthropometric markers and their association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: which marker is best for prediction? Pooled analysis of four German population-based cohort studies and comparison with a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Saskia; Kluttig, Alexander; Tiller, Daniel; Fricke, Julia; Müller, Grit; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Schunk, Michaela; Meisinger, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Heidemann, Christin; Moebus, Susanne; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Werdan, Karl; Kuss, Oliver; Tamayo, Teresa; Haerting, Johannes; Greiser, Karin Halina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the association between different anthropometric measurements and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess their predictive ability in different regions of Germany. Methods Data of 10 258 participants from 4 prospective population-based cohorts were pooled to assess the association of body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) with incident T2DM by calculating HRs of the crude, adjusted and standardised markers, as well as providing receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Differences between HRs and ROCs for the different anthropometric markers were calculated to compare their predictive ability. In addition, data of 3105 participants from the nationwide survey were analysed separately using the same methods to provide a nationally representative comparison. Results Strong associations were found for each anthropometric marker and incidence of T2DM. Among the standardised anthropometric measures, we found the strongest effect on incident T2DM for WC and WHtR in the pooled sample (HR for 1 SD difference in WC 1.97, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.22, HR for WHtR 1.93, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.17 in women) and in female DEGS participants (HR for WC 2.24, 95% CI 1.91 to 2.63, HR for WHtR 2.10, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.44), whereas the strongest association in men was found for WHR among DEGS participants (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.78). ROC analysis showed WHtR to be the strongest predictor for incident T2DM. Differences in HR and ROCs between the different markers confirmed WC and WHtR to be the best predictors of incident T2DM. Findings were consistent across study regions and age groups (<65 vs ≥65 years). Conclusions We found stronger associations between anthropometric markers that reflect abdominal obesity (ie, WC and WHtR) and incident T2DM than for BMI and weight. The use of these measurements in risk prediction should be encouraged. PMID:26792214

  15. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements. PMID:26701659

  16. Activity standardisation of 45Ca and 204Tl using the new TDCR system at CMI.

    PubMed

    Sochorová, Jana; Auerbach, Pavel; Dutka, Zdeněk

    2012-09-01

    A new triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) system has been established at CMI as an additional technique for primary activity standardisation. Details of the detectors and the electronics are given. Construction of the optical chamber was validated using measurement of a (3)H standard-the efficiency achieved with Ultima Gold was 58%. Several methods of efficiency variation (coloured bands painted on vial, positioning and photomultipliers defocussing) are compared. Activity concentrations of (204)Tl and (45)Ca were determined with the TDCR method and with the efficiency tracer technique. Advantages of the TDCR method compared to the efficiency tracing method and agreement between results are shown. PMID:22476016

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish leather tanners.

    PubMed Central

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Hagmar, L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim was to study the incidence of cancer among Swedish leather tanners. METHODS--A cohort of 2026 subjects who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 in three Swedish leather tanneries, was established. The cancer incidence and mortality patterns were assessed for the periods 1958-89 and 1952-89 respectively, and cause-specific standardised incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated. RESULTS--A significantly increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas (SIR 4.27, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-9.97) was found, based on five cases. Excesses, (not statistically significant) was also found for multiple myelomas (SIR 2.54, 95% CI 0.93-5.53), and sinonasal cancer (SIR 3.77, 95% CI 0.46-13.6). CONCLUSIONS--The increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas adds support to previous findings of an excess mortality in this diagnosis among leather tanners. A plausible cause is exposure to chlorophenols, which had occurred in all three plants. The excess of multiple myelomas may also be associated with exposure to chlorophenol. The association between incidence of cancer and specific chemical exposure will be elucidated in a cohort-based case-referent study. PMID:7951777

  18. [Time trends in cancer incidence in Osaka].

    PubMed

    Hanai, A; Fujimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Changes in environments and life styles in Japan have caused the recent changes in the time trends of cancer incidence for various sites. Using the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, time trends during 1966-80 were analysed for cancer incidence of the leading 5 sites: stomach, lung, liver, uterus and breast. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancers of the stomach (both sexes) and uterus (invasive cancer) decreased to 75% and 64% respectively between the two periods of 1966-68 and 1978-80 while cancers of the lung, liver, and breast reached 163%, 140%, and 143 % during the same period. Decrease of stomach cancer incidence was observed in all age-groups under 79, however, not in the 25-44 age-groups among females. Analyzing the histological data in the registry, it was noticed that estimated incidence of the intestinal type of stomach carcinoma had decreased more rapidly than the diffuse type. In the 30-49 age-groups among females, no decrease was observed of the diffuse type of carcinoma. Concerning lung cancer, a marked increase was observed over 60 years of age. The age-specific incidence curves by birth cohort showed no or very small cohort effects for the population born 1920-29. Among males, percentages of adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma have increased and that of epidermoid carcinoma decreased. The change was more marked in the age-groups younger than 59. Liver cancer showed the 3rd highest incidence rate among males and 6th among females. A rising trend in recent years was noticeable over 45 years of age among males. For the invasive uterine carcinoma, the incidence rate has been decreasing in all ages. Comparing these figures with those of whites in Connecticut or of Japanese in Hawaii, the former was higher than the latter and the difference was larger in age-groups over 40. The recent age incidence curve of breast cancer in Osaka came to be close to that in Iceland in 1930-49 when the curve had kept a constant level for age-groups after

  19. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  20. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. PMID:27337989

  1. The InterAct Project: An Examination of the Interaction of Genetic and Lifestyle Factors on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Langenberg, C; Sharp, S; Forouhi, NG; Franks, P; Schulze, MB; Kerrison, N; Ekelund, U; Barroso, I; Panico, S; Tormo, M; Spranger, J; Griffin, S; van der Schouw, YT; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Arriola, L; Balkau, B; Barricarte, A; Beulens, JWJ; Boeing, H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Buijsse, BB; Chirlaque Lopez, MD; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Crowe, FL; de Lauzon-Guillan, B; Deloukas, P; Dorronsoro, M; Drogan, DD; Froguel, P; Gonzalez, C; Grioni, S; Groop, L; Groves, C; Hainaut, P; Halkjaer, J; Hallmans, G; Hansen, T; Kaaks, R; Key, TJ; Khaw, K; Koulman, A; Mattiello, A; Navarro, C; Nilsson, P; Norat, T; Overvad, K; Palla, L; Palli, D; Pedersen, O; Peeters, PH; Quirós, JR; Ramachandran, A; Rodriguez-Suarez, L; Rolandsson, O; Romaguera, D; Romieu, I; Sacerdote, C; Sánchez, M; Sandbaek, A; Slimani, N; Sluijs, I; Spijkerman, AMW; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Tumino, R; van der A, DL; Verschuren, WMM; Tuomilehto, J; Feskens, E; McCarthy, M; Riboli, E; Wareham, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying gene-lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene-lifestyle studies are lacking. Objective To establish a type 2 diabetes case-cohort study designed to investigate how genetic and potentially modifiable lifestyle and behavioral factors, particularly diet and physical activity, interact in their influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Funded by the Sixth European Framework Programme, InterAct consortium partners ascertained and verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurring in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts between 1991 and 2007 from 8 of the 10 EPIC countries. A pragmatic, high sensitivity approach was used for case ascertainment including multiple sources at each EPIC centre, followed by diagnostic verification. Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analyses were used to investigate differences in diabetes incidence by age and sex. Results A total of 12,403 verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 3.99 million person-years of follow-up of 340,234 EPIC participants eligible for InterAct. We defined a centre stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals for comparative analyses. Individuals with incident diabetes that were randomly selected into the subcohort (n=778) were included as cases in the analyses. All prevalent diabetes cases were excluded from the study. InterAct cases were followed-up for an average of 6.9 years, 49.7% were men. Mean baseline age and age at diagnosis were 55.6 and 62.5 years, mean BMI and waist were 29.4 kg/m2 and 102.7 cm in men, and 30.1 kg/m2 and 92.8 cm in women, respectively. Risk of type 2 diabetes increased linearly with age, with an overall hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.56 (1.48; 1

  2. Value of standardised exercise tests and blood biochemistry in the selection and training of breeding stallions.

    PubMed

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Wensing, T; Barneveld, A; Breukink, H J

    1991-10-19

    Stallions selected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society were submitted to a standardised lungeing test at the beginning and at the end of a 100-day test of performance and ability. The heart rate, haematology and biochemistry values obtained in the first lungeing test showed no significant differences between the 15 stallions which were rejected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society during the first month of the 100-day test, the 15 stallions rejected during the last month and the 11 stallions which were approved for registration in the studbook. The 26 stallions submitted to the second lungeing test had significantly lower heart rates and blood lactate concentrations than in the first test. The standardised lungeing test had no value in predicting the rejection or approval of the stallions, and the fitness of a stallion at the beginning of the 100-day test did not influence its chance of being approved as a breeding stallion. The differences between the results of the first and the second tests suggest that the fitness of the stallions improved during the 100-day test. PMID:1759338

  3. Test conditions greatly influence permeation of water soluble molecules through the intestinal mucosa: need for standardisation.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, M; Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Huysmans, V; Geboes, K; Vantrappen, G; Rutgeerts, P

    1994-01-01

    Permeability tests are widely used to investigate the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases including coeliac disease, infectious diarrhoea, and inflammatory bowel disease. In Crohn's disease they are used as activity parameters by some investigators. Lack of standardisation, however, makes it very difficult to compare data reported in different studies. The aim of this study was to gather permeation data in well controlled test conditions to standardise the methods. Nine healthy volunteers each received five consecutive permeability tests by mouth using polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) and 51Cr-EDTA as probe molecules. The probes were dissolved in water, a glucose solution, a starch solution, a hyperosmolar lactulose-mannitol solution, and a liquid meal. A significantly decreased permeation for both probes was found when given with the hyperosmolar solution. The 51Cr-EDTA permeation was also decreased with water. The permeability index, 51Cr-EDTA/PEG-400, corrected for influencing factors, confirmed that the lactulose-mannitol solution and plain water yield lower values of macro-molecule permeation than starch, glucose or liquid meal. Hyperosmolarity was clearly accompanied by a decrease in permeability probably caused by reversed solvent drag. Interindividual variability of probe permeation and permeability index is very low with a standard liquid meal. It is proposed that for permeability studies a standard liquid meal is always used. PMID:7959195

  4. Test conditions greatly influence permeation of water soluble molecules through the intestinal mucosa: need for standardisation.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M; Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Huysmans, V; Geboes, K; Vantrappen, G; Rutgeerts, P

    1994-10-01

    Permeability tests are widely used to investigate the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases including coeliac disease, infectious diarrhoea, and inflammatory bowel disease. In Crohn's disease they are used as activity parameters by some investigators. Lack of standardisation, however, makes it very difficult to compare data reported in different studies. The aim of this study was to gather permeation data in well controlled test conditions to standardise the methods. Nine healthy volunteers each received five consecutive permeability tests by mouth using polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) and 51Cr-EDTA as probe molecules. The probes were dissolved in water, a glucose solution, a starch solution, a hyperosmolar lactulose-mannitol solution, and a liquid meal. A significantly decreased permeation for both probes was found when given with the hyperosmolar solution. The 51Cr-EDTA permeation was also decreased with water. The permeability index, 51Cr-EDTA/PEG-400, corrected for influencing factors, confirmed that the lactulose-mannitol solution and plain water yield lower values of macro-molecule permeation than starch, glucose or liquid meal. Hyperosmolarity was clearly accompanied by a decrease in permeability probably caused by reversed solvent drag. Interindividual variability of probe permeation and permeability index is very low with a standard liquid meal. It is proposed that for permeability studies a standard liquid meal is always used. PMID:7959195

  5. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  6. Standardisation and use of the alcohol biomarker carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT).

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos; Anton, Raymond; Arndt, Torsten; Bianchi, Vincenza; Deenmamode, Jean; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Whitfield, John B; Weykamp, Cas; Schellenberg, François

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a glycoform profile of serum transferrin that increases in response to sustained high alcohol intake and over the last decades has become an important alcohol biomarker with clinical and forensic applications. However, the wide range of CDT measurement procedures has resulted in lack of uniform results and reference limits, and hampered comparison of results. In 2005, the IFCC therefore founded a special working group (WG) aiming for standardisation of CDT measurement. This review summarises the history of CDT and the actions taken by the WG-CDT. Initial steps included the definition of the measurand (serum disialotransferrin to total transferrin fraction expressed in %), and the determination of a well-defined anion-exchange HPLC procedure as the candidate reference measurement procedure (cRMP). Subsequent achievements were the establishment of a network of reference laboratories to perform the cRMP, setting a reference interval, and development of a reference material based on human serum for which the laboratory network assign values. Using a set of reference materials for calibration allowed for achieving equivalence of results of all present CDT measurement procedures. The final steps of the WG-CDT have been a full validation of the cRMP to make it an IFCC approved RMP, and providing guidance for international standardisation of all CDT measurement procedures. PMID:27221205

  7. Mortality and cancer incidence among Lithuanian cement producing workers

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, G; Kurtinaitis, J; Andersen, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate mortality and cancer incidence of cement producing workers. Methods: A total of 2498 cement workers who have been employed at Portland cement producing departments for at least one year from 1956 to 2000 were followed up from 1 January 1978 to 31 December 2000. The cohort contributed 43 490 person-years to the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated as ratios between observed and expected numbers of cancers and deaths. The expected numbers were based on sex specific incidence and mortality rates for the total Lithuanian population. Results: Significantly increased SMRs were found for all malignant neoplasms (SMR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) and for lung cancer (SMR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) among male cement workers. SIR for all cancer sites was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4). Excess risk was found for cancer of the lung (SIR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1). The SIR for urinary bladder cancer was also increased (SIR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.5). The overall cancer incidence was not increased among females (SIR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). With increasing cumulated exposure to cement dust, there were indications of an increasing risk of lung and stomach cancers among males. Conclusions: This study supported the hypothesis that exposure to cement dust may increase the lung and bladder cancer risk. A dose related risk was found for stomach cancer, but no support was found for an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:15150393

  8. The effectiveness of a standardised positioning tool and bedside education on the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

    PubMed

    Spilker, Arlene; Hill, Constance; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the developmental proficiency of neonatal intensive care unit nurses, a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and a bedside education programme were introduced to the registered nurses in a 46 bed level III neonatal intensive care unit in the western United States. A developmental positioning team collected pre-intervention positioning scores on 54 preterm infants. This was followed by a survey of the registered nurses beliefs and attitudes, the introduction of the standardised assessment tool and an informal education programme. Post-intervention positioning scores were collected on 55 preterm infants, and analysis of the data indicated there was a statistically significant change in mean positioning scores. Additionally, the registered nurses identified several barriers to the implementation of developmental positioning. This research indicates the use of a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and bedside education may be useful strategies for improving the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses. PMID:26947083

  9. European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardisation of immunoassay results for pertussis requires homogeneity in the antigenic preparations.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Anna; Nardone, Antony; Pebody, Richard; Kafatos, George; Andrews, Nick; Chiarini, Alfredo; Taormina, Susanna; de Ory, Fernando; Prosenc, Katarina; Krize, Bohumir; Hallander, Hans; Ljungman, Margaretha; Marva, Esther; Tsakris, Athanassios; O'Flanagan, Darina; Schneider, François; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Vranckx, Robert; Karacs, Ildiko

    2008-08-18

    A standardisation process, already developed during the earlier European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN) project, was employed with a more robust algorithm to harmonise results of pertussis serological assays performed in 12 European and non-European countries. Initially, results from each country's own assay were compared with those obtained at the reference laboratory by means of an in-house pertussis toxin (PT)-based ELISA: seven countries used in-house or commercial PT-ELISAs; the other countries used assays based on Bordetella pertussis whole cell extracts (WCE) (three countries) or on combined PT-FHA (filamentous haemagglutinin) antigenic preparations (two countries). The WCE assays, although admitted for diagnostic purposes, confirmed their low correlation with the PT-ELISAs and their results could not be used for standardisation; the PT-FHA ELISAs gave results that were suitable for standardisation in one country but unsatisfactory in the other; the use of purified PT in serological assays confirmed its better reliability than other preparations and all PT-ELISAs results could be calibrated against those of the reference centre. In the standardisation process two high-titre cut-offs indicative of likelihood of recent infection (from within 4 weeks of disease onset up to 1 year after) were included for evaluations as they are suggested to be more useful, for the sero-epidemiological assays of immunity to pertussis, than the cut-off of protection, commonly employed, but still not defined for pertussis. Providing PT-ELISAs are used, standardisation of pertussis assay results is always possible and, when standardisation is performed, evaluation and comparison of the impact of different interventions can be also allowed, by measuring at the distribution of high antibody titres in the populations. PMID:18602434

  10. Disability, mortality, and incidence of cancer among Geneva painters and electricians: a historical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M; Raymond, L; Tissot, R; Sweetnam, P M

    1989-01-01

    The 1916 painters and the 1948 electricians who resided in the Canton of Geneva at the time of the 1970 census were identified and followed up to 1984. During the study period 121 disability pensions were awarded to painters and 59 to electricians. Age standardised incidence of disability per 1000 man-years at risk was higher among painters than among electricians for all neuropsychiatric causes (1.23/1000 and 0.68/1000, respectively) and for all other causes (5.50/1000 and 3.41/1000, respectively). No case of presenile dementia was diagnosed among painters. There was inadequate evidence to indicate that the higher risk of neuropsychiatric disability for painters might have been due to their occupational exposure to organic solvents. A possible toxic effect of these substances on the central nervous system was confounded with alcoholism which was associated with disability from neuropsychiatric disease in 12 of 20 painters and in only one of 10 electricians. Mortality and incidence of cancer were assessed among both cohorts and compared with the expected figures calculated from Geneva rates. Among painters there was a significant increase in overall mortality (O = 254, E = 218.5), in mortality from all cancers (O = 96, E = 75.4), and in incidence from all cancers (O = 159, E = 132.0). For the specific cancer sites, there was a significant excess risk for lung cancer (mortality: O = 40, E = 23.0), which was possibly related to occupational exposure to asbestos and to zinc chromate, although cigarette smoking was not controlled. The significant excesses of biliary tract cancer and of bladder cancer were in accordance with previous observations among painters from other countries. There was also a significant increase in incidence from testicular cancer (O=5, E=1.6), which has not been reported before. For causes of death other than cancer the excesses for alcoholism (O=5, E=0.8). for liver cirrhosis (O=14, E=8.8), for motor vehicle accidents (O=12, E=5.9), and for

  11. The Standardisation and Sequencing of Solar Eclipse Images for the Eclipse Megamovie Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krista, Larisza D.; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new tool, the Solar Eclipse Image Standardisation and Sequencing (SEISS), developed to process multi-source total solar eclipse images by adjusting them to the same standard of size, resolution, and orientation. Furthermore, by analysing the eclipse images, we can determine the relative time between the observations and order them to create a movie of the observed total solar eclipse sequence. We successfully processed images taken at the 14 November 2012 total solar eclipse that occurred in Queensland, Australia, and created a short eclipse proto-movie. The SEISS tool was developed for the Eclipse Megamovie Project (EMP: www.eclipsemegamovie.org), with the goal of processing thousands of images taken by the public during solar eclipse events. EMP is a collaboration among multiple institutes aiming to engage and advance the public interest in solar eclipses and the science of the Sun-Earth connection.

  12. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach

    PubMed Central

    MONTANO, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  13. Predicting the development of pregnancy-associated hypertension. The place of standardised blood-pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Gallery, E D; Hunyor, S N; Ross, M; Györy, A Z

    1977-06-18

    82 initially normotensive pregnant women with no known history of renal disease were seen at monthly intervals from 16 weeks' amenorrhoea onwards, and their blood-pressure (B.P.) was measured sitting and lying on their left side. 15 developed hypertension (B.P. greater than 135/85 mm Hg lying on the left side) in late pregnancy. When these women were compared with the 67 who remained normotensive throughout, their B.P.s were found to be significantly higher even in early pregnancy, although individual patients were not always separable in this way. When B.P. measured in this rigidly standardised manner was compared with routine antenatal clinic values, it was apparent that the latter did not detect the difference between the two groups. Women who develop hypertension in the third trimester of pregnancy (pre-eclampsia) may represent a separate group from entirely normal pregnant women from the beginning of pregnancy. PMID:68380

  14. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    PubMed

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  15. A Standardised Vocabulary for Identifying Benthic Biota and Substrata from Underwater Imagery: The CATAMI Classification Scheme.

    PubMed

    Althaus, Franziska; Hill, Nicole; Ferrari, Renata; Edwards, Luke; Przeslawski, Rachel; Schönberg, Christine H L; Stuart-Smith, Rick; Barrett, Neville; Edgar, Graham; Colquhoun, Jamie; Tran, Maggie; Jordan, Alan; Rees, Tony; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imagery collected by still and video cameras is an increasingly important tool for minimal impact, repeatable observations in the marine environment. Data generated from imagery includes identification, annotation and quantification of biological subjects and environmental features within an image. To be long-lived and useful beyond their project-specific initial purpose, and to maximize their utility across studies and disciplines, marine imagery data should use a standardised vocabulary of defined terms. This would enable the compilation of regional, national and/or global data sets from multiple sources, contributing to broad-scale management studies and development of automated annotation algorithms. The classification scheme developed under the Collaborative and Automated Tools for Analysis of Marine Imagery (CATAMI) project provides such a vocabulary. The CATAMI classification scheme introduces Australian-wide acknowledged, standardised terminology for annotating benthic substrates and biota in marine imagery. It combines coarse-level taxonomy and morphology, and is a flexible, hierarchical classification that bridges the gap between habitat/biotope characterisation and taxonomy, acknowledging limitations when describing biological taxa through imagery. It is fully described, documented, and maintained through curated online databases, and can be applied across benthic image collection methods, annotation platforms and scoring methods. Following release in 2013, the CATAMI classification scheme was taken up by a wide variety of users, including government, academia and industry. This rapid acceptance highlights the scheme's utility and the potential to facilitate broad-scale multidisciplinary studies of marine ecosystems when applied globally. Here we present the CATAMI classification scheme, describe its conception and features, and discuss its utility and the opportunities as well as challenges arising from its use. PMID:26509918

  16. Species-specific Standardisation of Licorice by Metabolomic Profiling of Flavanones and Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Simmler, Charlotte; Jones, Tristesse; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Nikolić, Dejan C.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major phenolics from licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza sp.) are glycosides of the flavanone liquiritigenin (F) and its 2′-hydroxychalcone isomer, isoliquiritigenin (C). As the F and C contents fluctuate between batches of licorice, both quality control and standardisation of its preparations become complex tasks. Objective To characterise the F and C metabolome in extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. by addressing their composition in major F–C pairs and defining the total F:C proportion. Material and methods Three types of extracts from DNA-authenticated samples were analysed by a validated UHPLC/UV method to quantify major F and C glycosides. Each extract was characterised by the identity of major F–C pairs and the proportion of Fs among all quantified Fs:Cs. Results The F and C compositions and proportions were found to be constant for all extracts from a Glycyrrhiza species. All G. uralensis extracts contained up to 2.5 more Fs than G. glabra extracts. Major F–C pairs were B-ring glycosidated in G. uralensis, and A-/B-ring apiosyl-glucosidated in the G. glabra extracts. The F:C proportion was found to be linked to the glycosidation site: the more B-ring F-C glycosides were present, the higher was the final F:C proportion in the extract. These results enable the chemical differentiation of extracts from G. uralensis and G. glabra, which are characterised by total F:C proportions of 8.37:1.63 and 7.18:2.82, respectively. Conclusion Extracts from G. glabra and G. uralensis can be differentiated by their respective F and C compositions and proportions, which are both useful for further standardisation of licorice botanicals. PMID:25859589

  17. A Standardised Vocabulary for Identifying Benthic Biota and Substrata from Underwater Imagery: The CATAMI Classification Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Alan; Rees, Tony; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imagery collected by still and video cameras is an increasingly important tool for minimal impact, repeatable observations in the marine environment. Data generated from imagery includes identification, annotation and quantification of biological subjects and environmental features within an image. To be long-lived and useful beyond their project-specific initial purpose, and to maximize their utility across studies and disciplines, marine imagery data should use a standardised vocabulary of defined terms. This would enable the compilation of regional, national and/or global data sets from multiple sources, contributing to broad-scale management studies and development of automated annotation algorithms. The classification scheme developed under the Collaborative and Automated Tools for Analysis of Marine Imagery (CATAMI) project provides such a vocabulary. The CATAMI classification scheme introduces Australian-wide acknowledged, standardised terminology for annotating benthic substrates and biota in marine imagery. It combines coarse-level taxonomy and morphology, and is a flexible, hierarchical classification that bridges the gap between habitat/biotope characterisation and taxonomy, acknowledging limitations when describing biological taxa through imagery. It is fully described, documented, and maintained through curated online databases, and can be applied across benthic image collection methods, annotation platforms and scoring methods. Following release in 2013, the CATAMI classification scheme was taken up by a wide variety of users, including government, academia and industry. This rapid acceptance highlights the scheme’s utility and the potential to facilitate broad-scale multidisciplinary studies of marine ecosystems when applied globally. Here we present the CATAMI classification scheme, describe its conception and features, and discuss its utility and the opportunities as well as challenges arising from its use. PMID:26509918

  18. Application of a standardised protocol for hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement improves quality of readings and facilitates reduction of variceal bleeding in cirrhotics

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Tze Tong; Gogna, Apoorva; Irani, Farah Gillan; Too, Chow Wei; Lo, Hoau Gong Richard; Tan, Bien Soo; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Lui, Hock Foong; Chang, Pik Eu Jason

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is recommended for prognostic and therapeutic indications in centres with adequate resources and expertise. Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of HVPG measurements at our centre before and after introduction of a standardised protocol, and the clinical relevance of the HVPG to variceal bleeding in cirrhotics. METHODS HVPG measurements performed at Singapore General Hospital from 2005–2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Criteria for quality HVPG readings were triplicate readings, absence of negative pressure values and variability of ≤ 2 mmHg. The rate of variceal bleeding was compared in cirrhotics who achieved a HVPG response to pharmacotherapy (reduction of the HVPG to < 12 mmHg or by ≥ 20% of baseline) and those who did not. RESULTS 126 HVPG measurements were performed in 105 patients (mean age 54.7 ± 11.4 years; 55.2% men). 80% had liver cirrhosis and 20% had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). The mean overall HVPG was 13.5 ± 7.2 mmHg, with a significant difference between the cirrhosis and NCPH groups (p < 0.001). The proportion of quality readings significantly improved after the protocol was introduced. HVPG response was achieved in 28 (33.3%, n = 84) cirrhotics. Nine had variceal bleeding over a median follow-up of 29 months. The rate of variceal bleeding was significantly lower in HVPG responders compared to nonresponders (p = 0.025). CONCLUSION The quality of HVPG measurements in our centre improved after the introduction of a standardised protocol. A HVPG response can prognosticate the risk of variceal bleeding in cirrhotics. PMID:26996384

  19. Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant: Part 2. Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bye, T.; Romundstad, P. R.; Ronneberg, A.; Hilt, B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A Norwegian coke plant that operated from 1964 to 1988 was investigated to ascertain whether the male workers in this plant had increased morbidities of cancer or increased mortality from specific causes, particularly associated with specific exposures at the coke plant. METHODS: Personal data on all the employees of the plant were obtained from the plant's archives. With additional data from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics we identified 888 male former workers at the plant. Causes of death were obtained from the Norwegian Bureau of Statistics, and cancer diagnoses from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. The results were compared with national averages adjusted for age. Specific exposures were estimated with records of actual measurements done at the plant and interviews with former workers at the plant. RESULTS: A significant excess of stomach cancer (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01 to 4.21) was found. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and sudden death was positively associated with work in areas which entailed peak exposures to CO. When considering work in such areas the past 3 years before death, the association was significant (p = 0.01). The last result is based on only two deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the short follow up time and the small size of the cohort the results should be interpreted with a certain caution. The positive results would justify a re- examination of the cohort at a later date.   PMID:9861185

  20. Who Pays for Standardised Testing? A Cost-Benefit Study of Mandated Testing in Three Queensland Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Merilyn Gladys; Klenowski, Valentina; Chalmers, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian study that explored the costs and benefits of the National Assessment Programme, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing, both tangible and intangible, of Year 9 students in three Queensland schools. The study commenced with a review of pertinent studies and other related material about standardised testing in…

  1. The Power of Numbers: The Adoption and Consequences of National Low-Stakes Standardised Tests in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feniger, Yariv; Israeli, Mirit; Yehuda, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    The use of standardised tests as a central tool in education policy has in recent decades become a common feature of many national education systems. In 2002 the Israeli Ministry of Education introduced new mandatory state tests for primary and middle schools. The article describes the adoption of these low-stakes tests and assesses their impact…

  2. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  3. Personal Meaning in the Public Sphere: The Standardisation and Rationalisation of Biodiversity Data in the UK and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Esther

    2010-01-01

    The demand for biodiversity data is increasing. Governments require standardised, objective data to underpin planning and conservation decisions. These data are produced by large numbers of (volunteer) natural historians and non-governmental organisations. This article analyses the interface between the state and the volunteer naturalists to…

  4. Professional Standards for Teachers: How Do They "Work"? An Experiment in Tracing Standardisation In-the-Making in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Carlijne; Simons, Maarten; Struyf, Elke

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, professional standards describing competencies for teaching staff have emerged in nation states all around the world. This article reports on a pilot-study that applies a sociotechnological "lens" to examine this standardisation process in educational policy. In line with ethnographic analyses drawing on science and…

  5. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Study question Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Methods Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to secondhand smoke at age 4 months was assessed by standardised parent reported questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the incidence of caries in deciduous teeth, defined as at least one decayed, missing, or filled tooth assessed by qualified dentists without radiographs. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of exposure to secondhand smoke compared with having no smoker in the family after propensity score adjustment for clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Study answer and limitations Prevalence of household smoking among the 76 920 children was 55.3% (n=42 525), and 6.8% (n=5268) had evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke. A total of 12 729 incidents of dental caries were observed and most were decayed teeth (3 year follow-up rate 91.9%). The risk of caries at age 3 years was 14.0% (no smoker in family), 20.0% (smoking in household but without evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke), and 27.6% (exposure to tobacco smoke). The propensity score adjusted hazard ratios of the two exposure groups compared with having no smoker in the family were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.52) and 2.14 (1.99 to 2.29), respectively. The propensity score adjusted hazard ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and having no smoker in the family was 1.10 (0.97 to 1.25). What this study adds Exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months of age was associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of caries

  6. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  7. Incidence of medulloblastoma in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Kostova, Maria; Strother, Douglas; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Fryer, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Fleming, Adam; Percy, Vanessa; Afzal, Samina; Wilson, Beverly; Bowes, Lynette; Zelcer, Shayna; Mpofu, Chris; Silva, Mariana; Larouche, Valerie; Brossard, Josee; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. There was a perception of pediatric neuro-oncologists that the incidence had declined in Canada. An epidemiological survey was undertaken to determine the incidence of this tumor in Canada and if a change had indeed occurred. All patients 14 years and under diagnosed with medulloblastoma from 1990 to 2009 inclusive in Canada were included. Data collected included date of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, stage, pathology, treatment, recurrence and current status. Data were analysed for change in incidence over time. Data were obtained on 574 eligible patients. The mean overall incidence per 1,000,000 persons was 4.82 (95 % CI 4.28-5.35) for the study time period. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.8 years, and there was a male predominance. Although there was an increase in incidence over the first three time periods (24 % for 1990-1994, 27.5 % for 1995-1999, 27.7 % for 2000-2004), the most recent time period (2005-2009) showed a decrease (21 %). This was true for male children while the incidence was stable for females. The mean incidence rate was double for children under the age of 5 years (7.92 per million) compared to those over 5 years (3.64 per million).This study showed that from 1990 to 2009 the incidence of medulloblastoma was relatively stable, with a slight decrease in the last five-year time period. PMID:25129547

  8. Towards a standardised approach for evaluating guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedation in palliative care has received growing attention in recent years; and so have guidelines, position statements, and related literature that provide recommendations for its practice. Yet little is known collectively about the content, scope and methodological quality of these materials. According to research, there are large variations in palliative sedation practice, depending on the definition and methodology used. However, a standardised approach to comparing and contrasting related documents, across countries, associations and governmental bodies is lacking. This paper reports on a protocol designed to enable thorough and systematic comparison of guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation. Methods and design A multidisciplinary and international group of palliative care researchers, identified themes and clinical issues on palliative sedation based on expert consultations and evidence drawn from the EAPC (European Association of Palliative Care) framework for palliative sedation and AGREE II (Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation) instrument for guideline assessment. The most relevant themes were selected and built into a comprehensive checklist. This was tested on people working closely with practitioners and patients, for user-friendliness and comprehensibility, and modified where necessary. Next, a systematic search was conducted for guidelines in English, Dutch, Flemish, or Italian. The search was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, CancerLit, CNAHL, Cochrane Library, NHS Evidence and Google Scholar), and via other Internet resources. Hereafter, the final version of the checklist will be used to extract data from selected literature, and the same will be compiled, entered into SPSS, cleaned and analysed systematically for publication. Discussion We have together developed a comprehensive checklist in a scientifically rigorous manner to allow standardised and systematic comparison. The protocol is applicable to all

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Growth and Development and the Incidence of Physical Defects at Ages 9 and 10. A Progress Report to the Bernard van Leer Foundation on the Growth and Development Study of the Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anne; O'Brien, Peter

    A longitudinal comparative study was made of the physical growth and development of Australian fourth-grade students from low, medium, and high socioeconomic groups. Specific questions addressed were (1) Do children differing in socioeconomic status differ in anthropometric characteristics and incidence of physical defects? (2) What is the…

  10. Incidence of syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Vosseller, J Turner; Karl, John W; Greisberg, Justin K

    2014-03-01

    Injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur with ankle sprain or fracture. The incidence of syndesmotic injury has not been specifically studied at a population level. Data on syndesmotic injury were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), a federal-state-private partnership. It is administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Two HCUP databases were queried for 8 states: the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database. The first 6 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) code diagnoses were searched for codes that are used for syndesmotic injury (ie, 845.03). These data, along with data from the 2010 US census, were used to yield incidence rates for syndesmosis injury, as well as for various demographic groups. National estimates of injury totals were also calculated. In the 8 states, there were a total of 1821 syndesmotic injuries. Given the population of these states, the incidence rate of syndesmotic injury was 2.09 syndesmotic injuries per 100,000 person-years. This incidence correlates to an estimated 6445 syndesmotic injuries per year in the United States. These data provide some baseline numbers as to the incidence of syndesmotic injury in the United States. Although the incidence was low relative to some other injuries, the fact that syndesmotic injuries tend to occur in younger patients may have a greater effect in terms of productive years of life lost. PMID:24762148

  11. Quantifying the impact of climate change on drought regimes using the Standardised Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Katie; Warren, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a methodology to characterise short- or long-term drought events, designed to aid understanding of how climate change may affect future risk. An indicator of drought magnitude, combining parameters of duration, spatial extent and intensity, is presented based on the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPI is applied to observed (1955-2003) and projected (2003-2050) precipitation data from the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS). Potential consequences of climate change on drought regimes in Australia, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Spain, Portugal and the USA are quantified. Uncertainty is assessed by emulating a range of global circulation models to project climate change. Further uncertainty is addressed through the use of a high-emission scenario and a low-stabilisation scenario representing a stringent mitigation policy. Climate change was shown to have a larger effect on the duration and magnitude of long-term droughts, and Australia, Brazil, Spain, Portugal and the USA were highlighted as being particularly vulnerable to multi-year drought events, with the potential for drought magnitude to exceed historical experience. The study highlights the characteristics of drought which may be more sensitive under climate change. For example, on average, short-term droughts in the USA do not become more intense but are projected to increase in duration. Importantly, the stringent mitigation scenario had limited effect on drought regimes in the first half of the twenty-first century, showing that adaptation to drought risk will be vital in these regions.

  12. Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Sofie M; Kinross, Pete; Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael; Kola, Axel; Delmée, Michel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Mentula, Silja; Barbut, Frédéric; Hajdu, Agnes; Ingebretsen, André; Pituch, Hanna; Macovei, Ioana S; Jovanović, Milica; Wiuff, Camilla; Schmid, Daniela; Olsen, Katharina Ep; Wilcox, Mark H; Suetens, Carl; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital). A total of 37 hospitals in 14 European countries tested these options for a three-month period (between 13 May and 1 November 2013). All 37 hospitals successfully completed the minimal surveillance option (for 1,152 patients). Clinical data were submitted for 94% (1,078/1,152) of the patients in the light option; information on CDI origin and outcome was complete for 94% (1,016/1,078) and 98% (294/300) of the patients in the light and enhanced options, respectively. The workload of the options was 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 person-days per 10,000 hospital discharges, respectively. Enhanced surveillance was tested and was successful in 32 of the hospitals, showing that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 was predominant (30% (79/267)). This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. PMID:27472820

  13. Using hospital standardised mortality ratios to assess quality of care--proceed with extreme caution.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian A; Brand, Caroline A; Phelps, Grant E; Barker, Anna L; Cameron, Peter A

    2011-06-20

    Australian Health Ministers have endorsed the hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) as a key indicator of quality and safety, and efforts are currently underway towards its national implementation. In the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands and the United States, the HSMR has been used for several years within organisations to monitor performance and response to various quality and safety programs. In the UK and Canada, the HSMR is also publicly reported and used to compare performance between hospitals. The validity and reliability of the HSMR as a screening tool for distinguishing low-quality from high-quality hospitals remain in doubt, and it has not yet been proven that HSMR reporting necessarily leads to worthwhile improvement in quality of care and patient outcomes. Institutions may respond to an unfavourable HSMR by "gaming" administrative data and risk-adjustment models or implementing inappropriate changes to care. Despite its apparent low cost and ease of measurement, the HSMR is currently not "fit for purpose" as a screening tool for detecting low-quality hospitals and should not be used in making interhospital comparisons. It may be better suited to monitoring changes in outcomes over time within individual institutions. PMID:21692724

  14. Standardisation or resilience? The paradox of stability and change in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kirstine Zinck

    2016-09-01

    This article explores an apparent paradox of stability and change in patient safety thinking and practice. The dominant approach to patient safety has largely been focused on closing 'safety gaps' through standardisation in seemingly stable healthcare systems. However, the presupposition of system stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature, the article analyses how a separation between stability and change is articulated in ontological, historical, and situated terms, and it suggests the way in which predetermining healthcare settings as either stable or unstable paves the way for a system engineering approach to patient safety that pre-empts certain types of safety solutions. Drawing on John Dewey's influential ideas about the interconnectedness of stability and change, this prescriptive perspective is discussed and challenged. It is suggested that only by rethinking the relationship between change and stability can patient safety efforts begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with 'safety dispositions' as a precondition for delivering safe care. PMID:27397546

  15. Validation of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale in a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Seegobin, Seth; Frissa, Souci; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Hayes, Richard D.; Moran, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD) is associated with important health outcomes in the general population. However, the length of diagnostic interviews poses a significant barrier to obtaining large scale, population‐based data on PD. A brief screen for the identification of people at high risk of PD in the general population could be extremely valuable for both clinicians and researchers. Aim We set out to validate the Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), in a general population sample, using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM‐IV Personality Disorders (SCID‐II) as a gold standard. Method One hundred and ten randomly selected, community‐dwelling adults were administered the SAPAS screening interview. The SCID‐II was subsequently administered by a clinical interviewer blind to the initial SAPAS score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the discriminatory performance of the SAPAS, relative to the SCID‐II. Results Area under the curve for the SAPAS was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001), indicating moderate overall discriminatory accuracy. A cut point score of 4 on the SAPAS correctly classified 58% of participants. At this cut point, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.69 and 0.53 respectively. Conclusion The SAPAS operates less efficiently as a screen in general population samples and is probably most usefully applied in clinical populations. © 2015 The Authors Personality and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26314385

  16. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  17. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Bernd; Mittlboeck, Manfred; Lippautz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making. PMID:22163537

  18. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwińska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (⁻OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. PMID:24657078

  19. Bio-objectifying European bodies: standardisation of biobanks in the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The article traces the genealogy of the Minimum Information About Biobank Data Sharing model, created in the European Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure to facilitate collaboration among biobanks and to foster the exchange of biological samples and data. This information model is aimed at the identification of biobanks; unification of databases; and objectification of the information, samples, and related studies - to create a completely new 'bio-object infrastructure' within the EU. The paper discusses key challenges in creating a 'universal' information model of such a kind, the most important technical translations of European research policy needed for a standardised model for biobank information, and how this model creates new bio-objects. The author claims that this amounts to redefinition of biobanks and technical governance over virtually bio-objectified European populations. It is argued here that old governance models based on the nation-state need radical reconsideration so that we are prepared for a new and changing situation wherein bodies of information that lack organs flow from one database to another with a click of a mouse. PMID:26626620

  20. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  1. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children <5 years old at the diagnosis) in Brazil. Data from 18 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) were analyzed (period 1999-2010). The analysis consisted of frequencies, age-adjusted incidence rates, and joinpoint regression results, including annual average percent change (AAPC) in incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  2. Minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (MITAP): a first step towards reproducibility and standardisation of cellular therapies

    PubMed Central

    Spiering, Rachel; Aguillon, Juan C.; Anderson, Amy E.; Appel, Silke; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; ten Brinke, Anja; Broere, Femke; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Diboll, Julie; Geissler, Edward K.; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gregori, Silvia; van Ham, S. Marieke; Lattimer, Staci; Marshall, Lindsay; Harry, Rachel A.; Hutchinson, James A.; Isaacs, John D.; Joosten, Irma; van Kooten, Cees; Lopez Diaz de Cerio, Ascension; Nikolic, Tatjana; Oral, Haluk Barbaros; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Ritter, Thomas; Riquelme, Paloma; Thomson, Angus W.; Trucco, Massimo; Vives-Pi, Marta; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular therapies with tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (tolAPC) show great promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of destructive immune responses after transplantation. The methodologies for generating tolAPC vary greatly between different laboratories, making it difficult to compare data from different studies; thus constituting a major hurdle for the development of standardised tolAPC therapeutic products. Here we describe an initiative by members of the tolAPC field to generate a minimum information model for tolAPC (MITAP), providing a reporting framework that will make differences and similarities between tolAPC products transparent. In this way, MITAP constitutes a first but important step towards the production of standardised and reproducible tolAPC for clinical application.

  3. TRANSVAC workshop on standardisation and harmonisation of analytical platforms for HIV, TB and malaria vaccines: 'how can big data help?'.

    PubMed

    Dutruel, Céline; Thole, Jelle; Geels, Mark; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Ottenhoff, Tom; Guzman, Carlos A; Fletcher, Helen A; Leroy, Odile; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2014-07-31

    High-throughput analyses of RNA and protein expression are increasingly used for better understanding of vaccine-induced immunity and protection against infectious disease. With an increasing number of vaccine candidates in clinical development, it is timely to consider standardisation and harmonisation of sample collection, storage and analysis to ensure results of highest quality from these precious samples. These challenges were discussed by a group of international experts during a workshop organised by TRANSVAC, a European Commission-funded Research Infrastructure project. The main conclusions were: Platforms are rarely standardised for use in preclinical and clinical studies. Coordinated efforts should continue to harmonise the experimental set up of these studies, as well as the establishment of internal standards and controls. This will ensure comparability, efficiency and feasibility of the global analyses performed on preclinical and clinical data sets. PMID:24950356

  4. Effect of high-pressure homogenisation on rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk and standardised milk gels.

    PubMed

    Lodaite, Kristina; Chevalier, François; Armaforte, Emanuele; Kelly, Alan L

    2009-08-01

    The effects of high-pressure homogenisation (HPH) in the pressure range 100-300 MPa on the gel formation and rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk (0.08%, fat, w/w) and standardised milk (3.60% fat, w/w) gels at pH 6.60 were studied. The average casein micelle size in skim milk was significantly reduced and the gel formation time decreased when skim milk was subjected to the pressures of 200 and 300 MPa. The storage modulus of rennet-induced skim milk gels at 2700 s after rennet addition was higher for samples homogenised at higher pressures, which contained smaller casein particles. HPH had little effect on the large deformation properties of rennet-induced skim milk gels. The gel formation time of renneted standardised milk was significantly reduced as a result of HPH, while the storage modulus of rennet-induced milk gels 2700 s after rennet addition increased with increasing homogenising pressure. The apparent fracture stress was slightly higher for standardised milk gels formed from HPH-treated milk, whereas the apparent strain at fracture was lower, than that of unhomogenised milk. In conclusion, HPH treatment influenced gel formation processes of skim milk and its small-deformation rheological properties, mainly through modification of casein micelles. HPH also significantly affected the gel formation process of standardised milk gels and its rheological properties as a result of an increase in volume fraction of aggregating particles, while the particle size was of lesser importance. PMID:19445828

  5. [Comparative studies into effects of synthetic oestrogens and gestagens on certain serum protein fractions under standardised conditions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Stelzner, A; Krause, G; Tarnick, M; Scheler, R; Schubert, H; Börner, A; Carol, W

    1980-01-01

    Initial effects of the following hormonal contraceptives on certain serum proteins in 29 women were checked under standardised conditions through the first three cycles on the pill: Deposiston (ethinyloestradiol-sulphonate/norethisterone-acetate), Gravistat (ethinyloestradiol/norgestrel), Non-Ovlon (ethinyloestradiol/norethisterone-actate).--Effects were found to differ strongly by fractions. Differences were recorded also from action over time. Changes and deviations were confirmed to depend on oestrogen levels. PMID:6164183

  6. Use of non-standardised micro-destructive techniques in the characterization of traditional construction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Theodoridou, Magdalini; Modestou, Sevasti; Fournari, Revecca; Dagrain, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of material properties and the diagnosis of their state of weathering and conservation are three of the most important steps in the field of cultural heritage preservation. Several standardised experimental methods exist, especially for determining the material properties and their durability. However, they are limited in their application by the required size of test specimens and the controlled laboratory conditions needed to undertake the tests; this is especially true when the materials under study constitute immovable parts of heritage structures. The current use of other advanced methods of analysis, such as imaging techniques, in the aforementioned field of research offers invaluable results. However, these techniques may not always be accessible to the wider research community due to their complex nature and relatively high cost of application. This study presents innovative applications of two recently developed cutting techniques; the portable Drilling Resistance Measuring System (DRMS) and the scratch tool. Both methods are defined as micro-destructive, since they only destroy a very small portion of sample material. The general concept of both methods lies within the forces needed to cut a material by linear (scratch tool) or rotational (DRMS) cutting action; these forces are related to the mechanical properties of the material and the technological parameters applied on the tool. Therefore, for a given testing configuration, the only parameter influencing the forces applied is the strength of the material. These two techniques have been used alongside a series of standardised laboratory tests aiming at the correlation of various stone properties (density, porosity, dynamic elastic modulus and uniaxial compressive strength). The results prove the potential of both techniques in assessing the uniaxial compressive strength of stones. The scratch tool has also been used effectively to estimate the compressive strength of mud bricks. It

  7. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  8. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality

  9. Standardised online data access and publishing for Earth Systems and Climate data in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. J. K.; Druken, K. A.; Trenham, C.; Wang, J.; Wyborn, L. A.; Smillie, J.; Allen, C.; Porter, D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) hosts Australia's largest repository (10+ PB) of research data collections spanning a wide range of fields from climate, coasts, oceans, and geophysics through to astronomy, bioinformatics, and the social sciences. Spatial scales range from global to local ultra-high resolution, requiring storage volumes from MB to PB. The data have been organised to be highly connected to both the NCI HPC and cloud resources (e.g., interactive visualisation and analysis environments). Researchers can login to utilise the high performance infrastructure for these data collections, or access the data via standards-based web services. Our aim is to provide a trusted platform to support interdisciplinary research across all the collections as well as services for use of the data within individual communities. We thus cater to a wide range of researcher needs, whilst needing to maintain a consistent approach to data management and publishing. All research data collections hosted at NCI are governed by a data management plan, prior to being published through a variety of platforms and web services such as OPeNDAP, HTTP, and WMS. The data management plan ensures the use of standard formats (when available) that comply with relevant data conventions (e.g., CF-Convention) and metadata standards (e.g., ISO19115). Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) can be minted at NCI and assigned to datasets and collections. Large scale data growth and use in a variety of research fields has led to a rise in, and acceptance of, open spatial data formats such as NetCDF4/HDF5, prompting a need to extend these data conventions to fields such as geophysics and satellite Earth observations. The fusion of DOI-minted data that is discoverable and accessible via metadata and web services, creates a complete picture of data hosting, discovery, use, and citation. This enables standardised and reproducible data analysis.

  10. Recommendation for a Standardised Method of Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Prüller, Sandra; Frömke, Cornelia; Kaspar, Heike; Klein, Günter; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to establish and standardise a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method for porcine Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica isolates from different geographical regions and farms were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One reference and one type strain plus two field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were chosen to analyse growth curves in four different media: cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) with and without 2% lysed horse blood, Brain-Heart-Infusion (BHI), and Caso broth. The growth rate of each test strain in each medium was determined by culture enumeration and the suitability of CAMHB was confirmed by comparative statistical analysis. Thereafter, reference and type strain and eight epidemiologically unrelated field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were used to test the suitability of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method following CLSI-approved performance standards given in document VET01-A4. Susceptibility tests, using 20 antimicrobial agents, were performed in five replicates, and data were collected after 20 and 24 hours incubation and statistically analysed. Due to the low growth rate of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours resulted in significantly more homogeneous minimum inhibitory concentrations after five replications compared to a 20-hour incubation. An interlaboratory comparison trial including susceptibility testing of 24 antimicrobial agents revealed a high mean level of reproducibility (97.9%) of the modified method. Hence, in a harmonization for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours in CAMHB medium with an incubation temperature of 35°C and an inoculum concentration of approximately 5 x 105 cfu/ml was proposed. PMID:25910232

  11. RECIST 1.1 - Standardisation and disease-specific adaptations: Perspectives from the RECIST Working Group.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lawrence H; Seymour, Lesley; Litière, Saskia; Ford, Robert; Gwyther, Stephen; Mandrekar, Sumithra; Shankar, Lalitha; Bogaerts, Jan; Chen, Alice; Dancey, Janet; Hayes, Wendy; Hodi, F Stephen; Hoekstra, Otto S; Huang, Erich P; Lin, Nancy; Liu, Yan; Therasse, Patrick; Wolchok, Jedd D; de Vries, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Radiologic imaging of disease sites plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with cancer. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), introduced in 2000, and modified in 2009, has become the de facto standard for assessment of response in solid tumours in patients on clinical trials. The RECIST Working Group considers the ability of the global oncology community to implement and adopt updates to RECIST in a timely manner to be critical. Updates to RECIST must be tested, validated and implemented in a standardised, methodical manner in response to therapeutic and imaging technology advances as well as experience gained by users. This was the case with the development of RECIST 1.1, where an expanded data warehouse was developed to test and validate modifications. Similar initiatives are ongoing, testing RECIST in the evaluation of response to non-cytotoxic agents, immunotherapies, as well as in specific diseases. The RECIST Working Group has previously outlined the level of evidence considered necessary to formally and fully validate new imaging markers as an appropriate end-point for clinical trials. Achieving the optimal level of evidence desired is a difficult feat for phase III trials; this involves a meta-analysis of multiple prospective, randomised multicentre clinical trials. The rationale for modifications should also be considered; the modifications may be proposed to improve surrogacy, to provide a more mechanistic imaging technique, or be designed to improve reproducibility of the imaging biomarker. Here, we present the commonly described modifications of RECIST, each of which is associated with different levels of evidence and validation. PMID:27237360

  12. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  13. [Surgical History Taking and Clinical Examination: Establishing a Standardised System by Means of a Nation-Wide Academic Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    von Bernstorff, W; Irmer, H; Menges, P; Peters, S; Heidecke, C-D; Busemann, A

    2014-11-13

    Background: History taking and systematic clinical examination are central techniques of physicians. Medicine in general and surgery in particular frequently require immediate decisions and start of therapies. So far, a standardised surgical system for history taking and clinical examination in teaching has been lacking at our faculty. A consensus of all medical faculties on a standardised system could be a tool to improve the medical teaching and education at our teaching institutions. Methods: The established Anglo-Saxonian system of history taking and clinical examination was adapted to our own clinical needs. Thereafter, this system was sent out to all chairmen of general and visceral surgery departments in German University Hospitals asking for evaluation and improvements. We adapted the system according to the chairmen's comments and suggestions. Since winter semester 2011 this system has been integrated into the clinical course of history taking and examination. It is compulsory for all 5th semester students (first clinical year/graduate course) at the Universitätsmedizin Greifswald. In addition, a video was produced demonstrating all major techniques of clinical examination. This video is available for all students on a password blocked site of the World Wide Web. Results: Altogether, 89 % of all contacted chairmen returned their comments and suggestions for improvements. After implementation of the new system, positive evaluations of students increased significantly from 63.5 to 77.0 % in general and abdominal surgery (p < 0.0001) and from 76.4 to 83.5 % in vascular and thoracic surgery (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The presented system is a standardised tool of history taking and clinical examination applicable for students as well as qualified surgeons in daily routine work. It has been approved by the majority of the departments of surgery of all German university hospitals. Furthermore, it can be applied by other medical specialties, in

  14. The 6 year incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in genetically at-risk children: the TEDDY study

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Lynch, Kristian F.; Schatz, Desmond A.; Ilonen, Jorma; Lernmark, Åke; Hagopian, William A.; Rewers, Marian J.; She, Jin-Xiong; Simell, Olli G.; Toppari, Jorma; Ziegler, Anette-G.; Akolkar, Beena; Bonifacio, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Islet autoantibodies, in addition to elevated blood glucose, define type 1 diabetes. These autoantibodies are detectable for a variable period of time before diabetes onset. Thus, the occurrence of islet autoantibodies is associated with the beginning of the disease process. The age at, and order in, which autoantibodies appear may be associated with different genetic backgrounds or environmental exposures, or both. Methods Infants with HLA-DR high-risk genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8 and DR3/3) were enrolled and prospectively followed with standardised autoantibody assessments quarterly throughout the first 4 years of life and then semi-annually thereafter. Results Autoantibodies appeared in 549/8,503 (6.5%) children during 34,091 person-years of follow-up. Autoantibodies at 3 (0.1%) and 6 (0.2%) months of age were rare. Of the 549, 43.7% had islet autoantibodies to insulin (IAA) only, 37.7% had glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) only, 13.8% had both GADA and IAA only, 1.6% had insulinoma antigen-2 only and 3.1% had other combinations. The incidence of IAA only peaked within the first year of life and declined over the following 5 years, but GADA only increased until the second year and remained relatively constant. GADA only were more common than IAA only in HLA-DR3/3 children but less common in HLA-DR4/8 children. Conclusions/interpretation Islet autoantibodies can occur very early in life and the order of appearance was related to HLA-DR-DQ genotype. PMID:25660258

  15. Declining incidence of acromioplasty in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Paloneva, Juha; Lepola, Vesa; Karppinen, Jaro; Ylinen, Jari; Äärimaa, Ville; Mattila, Ville M

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose An increased incidence rate of acromioplasty has been reported; we analyzed data from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Patients and methods During the 14-year study period (1998–2011), 68,877 acromioplasties without rotator cuff repair were performed on subjects aged 18 years or older. Results The incidence of acromioplasty increased by 117% from 75 to 163 per 105 person years between 1998 and 2007. The highest incidence was observed in 2007, after which the incidence rate decreased by 20% to 131 per 105 person years in 2011. The incidence declined even more at non-profit public hospitals from 2007 to 2011. In contrast, it continued to rise at profit-based private orthopedic clinics. Interpretation We propose that this change in clinical practice is due to accumulating high-quality scientific evidence that shows no difference in outcome between acromioplasty and non-surgical interventions for rotator cuff disease with subacromial impingement syndrome. However, the exact cause of the declining incidence cannot be defined based solely on a registry study. Interestingly, this change was not observed at private clinics, where the number of operations increased steadily from 2007 to 2011. PMID:25340548

  16. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  17. Cancer incidence in Ghana, 2012: evidence from a population-based cancer registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. Methods This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 7.1.2.0. Results The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. Conclusion This first attempt at population-based cancer

  18. A semantically rich and standardised approach enhancing discovery of sensor data and metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinaki, Alexandra; Buck, Justin; Darroch, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The marine environment plays an essential role in the earth's climate. To enhance the ability to monitor the health of this important system, innovative sensors are being produced and combined with state of the art sensor technology. As the number of sensors deployed is continually increasing,, it is a challenge for data users to find the data that meet their specific needs. Furthermore, users need to integrate diverse ocean datasets originating from the same or even different systems. Standards provide a solution to the above mentioned challenges. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has created Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards that enable different sensor networks to establish syntactic interoperability. When combined with widely accepted controlled vocabularies, they become semantically rich and semantic interoperability is achievable. In addition, Linked Data is the recommended best practice for exposing, sharing and connecting information on the Semantic Web using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). As part of the EU-funded SenseOCEAN project, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is working on the standardisation of sensor metadata enabling 'plug and play' sensor integration. Our approach combines standards, controlled vocabularies and persistent URIs to publish sensor descriptions, their data and associated metadata as 5 star Linked Data and OGC SWE (SensorML, Observations & Measurements) standard. Thus sensors become readily discoverable, accessible and useable via the web. Content and context based searching is also enabled since sensors descriptions are understood by machines. Additionally, sensor data can be combined with other sensor or Linked Data datasets to form knowledge. This presentation will describe the work done in BODC to achieve syntactic and semantic interoperability in the sensor domain. It will illustrate the reuse and extension of the Semantic Sensor

  19. Incidence of phenylketonuria in British Columbia, 1950-1971

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R. B.; Tischler, B.; Cockcroft, W. H.; Renwick, D. H. G.

    1972-01-01

    The incidence of PKU in British Columbia in the 1950-1971 period is 1/18,750 which corresponds to that found in two other Canadian studies.2, 3 Evidence is presented which shows a trend toward a decline in incidence; however, this is not statistically significant. There is a preponderance of male cases in all age groups. PMID:5035136

  20. Pseudotumour incidence, cobalt levels and clinical outcome after large head metal-on-metal and conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty: mid-term results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, H C; Reininga, I H F; Zijlstra, W P; Boomsma, M F; Bulstra, S K; van Raay, J J A M

    2015-11-01

    We compared the incidence of pseudotumours after large head metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) with that after conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA and assessed the predisposing factors to pseudotumour formation. From a previous randomised controlled trial which compared large head (38 mm to 60 mm) cementless MoM THA with conventional head (28 mm) cementless MoP THA, 93 patients (96 THAs: 41 MoM (21 males, 20 females, mean age of 64 years, standard deviation (sd) 4) and 55 MoP (25 males, 30 females, mean age of 65 years, sd 5) were recruited after a mean follow-up of 50 months (36 to 64). The incidence of pseudotumours, measured using a standardised CT protocol was 22 (53.7%) after MoM THA and 12 (21.8%) after MoP THA. Women with a MoM THA were more likely to develop a pseudotumour than those with a MoP THA (15 vs 7, odds ratio (OR) = 13.4, p < 0.001). There was a similar incidence of pseudotumours in men with MoM THAs and those with MoP THAs (7 vs 5, OR = 2.1, p = 0.30). Elevated cobalt levels (≥ 5 microgram/L) were only associated with pseudotumours in women with a MoM THA. There was no difference in mean Oxford and Harris hip scores between patients with a pseudotumour and those without. Contrary to popular belief, pseudotumours occur frequently around MoP THAs. Women with a MoM THA and an elevated cobalt level are at greatest risk. In this study, pseudotumours had no effect on the functional outcome after either large head MoM or conventional MoP THA. PMID:26530649

  1. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  2. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  3. Standardisation of uterine natural killer (uNK) cell measurements in the endometrium of women with recurrent reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Lash, Gendie E; Bulmer, Judith N; Li, Tin Chiu; Innes, Barbara A; Mariee, Najat; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Sanderson, Jean; Quenby, Siobhan; Laird, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Considerable work is being carried out on endometrial NK cells to determine whether they play a role in successful pregnancy outcome. In addition there is debate about whether measurements of uNK should be included in the clinical assessment for women with recurrent implantation failure or recurrent miscarriage. A hindrance to taking this forward is the fact that the density of uNK cells reported by different centres is very different. The aim of this study was to determine the reason for these differences and to develop a standardised method. Three centres participated in the study. Each centre exchanged five formalin fixed, wax embedded sections of endometrium from five women. Sections were immunostained for CD56. Images were taken of 10 random fields at ×400 magnification; total stromal and uNK cells were counted using Image J. Results were expressed as % positive uNK cells and the variation in counts obtained in each centre was compared. After initial analysis a standardised protocol was agreed and the process repeated. Significant variation was seen in the counts obtained after initial analysis (Centre A vs.B, mean difference=-0.72 P<0.001; A vs.C mean difference=-0.47 P<0.001; B vs.C, mean difference=0.25 P=0.085). Analysis suggested that differences may be due to duration of tissue fixation, the embedding and sectioning processes, selection of areas for assessment, definition of immunopositive cells and inclusion or exclusion of blood vessels. Adoption of a standardised protocol reduced the variation (Centre A vs.B mean difference=-0.105 P=0.744; A vs.C mean difference=0.219 P=0.150; B vs.C mean difference=0.32 P=0.031). Use of a standardised method is needed to establish a normal range for uNK cells and to develop a meaningful clinical test for uNK cell measurements. PMID:27214130

  4. Cancer survival differences between South Asians and non-South Asians of England in 1986–2004, accounting for age at diagnosis and deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Maringe, C; Li, R; Mangtani, P; Coleman, M P; Rachet, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Asian migrants show lower cancer incidence than their host population in England for most major cancers. We seek to study the ethnic differences in survival from cancer. Methods: We described and modelled the effect of ethnicity, time, age and deprivation on survival for the five most incident cancers in each sex in South Asians in England between 1986 and 2004 using national cancer registry data. South Asian ethnicity was flagged using the validated name-recognition algorithm SANGRA (South Asian Names and Group Recognition Algorithm). Results: We observed survival advantage in South Asians in earlier periods. This ethnic gap either remained constant or narrowed over time. By 2004, age-standardised net survival was comparable for all cancers except three in men, where South Asians had higher survival 5 years after diagnosis: colorectal (58.9% vs 53.6%), liver (15.0% vs 9.4%) and lung (15.9% vs 9.3%). Compared with non-South Asians, South Asians experienced a slower increase in breast and prostate cancer survival, both cancers associated with either a screening programme or an early diagnosis test. We did not find differential patterns in survival by deprivation between both ethnicities. Conclusions: Considering recent survival trends, appropriate action is required to avoid deficits in cancer survival among South Asians in the near future. PMID:26079299

  5. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  6. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  7. Racist Incident-Based Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ocampo, Carlota

    2005-01-01

    Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist incidents in the United States is difficult to estimate; however, data from several sources permit the inference that the prevalence of racist incidents,…

  8. Blueberries and neuronal aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the population of people in the United States over the age of 65 years continues to increase, so too will the incidence of age-related pathologies, including decreases in cognitive and motor function. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care ...

  9. Standardised Radon Index (SRI): a normalisation of radon data-sets in terms of standard normal variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, R. G. M.; Holt, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    During the second half of 2002, from late June to mid December, the University of Northampton Radon Research Group operated two continuous hourly-sampling radon detectors 2.25 km apart in the English East Midlands. This period included the Dudley earthquake (ML = 5, 22 September 2002) and also a smaller earthquake in the English Channel (ML = 3, 26 August 2002). Rolling/sliding windowed cross-correlation of the paired radon time-series revealed periods of simultaneous similar radon anomalies which occurred at the time of these earthquakes but at no other times during the overall radon monitoring period. Standardising the radon data in terms of probability of magnitude, analogous to the Standardised Precipitation Indices (SPIs) used in drought modelling, which effectively equalises different non-linear responses, reveals that the dissimilar relative magnitudes of the anomalies are in fact closely equiprobabilistic. Such methods could help in identifying anomalous signals in radon - and other - time-series and in evaluating their statistical significance in terms of earthquake precursory behaviour.

  10. Does standardised structured reporting contribute to quality in diagnostic pathology? The importance of evidence-based datasets.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D W; Srigley, J

    2016-01-01

    Key quality parameters in diagnostic pathology include timeliness, accuracy, completeness, conformance with current agreed standards, consistency and clarity in communication. In this review, we argue that with worldwide developments in eHealth and big data, generally, there are two further, often overlooked, parameters if our reports are to be fit for purpose. Firstly, population-level studies have clearly demonstrated the value of providing timely structured reporting data in standardised electronic format as part of system-wide quality improvement programmes. Moreover, when combined with multiple health data sources through eHealth and data linkage, structured pathology reports become central to population-level quality monitoring, benchmarking, interventions and benefit analyses in public health management. Secondly, population-level studies, particularly for benchmarking, require a single agreed international and evidence-based standard to ensure interoperability and comparability. This has been taken for granted in tumour classification and staging for many years, yet international standardisation of cancer datasets is only now underway through the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR). In this review, we present evidence supporting the role of structured pathology reporting in quality improvement for both clinical care and population-level health management. Although this review of available evidence largely relates to structured reporting of cancer, it is clear that the same principles can be applied throughout anatomical pathology generally, as they are elsewhere in the health system. PMID:26316184

  11. Canadian Open Genetics Repository (COGR): a unified clinical genomics database as a community resource for standardising and sharing genetic interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Lerner-Ellis, Jordan; Wang, Marina; White, Shana; Lebo, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Background The Canadian Open Genetics Repository is a collaborative effort for the collection, storage, sharing and robust analysis of variants reported by medical diagnostics laboratories across Canada. As clinical laboratories adopt modern genomics technologies, the need for this type of collaborative framework is increasingly important. Methods A survey to assess existing protocols for variant classification and reporting was delivered to clinical genetics laboratories across Canada. Based on feedback from this survey, a variant assessment tool was made available to all laboratories. Each participating laboratory was provided with an instance of GeneInsight, a software featuring versioning and approval processes for variant assessments and interpretations and allowing for variant data to be shared between instances. Guidelines were established for sharing data among clinical laboratories and in the final outreach phase, data will be made readily available to patient advocacy groups for general use. Results The survey demonstrated the need for improved standardisation and data sharing across the country. A variant assessment template was made available to the community to aid with standardisation. Instances of the GeneInsight tool were provided to clinical diagnostic laboratories across Canada for the purpose of uploading, transferring, accessing and sharing variant data. Conclusions As an ongoing endeavour and a permanent resource, the Canadian Open Genetics Repository aims to serve as a focal point for the collaboration of Canadian laboratories with other countries in the development of tools that take full advantage of laboratory data in diagnosing, managing and treating genetic diseases. PMID:25904639

  12. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  13. Nationwide Cancer Incidence in Korea, 1999~2001; First Result Using the National Cancer Incidence Database

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Yim, Seon-Hee; Lee, Jung-Kyu; Noh, Hong-In; Lee, Jong-Koo; Pisani, Paola; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2005-01-01

    Purpose The first Korean national population-based cancer registry using nationwide hospital-based recording system and the regional cancer registries provided the source to obtain national cancer incidences for the period 1999~2001. Materials and Methods The incidence of cancer in Korea was calculated based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, data from additional medical record review survey, the Regional Cancer Registry databases, site-specific cancer registry databases, and cancer mortality data from the Korea National Statistical Office. Crude and age-standardized rates were calculated by sex for 18 age groups. Results The overall crude incidence rates (CR) were 247.3 and 188.3 per 100,000 for men and women and the overall age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were 281.2 and 160.3 per 100,000, respectively. Among men, five leading primary cancer sites were stomach (CR 58.6, ASR 65.6), lung (CR 42.1, ASR 50.9), liver (CR 41.9, ASR 44.9), colon and rectum (CR 24.2, ASR 27.3) and bladder (CR 7.7, ASR 9.2). Among women, the most common cancers were stomach (CR 30.8, ASR 25.8), breast (CR 25.7, ASR 21.7), colon and rectum (CR 19.6, ASR 16.7), uterine cervix (CR 18.4, ASR 15.5), and lung cancer (CR 15.1, ASR 12.4). In 0~14 age group, leukemia was most common for both sexes. For men, stomach cancer was most common in 15~64 age group, but lung cancer was more frequent for over 65 age group. For women, thyroid cancer in 15~34 age group, breast cancer in 35~64 age group, and stomach cancer in over 65 age group were most common for each age group. The proportions of death certificate only were 7.5% for men and 7.4% for women. Conclusion This is the first attempt to determine the national cancer incidence and this data will be useful to plan for research and national cancer control in Korea. PMID:19956367

  14. Enacting Dialogue: The Impact of Promoting Philosophy for Children on the Literate Thinking of Identified Poor Readers, Aged 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Philip; Lyle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Philosophy for Children in Schools Project (P4CISP) is a research project to monitor and evaluate the impact of Philosophy for Children (P4C) on classroom practices. In this paper the impact of P4C on the thinking skills of four children aged 10 is examined. Standardised tests indicated the children had below-average reading ages. The pupils…

  15. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  16. Historical cancer incidence and mortality assessment in an Illinois community proximal to a former manufactured gas plant

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D; Jiang, Xiaohui; Bylsma, Lauren C; Garabrant, David H; Irvin, Sarah R; Fryzek, Jon P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Concern has been raised that the occurrence of cancer may be increased in neighbourhoods around a former manufactured gas plant in Champaign, Illinois, USA. Thus, we compared historical rates of cancer in this area to comparison communities as well as with nationally standardised rates. Design Retrospective population-based community cancer assessment during 1990–2010. Setting Champaign County, Illinois, USA, and zip codes encompassing the location of the former manufactured gas plant to counties that were similar demographically. Participants Residents of the counties and zip codes studied between 1990 and 2010. Main outcome measures The relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were used to compare cancer incidence and mortality in the areas near the gas compression site to the comparison counties. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare rates in the areas near the gas compression site to expected rates based on overall US cancer rates. Results Total cancer mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.94) and incidence (RR=0.95, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.97) were reduced significantly in Champaign County versus the comparison counties. Similarly, a reduced rate of total cancer was observed in analyses by zip code (proximal to the former gas plant) when compared with either similar counties (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.93) or national standardised rates of cancer (SIR=0.88, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.91). Conclusions This historical cancer assessment did not find an increased risk of total cancer or specific cancer types in communities near a former manufactured gas plant site. PMID:25534215

  17. Cancer incidence of workers in the Swedish petroleum industry.

    PubMed Central

    Järvholm, B; Mellblom, B; Norrman, R; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of cancer due to occupational exposure to petroleum products in the Swedish transport and refinery industries. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study the cancer incidence in 4128 men and 191 women, who had worked for at least one year in the petroleum industry, was compared with the incidence in the general population. The job titles and employment times for each person were found in personal files in the industries. The men had on average worked in jobs exposed to petroleum for 11.6 years at the end of the observation period. The cases of cancer were identified by record linkage with the Swedish cancer register. RESULTS: In total there were 146 cases of cancer v 157.6 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.93 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.80 to 1.1). Operators at refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia (6 cases v 1.7 expected, 90% CI of relative risk (RR) 1.5 to 7.0). Five of the six cases had started to work at the refineries in the 1950s or later. No other significantly increased risk of cancer was found. Distribution workers had a decreased incidence of lung cancer (no cases, 90% CI of RR 0 to 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Operators at Swedish refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia. A possible cause is exposure to benzene. There was no increased risk of leukaemia in distribution workers. Distribution workers had a decreased risk of lung cancer. PMID:9423584

  18. [Time trends of incidence rates of work accident with blood contamination in a North Italian teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Ferrario, M M; Landone, S; De Biasi, M; Tagliasacchi, R; Riva, R; Veronesi, G; Sassi, M; Borchini, R; Bonzini, M

    2012-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of incidence rates of accidents with blood contaminations (ABC) and time trends is the milieu for assessing the effectiveness of preventive interventions. A standardised procedure for registration and follow-up of ABC was et up in a North Italian hospital since 2002. Accurate estimates of rate denominator, as full-time equivalent (FTE) person-years, was calculated, for exposed workers only and excluding periods of prolonged absence. In the observation period (2004-2011), training courses for head nurses on security procedures were repeatedly carried out as well as the progressive introduction of vacuum blood collection systems (since 2009). 1287 ABC have been reported, corresponding to an overall annual crude incidence rate of 4.73 per 100 FTE. Temporal trends, calculated on the biennial incidence, resulted in a reductions over the time period considered, in particular for needlestick injuries. Our results support the notions on the efficacy of the adopted prevention measures. PMID:23405640

  19. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  20. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  1. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly. Results: A total of 254,962 new cancer cases and 75,172 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2016. The five leading primary cancer incident sites in 2016 were estimated colorectal, stomach, lung, liver and thyroid cancer in men; thyroid, breast, colorectal, stomach, and lung cancer in women. Conclusion: Currently cancer is one of the foremost public health concerns in Korea. Although cancer rates are anticipated to decrease the nation’s cancer burden will continue to increase as the population ages. PMID:27034143

  2. Senior physiotherapy students as standardised patients for junior students enhances self-efficacy and satisfaction in both junior and senior students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised patients are used in medical education to expose students to clinical contexts and facilitate transition to clinical practice, and this approach is gaining momentum in physiotherapy programs. Expense and availability of trained standardised patients are factors limiting widespread adoption, and accessing clinical visits with real patients can be challenging. This study addressed these issues by engaging senior students as standardised patients for junior students. It evaluated how this approach impacted self-reported constructs of both the junior and senior students. Methods Learning activities for undergraduate physiotherapy students were developed in five courses (Neurology, Cardiorespiratory and three Musculoskeletal courses) so that junior students (Year 2 and 3) could develop skills and confidence in patient interview, physical examination and patient management through their interaction with standardised patients played by senior students (Year 4). Surveys were administered before and after the interactions to record junior students’ self-reported confidence, communication, preparedness for clinic, and insight into their abilities; and senior students’ confidence and insight into what it is like to be a patient. Satisfaction regarding this learning approach was surveyed in both the junior and senior students. Results A total of 253 students completed the surveys (mean 92.5% response rate). Across all courses, junior students reported a significant (all P < 0.037) improvement following the standardised patient interaction in their: preparedness for clinic, communication with clients, confidence with practical skills, and understanding of their strengths and weaknesses in relation to the learning activities. Senior students demonstrated a significant improvement in their confidence in providing feedback and insight into their own learning (P < 0.001). All students reported high satisfaction with this learning experience (mean

  3. A critical evaluation of the volume, relevance and quality of evidence submitted by the tobacco industry to oppose standardised packaging of tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Hatchard, Jenny L; Fooks, Gary J; Evans-Reeves, Karen A; Ulucanlar, Selda; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the volume, relevance and quality of transnational tobacco corporations’ (TTCs) evidence that standardised packaging of tobacco products ‘won't work’, following the UK government's decision to ‘wait and see’ until further evidence is available. Design Content analysis. Setting We analysed the evidence cited in submissions by the UK's four largest TTCs to the UK Department of Health consultation on standardised packaging in 2012. Outcome measures The volume, relevance (subject matter) and quality (as measured by independence from industry and peer-review) of evidence cited by TTCs was compared with evidence from a systematic review of standardised packaging . Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences in the quality of TTC and systematic review evidence. 100% of the data were second-coded to validate the findings: 94.7% intercoder reliability; all differences were resolved. Results 77/143 pieces of TTC-cited evidence were used to promote their claim that standardised packaging ‘won't work’. Of these, just 17/77 addressed standardised packaging: 14 were industry connected and none were published in peer-reviewed journals. Comparison of TTC and systematic review evidence on standardised packaging showed that the industry evidence was of significantly lower quality in terms of tobacco industry connections and peer-review (p<0.0001). The most relevant TTC evidence (on standardised packaging or packaging generally, n=26) was of significantly lower quality (p<0.0001) than the least relevant (on other topics, n=51). Across the dataset, TTC-connected evidence was significantly less likely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal (p=0.0045). Conclusions With few exceptions, evidence cited by TTCs to promote their claim that standardised packaging ‘won't work’ lacks either policy relevance or key indicators of quality. Policymakers could use these three criteria—subject matter, independence and peer-review status

  4. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  5. [Anatomic incidence of meniscochondrocalcinosis of the knee].

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, D; Stankovic, A; Morin, J; Borda-Iriarte, O; Uzan, M; Quintero, M; Memin, Y; Bard, M; de Sèze, S; Richewaert, A

    1982-06-01

    The authors have studied the incidence of menisco-calcinosis (MC) and that of menisco-chondrocalcinosis (MCC) of knee joints of 108 non selected cadavera. The mean age of the subjects was 71.8 +/- 13.8 years. The study was performed by radiographic examination of the menisci and cartilagineous fragments of femoral condyles using high contrast films. The incidence of MC or MCC was found to be 18.5 per cent. It was slightly higher in females (21.5 p. cent) than in males (15.8 p. cent) subjects but this difference failed to reach the level of statistical significance. No positive case was detected before the age of 60 years. For the age groups of: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and over 90 years, its incidence was: 11.7; 26.9; 21.2 and 50 (4 subjects out of 8) per cent respectively. Approximately 40 per cent of all positive cases had meniscocalcinosis without associated chondrocalcinosis. No single case of chondrocalcinosis without meniscocalcinosis was observed. Six out of 8 cases with MC calcinosis and 2 out of 12 cases with MCC were unilateral. The external menisci were more frequently and more heavily affected than internal ones. Eighty per cent of the knees affected by either MC or MCC were at the same time associated to an osteoarthrotic lesion compared to 35 p. cent of the knees without MC or MCC matched for age: a result which appeared to be highly significant difference. PMID:6896928

  6. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  7. The size and structure of arm movement variability decreased with work pace in a standardised repetitive precision task.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Divya; Samani, Afshin; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Increased movement variability has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive work. This study investigated the effects of work pace on arm movement variability in a standardised repetitive pipetting task performed by 35 healthy women. During pipetting at slow and fast paces differing by 15%, movements of arm, hand and pipette were tracked in 3D, and used to derive shoulder and elbow joint angles. The size of cycle-to-cycle motor variability was quantified using standard deviations of several kinematics properties, while the structure of variability was quantified using indices of sample entropy and recurrence quantification analysis. When pace increased, both the size and structure of motor variability in the shoulder and elbow decreased. These results suggest that motor variability drops when repetitive movements are performed at increased paces, which may in the long run lead to undesirable outcomes such as muscle fatigue or overuse. PMID:25216404

  8. Intracompartmental pressure testing: results of an international survey of current clinical practice, highlighting the need for standardised protocols.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Matthew; Tierney, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Despite more recent non-invasive modalities generating some credence in the literature, intracompartmental pressure testing is still considered the 'gold standard' for investigating chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). Intracompartmental pressure testing, when used correctly, has been shown to be accurate and reliable. However, it is a user-dependent investigation, and the manner in which the investigation is conducted plays a large role in the outcome of the test. Despite this, a standard, reproducible protocol for intracompartmental pressure testing has not been described. This results in confusion regarding interpretation of results and reduces the tests' reliability. A summary of the current understanding of CECS is presented, along with the results of a survey of specialists in Australia and New Zealand who perform intracompartmental pressure testing, which confirms that a uniform approach is currently not used in clinical practice. This highlights the need for a consensus and standardised approach to intracompartmental pressure testing. PMID:21900703

  9. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  10. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  11. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  12. Development of a methodology for the standardisation and improvement of 'Smartphone' photography of patterned bruises and other cutaneous injuries.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Paul R; Evans, Samuel T; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    Human bite-mark analyses can play a prominent role in forensic case investigations, including those involving sexual assault. High-quality photographs routinely secure a link between a bite-mark and an individual's dentition. Access to around the clock forensic photography, however, is often limited, resulting in delay and/or missed opportunities to record valuable evidence. The emergence of Smartphone high-quality photographic technology now provides a previously unimagined opportunity to gather timely forensic photographic evidence. Problems can arise, however, due to the relatively poor quality of the photographs, as a result of many of those taking photographs having received little or no forensic photography training. This study compares unassisted photography with assisted photography, by a specifically developed camera application (App), to provide a standardised method for taking forensic photographs. An App, written in Java, was hosted on the Google Android Operating System, on a Samsung Galaxy SII Smartphone. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a study to photograph a pseudo bite-mark using three methods, (1) unassisted (as a control), (2) assisted by an ABFO No.2 right-angled photographic reference scale and (3) assisted by the App. The App, method (3), was shown to consistently outperform methods (1) and (2), demonstrating greater standardisation and precision (p<0.001). Analysis of the data showed the extent to which acquiring an accurate photograph depends on the image being orthogonal to the camera. It appears likely that the relatively inaccurate photographs acquired by methods (1) and (2), were as a result of deviation from the plane, orthogonal to the bite-mark. Therefore, the App was successful in ensuring that the camera was both orthogonal and at an appropriate distance, relative to the bite-mark. Thus, the App enhanced the abilities of non-experts to acquire more accurate photographs and created the potential to significantly improve the

  13. Inter-individual variability in adaptation of the leg muscles following a standardised endurance training programme in young women.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Williams, Alun G; Degens, Hans; Jones, David A

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable inter-individual variability in adaptations to endurance training. We hypothesised that those individuals with a low local leg-muscle peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) relative to their whole-body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) would experience greater muscle training adaptations compared to those with a relatively high VO2peak. 53 untrained young women completed one-leg cycling to measure VO2peak and two-leg cycling to measure VO2max. The one-leg VO2peak was expressed as a ratio of the two-leg VO2max (Ratio(1:2)). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to indicate quadriceps muscle volume. Measurements were taken before and after completion of 6 weeks of supervised endurance training. There was large inter-individual variability in the pre-training Ratio(1:2) and large variability in the magnitude of training adaptations. The pre-training Ratio(1:2) was not related to training-induced changes in VO2max (P = 0.441) but was inversely correlated with changes in one-leg VO2peak and muscle volume (P < 0.05). No relationship was found between the training-induced changes in two-leg VO2max and one-leg VO2peak (r = 0.21; P = 0.129). It is concluded that the local leg-muscle aerobic capacity and Ratio(1:2) vary from person to person and this influences the extent of muscle adaptations following standardised endurance training. These results help to explain why muscle adaptations vary between people and suggest that setting the training stimulus at a fixed percentage of VO2max might not be a good way to standardise the training stimulus to the leg muscles of different people. PMID:20369366

  14. [Tooth decay complications incidence].

    PubMed

    Petrikas, A Zh; Zakharova, E L; Ol'khovskaia, E B; Chestnykh, E V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to assess the quality of endodontic therapy and estimate further treatment needs. 900 orthopantomograms of 442 men and 458 women (aged 18-70) without any clinical manifestations of endodontic pathology were examined for endodontic treatment. 1,170 patients (41%) had additional intraoral radiographs taken for assessment of their periapical status. 2,852 (13.8%) of the 20,724 teeth examined had periapical lesions and/or root fillings. 2,503 of the 2,853 teeth were endodontically treated, only 1,011 of them (40.4%) having all their root canals obturated. 612 (41.3%) of the 1,492 (59.6%) teeth with inadequate root canal fillings hat a healthy apical periodontium. Of the 1,229 teeth to be endodontically treated 349 teeth required primary treatment, 880 required retreatment. PMID:24576961

  15. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  16. Rising incidence of breast cancer among young women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ranstam, J.; Janzon, L.; Olsson, H.

    1990-01-01

    The national Swedish cancer registry was used to analyse the age-specific time trends in breast cancer incidence in Sweden from 1970 to 1984. The analysis included both a calendar year and a birth cohort approach to estimate time trends in disease occurrence. According to the birth cohort approach there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence with an average annual increase of the incidence of 3.2% (P = 0.0114), 3.4% (P = 0.0002) and 2.2% (P = 0.0264) in the age groups 25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively. Possible causes of the observed increasing incidence are discussed. PMID:2297482

  17. A Predictive Model for Root Caries Incidence.

    PubMed

    Ritter, André V; Preisser, John S; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Chung, Yunro; Bader, James D; Shugars, Daniel A; Makhija, Sonia; Vollmer, William M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find the set of risk indicators best able to predict root caries (RC) incidence in caries-active adults utilizing data from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). Five logistic regression models were compared with respect to their predictive performance for incident RC using data from placebo-control participants with exposed root surfaces at baseline and from two study centers with ancillary data collection (n = 155). Prediction performance was assessed from baseline variables and after including ancillary variables [smoking, diet, use of removable partial dentures (RPD), toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance]. A sensitivity analysis added treatment to the models for both the control and treatment participants (n = 301) to predict RC for the control participants. Forty-nine percent of the control participants had incident RC. The model including the number of follow-up years at risk, the number of root surfaces at risk, RC index, gender, race, age, and smoking resulted in the best prediction performance, having the highest AUC and lowest Brier score. The sensitivity analysis supported the primary analysis and gave slightly better performance summary measures. The set of risk indicators best able to predict RC incidence included an increased number of root surfaces at risk and increased RC index at baseline, followed by white race and nonsmoking, which were strong nonsignificant predictors. Gender, age, and increased number of follow-up years at risk, while included in the model, were also not statistically significant. The inclusion of health, diet, RPD use, toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance variables did not improve the prediction performance. PMID:27160516

  18. Incidence and Burden of the Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    Since 2001, cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) have been tracked by cancer registries. Examining registry data in the USA, the reported age-adjusted incidence of MDS per 100,000 was 3.3 per year for 2001-2003 and 4.9 per year for 2007-2011, with increases likely a result of growing awareness of reporting requirements. However, active case-finding methods repeatedly demonstrate that population-based registries have underestimated the incidence of MDS due to underreporting and underdiagnosis. Using keyword search strategies of electronic pathology reports or other novel case capture methods, the true incidence of MDS has been estimated between 5.3 and 13.1 per 100,000. Using Medicare billing claims data, the incidence of MDS per 100,000 in patients aged ≥65 years has been estimated between 75 and 162. MDS prevalence is estimated to be 60,000 and -170,000 in the USA and projected to grow. Epidemiologic data can help estimate the burden of MDS and expose unmet clinical needs. For example, patients with MDS receiving transfusions had significantly higher reported health care costs versus those that did not (3-year mean of $88,824 vs $29,519). Epidemiologic data also revealed that most MDS patients receiving transfusions do not receive active therapies, despite strong evidence that hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide significantly reduce transfusion burden. Other unmet needs identified by epidemiologic studies include high need for treatment options after failing first-line therapy and shared decision making by older MDS patients. PMID:26134527

  19. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related e...

  20. Idiot savants: rate of incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, A L

    1977-02-01

    Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586

  1. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  2. [Caries incidence assessment in young and mature nulliparous pregnant].

    PubMed

    Bakhmudov, B R; Alieva, Z B; Bakhmudov, M B

    2011-01-01

    Caries incidence was assessed in young (15-17 years) and mature (30-34 years) nulliparous pregnant. In young women the incidence was 1.62 +/- 0.16, while in mature pregnant--1.38 +/- 0.17. This values are significantly higher than in non-pregnant women of the same age: 0.48 +/- 0.09 and 0.24 +/- 0.08, correspondently. PMID:22332376

  3. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  4. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled. PMID:27405126

  5. Incidence of plutonium-induced bone cancer in neutered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Charrier, K.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence of bone cancer, after a single i.p. injection of monomeric /sup 239/Pu citrate, is significantly higher in female than in male mice. To evaluate the role of the gonads in this sex-related difference, male and female C57BL/Do (albino) mice were castrated at 40 days of age. Fifty days later, they were given injections of /sup 239/Pu. After castration, the frequency of bone sarcomas in the two sexes was approximately equal. This resulted from an increased incidence in the castrated males and a decreased incidence in the ovariectomized females as compared to the intact plutonium-treated mice.

  6. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. PMID:24018010

  7. Incidence Trends and Geographical Distribution of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Naini, Ali; Raad, Nasim; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Ramezani-Daryasar, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has known as a highly distinct kind of head and neck cancer. This distinction has been due to its clinical presentation, epidemiology, outcome, and treatment. There have not been any reports of epidemiological analysis of NPC in Iran. This study has evaluated the incidence rates and trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Iranian population during 2004 to 2009. Methods The data have collected from the Iranian national cancer data system registry. All the cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (with the topography code 11 and histology of carcinoma) have retrieved and analyzed from an overall cancer database during a 6-year period. The data have analyzed by using the SPSS, version 16. Results To determine the current incidence of NPC in Iran, we have examined the NPC cases from 2004 to 2009. A total of 1431 cases (981 male and 450 female NPC patients) have analyzed epidemiologically in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.1 years. The incidence was 0.33 per 100000 persons. The overall incidence rate have increased annually (p<0.05). The incidence of NPC gradually increased with age. Prefectures that bordering the Caspian Sea have proved to have a higher incidence than the other studied areas. Conclusion Our study has indicated an increasing trend in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore; attempts should be precipitated for prevention. PMID:26396710

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Incident Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Alonso, Alvaro; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is positively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; its relationship with incident CVD is unknown. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based multiethnic cohort study of 6,508 adults aged 45–84 years who were initially free of clinical CVD, we examined lifetime discrimination (experiences of unfair treatment in 6 life domains) and everyday discrimination (frequency of day-to-day occurrences of perceived unfair treatment) in relation to incident CVD. During a median 10.1 years of follow-up (2000–2011), 604 incident events occurred. Persons reporting lifetime discrimination in ≥2 domains (versus none) had increased CVD risk, after adjustment for race/ethnicity and sociodemographic factors, behaviors, and traditional CVD risk factors (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.70) and after control for chronic stress and depressive symptoms (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.60). Reported discrimination in 1 domain was unrelated to CVD (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.30). There were no differences by race/ethnicity, age, or sex. In contrast, everyday discrimination interacted with sex (P = 0.03). Stratified models showed increased risk only among men (for each 1–standard deviation increase in score, adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27); controlling for chronic stress and depressive symptoms slightly reduced this association (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.25). This study suggests that perceived discrimination is adversely related to CVD risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26085044

  9. A standardised mortuary-based injury surveillance system: lessons learned from the Ibadan Nigerian trial.

    PubMed

    Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Eze, Uwom O; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the challenges in establishing a mortuary-based injury surveillance system in a resource-constrained setting of Ibadan, Nigeria. To quantify and detail fatal injuries, in September 2010 to February 2011, a prospective data collection utilised the World Health Organization-Monash draft surveillance system. Findings were compared with other low- and middle-income settings, and surveillance system attributes were assessed. The leading injury mechanism among all age groups was transport related, with 45.6% being vulnerable road users, consistent with comparable settings. Fire-related injury was the second unintentional cause in the Ibadan pilot, unlike Global Burden of Disease estimates for Nigeria, Mauritius and Mexico, where drowning was the second cause. Positive system attributes included timeliness, data field completeness, specificity, flexibility and sensitivity. Despite apparent under-reporting of eligible deaths and questionable representativeness, this study illustrates potential for mortuary data to inform injury prevention policies and programmes in resource-constrained settings. PMID:24533636

  10. Incidence of Near-Death and Intense Spiritual Experiences in an Intergenerational Sample: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, L. Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined incidence of near-death and intense spiritual experiences for a sample of 305 persons from ages 17-85. Found incidence of near-death reports did not vary significantly by age of respondents, but elderly respondents were significantly less likely to report intense spiritual experiences. (Author)

  11. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  12. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. PMID:20807386

  13. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  14. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  15. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  16. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  17. Chromium and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  18. Neonatal Incidence of Hip Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Eli; Eidelman, Mark; Katzman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of sonographic examination are well known, but its main disadvantage is that it might lead to overdiagnosis, which might cause overtreatment. Variations in the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip are well known. We ascertained the incidence of neonatal sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip without considering the development of those joints during followup. All 45,497 neonates (90,994 hips) born in our institute between January 1992 and December 2001 were examined clinically and sonographically during the first 48 hours of life. Sonography was performed according to Graf’s method, which considers mild hip sonographic abnormalities as Type IIa. We evaluated the different severity type incidence pattern and its influence on the total incidence during and between the investigated years. According to our study, sonographic Type IIa has major effects on the incidence of overall developmental dysplasia of the hip with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, whereas more severe sonographic abnormalities show relatively stable incidence patterns. Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18288551

  19. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a widespread toxic metal with potential cardiovascular effects, but no studies have evaluated cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association of urine cadmium concentration with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in a large population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,348 American Indian adults aged 45–74 years from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989–1991. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Follow-up extended through 31 December 2008. Results The geometric mean cadmium level in the study population was 0.94 μg/g (95% confidence interval= 0.92 – 0.93). We identified 1,084 cardiovascular events, including 400 deaths. After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, the hazard ratios (comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations) was 1.43 for cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval=1.21 – 1.70), and 1.34 for coronary heart disease mortality (1.10 – 1.63). The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure were 1.24 (1.11 – 1.38), 1.22 (1.08 – 1.38), 1.75 (1.17 – 2.59) and 1.39 (1.01 – 1.94), respectively. The associations were similar in most study subgroups including never-smokers. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term exposure, was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that cadmium exposure is a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:23514838

  20. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  1. The Incidence and Prevalence of Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Gryba, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has increased substantially over the last few years, but it is not known whether NMO has the same geographic and temporal variations in disease risk as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the worldwide incidence and prevalence of NMO through a systematic review of published peer-reviewed studies. We performed a search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1985 to March 2012. Search terms included “neuromyelitis optica,” “Devic's,” “opticospinal,” “incidence,” “prevalence,” and “epidemiology.” We assessed study quality using a standardized instrument. A total of five studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of the studies were from North America, and all studies were published between 2005 and 2012. All studies were of good quality, but only one study reported standardized rates, and subgroup-specific estimates were rarely reported. The incidence of NMO per 100,000 population ranged from 0.053 to 0.40, while the prevalence per 100,000 population ranged from 0.52 to 4.4. Heterogeneity was high among the incidence (I2 = 68.0%) and prevalence studies (I2 = 94.0%). This review highlights the limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of NMO and the importance of obtaining estimates standardized to common populations to enhance comparability of studies from different jurisdictions. Future studies would also benefit from reporting age-, sex-, and race- or ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:24453773

  2. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  3. Repeatability, Reproducibility and Standardisation of a Laser Doppler Imaging Technique for the Evaluation of Normal Mouse Hindlimb Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Adelaide; Ragucci, Monica; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Albanese, Sandra; Mancini, Marcello; Salvatore, Marco; Brunetti, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability) under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e., reproducibility). A Bland-Altman analysis showed the absence of bias in repeatability (p = 0.29) or reproducibility (p = 0.89). The limits of agreement for repeatability were –0.357 and –0.033, and for reproducibility, they were –0.270 and 0.238. Significant differences in perfusion values were observed in different experimental groups. Conclusions Different experimental conditions must be considered as a starting point for the evaluation of new drugs and strategic therapies. PMID:23275085

  4. Research priorities in light of current trends in microsurgical training: revalidation, simulation, cross-training, and standardisation.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Madada-Nyakauru, Rudo N; Irri, Renu Anita; Myers, Simon Richard; Ghanem, Ali Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Plastic surgery training worldwide has seen a thorough restructuring over the past decade, with the introduction of formal training curricula and work-based assessment tools. Part of this process has been the introduction of revalidation and a greater use of simulation in training delivery. Simulation is an increasingly important tool for educators because it provides a way to reduce risks to both trainees and patients, whilst facilitating improved technical proficiency. Current microsurgery training interventions are often predicated on theories of skill acquisition and development that follow a 'practice makes perfect' model. Given the changing landscape of surgical training and advances in educational theories related to skill development, research is needed to assess the potential benefits of alternative models, particularly cross-training, a model now widely used in non-medical areas with significant benefits. Furthermore, with the proliferation of microsurgery training interventions and therefore diversity in length, cost, content and models used, appropriate standardisation will be an important factor to ensure that courses deliver consistent and effective training that achieves appropriate levels of competency. Key research requirements should be gathered and used in directing further research in these areas to achieve on-going improvement of microsurgery training. PMID:24883271

  5. Standardisation of a novel sperm banking kit - NextGen(®) - to preserve sperm parameters during shipment.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Sharma, R; Singh, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, R

    2016-08-01

    Many male patients diagnosed with cancer are within their reproductive years. These men are advised to freeze their spermatozoa prior to the start of cancer treatment. Very often, sperm banking facilities may not be readily available and patients may be required to travel to distant sperm bank centres. Our objective was to design and standardise a remote home shipping sperm kit that allows patients to collect a semen sample at home and ship it overnight to a sperm bank. A total of 21 semen samples and two transport media (refrigeration media and human tubal fluid) and five different combinations of ice packs were tested for maintaining desired shipping temperature. Ten semen samples were assessed for pre- and post-shipment changes in sperm motility, membrane integrity, total motile spermatozoa and recovery of motile spermatozoa. Even though motility, membrane integrity and total motile spermatozoa declined both in samples examined under simulated shipped conditions and in overnight-shipped samples, the observed motility and total motile spermatozoa were adequate for use with assisted reproductive techniques. Using refrigeration media, cooling sleeve and ice packs, adequate sperm motility can be maintained utilising NextGen(®) kit and these spermatozoa can be used for procreation utilising ART techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26564753

  6. Standardising the organisation of clinical equipment on surgical wards at North Bristol NHS Trust: a quality improvement initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Joseph; Spencer, Robin; Soo, Eleanor; finucane, katherine

    2015-01-01

    Poorly organised clinical equipment can waste significant amounts of time otherwise available for direct patient care. As a group of foundation year one doctors, we identified the organisation of clinical equipment across surgical wards at North Bristol NHS Trust to be poor with stocks often low and items frequently difficult to locate. Time-motion studies (n=80) were confirmatory demonstrating that the mean time to collect equipment necessary for venepuncture, cannulation, arterial blood gases, or blood cultures ranged from 121 to 174 seconds between different areas. By applying a plan-do-study-act (PDSA) methodology, surveying peers as well as working with nursing staff and senior managers, we were able to purchase and implement clinical equipment trolleys on 10 surgical wards across the trust to reduce the time-taken to locate clinical equipment to between 38 to 45 seconds (p=0.01). We feel the key factors for the success of our initiative were strong multidisciplinary engagement and a simple uniform idea. Clinical equipment trolleys organised in a standardised manner have now been rolled out hospital-wide in the new Southmead Hospital Brunel building. PMID:26734373

  7. ‘Wanted—standard guinea pigs’: standardisation and the experimental animal market in Britain ca. 1919–1947

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Robert G.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 1942 a coalition of twenty scientific societies formed the Conference on the Supply of Experimental Animals (CSEA) in an attempt to pressure the Medical Research Council to accept responsibility for the provision of standardised experimental animals in Britain. The practice of animal experimentation was subject to State regulation under the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, but no provision existed for the provision of animals for experimental use. Consequently, day-to-day laboratory work was reliant on a commercial small animal market which had emerged to sustain the hobby of animal fancying. This paper explores how difficulties encountered in experimental practice within the laboratory led to the problematisation of biomedical science’s reliance upon a commercial market for animals during the inter-war period. This is shown to have produced a crisis within animal reliant experimental science in the early 1940s which enabled the left-wing Association of Scientific Workers to cast science’s reliance on a free market as economically inefficient and a threat to the reliability of British research. It is argued that the development of standard experimental animals in Britain was, therefore, embedded within the wider cultural, societal, political and economic national context of the time. PMID:18761280

  8. Research Priorities in Light of Current Trends in Microsurgical Training: Revalidation, Simulation, Cross-Training, and Standardisation

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Madada-Nyakauru, Rudo N; Irri, Renu Anita; Myers, Simon Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic surgery training worldwide has seen a thorough restructuring over the past decade, with the introduction of formal training curricula and work-based assessment tools. Part of this process has been the introduction of revalidation and a greater use of simulation in training delivery. Simulation is an increasingly important tool for educators because it provides a way to reduce risks to both trainees and patients, whilst facilitating improved technical proficiency. Current microsurgery training interventions are often predicated on theories of skill acquisition and development that follow a 'practice makes perfect' model. Given the changing landscape of surgical training and advances in educational theories related to skill development, research is needed to assess the potential benefits of alternative models, particularly cross-training, a model now widely used in non-medical areas with significant benefits. Furthermore, with the proliferation of microsurgery training interventions and therefore diversity in length, cost, content and models used, appropriate standardisation will be an important factor to ensure that courses deliver consistent and effective training that achieves appropriate levels of competency. Key research requirements should be gathered and used in directing further research in these areas to achieve on-going improvement of microsurgery training. PMID:24883271

  9. Observations on the application of the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology standardised terminology and nomenclature for pancreaticobiliary cytology.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Madeleine; Newman, Marsali

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) published a system of standardised terminology and nomenclature for pancreaticobiliary cytology (STNPC). In the present study, 232 previously reported pancreaticobiliary cytology specimens were categorised according to this set of guidelines in order to identify potential challenges to implementation of the PSC system into routine practice. Overall, 207 (89%) of the cases were found to comply with the PSC scheme in their original form. Twenty-five cases (11%) demonstrated that the application of the PSC system would result in a change of category. In the majority of these cases, the change was related to the method of categorising low grade and premalignant neoplasms, using the categories of 'Neoplastic: other' (a new category unique to STNPC classification scheme) and 'Atypical', for specimens deemed to be diagnostic of or suspicious for these lesions, respectively. The study also highlighted the emphasis on the inclusion of imaging context and cyst fluid analysis in the interpretation of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration specimens in the guidelines. The STNPC offers an approach to pancreaticobiliary cytology that reflects the considerable variation in the nature and treatment of the entities that may be encountered in these specimens. Challenges in utilisation of the scheme include awareness of the unique approach to the categorisation of premalignant and low grade neoplasms, and the amount and quality of available clinical and imaging information. PMID:27114371

  10. A concept for major incident triage: full-scaled simulation feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Efficient management of major incidents involves triage, treatment and transport. In the absence of a standardised interdisciplinary major incident management approach, the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation developed Interdisciplinary Emergency Service Cooperation Course (TAS). The TAS-program was established in 1998 and by 2009, approximately 15 500 emergency service professionals have participated in one of more than 500 no-cost courses. The TAS-triage concept is based on the established triage Sieve and Paediatric Triage Tape models but modified with slap-wrap reflective triage tags and paediatric triage stretchers. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the TAS-triage concept in full-scale simulated major incidents. Methods The learners participated in two standardised bus crash simulations: without and with competence of TAS-triage and access to TAS-triage equipment. The instructors calculated triage accuracy and measured time consumption while the learners participated in a self-reported before-after study. Each question was scored on a 7-point Likert scale with points labelled "Did not work" (1) through "Worked excellent" (7). Results Among the 93 (85%) participating emergency service professionals, 48% confirmed the existence of a major incident triage system in their service, whereas 27% had access to triage tags. The simulations without TAS-triage resulted in a mean over- and undertriage of 12%. When TAS-Triage was used, no mistriage was found. The average time from "scene secured to all patients triaged" was 22 minutes (range 15-32) without TAS-triage vs. 10 minutes (range 5-21) with TAS-triage. The participants replied to "How did interdisciplinary cooperation of triage work?" with mean 4,9 (95% CI 4,7-5,2) before the course vs. mean 5,8 (95% CI 5,6-6,0) after the course, p < 0,001. Conclusions Our modified triage Sieve tool is feasible, time-efficient and accurate in allocating priority during simulated bus accidents and may serve as

  11. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero; Aspholm, Rafael; Auvinen, Anssi; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hrafnkelsson, Jón; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tveten, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years. Main outcome measures Standardised incidence ratios, with expected numbers based on national cancer incidence rates; dose-response analysis using Poisson regression. Results 466 cases of cancer were diagnosed compared with 456 expected. The only significantly increased standardised incidence ratios were for skin cancer: melanoma 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.0), non-melanoma 2.1 (1.7 to 2.8), basal cell carcinoma 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2). The relative risk of skin cancers increased with the estimated radiation dose. The relative risk of prostate cancer increased with increasing number of flight hours in long distance aircraft. Conclusions This study does not indicate a marked increase in cancer risk attributable to cosmic radiation, although some influence of cosmic radiation on skin cancer cannot be entirely excluded. The suggestion of an association between number of long distance flights (possibly related to circadian hormonal disturbances) and prostate cancer needs to be confirmed. What is already known on this topicAirline pilots are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and other potentially carcinogenic elementsIn the studies published so far, dose-response patterns have not been characterisedWhat this study addsNo marked risk of cancer attributable to cosmic radiation is observed in airline pilotsA threefold excess of skin cancers is seen among pilots with longer careers, but the influence of recreational exposure to ultraviolet light cannot be quantifiedA slight increase in risk of prostate cancer with increasing number of long haul flights suggests a need

  12. Changing cancer incidence in Kampala, Uganda, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Nambooze, Sarah; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Wabinga, Henry R

    2010-03-01

    Incidence rates of different cancers have been calculated for the population of Kyadondo County (Kampala, Uganda) for a 16-year period (1991-2006). This period coincides with continuing social and lifestyle changes and the peak and subsequent wane of the epidemic of HIV-AIDS. There has been an overall increase in the risk of cancer during the period in both sexes, with the incidence rates of cancers of the breast and prostate showing particularly marked increases (4.5% annually). Prostate cancer is now the most common cancer in men. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus, formerly the most common cancer in men and second in frequency in women, has remained relatively constant, whereas the incidence of cancer of the cervix, the most common malignancy in women, continues to increase. Since the early 1990s the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in men has declined, and while remaining relatively constant in women, it has been diagnosed at progressively later ages. The rates of pediatric KS have declined by about 1/3rd. The incidence of squamous cell cancers of the conjunctiva has also declined since the mid 1990s. Cancer control in Uganda, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, involves meeting the challenge of emerging cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (large bowel, breast and prostate); although the incidence of cancers associated with poverty and infection (liver, cervix, esophagus) shows little decline, the residual burden of the AIDS-associated cancers remains a major burden. PMID:19688826

  13. The incidence of pelvic phleboliths in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Marquis, J R

    1977-01-01

    During a seven year period in a pediatric x-ray department 15 patients with pelvic phleboliths were encountered in a total of an estimated 12,000 pelvic roentgenograms, an incidence of 1 case per 800. The age range was from 9 to 17 years (average age 13 years), there were 10 girls and 5 boys, and 6 patients had more than 1 phlebolith. PMID:263508

  14. Trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Croatia, 1988 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Mateja; Samaržija, Miroslav; Jakopović, Marko; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To describe and interpret lung cancer incidence and mortality trends in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data on lung cancer for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry, while mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Population estimates for Croatia were obtained from the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. We also calculated and analyzed age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. To describe time incidence and mortality trends, we used joinpoint regression analysis. Results Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in men decreased significantly in all age groups younger than 70 years. Age-standardized incidence rates in men decreased significantly by -1.3% annually. Joinpoint analysis of mortality in men identified three trends, and average annual percent change (AAPC) decreased significantly by -1.1%. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in women increased significantly in all age groups older than 40 years and decreased in younger women (30-39- years). Age-standardized incidence rates increased significantly by 1.7% annually. Joinpoint analysis of age-standardized mortality rates in women identified two trends, and AAPC increased significantly by 1.9%. Conclusion Despite the overall decreasing trend, Croatia is still among the European countries with the highest male lung cancer incidence and mortality. Although the incidence trend in women is increasing, their age standardized incidence rates are still 5-fold lower than in men. These trends follow the observed decrease and increase in the prevalence of male and female smokers, respectively. These findings indicate the need for further introduction of smoking prevention and cessation policies targeting younger population, particularly women. PMID:22522986

  15. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  16. Increasing incidence of celiac disease in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, potentially because of incomplete ascertainment of cases and small study samples with limited statistical power. Previous reports indicate that the incidence of CD is increasing. We examined the prevalence of CD in a well-defined US county. METHODS Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, US. Using the infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, medical, histopathology, and CD serology records were used to identify all new cases of CD in Olmsted County since 2000. Age- and sex-specific and adjusted (to the US white 2000 population) incidence rates for CD were estimated. Clinical presentation at diagnosis was also assessed. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2010, 249 individuals (157 female or 63%, median age 37.9 years) were diagnosed with CD in Olmsted County. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CD in the study period was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.2–19.6) per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 11.1 (95% CI=6.8–15.5) in 2000–2001 to 17.3 (95% CI=13.3–21.3) in 2008–2010. The temporal trend in incidence rates was modeled as a two-slope pattern, with the incidence leveling off after 2004. Based on the two classic CD symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss, the relative frequency of classical CD among incident cases decreased over time between 2000 and 2010 (p=0.044). CONCLUSION The incidence of CD has continued to increase in the past decade in a North American population. PMID:23511460

  17. Incidence of cerebral microbleeds in preclinical Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Patricia M.; Phal, Pramit M.; Steward, Christopher; Szoeke, Cassandra; Salvado, Olivier; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Villemagne, Victor L.; Rowe, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and associations of lobar microbleeds (LMBs) in a longitudinal cohort with 11C–Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging. Methods: One hundred seventy-four participants from the observational Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (97 with normal cognition [NC], 37 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 40 with Alzheimer disease [AD] dementia) were assessed at 3 time points over 3 years with 3-tesla susceptibility-weighted MRI and 11C-PiB PET. MRIs were inspected for microbleeds, siderosis, infarction, and white matter hyperintensity severity, blind to clinical and PiB findings. Neocortical PiB standardized uptake value ratio, normalized to cerebellar cortex, was dichotomized as positive or negative (PiB+/−, standardized uptake value ratio >1.5). Annualized LMB incidence was calculated, and logistic regression was used to determine the association of incident LMBs with PiB, APOE ε4+ status, and cerebrovascular disease. Results: LMBs were present in 18.6% of NC, 24.3% of MCI, and 40% of AD participants (p < 0.05 vs NC). LMB incidence was 0.2 ± 0.6 per year in NC participants, 0.2 ± 0.5 in MCI, and 0.7 ± 1.4 in AD (p < 0.03 vs NC) and was 6-fold higher in PiB+ than PiB-NC. Incident LMBs were associated with age, APOE ε4+, PiB+, and baseline LMBs. Incidence of multiple LMBs was also associated with lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensity severity. Conclusions: Older age, baseline LMBs, higher β-amyloid burden, and concomitant cerebrovascular disease may all confer higher risk of incident LMBs. This should be considered when designing protocols for amyloid-modifying clinical trials. PMID:24623839

  18. Incidence of knee cartilage surgery in Norway, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Cathrine Nørstad; Årøen, Asbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic and long-term data collection on the treatment of focal cartilage defects (FCDs) of the knee is needed. This can be achieved through the foundation of a National Knee Cartilage Defect Registry. The aim of this study was to establish the nationwide burden of knee cartilage surgery, defined as knee surgery in patients with an FCD. We also aimed to identify any geographical differences in incidence rates, patient demographics or trends within this type of surgery. Setting A population-based study with retrospective identification of patients undergoing knee cartilage surgery in Norway through a mandatory public health database from 2008 to 2011. Participants We identified all patients undergoing cartilage surgery, or other knee surgery in patients with an FCD. All eligible surgeries were assessed for inclusion on the basis of certain types of ICD-10 and NOMESKO Classification of Surgical Procedures codes. Primary and secondary outcome measures The variables were diagnostic and surgical codes, geographic location of the performing hospital, age and sex of the patients. Yearly incidence and incidence rates were calculated. Age-adjusted incidences for risk ratios and ORs between geographical areas were also calculated. Results A total of 10 830 cases of knee cartilage surgery were identified, with slight but significant decreases from 2008 to 2011 (p<0.0003). The national incidence rate was 56/100 000 inhabitants and varied between regions, counties and hospitals. More than 50% of the procedures were palliative and nearly 400 yearly procedures were reparative or restorative. Conclusions Knee cartilage surgery is common in Norway, counting 2500 annual cases with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 68.8/100 000 inhabitants. There are significant geographical variations in incidence and trends of surgery and in trends between public and private hospitals. We suggest that a national surveillance system would be beneficial for the future evaluation

  19. Estimation of HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Ferreira, Orlando da Costa; de Brito, Ana Maria; Luhm, Karin Regina; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa Lopes; Silva, Ana Maria; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Ito, Tomoko Sasazawa; Raboni, Sonia Mara; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, Recife and Curitiba, in the year of 2013. METHODS The method for estimating incidence was based on primary information, resulting from the Lag-Avidity laboratory test for detection of recent HIV infections, applied in a sample of the cases diagnosed in the two cities in 2013. For the estimation of the HIV incidence for the total population of the cities, the recent infections detected in the research were annualized and weighted by the inverse of the probability of HIV testing in 2013 among the infected and not diagnosed cases. After estimating HIV incidence for the total population, the incidence rates were estimated by sex, age group, and exposure category. RESULTS In Recife, 902 individuals aged 13 years and older were diagnosed with HIV infection. From these, 528 were included in the study, and the estimated proportion of recent infections was 13.1%. In Curitiba, 1,013 people aged 13 years and older were diagnosed, 497 participated in the study, and the proportion of recent infections was 10.5%. In Recife, the estimated incidence rate was 53.1/100,000 inhabitants of 13 years and older, while in Curitiba, it was 41.1/100,000, with male-to-female ratio of 3.5 and 2.4, respectively. We observed high rates of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men, of 1.47% in Recife and 0.92% in Curitiba. CONCLUSIONS The results obtained in the two cities showed that the group of men who have sex with men are disproportionately subject to a greater risk of new infections, and indicate that strategies to control the spread of the epidemic in this population subgroup are essential and urgent. PMID:27598785

  20. [Stress and optimal ageing].

    PubMed

    Gogol, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Stress is a stimulus or incident which has an exogenic or endogenic influence on an organism and leads to a biological and/or psychological adaptation from the organism by adaptation. Stressors can be differentiated by the temporal impact (e.g. acute, chronic or acute on chronic), strength and quality. The consequences of stress exposure and adaptation can be measured at the cellular level and as (sub) clinical manifestations, where this process can be biologically seen as a continuum. Over the course of life there is an accumulation of stress incidents resulting in a diminution of the capability for adaptation and repair mechanisms. By means of various interventions it is possible to improve the individual capability for adaptation but it is not currently definitively possible to disentangle alterations due to ageing and the development of diseases. As a consequence the term "healthy ageing" should be replaced by the concept of "optimal ageing". PMID:26208575

  1. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  2. [Experiences with follow-up investigations of oral vaccination campaigns against rabies in foxes in Saxony with special emphasis on a standardised serology].

    PubMed

    Schaarschmidt, U; Müller, T; Albert, G; Muluneh, A; Cox, J; Selhorst, T; Schlüter, H

    2002-05-01

    An 8-year experience with organisation and standardisation of follow-up investigations within oral vaccination campaigns against rabies in foxes (OVF) in Saxony is summarised. With respect to OVF, the number of diagnostic tests performed during the years 1992-2000 on foxes amounts to a total of 52,226 Fluorescence antibody-(FAT), 7,551 marker-(TC) and 11,645 serological tests. The mean bait-uptake and the mean immunisation rate in foxes ranged between 78-86% and 60-89%, respectively. Based on the seroconversion rates of the years 1997-2000 observed in vaccination areas and in areas where vaccination was already finished, experience with a standardised serology under routine conditions is presented and discussed. Furthermore, recommendations concerning organisation and logistics of sampling are given. PMID:12073494

  3. The Incidence of Infant Physical Abuse in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford D.; Moore, Martha; Hamilton, Bernita; Muth, Pam T.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with infant (less than 1 year of age) physical abuse in Alaska. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study for the 1994-2000 resident birth cohort was conducted by linking data from birth certificates, Child Protective Services, a statewide hospital-based trauma…

  4. Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Abdolvahab; Semnani, Shahryar; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Mirbehbehani, Narges; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Moghaddami, Abbas; Cheraghali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006. Methods GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis. Findings Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0–14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area. PMID:23056726

  5. Elder Abuse and Black Americans: Incidence, Correlates, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    Existing evidence on family violence rates by age and race as well as the available data on race and physical elder abuse incidence rates suggests that because such data are not based on random or representative samples and tend to reflect a "sampling artifact" of the particular client populations served by the professionals surveyed, there are no…

  6. Children Gifted in Drawing: The Incidence of Precocious Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Winner, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Although one study has reported that 6% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have drawing talent, no study has examined the incidence of drawing talent in typical children. We asked 153 children aged 6-12 years to draw a picture of their hand. We scored the drawings for the use of detail, correct proportion, and overall contour;…

  7. Estimated incidence and risk factors of sudden unexpected death

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng-Chang; Mehta, Neil; Mounsey, Louisa; Nwosu, Anthony; Pursell, Irion; Chung, Eugene H; Mounsey, J Paul; Simpson, Ross J

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this manuscript, we estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for sudden unexpected death in a socioeconomically and racially diverse population in one county in North Carolina. Estimates of the incidence and risk factors contributing to sudden death vary widely. The Sudden Unexpected Death in North Carolina (SUDDEN) project is a population-based investigation of the incidence and potential causes of sudden death. Methods From 3 March 2013 to 2 March 2014, all out-of-hospital deaths in Wake County, North Carolina, were screened to identify presumed sudden unexpected death among free-living residents between the ages of 18 and 64 years. Death certificate, public and medical records were reviewed and adjudicated to confirm sudden unexpected death cases. Results Following adjudication, 190 sudden unexpected deaths including 122 men and 68 women were identified. Estimated incidence was 32.1 per 100 000 person-years overall: 42.7 among men and 22.4 among women. The majority of victims were white, unmarried men over age 55 years, with unwitnessed deaths at home. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were common in men and women. African-American women dying from sudden unexpected death were over-represented. Women who were under age 55 years with coronary disease accounted for over half of female participants with coronary artery disease. Conclusions The overall estimated incidence of sudden unexpected death may account for approximately 10% of all deaths classified as ‘natural’. Women have a lower estimated incidence of sudden unexpected death than men. However, we found no major differences in age or comorbidities between men and women. African-Americans and young women with coronary disease are at risk for sudden unexpected death. PMID:27042316

  8. The incidence of scarlet fever.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, E. M.; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempted to find the incidence of scarlet fever in the Oxford region, including the proportion of patients from whom Streptococcus pyogenes could be isolated. General practitioners collected throat swabs from patients with suspected scarlet fever. The swabs were examined for viral and bacterial pathogens. Children admitted to hospital were used as controls. Twenty-five of 105 patients with suspected scarlet fever grew Str. pyogenes; M type 4 was the commonest type. The clinical diagnosis of scarlet fever was not always confirmed by throat culture. The annual incidence of scarlet fever was estimated to be 0.3 cases per 1000 per year. PMID:6358344

  9. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  10. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  11. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable

  12. Incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Rea, Thomas D; Pearce, Rachel M; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Jouven, Xavier; Siscovick, David S

    2004-06-15

    Estimates of the incidence of out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest (CA) have typically relied solely upon emergency medical service or death certificate records and have not investigated incidence in clinical subgroups. Overall and temporal patterns of CA incidence were investigated in clinically defined groups using systematic methods to ascertain CA. Estimates of incidence were derived from a population-based case-control study in a large health plan from 1986 to 1994. Subjects were enrollees aged 50 to 79 years who had had CA (n = 1,275). A stratified random sample of enrollees who had not had CA was used to estimate the population at risk with various clinical characteristics (n = 2,323). Poisson's regression was used to estimate incidence overall and for 3-year time periods (1986 to 1988, 1989 to 1991, and 1992 to 1994). The overall CA incidence was 1.89/1,000 subject-years and varied up to 30-fold across clinical subgroups. For example, incidence was 5.98/1,000 subject-years in subjects with any clinically recognized heart disease compared with 0.82/1,000 subject-years in subjects without heart disease. In subgroups with heart disease, incidence was 13.69/1,000 subject-years in subjects with prior myocardial infarction and 21.87/1,000 subject-years in subjects with heart failure. Risk decreased by 20% from the initial to the final time period, with a greater decrease observed in those with (25%) compared with those without (12%) clinical heart disease. Thus, CA incidence varied considerably across clinical groups. The results provide insights regarding absolute and population-attributable risk in clinically defined subgroups, information that may aid strategies aimed at reducing mortality from CA. PMID:15194012

  13. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Astagneau, P; L'Hériteau, F; Daniel, F; Parneix, P; Venier, A-G; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Lejeune, B; Savey, A; Metzger, M-H; Bernet, C; Fabry, J; Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Thiolet, J-M; Coignard, B

    2009-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a key target for nosocomial infection control programmes. We evaluated the impact of an eight-year national SSI surveillance system named ISO-RAISIN (infection du site opératoire - Réseau Alerte Investigation Surveillance des Infections). Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were enrolled during a three-month period each year and surveyed for 30 days following surgery. A standardised form was completed for each patient including SSI diagnosis according to standard criteria, and several risk factors such as wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation duration, elective/emergency surgery, and type of surgery. From 1999 to 2006, 14,845 SSIs were identified in 964,128 patients (overall crude incidence: 1.54%) operated on in 838 participating hospitals. The crude overall SSI incidence decreased from 2.04% to 1.26% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -38%) and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS)-0 adjusted SSI incidence from 1.10% to 0.74% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -33%). The most significant SSI incidence reduction was observed for hernia repair and caesarean section, and to a lesser extent, cholecystectomy, hip prosthesis arthroplasty, and mastectomy. Active surveillance striving for a benchmark throughout a network is an effective strategy to reduce SSI incidence. PMID:19380181

  14. Survey of disc diffusion antimicrobial sensitivity testing in avian bacteriology laboratories and the evaluation of a standardised method.

    PubMed

    Whithear, K G; Htwe, T; Sulaiman, I

    1986-04-01

    A survey was conducted in which 15 laboratories involved in avian bacteriology tested the antimicrobial sensitivity of cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium, using the disc diffusion test as routinely practised in each laboratory. Up to 28 different antimicrobials or antimicrobial combinations were used. The most commonly tested agents were ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, furazolidone, neomycin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide. Results between laboratories were compared according to the width of the zone of inhibition (annular radius) where 5 or more laboratories used the same disc content of a particular antimicrobial agent, and on whether a culture was interpreted as being sensitive or resistant to a particular agent. The variation in annular radii about the mean values were less than +/- 2 SD in 39.5% and greater than +/- 3 SD in 32.6% of 43 different antimicrobial/culture combinations involving 8 different agents. The range of annular radii measurements was greatest with trimethoprim/sulphonamide and streptomycin discs and with the S. epidermidis culture. Variation in the interpretation of test results was greatest with the Gram-negative bacteria, where for each of the more frequently tested agents at least one, commonly 2 and sometimes all 3 cultures were reported as sensitive and resistant to the same agent by different laboratories. The calibrated dichotomous sensitivity (CDS) test of Bell (1975, 1984) was evaluated as a standardised disc diffusion procedure and was found to be reproducible and accurate. Results obtained using antimicrobial agents calibrated for use in the CDS test were compared with results obtained in the survey using the same agents or agents showing identical resistance patterns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3741274

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a standardised intracameral combination of mydriatics and anaesthetics for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Labetoulle, Marc; Findl, Oliver; Malecaze, François; Alió, Jorge; Cochener, Béatrice; Lobo, Conceição; Lazreg, Sihem; Hartani, Dahbia; Colin, Joseph; Tassignon, Marie-José; Behndig, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims To compare the efficacy and safety of intracameral (IC) administration at the beginning of cataract surgery, of Mydrane, a standardised ophthalmic combination of tropicamide 0.02%, phenylephrine 0.31% and lidocaine 1%, to a standard topical regimen. Methods In this international phase III, prospective, randomised study, the selected eye of 555 patients undergoing phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation received 200 μL of Mydrane (Mydrane group) just after the first incision or a topical regimen of one drop each of tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 10% repeated three times (reference group). The primary efficacy variable was achievement of capsulorhexis without additional mydriatics. The non-inferiority of Mydrane to the topical regimen was tested. The main outcome measures were pupil size, patient perception of ocular discomfort and safety. Results Capsulorhexis without additional mydriatics was performed in 98.9% of patients and 94.7% in the Mydrane and reference groups, respectively. Both groups achieved adequate mydriasis (>7 mm) during capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification and IOL insertion. IOL insertion was classified as ‘routine’ in a statistically greater number of eyes in the Mydrane group compared with the reference group (p=0.047). Patients in the Mydrane group reported statistically greater comfort than the reference group before IOL insertion (p=0.034). Safety data were similar between groups. Conclusions Mydrane is an effective and safe alternative to standard eye drops for initiating and maintaining intraoperative mydriasis and analgesia. Patients who received IC Mydrane were significantly more comfortable before IOL insertion than the reference group. Surgeons found IOL insertion less technically challenging with IC Mydrane. Trial registration number NCT02101359; Results. PMID:26531052

  16. Multicentre standardisation of a clinical grade procedure for the preparation of allogeneic platelet concentrates from umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Rebulla, Paolo; Pupella, Simonetta; Santodirocco, Michele; Greppi, Noemi; Villanova, Ida; Buzzi, Marina; De Fazio, Nicola; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to a largely prevalent use for bleeding prophylaxis, platelet concentrates from adult blood have also been used for many years to prepare platelet gels for the repair of topical skin ulcers. Platelet gel can be obtained by activation of fresh, cryopreserved, autologous or allogeneic platelet concentrates with calcium gluconate, thrombin and/or batroxobin. The high content of tissue regenerative factors in cord blood platelets and the widespread availability of allogeneic cord blood units generously donated for haematopoietic transplant but unsuitable for this use solely because of low haematopoietic stem cell content prompted us to develop a national programme to standardise the production of allogeneic cryopreserved cord blood platelet concentrates (CBPC) suitable for later preparation of clinical-grade cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods Cord blood units collected at public banks with total nucleated cell counts <1.5×109, platelet count >150×109/L and volume >50 mL, underwent soft centrifugation within 48 hours of collection. Platelet-rich plasma was centrifuged at high speed to obtain a CBPC with target platelet concentration of 800–1,200×109/L, which was cryopreserved, without cryoprotectant, below −40 °C. Results During 14 months, 13 banks produced 1,080 CBPC with mean (± standard deviation) volume of 11.4±4.4 mL and platelet concentration of 1,003±229×109/L. Total platelet count per CBPC was 11.3±4.9×109. Platelet recovery from cord blood was 47.7±17.8%. About one-third of cord blood units donated for haematopoietic transplant could meet the requirements for preparation of CBPC. The cost of preparation was € 160.92/CBPC. About 2 hours were needed for one technician to prepare four CBPC. Discussion This study yielded valuable scientific and operational information regarding the development of clinical trials using allogeneic CBPC. PMID:26509822

  17. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  18. Incidence of Osteoporosis in Patients with Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction. Clinical researches have shown an increased bone disintegration and lower bone mass in patients with calcium urolithiasis. Goal. The goal of our research was to establish the incidence of osteoporosis in adult patients with calcium urolithiasis, on the basis of measuring mineral bone density, using DEXA method, with a special reflection on age subgroups. Material and methods. Clinical research was prospective and it was implemented at the University Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases and at the Urology Clinic. Material in this research consisted of patients divided in two groups, a working and a control group. One hundred and twenty (120) patients were included in both these groups, divided in three age subgroups: 20-40, 40-60 and over 60. The working group consisted of the patients with calcium urolithiasis and the control group consisted of patients without calcium urolithiasis. Establishing of mineral bone density at L2-L4 of lumbal spine vertebrae and hip was done for the patients in both these groups, using DEXA method. Results. Analysis of mineral bone density using DEXA method in patients in age groups of working and control groups, as well as in the total sample of working and control groups, have shown that the patients of the working group, over 60, had a decreased mineral bone density (30% of osteopenia and 15% osteoporosis) significantly more expressed when compared to the other two age groups (12.5% in the subgroup 20-40 and 17.5% in the subgroup 40-60), which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In the control group, when taking into account age groups, osteopenia and osteoporosis were marked in 37.5% and 2.5% in the group of patients over 60, whereas in the youngest population, 5% of osteopenia was found, which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). When observing the total sample of working and control group, there was a

  19. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  20. Benefit Incidence Analysis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Tan, Jee-Peng

    2007-01-01

    The standard benefit incidence algebra generally produces biased estimates of the distribution of public spending on education when students from poor and rich families are enrolled in schools that receive different levels of public spending per student. Except in very rare instances, removing these biases entails combining several sources of…

  1. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    PubMed

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  2. Modeling Wildfire Incident Complexity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire management in the United States and elsewhere is challenged by substantial uncertainty regarding the location and timing of fire events, the socioeconomic and ecological consequences of these events, and the costs of suppression. Escalating U.S. Forest Service suppression expenditures is of particular concern at a time of fiscal austerity as swelling fire management budgets lead to decreases for non-fire programs, and as the likelihood of disruptive within-season borrowing potentially increases. Thus there is a strong interest in better understanding factors influencing suppression decisions and in turn their influence on suppression costs. As a step in that direction, this paper presents a probabilistic analysis of geographic and temporal variation in incident management team response to wildfires. The specific focus is incident complexity dynamics through time for fires managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The modeling framework is based on the recognition that large wildfire management entails recurrent decisions across time in response to changing conditions, which can be represented as a stochastic dynamic system. Daily incident complexity dynamics are modeled according to a first-order Markov chain, with containment represented as an absorbing state. A statistically significant difference in complexity dynamics between Forest Service Regions is demonstrated. Incident complexity probability transition matrices and expected times until containment are presented at national and regional levels. Results of this analysis can help improve understanding of geographic variation in incident management and associated cost structures, and can be incorporated into future analyses examining the economic efficiency of wildfire management. PMID:23691014

  3. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  4. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  5. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, J. E. N.; Obiechina, N. J. A.; Obionu, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. METHODS: Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age < or = 40 years), and group II included 105 women (age > or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year

  6. STANDARDISATION OF SIDDHA DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, Ariamuthu

    1994-01-01

    Siddha system is the ancient Dravidian system of medicine presently practiced predominantly in South India. In practice, generally the plants used are often in the compound form to which either herbs, metals, minerals and animals products are added. This paper attempts to describe the need for standardizing the drugs since the efficacy of medicines depends on their genuineness, indicating the methodology to be adopted for standardization. PMID:22556676

  7. Standardising infection control precautions.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lisa; McIntyre, Jackie

    To minimise the risk of infection transmission, standard infection control precautions must be practised whether a patient is known to have an infection. The main aim of any infection control guideline or policy should, therefore, be to make it easy for staff to do the right thing at the right time. This article outlines standard precautions, explains their importance and presents the critical elements that should be applied in all care settings. PMID:26513984

  8. Standardisation of pravala bhasma.

    PubMed

    Rao, V N; Dixit, S K

    1998-01-01

    Now-a-days it has become quite common to use modern electric heating devices in the place of conventional ones. A stud was conducted to standardize the temperature for the preparation of Pravala Bhasma by using Electric Muffle furnace (EMF) The details are presented in this article. PMID:22556842

  9. STANDARDISATION OF PRAVALA BHASMA

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Nageshwar; Dixit, S.K

    1998-01-01

    Now-a-days it has become quite common to use modern electric heating devices in the place of conventional ones. A stud was conducted to standardize the temperature for the preparation of Pravala Bhasma by using Electric Muffle furnace (EMF) The details are presented in this article. PMID:22556842

  10. Incidence of childhood leukaemia in The Netherlands (1973-1980).

    PubMed Central

    van Steensel-Moll, H. A.; Valkenburg, H. A.; van Zanen, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The childhood leukaemia incidence rate for the Netherlands was estimated at 3.11 per 100.000 children (aged 0-15 year) per year, based on a complete nation-wide childhood leukaemia registry comprising the period 1973-1980. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) accounted for 82.4% of the patients, acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia for 13.6% and chronic myeloid leukaemia for 2.9%. ALL occurred more frequently in boys (sex ratio 1.2). The highest ALL rate was observed in the 3-4 year age group. These figures corresponded with the data of the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry. Neither the incidence rates according to year of diagnosis nor the incidence rates according to year of birth showed a significant trend with time. The total leukaemia incidence rate in urban areas was somewhat higher than in rural areas. While the direct comparison of the incidence rate between these areas is not significant, the trend over the three categories of urbanisation is significant. PMID:6573905

  11. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies. PMID:25494288

  12. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  13. Ageing and the brain.

    PubMed

    Peters, R

    2006-02-01

    Ageing causes changes to the brain size, vasculature, and cognition. The brain shrinks with increasing age and there are changes at all levels from molecules to morphology. Incidence of stroke, white matter lesions, and dementia also rise with age, as does level of memory impairment and there are changes in levels of neurotransmitters and hormones. Protective factors that reduce cardiovascular risk, namely regular exercise, a healthy diet, and low to moderate alcohol intake, seem to aid the ageing brain as does increased cognitive effort in the form of education or occupational attainment. A healthy life both physically and mentally may be the best defence against the changes of an ageing brain. Additional measures to prevent cardiovascular disease may also be important. PMID:16461469

  14. [Pseudothrombocytopenia: incidence, causes and methods of detection].

    PubMed

    García Suárez, J; Merino, J L; Rodríguez, M; Velasco, A; Moreno, M C

    1991-06-01

    A prospective study of 20,761 routine clinical blood specimens was conducted in order to evaluate incidence and causes of pseudothrombocytopenia. All specimens were drawn in outpatient regimen and were analyzed by using the Coulter STKR autoanalyzer. The incidence of pseudothrombocytopenia was 0.15%, values clearly lower than others previously reported in hospitalized patients (1.9%). Of these patients, 72% had EDTA-induced platelet clumping sometimes associated to sodium citrate and 28% had spurious low platelet counts due to large platelets. No other causes of pseudothrombocytopenia were appreciated. It is important to remark that 49% of low platelet counts detected by the Coulter STKR have been due to pseudothrombocytopenia, and this instrument showed normal platelet and leukocyte histogram in 10% of these cases. Although time consuming these results confirm the necessity of preparation and examination of all blood smears presenting thrombocytopenia by automated cell-counting despite normal histograms. This approach would avoid erroneous diagnosis and dangerous medical or surgical therapy. A correlation of pseudothrombocytopenia with age, sex or clinical diagnosis were not found. PMID:1948538

  15. A cancer incidence survey in Tianjin: the third largest city in China-between 1981 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Song, Fengju; He, Min; Li, Haixin; Qian, Biyun; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Kexin; Hao, Xishan

    2008-06-01

    During the past three decades, the social/natural environment and lifestyle of people in China have undergone a marked transformation to westernization. However, age-standardized cancer rates have not been determined to any great extent in China. In this study, we tracked the cancer incidence between 1981 and 2000 in Tianjin, to identify the changes in incidence associated with social and economic changes. Cancer incidence data were collected by the Tianjin Cancer Registry. Sex, age, and organ site-specific incidence trends were analyzed by the "join-point regression" method. Overall crude cancer incidence increased, but the age-standardized incidence slightly decreased during the study period. The incidence of lung cancer increased between 1981 and 1996 but decreased between 1996 and 2000. The incidences of uterine, esophageal, stomach, and liver cancers decreased. However, the incidences of colorectal, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers all increased during the study period. There was an aging-related increase in the overall crude cancer incidence and an alteration in the distribution of cancer types in Tianjin. The incidences of cancer types that are more prevalent in developed countries appeared to increase in China, whereas the incidences of cancer types that are more prevalent in developing countries appeared to decline. PMID:18095173

  16. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  17. Racial Differences in the Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Newsome, Britt; Kramer, Holly; Peralta, Carmen A.; Kim, Yongin; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The incidence of ESRD is higher in African Americans than in whites, despite reports of a similar or lower prevalence of CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study compared the incidence of CKD among young African-American and white adults over 20 years of follow-up in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Participants included 4119 adults, 18–30 years of age, with an estimated GFR (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. Incident CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and a ≥25% decline in eGFR at study visits conducted 10, 15, and 20 years after baseline. Results At baseline, the mean age of African Americans and whites was 24 and 26 years, respectively (P<0.001), and 56% and 53% of participants, respectively, were women (P=0.06). There were 43 incident cases of CKD during follow-up, 29 (1.4%) among African Americans and 14 (0.7%) among whites (P=0.02). The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for incident CKD comparing African Americans to whites was 2.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.35–5.05). After further adjustment for body mass index, systolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, and HDL cholesterol, the HR was 2.51 (95% CI, 1.25–5.05). After multivariable adjustment including albuminuria at year 10, the HR for CKD at year 15 or 20 was 1.12 (95% CI, 0.52–2.41). Conclusions In this study, the 20-year CKD incidence was higher among African Americans than whites, a difference that is explained in part by albuminuria. PMID:22076879

  18. Galectin 3 and incident atrial fibrillation in the community

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; McManus, David D.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Larson, Martin G.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is a potential mediator of cardiac fibrosis, and Gal-3 concentrations predict incident heart failure. The same mechanisms that lead to cardiac fibrosis in heart failure may influence development of atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined the association of Gal-3 and incident AF in the community. Methods Plasma Gal-3 concentrations were measured in 3,306 participants of the Framingham Offspring cohort who attended the sixth examination cycle (1995–1998, mean age 58 years, 54% women). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of baseline Gal-3 concentrations and incident AF. Results Over a median follow-up period of 10 years, 250 participants developed incident AF. Crude incidence rates of AF by increasing sex-specific Gal-3 quartiles were 3.7%, 5.9%, 9.1%, and 11.5% (log-rank test P < .0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, each 1-SD increase in loge-Gal-3 was associated with a 19% increased hazard of incident AF (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.05–1.36, P = .009). This association was not significant after adjustment for traditional clinical AF risk factors (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.98–1.28, P = .10). Conclusion Higher circulating Gal-3 concentrations were associated with increased risk of developing AF over the subsequent 10 years in age- and sex-adjusted analyses but not after accounting for other traditional clinical AF risk factors. Our results do not support a role for Gal-3 in AF risk prediction. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether Gal-3 plays a role in the development of AF substrate similar to HF. PMID:24766984

  19. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Miseikyte-Kaubriene, Edita; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003. Methods The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur. Results During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years. Conclusion A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice. PMID:17156468

  20. Relation of Multiple Inflammatory Biomarkers to Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Larson, Martin G.; Yamamoto, Jennifer F.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rong, Jian; Levy, Daniel; Keaney, John F.; Wang, Thomas J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2009-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies suggest that inflammation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). We assessed the association of 12 circulating inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (mass and activity), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, CD40 ligand, osteoprotegerin, P-selectin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II] with incident AF in 2863 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 60.7 years, SD=9.4, 55% women). During follow-up (median 6 years), 148 participants (43% women) developed incident AF. In multivariable proportional-hazards models, the inflammatory biomarker panel was associated with incident AF (p=0.03). With stepwise selection (p<0.01 for entry and retention), log-transformed osteoprotegerin was associated with incident AF (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.56, p=0.006). Adjusting for interim myocardial infarction or heart failure attenuated the association between osteoprotegerin and incident AF (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.98–1.43, p=0.09). In conclusion, circulating osteoprotegerin concentration was significantly associated with incident AF in our community-based sample, possibly mediated by interim cardiovascular events. PMID:19576326

  1. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Hellen Cristina de Almeida; Reiners, Annelita Almeida Oliveira; Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Abreu, Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura; de Oliveira, Adriana Delmondes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25), polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05), visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23), gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14), urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44) and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39) and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event. PMID:26083943

  2. Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Leila; Salam, Hasan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon but severe complication of ocular trauma. We aimed to identify the incidence of post traumatic endophthalmitis and its contributing risk factors in Feiz hospital (Isfahan, Iran) from 2006 until 2010. Medical records of 1042 patients with open globe injury were analyzed and data were collected including age, sex, location of being injured, visual acuity (VA), time from injury to hospitalization and to repair, site of ophthalmic injury and the presence of foreign body. The frequency of post-traumatic endophthalmitis was about 2.1% (N = 22) of all patients. Nine of 22 cases with endophthalmitis were under 8 years. The visual acuity at the time of admission was seen to be contributed to high rate of endophthalmitis. Intraocular foreign body was detected in 139 patients; and the rate of endophthalmitis was 5% among these patients. Statistical analysis showed significant relationship between presence of foreign body and higher rate of endophthalmitis. Also, duration of hospitalization was significantly different between two study groups (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of other studied variables. Patients with low age, low visual acuity at admission, presence of intraocular foreign body and long duration of hospital stay had a higher risk of endophthalmitis after the repair of the globe. Compared to the reports of other large institutions, we can attribute the low incidence rate of endophthalmitis in our institution to the early use of systemic antibiotics such as gentamycin and cephalosporins in the first hour of hospitalization until discharge. PMID:25363107

  3. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  4. Incidence and Mortality of Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Martinique

    PubMed Central

    Mehdaoui, Hossein; Hamlat, Abderrahmane; Piotin, Michel; Banydeen, Rishika; Mejdoubi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) varies wildly across the world and seems to be low in Central and South America (4.2 per 100 000 person-years; CI 95%; 3.1–5.7). The objective of our study was to describe the characteristics of SAH and to estimate its incidence and severity in Martinique, a small French island located in the Caribbean Sea. Methods Due to its insular nature and small captive population, Martinique is ideal for the setting up of population-based epidemiological studies with good exhaustiveness. Our study, spanning a 7 year period (2007–2013), consisted of retrospective case ascertainment with multiple overlapping methods. Crude incidence and 30 day case-fatality rates for SAH among the Martinican population were computed for the study period. Incidence and disease severity was also analyzed according to age, gender and aneurysm presence. World age-standardized incidence rates were also calculated. Results A total of 121 patients had a SAH during the study period, with a higher frequency of female cases (71.1% versus 28.9%, p<0.001). Patient mean age was 57.1 years (median = 55 [46–66]). An aneurysmal origin was found in 96 SAH cases (79.3%). Crude annual incidence was 4.36 per 100 000 person-years (CI 95% 2.30–6.42). World age-standardized incidence was 3.29 per 100 000 person-years (CI 95% 1.74–4.84). During the 30 days following SAH diagnosis, 29 patients died (case fatality rate: 24% (CI 95% 16.4–31.6)). Conclusions The incidence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in Martinique is much lower than in other parts of the world and similar to countries in Central and South America. These results are possibly related to environmental factors and most particularly to a low rate of smoking in the Martinican population. Thirty-day case-fatality rate is similar to what is observed in developed countries. PMID:27213614

  5. Lymphoid neoplasm incidence by WHO subtype in Australia 1982-2006.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Marina T; Turner, Jennifer J; Joske, David J; Falster, Michael O; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Meagher, Nicola S; Grulich, Andrew E; Giles, Graham G; Vajdic, Claire M

    2014-11-01

    There are limited data characterizing the subtype-specific incidence of lymphoid neoplasms in the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification era. Data were obtained on all incident lymphoid neoplasms registered in Australia during 1982-2006. Subtypes were grouped using the InterLymph nested hierarchical classification, based on the 2008 WHO Classification. Temporal trends were examined using Joinpoint regression; average annual percentage change in incidence was computed. Multiple Poisson regression was used to compare incidence by sex and age. The incidence of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increased by 2.5%/year during 1982-1996 and was stable thereafter. During 1997-2006, several mature B- and natural killer (NK)-/T-cell NHL subtypes increased in incidence, including diffuse large B-cell (1.3%/year), follicular (2.5%/year), Burkitt (6.8%/year), marginal zone (13.2%/year), mantle cell (4.2%/year), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4.7%/year) and plasmacytoma (7.1%/year). While chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence was stable, small lymphocytic lymphoma incidence declined (8.1%/year). Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence increased during 1997-2006 (2.2%/year), both classical (4.3%/year) and nodular lymphocyte predominant (12.1%/year) HL. Diagnostic artifact, evidenced by a sustained decline in the incidence of NHL not otherwise specified (NOS; 5.8%/year) and lymphoid neoplasms NOS (5.6%/year), limits the interpretation of temporal trends for some subtypes. A marked male predominance was observed for almost all subtypes. Incidence of mature B- and NK-/T-cell NHL subtypes increased sharply with age, except for Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia. For HL subtypes, a bimodal age distribution was only evident for nodular sclerosis HL. Variation in incidence patterns over time and by sex and age supports etiological differences between lymphoid neoplasm subtypes. PMID:24639369

  6. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  7. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women. PMID:27222251

  8. [Decreasing incidence of stent thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Lemesle, G; Delhaye, C

    2011-12-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) remains a major pitfall of stent implantation in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) leading to high rates of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Many predictors of ST have been reported worldwide but the strongest have to be highlighted regarding the catastrophic prognosis of such an event. Because platelet aggregation has a pivotal role in ST pathogenesis, the new antiplatelet regimens combining aspirin and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors have led to a remarkable decrease in the ST incidence, especially in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article, our purpose is to review the evolution of ST incidence since first stent use in PCI. We will also overview the main predictors of ST focusing on ACS and clopidogrel low response. PMID:22054519

  9. Opacity incident reduction corrective action

    SciTech Connect

    Levyash, I.G.; Benegal, S.D.; Claase, B.J.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper illustrates some of the methods used to reduce the number of package boiler opacity incidents at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. East River Generating Station. The principal objective was to reduce opacity exceedances caused by the design of boiler auxiliaries. Opacity causes were identified and grouped. A matrix was developed to keep track of repairs and corrections on all package boilers. A special maintenance program was developed to sustain opacity reduction.

  10. Establishment of an integrated model incorporating standardised uptake value and N-classification for predicting metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Peng, Hao; Sun, Ying; Liu, Qing; Chen, Lei; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported a correlation between the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) obtained by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, an integrated model incorporating SUVmax and anatomic staging for stratifying metastasis risk has not been reported. Results The median SUVmax for primary tumour (SUV-T) and cervical lymph nodes (SUV-N) was 13.6 (range, 2.2 to 39.3) and 8.4 (range, 2.6 to 40.9), respectively. SUV-T (HR, 3.396; 95% CI, 1.451-7.947; P = 0.005), SUV-N (HR, 2.688; 95%CI, 1.250-5.781; P = 0.011) and N-classification (HR, 2.570; 95%CI, 1.422-4.579; P = 0.001) were identified as independent predictors for DMFS from multivariate analysis. Three valid risk groups were derived by RPA: low risk (N0-1 + SUV-T <10.45), medium risk (N0-1 + SUV-T >10.45) and high risk (N2-3). The three risk groups contained 100 (22.3%), 226 (50.3%), and 123 (27.4%) patients, respectively, with corresponding 3-year DMFS rates of 99.0%, 91.5%, and 77.5% (P <0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed the RPA-based prognostic grouping as the only significant prognostic indicator for DMFS (HR, 3.090; 95%CI, 1.975-4.835; P <0.001). Methods Data from 449 patients with with histologically-confirmed, stage I-IVB NPC treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. A prognostic model for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was derived by recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) combining independent predictors identified by multivariate analysis. Conclusion SUV-T, SUV-N and N-classification were identified as independent predictors for DMFS. An integrated RPA-based prognostic model for DMFS incorporating SUV-N and N-classification was proposed. PMID:26871291

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and standardisation of hydro-methanol extract of underground tuber of Dioscorea alata.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyankar; Roy Chowdhuri, Sumedha; Sarkar, Mousumi Poddar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Context The underground edible tuber of Dioscorea alata L. (Dioscoreaceae) is a functional food with high nutritive value and therapeutic potential. The tuber is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties in traditional medicine. Objective The present study explores the anti-inflammatory activity and standardisation of D. alata tuber hydromethanol extract. Materials and methods Hydromethanol extract (70%) of D. alata tuber was chemically characterised using HPLC and GC-MS techniques. Murine lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h with six different concentrations (0-80 μg/mL) of the extract. The expression of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, COX-1, COX-2, and PGE2 were evaluated using colorimetric and ELISA methods. Results Dioscorea alata extract inhibited the expression of NO and TNF-α with an IC50 value of 134.51 ± 6.75 and 113.30 ± 7.44 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of total COX, COX-1, COX-2 activities and PGE2 level were 41.96 ± 3.07, 141.41 ± 8.99, 32.50 ± 1.69, and 186.34 ± 15.36 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibition of PGE2 level and COX-2 activity was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.9393). Gallic acid (GA), 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4HBA), syringic acid (SYA), p-coumaric acid (PCA), and myricetin (MY) were identified and quantified using HPLC. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 13 different phytocompounds such as hexadecanoic acid, methyl stearate, cinnamyl cinnamate, and squalene. Conclusion The D. alata extract significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory signals in a gradual manner compared with control (0 μg/mL). Different bioactive phytocompounds individually possessing anti-inflammatory activities contributed to the overall bioactivity of the D. alata tuber extract. PMID:26864460

  12. Standardised exhaled breath collection for the measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis for airway disease monitoring is promising. However, contrary to nitric oxide the method for exhaled breath collection has not yet been standardized and the effects of expiratory flow and breath-hold have not been sufficiently studied. These manoeuvres may also reveal the origin of exhaled compounds. Methods 15 healthy volunteers (34 ± 7 years) participated in the study. Subjects inhaled through their nose and exhaled immediately at two different flows (5 L/min and 10 L/min) into methylated polyethylene bags. In addition, the effect of a 20 s breath-hold following inhalation to total lung capacity was studied. The samples were analyzed for ethanol and acetone levels immediately using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS, Logan Research, UK). Results Ethanol levels were negatively affected by expiratory flow rate (232.70 ± 33.50 ppb vs. 202.30 ± 27.28 ppb at 5 L/min and 10 L/min, respectively, p < 0.05), but remained unchanged following the breath hold (242.50 ± 34.53 vs. 237.90 ± 35.86 ppb, without and with breath hold, respectively, p = 0.11). On the contrary, acetone levels were increased following breath hold (1.50 ± 0.18 ppm) compared to the baseline levels (1.38 ± 0.15 ppm), but were not affected by expiratory flow (1.40 ± 0.14 ppm vs. 1.49 ± 0.14 ppm, 5 L/min vs. 10 L/min, respectively, p = 0.14). The diet had no significant effects on the gasses levels which showed good inter and intra session reproducibility. Conclusions Exhalation parameters such as expiratory flow and breath-hold may affect VOC levels significantly; therefore standardisation of exhaled VOC measurements is mandatory. Our preliminary results suggest a different origin in the respiratory tract for these two gasses. PMID:23837867

  13. Individual and Combined Risk Factors for Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Incident Stroke: An Analysis of 3 Million At-Risk US Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chyou, Janice Y; Hunter, Tina D; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Background The incremental effects of risk factor combinations for atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke are incompletely understood. We sought to quantify the risks of incident AF and stroke for combinations of established risk factors in a large US sample. Methods and Results Patients with no evidence of AF or stroke in 2007 were stratified by combinations of the following risk factors: heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, age 65 to 74, age ≥75, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease. Patients with ≥2 of the first 5 or ≥3 of the first 7, classified as “high-risk,” and an age-matched sample of patients with fewer risk factors, classified as “low-risk,” were followed over 2008–2010 for incident AF and stroke. Annualized incidence rates and risks were quantified for each combination of factors by using Cox regression. Annualized incidence rates for AF, stroke, and both were 3.59%, 3.27%, and 0.62% in 1 851 653 high-risk patients and 1.32%, 1.48%, and 0.18% in 1 156 221 low-risk patients, respectively. Among patients with 1 risk factor, those with age ≥75 had the highest hazards of incident AF and stroke (HR 9.2, 6.9). Among patients with 2 risk factors, those with age ≥75 and heart failure had the highest annualized incidence rates of AF and stroke (10.2%, 5.9%). The combination of age ≥75 and hypertension was prevalent and had the highest incidences of AF and stroke. Conclusions Adults with combinations of known risk factors are at increased risk of incident AF and stroke, but combinations of risk factors are not always additive. PMID:26206736

  14. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  15. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  16. Melanoma incidence and mortality in Scotland 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    MacKie, R M; Bray, C; Vestey, J; Doherty, V; Evans, A; Thomson, D; Nicolson, M

    2007-06-01

    We studied 12,450 cases of invasive melanoma diagnosed in Scotland in 1979-2003, by thickness, pathological type, and body site at ages under 40, 40-59, and 60 years and over. Melanoma incidence trebled in males from 3.57 to 10.93/10(5) per year, and increased 2.3-fold in females from 5.60 to 12.96/10(5) per year. The rate of increase fell in each successive 5-year period. The greatest increase was in males aged 60 years and over at diagnosis. Significant incidence increases were seen in melanomas < 1 mm in all three age groups, but those > 4 mm only increased significantly at ages 60 years and over. All histological types increased significantly at ages 60 years and over, and in this age group the greatest increase was seen on the head and neck. Five-year disease-free survival improved steadily. Survival figures for 1994-1998 ranged from 93.6% for males and 95.8% for females with tumours < 1 mm, to 52.4 and 48.3%, respectively, for those with tumours > 4 mm. Over the 25 years, melanoma mortality doubled in males from 1.1 to 2.4/10(5) per year, but was unchanged in females at 1.5/10(5) per year. Public education on melanoma is required both for primary prevention and earlier diagnosis, particularly for older males. PMID:17533392

  17. Ageing, dementia and society - an epistemological perspective.

    PubMed

    Heese, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Recent data show that as populations age, the number of people affected by neurodegenerative dementia is growing at an epidemic pace in various regions of the world. This cross-cultural study examined the relationships among age, gender, ethnicity, religion, and education as well as the attitudes and perceptions related to ageing and dementia. A random sample of 980 participants was selected to represent the multicultural population of Singapore. Data were collected using standardised questionnaires through online portals and by conducting interviews. These data were ultimately analysed by comparing percentage responses and correlation coefficients and by conducting a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that the perceptions and attitudes of individuals toward ageing and dementia differ among different age groups. Moreover, the level of education attained was significantly correlated with understanding dementia; regardless of education level, Christians had the most positive mindset toward dementia, although most religious individuals did not believe in divine healing. In this study, it was determined that attitudes and perceptions about ageing and dementia are influenced by multiple factors, such as education, age, and religion, and that it is imperative that younger generations develop coping strategies, including healthy lifestyles and social and/or religious communities to provide quality care to the elderly, in general, and to dementia patients, in particular. PMID:26069868

  18. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  19. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M; Guevarra, Veth M; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  20. Incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer according to histologic subtypes in Korea, 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Won, Young-Joo; Seo, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate trends in the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), according to histologic subtypes, in Korean women between 1999 and 2012. Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry recorded between 1999 and 2012 were evaluated. The incidences of EOC histologic subtypes were counted. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in incidence rates were calculated. Patient data were divided into three groups based on age (<40, 40 to 59, and >59 years), and age-specific incidence rates were compared. Results Overall, the incidence of EOC has increased. Annual EOC cases increased from 922 in 1999 to 1,775 in 2012. In 1999, the ASR was 3.52 per 100,000 and increased to 4.79 per 100,000 in 2012 (APC, 2.53%; p<0.001). The ASRs in 2012 and APCs between 1999 and 2012 for the four major histologic subtypes were as follows (in order of incidence): serous carcinoma (ASR, 2.32 per 100,000; APC, 4.34%; p<0.001), mucinous carcinoma (ASR, 0.73 per 100,000; APC, –1.05%; p=0.131), endometrioid carcinoma (ASR, 0.51 per 100,000; APC, 1.48%; p=0.032), and clear cell carcinoma (ASR, 0.50 per 100,000; APC, 8.13%; p<0.001). In the sub-analyses based on age, clear cell carcinoma was confirmed as the histologic subtype whose incidence had increased the most since 1999. Conclusion The incidence of EOC is increasing in Korea. Among the histologic subtypes, the incidence of clear cell carcinoma has increased markedly across all age groups since 1999. PMID:26463436

  1. Sociodemographic determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma, Finland 1953-97.

    PubMed

    Riska, Annika; Leminen, Arto; Pukkala, Eero

    2003-05-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is very rare. In Western countries, it accounts for about 1% of all female genital malignant tumors. Its etiology remains poorly known, but high parity is considered to be protective. We studied determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Finland. Incidence rates for primary fallopian tube carcinoma, according to the population based Finnish Cancer Registry, from 1953- 97 were assessed by age, year of diagnosis, and type of residential area. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the years 1971- 95 were calculated by occupation and social class variables taken from the 1970 Population Census. There were 485 cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma registered during 45 years. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 1.2/1000000 in 1953-57 to 5.4/1000000 in 1993-97. This 4.5-fold increase in incidence rate corresponds to a 7-fold increase in the number of new cases. The increase is attributable to the age group beyond 55 years, the peak incidence occurring between 60-64 years. Although the relative increase in incidence rate has been larger in rural areas than in cities, the rate in the latter remains 2-fold. Women in the 2 highest social classes had a 1.8-fold incidence (95% CI = 1.2-2.6) as compared to the lowest social class. Women in agriculture and those not working outside the home had only half the cancer incidence of those in academic or clerical occupations. The incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma increases in Finland. Evidently, the incidence has increased simultaneously with the affluence of urban life. Part of the variation in incidence correlates with variation in parity. PMID:12594821

  2. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  3. Similar herpes zoster incidence