Science.gov

Sample records for age standardized incidence

  1. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  2. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  3. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  4. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  5. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  6. Uveitis in the Aging Eye: Incidence, Patterns, and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdulaal, Marwan R.; Abiad, Bachir H.; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is a vision threatening inflammation of the eye that carries considerable morbidity. It is responsible for 10% of legal blindness in the United States and up to 25% in the developing world. Uveitis in patients more than 60 years of age is less common. The aging body has a changing response of the immune system, which might reflect a different pattern of uveitis in the elderly population. In this paper we review the incidence and patterns of uveitis in the elderly as reported in the literature and discuss changes with time. We also delineate a thorough differential diagnosis of de novo uveitis in the elderly. PMID:26090218

  7. Incidence of Dementia Among Participants and Nonparticipants in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  8. EP&R Standards Project Report: Technical Review of National Incident Management Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2007-04-24

    The importance and necessity for a fully developed and implemented National Incident Management System (NIMS) has been demonstrated in recent years by the impact of national events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Throughout the history of emergency response to major disasters, especially when multiple response organizations are involved, there have been systemic problems in the consistency and uniformity of response operations. Identifying national standards that support the development and implementation of NIMS is key to helping solve these systemic problems. The NIMS seeks to provide uniformity and consistency for incident management by using common terminology and protocols that will enable responders to coordinate their efforts to ensure an efficient response.

  9. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  10. Sexual incidents in an extended care unit for aged men.

    PubMed

    Szasz, G

    1983-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the nursing staff of a 400-bed extended-care unit for aged men by questionnaire to find out what patient behaviors were identified as sexual by the staff and how they reacted to these behaviors. Three types of behavior were identified as sexual and as "causing problems": sex talk (e.g., using foul language); sexual acts (e.g., touching or grabbing, exposing genitalia); and implied sexual behavior (e.g., openly reading pornographic magazines). As many as 25 per cent of the residents were thought to create such incidents. Acceptable sexual behavior identified by the staff were limited to hugging and kissing on the cheek, although their answers implied that residents could need more intimate touching and affection. The survey raised questions about the nature and causes of different types of sexual behavior in the institutionalized elderly and about the roles nursing staff, physicians, and administrators can play in recognizing individual needs while safeguarding both the residents and the staff from the consequences of unacceptable incidents. PMID:6863791

  11. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Groeller, Herbert; McGinn, Ryan; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-06-01

    The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function. Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts. Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness. PMID:27277571

  12. Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Background Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological wellbeing may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological wellbeing was associated with incidence of physical frailty. Methods We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relation between psychological wellbeing, assessed using the CASP-19 questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria, in 2557 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results Men and women with higher levels of psychological wellbeing were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological wellbeing at baseline, the relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 (0.40, 0.54). There was a significant association between psychological wellbeing and risk of pre-frailty: 0.69 (0.63, 0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) wellbeing showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in wellbeing, suggesting that the relationship is bi-directional. Conclusions Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological wellbeing in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:23822897

  13. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  14. Well-Being and Chronic Disease Incidence: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Okely, Judith A.; Gale, Catharine R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Previous research suggests that greater well-being may protect against onset of chronic disease. However, it is unclear whether this association is similar across different types of disease. Method We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the prospective relationship between well-being (measured using the CASP-19 quality of life questionnaire) and incidence of arthritis, cancer, stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease over 8 years. The sample consisted of 8182 participants 50 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results After adjustments for established risk factors, a standard deviation increase in CASP-19 score was associated with a decrease in arthritis risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83–0.96) and, in those younger than 65 years, a decrease in diabetes risk (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70–0.95) and chronic lung disease risk (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.97). Higher CASP-19 scores were associated with reduced risk for stroke and myocardial infarction; however, these associations were no longer significant after adjustments for established risk factors. No association was observed for cancer incidence. An age interaction was observed for diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease, with a stronger association between CASP-19 score and disease incidence at younger ages. Conclusions The extent of association between well-being and incident disease risk is not consistent across different chronic diseases. Future studies should examine the cause of this variation. PMID:26569542

  15. Lipids, Lipid Genes and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Three Continent Age-Related Macular Degeneration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Meta-analysis. Methods Setting Three population-based cohorts. Population 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) and Rotterdam Study (RS). Observation Procedures Participants were followed over 20 years and examined at 5-year intervals. Hazard ratios (HRs) associated with lipid levels per standard deviation above the mean or associated with each additional risk allele for each lipid pathway gene were calculated using random-effects inverse-weighted meta-analysis models, adjusting for known AMD risk factors. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of AMD. Results The average 5-year incidences of early AMD were 8.1%, 15.1%, and 13.0% in the BDES, BMES, and RS, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cholesterol and lipid pathway genes on the incidence and progression of AMD was evident when the data from the three studies were combined in meta-analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find a statistically significant association between any of the cholesterol measures, statin use, or serum lipid genes and any of the AMD outcomes in the meta-analysis. Conclusion In a meta-analysis, there were no associations of cholesterol measures, history of statin use, or lipid pathway genes to the incidence and progression of AMD. These findings add to inconsistencies in earlier reports from our studies and others showing weak associations, no associations, or inverse associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol with AMD. PMID:24879949

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care. PMID:25526960

  17. Does Older Age Confer an Increased Risk of Incident Neurocognitive Disorders Among Persons Living with HIV Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, David P.; Woods, Steven Paul; Bondi, Mark W.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Massman, Paul J.; Doyle, Katie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the combined effects of age and HIV infection on the risk of incident neurocognitive disorders. Method A total of 146 neurocognitively normal participants were enrolled at baseline into one of four groups based on age (≤ 40 years and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus resulting in 24 younger HIV−, 27 younger HIV+, 39 older HIV−, and 56 older HIV+ individuals. All participants were administered a standardized clinical neuropsychological battery at baseline and 14.3 ±0.2 months later. Results A logistic regression predicting incident neurocognitive disorders from HIV, age group, and their interaction was significant (χ2[4] = 13.56, p = .009), with a significant main effect of HIV serostatus (χ2[1] = 5.01, p = .025), but no main effect of age or age by HIV interaction (ps > .10). Specifically, 15.7 percent of the HIV+ individuals had an incident neurocognitive disorder as compared to 3.2 percent of the HIV− group (odds ratio = 4.8 [1.2, 32.6]). Among older HIV+ adults, lower baseline cognitive reserve, prospective memory, and verbal fluency each predicted incident neurocognitive disorders at follow-up. Conclusions Independent of age, HIV infection confers a nearly 5-fold risk for developing a neurocognitive disorder over approximately one year. Individuals with lower cognitive reserve and mild weaknesses in higher-order neurocognitive functions may be targeted for closer clinical monitoring and preventative measures. PMID:26367342

  18. Incidence and Mortality after Distal Radius Fractures in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and mortality of distal radius fracture among patients 50 years of age and older with diagnosis code (ICD10; S52.5, S52.6) and treatment code using a nationwide claims database from 2008 to 2012. All patients were followed using patient identification code to identify deaths. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of distal radius fracture were calculated based on age and gender-specific rates in the entire Korean population. The number of distal radius fractures increased by 54.2% over the 5-year study (48,145 in 2008 and 74,240 in 2012). The incidence of distal radius fracture increased from 367.4/100,000 in 2008 to 474.1/100,000 in 2012. The cumulative mortality rate over the first 12 months after distal radius fracture was decreased from 2.0% (968/48,145) in 2008 to 1.4% (1,045/74,240) in 2012. The mean year mortality over 5 years in men (2.6%, 1,279/50,128) over the first 12 months was 1.7-times higher than in women (1.5%, 3,952/257,045). The mean of SMR of distal radius fracture at 1 year post-fracture was 1.45 in men and 1.17 in women. This study using a nationwide database demonstrates that the distal radius fractures are increasing with a decreasing mortality in Korea. PMID:27051250

  19. Sunlight Exposure, Pigmentation, and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Howard, Kerri P.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD. Methods. Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color. Results. Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD. Conclusions. Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype. PMID:25125603

  20. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601...

  1. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601...

  2. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601...

  3. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, N K; Linn, F H H; van der Plas, J A; Algra, A; Rinkel, G J E

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We determined the relationship between the incidence of SAH and determinants by means of univariate Poisson regression. Results We included 51 studies (33 new), describing 58 study populations in 21 countries, observing 45 821 896 person‐years. Incidences per 100 000 person‐years were 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan, 19.7 (18.1 to 21.3) in Finland, 4.2 (3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America, and 9.1 (8.8 to 9.5) in the other regions. With age category 45–55 years as the reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.14) for age groups younger than 25 years to 1.61 (1.24 to 2.07) for age groups older than 85 years. The incidence in women was 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42) times higher than in men; this gender difference started at age 55 years and increased thereafter. Between 1950 and 2005, the incidence decreased by 0.6% (1.3% decrease to 0.1% increase) per year. Conclusions The overall incidence of SAH is approximately 9 per 100 000 person‐years. Rates are higher in Japan and Finland and increase with age. The preponderance of women starts only in the sixth decade. The decline in incidence of SAH over the past 45 years is relatively moderate compared with that for stroke in general. PMID:17470467

  4. Mortality and Incidence of Hospital Admissions for Stroke among Brazilians Aged 15 to 49 Years between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Fernando; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter dos Santos; Paiva, Laércio da Silva; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Santos, Edige Felipe de Sousa; Martins, Bruno Luis; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to analyze rates of stroke-related mortality and incidence of hospital admissions in Brazilians aged 15 to 49 years according to region and age group between 2008 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis was performed in 2014 using data from the Hospital and Mortality Information Systems and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Stroke was defined by ICD, 10th revision (I60–I64). Crude and standardized mortality (WHO reference) and incidence of hospital admissions per 100,000 inhabitants, stratified by region and age group, were estimated. Absolute and relative frequencies; and linear regression were also used. The software used was Stata 11.0. Results There were 35,005 deaths and 131,344 hospital admissions for stroke in Brazilians aged 15–49 years old between 2008 and 2012. Mortality decreased from 7.54 (95% CI 7.53; 7.54) in 2008 to 6.32 (95% CI 6.31; 6.32) in 2012 (β = -0.27, p = 0.013, r2 = 0.90). During the same time, incidence of hospital admissions stabilized: 24.67 (95% CI 24.66; 24.67) in 2008 and 25.11 (95% CI 25.10; 25.11) in 2012 (β = 0.09, p = 0.692, r2 = 0.05). There was a reduction in mortality in all Brazilian regions and in the age group between 30 and 49 years. Incidence of hospitalizations decreased in the South, but no significant decrease was observed in any age group. Conclusion We observed a decrease in stroke-related mortality, particularly in individuals over 30 years old, and stability of the incidence of hospitalizations; and also regional variation in stroke-related hospital admission incidence and mortality among Brazilian young adults. PMID:27332892

  5. Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…

  6. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  7. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  8. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  9. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  10. Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ye; Li, Hua; Wu, Yu-Fei; Xu, Ji; Lv, Sha; Li, Ge; Liu, Shi-Chun; Song, Sheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia. Results Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was −2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of −0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher myopic or hyperopic refractive error at baseline. The cumulative incidence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refractive error of −0.50 D or more, among initial emmetropes and hyperopes was 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.2%–63.5%), with an annual incidence of 10.6% (95% CI, 8.7%–13.1%). Myopia was found more likely to happen in female and older children. Conclusions In Western China, both myopic progression and incidence of myopia were higher than those of children from most other locations in China and from the European Caucasian population. Compared with a previous study in China, there was a relative increase in annual myopia progression and annual myopia incidence, a finding which is consistent with the increasing trend on prevalence of myopia in China. PMID:26875599

  11. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  12. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  13. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  14. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  15. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  16. Colorado IDDM Registry. Incidence and validation of IDDM in children aged 0-17 yr.

    PubMed

    Hamman, R F; Gay, E C; Cruickshanks, K J; Cook, M; Lezotte, D C; Klingensmith, G J; Chase, H P

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged 0-17 yr for age, sex, season, and urban and rural residence of onset in Colorado. Retrospective registration of new-onset cases was conducted from 1978 to 1980, and then prospective registration continued through 1983 with the use of physician reporting with hospital validation. The annual incidence of IDDM was 15.2/100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1, 16.3), with little difference between the sexes. The highest incidence was in the 10- to 14-yr age-group for both sexes. There was a seasonal peak of winter onset in those aged 10-17 yr, with similar patterns between sex and ethnic groups. No temporal trend over the 6 yr was seen, although an excess of cases was seen for 15- to 17-yr-old boys in 1980-1982. Rates were similar for urban and rural areas of the state. Case ascertainment was estimated to be 93.2% complete (95% CI 91.5, 95.5). Incidence was similar in Colorado to other populations in the United States at similar latitudes. These data serve as a baseline for evaluation of changes in incidence over time, by region, and for the identification of possible outbreaks. PMID:2351028

  17. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a)...

  18. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  19. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  20. Incidence of airflow limitation in subjects 65-100 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luoto, Johannes A; Elmståhl, Sölve; Wollmer, Per; Pihlsgård, Mats

    2016-02-01

    The true incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is largely unknown, because the few longitudinal studies performed have used diagnostic criteria no longer recommended by either the European Respiratory Society or the American Thoracic Society (ATS).We studied the incidence and significance of airflow limitation in a population-based geriatric sample using both an age-dependent predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) value and a fixed-ratio spirometric criterion.Out of 2025 subjects with acceptable spirometry at baseline, 984 subjects aged 65-100 years completed a 6-year follow-up visit. Smoking habits were registered at baseline. Exclusion criteria were non-acceptable spirometry performance according to ATS criteria and inability to communicate. Airflow limitation was defined both according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and incidence of airflow limitation per 1000 person-years was 28.2 using a fixed ratio and 11.7 with LLN, corresponding to a 1.41-fold higher incidence rate using a fixed ratio. The incidence increased dramatically with age when using a fixed ratio, but less so when using LLN. In addition, a sex effect was observed with the LLN criterion. LLN airflow limitation was associated with increased 5-year mortality. Presence of fixed-ratio airflow limitation in individuals classified by LLN as non-obstructive was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:26677939

  1. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Incident Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Antonio B.; Panza, Gregory A.; Cramer, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Saurav; Jayaraman, Ramya; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness in people over 65 years old in the United States and has been associated with cardiovascular risk and decreased survival. There is conflicting data, however, regarding the contribution of AMD to the prediction of stroke. Aim To determine whether AMD is a risk indicator for incident stroke in a meta-analysis of available prospective and retrospective cohort studies published in the English literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of all studies published in English with Pub Med and other databases from 1966 to August 2014, reporting stroke incidence in patients with macular degeneration. Two investigators independently extracted the data. A random effects model was used to report Odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-regression using a mixed linear model was used to understand potential heterogeneity amongst studies. Results We identified 9 studies that reported stroke incidence in patients with and without early AMD (N = 1,420,978). No significant association was found between early AMD with incident stroke. Combined, these 9 studies demonstrated random effects (OR, 1.12; CI, 0.86–1.47; I2 = 96%). Meta-regression on baseline covariates of age, sex, and year of publication did not significantly relate to heterogeneity. Conclusions We found no significant relationship between AMD and incident stroke. Further studies are needed to clarify other causes of decreased survival in patients with AMD. PMID:26580396

  3. Standard Genotyping Overestimates Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Immigrants in a Low-Incidence Country.

    PubMed

    Stucki, David; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Altpeter, Ekkehardt; Battegay, Manuel; Droz, Sara; Bruderer, Thomas; Coscolla, Mireia; Borrell, Sonia; Zürcher, Kathrin; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Calmy, Alexandra; Mazza Stalder, Jesica; Jaton, Katia; Rieder, Hans L; Pfyffer, Gaby E; Siegrist, Hans H; Hoffmann, Matthias; Fehr, Jan; Dolina, Marisa; Frei, Reno; Schrenzel, Jacques; Böttger, Erik C; Gagneux, Sebastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-07-01

    Immigrants from regions with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are a risk group for TB in low-incidence countries such as Switzerland. In a previous analysis of a nationwide collection of 520 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 2000 to 2008, we identified 35 clusters comprising 90 patients based on standard genotyping (24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat [MIRU-VNTR] typing and spoligotyping). Here, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to revisit these transmission clusters. Genome-based transmission clusters were defined as isolate pairs separated by ≤12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). WGS confirmed 17/35 (49%) MIRU-VNTR typing clusters; the other 18 clusters contained pairs separated by >12 SNPs. Most transmission clusters (3/4) of Swiss-born patients were confirmed by WGS, as opposed to 25% (4/16) of the clusters involving only foreign-born patients. The overall clustering proportion was 17% (90 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14 to 21%) by standard genotyping but only 8% (43 patients; 95% CI, 6 to 11%) by WGS. The clustering proportion was 17% (67/401; 95% CI, 13 to 21%) by standard genotyping and 7% (26/401; 95% CI, 4 to 9%) by WGS among foreign-born patients and 19% (23/119; 95% CI, 13 to 28%) and 14% (17/119; 95% CI, 9 to 22%), respectively, among Swiss-born patients. Using weighted logistic regression, we found weak evidence of an association between birth origin and transmission (adjusted odds ratio of 2.2 and 95% CI of 0.9 to 5.5 comparing Swiss-born patients to others). In conclusion, standard genotyping overestimated recent TB transmission in Switzerland compared to WGS, particularly among immigrants from regions with a high TB incidence, where genetically closely related strains often predominate. We recommend the use of WGS to identify transmission clusters in settings with a low incidence of TB. PMID:27194683

  4. Age incidence and site distribution of mammary dysplasias in young beagle bitches.

    PubMed

    Warner, M R

    1976-07-01

    The age incidence and site distribution of 2,142 mammary dysplasias were documented for 39 beagle bitches 6 months to 4 years of age. Lesion onset was at 2-3 years of age, at which time more than 50% of the females had dysplasias. Dysplasias appeared before palpable tumors. Posterior mammae developed more lesions than did anterior mammae. Thus the gradient for early onset of lesions coincided with the gradient for tumor frequency reported previously; a preneoplastic potential is suggested for (some) dysplasias. Problems of defining normal tissue are discussed. PMID:1034018

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  6. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  7. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  8. Cognitive Reserve, Incident Dementia, and Associated Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Bello, Toyin; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe factors associated with incident dementia and dementia mortality over 5 years in a large community sample of elderly persons. Design Longitudinal investigation of a household multistage probability sample. Setting Eight contiguous states of the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older (N=2,149). Measurements Dementia was diagnosed using tools previously validated in the population. Incident cases of dementia over three follow-up waves were determined after censoring cases in the preceding wave. Information on mortality was collected from key informants in subjects’ households. Results A dementia incident rate was found of 20.9 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI)=17.7–24.9). The adjusted mortality hazard for those with dementia was 1.5 (95% CI=1.1–2.1). Along with previously identified social and demographic factors, poor predementia cognitive function (hazard ratio (HR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.1–2.8) and low occupational complexity (HR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3–8.0) were associated with incident dementia. Conclusion The findings confirm the low incidence of dementia in this population, as previously reported. The condition is nevertheless associated with higher risk of mortality. Along with some features of social disadvantage, proxies of lower cognitive reserve were risk factors for incident dementia. PMID:26926137

  9. Relation of smoking to the incidence of age-related maculopathy. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1998-01-15

    To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998

  10. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  11. MARK-AGE standard operating procedures (SOPs): A successful effort.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Villanueva, María; Capri, Miriam; Breusing, Nicolle; Siepelmeyer, Anne; Sevini, Federica; Ghezzo, Alessandro; de Craen, Anton J M; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Schön, Christiane; Grune, Tilman; Franceschi, Claudio; Bürkle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Within the MARK-AGE project, a population study (3337 subjects) was conducted to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any single marker. The MARK-AGE project involves 14 European countries and a total of 26 research centres. In such a study, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an essential task, which are binding for all MARK-AGE Beneficiaries. The SOPs cover all aspects of subject's recruitment, collection, shipment and distribution of biological samples (blood and its components, buccal mucosa cells or BMC and urine) as well as the anthropometric measurements and questionnaires. PMID:25817206

  12. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  13. A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, F. E.; Stephan, B. C. M.; Robinson, L.; Jagger, C.; Barnes, L. E.; Arthur, A.; Brayne, C.; Comas-Herrera, A.; Wittenberg, R.; Dening, T.; McCracken, C.F.M.; Moody, C.; Parry, B.; Green, E.; Barnes, R.; Warwick, J.; Gao, L.; Mattison, A.; Baldwin, C.; Harrison, S.; Woods, B.; McKeith, I.G.; Ince, P.G.; Wharton, S.B.; Forster, G.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic global increases in future numbers of people with dementia have been predicted. No multicentre population-based study powered to detect changes over time has reported dementia incidence. MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) undertook baseline interviews in populations aged 65+ years in England and Wales (1989–1994). Three areas (CFAS I) were selected for new sampling two decades later (2008–2011) with same geographical boundaries, sampling and approach methods (CFAS II). At 2 years CFAS I interviewed 5,156 (76% response) with 5,288 interviewed in CFAS II (74% response). Here we report a 20% drop in incidence (95% CI: 0–40%), driven by a reduction in men across all ages above 65. In the UK we estimate 209,600 new dementia cases per year. This study was uniquely designed to test for differences across geography and time. A reduction of age-specific incidence means that the numbers of people estimated to develop dementia in any year has remained relatively stable. PMID:27092707

  14. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  15. National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Kirk, Jennifer L.; Stanton, James R.; Shebell, Peter; Schwartz, Deborah S.; Judd, Kathleen S.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2006-02-07

    The importance and need for full compliant implementation of NIMS nationwide was clearly demonstrated during the Hurricane Katrina event, which was clearly expressed in Secretary Chertoff's October 4, 2005 letter addressed to the State's governors. It states, ''Hurricane Katrina was a stark reminder of how critical it is for our nation to approach incident management in a coordinated, consistent, and efficient manner. We must be able to come together, at all levels of government, to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from any emergency or disaster. Our operations must be seamless and based on common incident management doctrine, because the challenges we face as a nation are far greater than capabilities of any one jurisdiction.'' The NIMS is a system/architecture for organizing response on a ''national'' level. It incorporations ICS as a main component of that structure (i.e., it institutionalizes ICS in NIMS). In a paper published on the NIMS Website, the following statements were made: ''NIMS represents a core set of doctrine, principles, terminology, and organizational processes to enable effective, efficient and collaborative incident management at all levels. To provide the framework for interoperability and compatibility, the NIMS is based on a balance between flexibility and standardization.'' Thus the NIC is challenged with the need to adopt quality SDO generated standards to support NIMS compliance, but in doing so maintain the flexibility necessary so that response operations can be tailored for the specific jurisdictional and geographical needs across the nation. In support of this large and complex challenge facing the NIC, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was asked to provide technical support to the NIC, through their DHS Science and Technology ? Standards Portfolio Contract, to help identify, review, and develop key standards for NIMS compliance. Upon examining the challenge, the following general process appears to be a

  16. Exploring the relationship between incidence and the average age of infection during seasonal epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the incidence and the average age of first infection for immunizing agents has become a basic tenet in the theory underlying the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases. However, this relationship assumes that the infection has reached an endemic equilibrium. In reality, most infectious diseases exhibit seasonal and/or long-term oscillations in incidence. We use a seasonally-forced age-structured SIR model to explore the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection over a single epidemic cycle. Contrary to the relationship for the equilibrium dynamics, we find that the average age of first infection is greatest at or near the peak of the epidemic when mixing is homogeneous. We explore the sensitivity of our findings to assumptions about the natural history of infection, population mixing behavior, the mechanism of seasonality, and of the timing of case reporting in relation to the infectious period. We conclude that seasonal variation in the average age of first infection tends to be greatest for acute infections, and the relationship between the number of cases and the average age of first infection can vary depending on the nature of population mixing and the natural history of infection. PMID:19527734

  17. Age-related incidence and other epidemiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aul, C; Gattermann, N; Schneider, W

    1992-10-01

    Although most haematologists perceive a rising prevalence and incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), reliable epidemiological data on these disorders are largely lacking. The bone marrow register of the University of Düsseldorf allowed us to assess among other epidemiological features the incidence of MDS, which was compared to that of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Among a total of 18,416 different patients registered between 1975 and 1990, 584 cases of MDS (3.2%) and 506 cases of AML (2.8%) were identified. Over the study period, the percentage of newly diagnosed MDS rose from 1.3% to 4.5%, while there was no upward trend for AML. Among all patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy, the proportion of those over 60 years of age increased from 41.9% in 1975 to 54.1% in 1990. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of elderly patients and the relative frequency of MDS diagnoses. Thirty-one patients (5.3%) were classified as a secondary MDS because of previous treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or irradiation for a variety of malignancies. Twelve patients were identified in whom occupational exposure to organic solvents could not be ruled out. For calculating age-specific incidence rates, the analysis was confined to the town district of Düsseldorf (575,000 inhabitants), because exact demographical data were available for this population. In the last quinquennium of the study period (1986-90), myelodysplastic syndromes were more frequent than AML in the age group 50-70 years (4.9 v 1.8/100,000/year). In patients over 70, the incidence of MDS was more than 3 times that of AML (22.8 v 6.7/100,000). In this group, men had a higher incidence of MDS (33.9/100,000) than women (18/100,000). Crude annual incidence (all age groups) was also higher for MDS (4.1/100,000) than for AML (2.1/100,000) in recent years. We conclude that MDS are relatively common haematological neoplasias. The rising incidence in recent years is probably not due to changes in

  18. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  19. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  20. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

  1. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  2. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  3. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  4. Anthropogenic pollutants may increase the incidence of neurodegenerative disease in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    The current world population contains an ever-increasing increased proportion of the elderly. This is due to global improvements in medical care and access to such care. Thus, a growing incidence of age-related neurodegenerative disorders is to be expected. Increased longevity also allows more time for interaction with adverse environmental factors that have the potential exert a gradual pressure, facilitating the onset of organismic aging. Nearly all neurodegenerative disorders have a relatively minor genetic element and a larger idiopathic component. It is likely that some of the unknown factors promoting neurological disease involve the appearance of some deleterious aspects of senescence, elicited prematurely by low but pervasive levels of toxic materials present in the environment. This review considers the nature of such possible toxicants and how they may hasten neurosenescence. An enhanced rate of emergence of normal age-related changes in the brain can lead to increased incidence of those specific neurological disorders where aging is an essential requirement. In addition, some xenobiotic agents appear to have the capability of engendering specific neurodegenerative disorders and some of these are also considered. PMID:26812399

  5. Comparison of parachute landing injury incidence between standard and low porosity parachutes.

    PubMed

    Bagian, J P

    1992-09-01

    Deployment of personnel by parachute is a common practice in many types of operations, both in and out of the military. Such operations are not without hazard and are associated with injuries which commonly occur during the landing phase of deployment. Environmental factors (i.e., wind and terrain) together with parachute sink rate are thought to influence the incidence of landing injuries. This study compared the incidence of overall landing injury and landing injury by parachute type in 8,706 jumps over 3 years between 1988 and 1990 between a standard porosity round canopy and a lower sink rate low porosity round canopy. In all cases the low porosity parachute group experienced significantly (p = 0.007) fewer overall injuries and fewer injuries of every type (reductions of 77% in 1988, 81% in 1989, and 94% in 1990). Reduction of sink rate by even small amounts correlates with significant (p less than 0.001) injury incidence reductions on the basis of reduced kinetic energy dissipation. Low porosity parachutes should be adopted where appropriate to reduce sink rate and hence landing injuries. Flight surgeons associated with airborne operations and who are familiar with these data can play a significant role in reducing parachute landing injuries. PMID:1524537

  6. The incidence of cervical spondylosis decreases with aging in the elderly, and increases with aging in the young and adult population: a hospital-based clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanling; Tian, Fuming; Zhou, Yingjun; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cervical spondylosis is well accepted as a common degenerative change in the cervical spine. Compelling evidence has shown that the incidence of cervical spondylosis increases with age. However, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis through more and more clinical data. Methods In the case-controlled study reported here, retrospective clinical analysis of 1,276 cases of cervical spondylosis has been conducted. We analyzed the general clinical data, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis, and the relationship between age-related risk factors and the incidence of cervical spondylosis. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of less than 0.05. Results The imaging examination demonstrated the most prominent characteristic features of cervical spondylosis: bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6. The incidence of cervical spondylosis increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially in the elderly after 60 years old. The occurrence rate of bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially after 60 years. Moreover, the incidence of hyperosteogeny and spinal stenosis increased with aging before age 60 years and decreased with aging after age 60 years, although there was no obvious change in calcification. The age-related risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking, have no relationship with the incidence of cervical spondylosis. Conclusion A decreasing proportion of cervical spondylosis with aging occurs in the elderly, while the proportion of

  7. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  8. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  9. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987

  10. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  11. Risk Factors for Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    CHOUDHURY, FARZANA; VARMA, ROHIT; MCKEAN-COWDIN, ROBERTA; KLEIN, RONALD; AZEN, STANLEY P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify risk factors for 4-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in adult Latinos. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS Participants, aged 40 or older, from The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent standardized comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at 4 years of follow-up. Age-related macular degeneration was detected by grading 30-degree stereoscopic fundus photographs using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of incidence and progression of AMD and baseline sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and ocular characteristics. RESULTS Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR per decade of age: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.85) and higher pulse pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.76) were independently associated with the incidence of any AMD. The same factors were associated with early AMD, soft indistinct drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Additionally, presence of clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus was independently associated with increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.85), and male gender was associated with retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.23). Older age (OR per decade of age: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.67) and current smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.66, 4.90) were independently associated with progression of AMD. CONCLUSIONS Several modifiable risk factors were associated with 4-year incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos. The results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing pulse pressure and promoting smoking cessation may reduce incidence and progression of AMD, respectively. PMID:21679916

  12. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  13. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  14. Dental age estimation standards for a Western Australian population.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Shalmira; Mack, Peter; Franklin, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Age estimation in the juvenile skeleton primarily relies on the assessment of the degree of dental and skeletal development relative to full maturity. The timing of the mineralization and eruption of the teeth is a sequential process that, compared to skeletal growth and development, is less affected by extrinsic influences such as nutrition and/or chronic illness. Accordingly, radiographic visualization and analysis of different tooth formation stages are the foundation for a number of widely applied age estimation standards. Presently, however, there is a relative paucity of contemporary dental age estimation standards for a Western Australian population. To that end, the aim of the present study is to develop statistically quantified radiographic age estimation standards for a Western Australian juvenile population. A total of 392 digital orthopantomograms (202 male and 190 female) of Western Australian individuals are analyzed. Following, Moorrees et al. (J. Dent. Res. 42 (1963a) 490-502; Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21 (1963) 205-213), dental development and root resorption was assessed. Alveolar eruption was analyzed following Bengston (Northwest Univ. Bull. 35 (1935) 3-9). Stages of dental development were used to formulate a series of age estimation polynomial regression models; prediction accuracy (±0.998 to 2.183 years) is further validated using a cross-validation (holdout) sample of 30 film orthopantomograms. A visual atlas of dental development and eruption was subsequently designed for the pooled sex sample. The standards presented here represent a non-invasive and statistically quantified approach for accurate dental age estimation in Western Australian juvenile individuals. PMID:26344558

  15. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  16. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  17. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  18. Recommendations for the treatment of aging in standard technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Allen, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the standard technical specifications for nuclear power plants to determine whether the current surveillance requirements (SRs) were effective in detecting age-related degradation. Nuclear Plant Aging Research findings for selected systems and components were reviewed to identify the stressors and operative aging mechanisms and to evaluate the methods available to detect, differentiate, and trend the resulting aging degradation. Current surveillance and testing requirements for these systems and components were reviewed for their effectiveness in detecting degraded conditions and for potential contributions to premature degradation. When the current surveillance and testing requirements appeared ineffective in detecting aging degradation or potentially could contribute to premature degradation, a possible deficiency in the SRs was identified that could result in undetected degradation. Based on this evaluation, PNL developed recommendations for inspection, surveillance, trending, and condition monitoring methods to be incorporated in the SRs to better detect age- related degradation of these selected systems and components.

  19. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  20. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0–98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children <5 years of age (outpatient incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per

  1. Relationship between Age and Timely Placement of Vascular Access in Incident Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Placement of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) prior to initiating dialysis can affect clinical outcomes for patients who subsequently initiate chronic hemodialysis treatments. Age-related variation in receipt of a functioning AVF prior to initiating dialysis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related rates in use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment among U.S. incident patients on hemodialysis. Findings Among 526,145 identified, the use of AVF at the first outpatient dialysis treatment was lower in the youngest (<55 year) and oldest (≥80 year) vs. both 55–66 year and 67–79 year age groups. These findings persisted after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle behavior, employment and insurance status, physical/functional conditions, and comorbid conditions. Conclusions The presence of a functioning AVF at initial dialysis treatment varies by age. Modifying healthcare policy and/or expanding the role of the renal nurse practitioner should be considered to address this issue. PMID:25802137

  2. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  3. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that

  4. Second Cancer Incidence Risk Estimates using BEIR VII Models for Standard and Complex External Beam Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, E M; James, H; Bonora, M; Yarnold, JR; Evans, PM

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy including cone beam CT verification following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer. Method Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated : (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) non-coplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low local cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contra-lateral breast, left and right lung, oesophagus, stomach, liver, colon and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine Lifetime Attributable Risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 years according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver and bladder (< 0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB

  5. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  6. Trends in the Incidence of In Situ and Invasive Cervical Cancer by Age Group and Histological Type in Korea from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Sang-yoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study aims to describe changes in carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in Korean women diagnosed between 1993 and 2009. Methods All cases of CIS and invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in the Korean National Cancer Incidence database were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) in incidence rates were compared according to age and histological type. Additionally, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to know the association between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate of cervical cancer. Results Between 1993 and 2009, 72,240 cases of ICC were reported in Korea. Total incidence rate of ICC was 14.7 per 100,000 females. ASRs of ICC declined 3.8% per year, from 19.3 per 100,000 in 1993 to 10.5 per 100,000 in 2009. Although the overall incidence rate of adenocarcinoma remained stable, invasive squamous cell carcinoma showed a decreasing trend (APC −4.2%). For women aged 60–79 years, ASRs for squamous cell carcinoma increased from 1993 to 2001, and decreased from 2001 to 2009 (APC: −4.6%). Total 62,300 cases of CIS were diagnosed from 1993 to 2009. Total incidence rate of CIS was 12.2 per 100,000 females. ASRs of CIS increased 5.7% per year, from 7.5 per 100,000 in 1993 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2009. Adenocarcinoma in situ increased 13.2% per year. There was a strong positive correlation between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate for CIS (p-value = 0.03) whereas screening rate showed a strong negative correlation with incidence rate for squamous ICC (p-value = 0.04). Conclusions The increasing trend in CIS, coupled with a decreasing trend in ICC, suggests the important role of cervix cancer screening. The incidence of adenocarcinoma showed a plateau, but the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ showed an increasing trend. PMID:23977194

  7. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  8. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  9. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  10. Precision and accuracy of decay constants and age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    40 years of round-robin experiments with age standards teach us that systematic errors must be present in at least N-1 labs if participants provide N mutually incompatible data. In EarthTime, the U-Pb community has produced and distributed synthetic solutions with full metrological traceability. Collector linearity is routinely calibrated under variable conditions (e.g. [1]). Instrumental mass fractionation is measured in-run with double spikes (e.g. 233U-236U). Parent-daughter ratios are metrologically traceable, so the full uncertainty budget of a U-Pb age should coincide with interlaboratory uncertainty. TIMS round-robin experiments indeed show a decrease of N towards the ideal value of 1. Comparing 235U-207Pb with 238U-206Pb ages (e.g. [2]) has resulted in a credible re-evaluation of the 235U decay constant, with lower uncertainty than gamma counting. U-Pb microbeam techniques reveal the link petrology-microtextures-microchemistry-isotope record but do not achieve the low uncertainty of TIMS. In the K-Ar community, N is large; interlaboratory bias is > 10 times self-assessed uncertainty. Systematic errors may have analytical and petrological reasons. Metrological traceability is not yet implemented (substantial advance may come from work in progress, e.g. [7]). One of the worst problems is collector stability and linearity. Using electron multipliers (EM) instead of Faraday buckets (FB) reduces both dynamic range and collector linearity. Mass spectrometer backgrounds are never zero; the extent as well as the predictability of their variability must be propagated into the uncertainty evaluation. The high isotope ratio of the atmospheric Ar requires a large dynamic range over which linearity must be demonstrated under all analytical conditions to correctly estimate mass fractionation. The only assessment of EM linearity in Ar analyses [3] points out many fundamental problems; the onus of proof is on every laboratory claiming low uncertainties. Finally, sample

  11. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  12. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. PMID:25363616

  13. Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction and the 20-year Cumulative Incidence of Early Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Danforth, Lorraine G.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Modifying levels of factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may decrease risk of visual impairment in older persons. Objective To examine the relationships of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. Design Longitudinal population-based cohort study. Setting Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Participants A random sample of 975 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study without signs of AMD who participated in the baseline examination in 1988-1990 and up to four follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2008-2010. Exposures Serum markers of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 [TNF-αR2], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and white blood cell count), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and total carbonyl content), and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were measured. Interactions with Complement Factor H (rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (rs10490924), C3 (rs2230199) and C2/CFB (rs4151667) were examined using multiplicative models. AMD was assessed from fundus photographs. Main Outcome Measure Early AMD defined by the presence of any size drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities, or by the presence of large-sized drusen (≥125 μm diameter), in the absence of late AMD. Results The 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 23.0%. Adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, hsCRP (odds ratio [OR] comparing 4th to 1st quartile 2.18, P=0.005), TNF-αR2 (1.78, P=0.04), and IL-6 (1.78, P=0.03) were associated with the incidence of early AMD. Increased incidence of early AMD was associated with sVCAM-1 (OR per standard deviation on the log ng/mL scale 1.21, P=0.04). Conclusions and Relevance We found modest evidence of relationships of serum hsCRP, TNF-αR2, and IL-6 and sVCAM-1 to the 20

  14. The Development and Standardization of the Iowa Aging Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettmann, David F.; And Others

    The assessment of the changes in knowledge about aging is essential to the development of aging courses and curricula. The present instrument was designed to reliably and validly measure various areas of information about aging. An item pool was gathered by examining texts and printed materials and consulting with persons specializing in…

  15. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  16. Declines in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence and Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults with and without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Tanner, Rikki M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P.; Woolley, J. Michael; Thacker, Evan L.; Levitan, Emily B.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Rosenson, Robert S.; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate secular changes in CHD incidence and mortality among adults with and without diabetes and determine the effect of increased lipid-lowering medication use and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on these changes. Methods We analyzed data on participants aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–1996 (early time period) and the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study in 2003–2009 (late time period). Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of diabetes and time period with incident CHD and CHD mortality were obtained after adjustment for socio-demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and LDL-C. Results After multivariable adjustment, diabetes was associated with an increased CHD risk during the early (HR=1.99,95% CI=1.59,2.49) and late (HR=2.39,95% CI=1.69,3.35) time periods. CHD incidence and mortality declined between the early and late time periods for individuals with and without diabetes. Increased use of lipid-lowering medication and lower LDL-C explained 33.6% and 27.2% of the decline in CHD incidence and CHD mortality, respectively, for those with diabetes. Conclusions Although rates have declined, diabetes remains associated with an increased risk of CHD incidence and mortality, highlighting the need for continuing diabetes prevention and cardiovascular risk factor management. PMID:24970491

  17. Age-Period-Cohort approaches to back-calculation of cancer incidence rate

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Cheongeun; Holford, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    A compartment model for cancer incidence and mortality is developed in which healthy subjects may develop cancer, and subsequently die of cancer or another cause. In order to adequately represent the experience of a defined population, it is also necessary to allow for subjects who are diagnosed at death, as well as subjects who migrate and are subsequently lost to follow-up. Expressions are derived for the number of cancer deaths as a function of the number of incidence cases and vice versa, which allows for the use of mortality statistics to obtain estimates of incidence using survival information. In addition, the model can be used to obtain estimates of cancer prevalence, which is useful for health care planning. The method is illustrated using data on lung cancer among males in Connecticut. PMID:25715831

  18. Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Karakaş, Hakkı Muammer; Ozsunar, Yelda; Altın, Levent; Ceken, Kağan; Alıcıoğlu, Banu; Sönmez, Iclal; Alparslan, Ahmet; Yürümez, Belde; Celik, Tayfun; Kazak, Eda; Geyik, Pınar Özdemir; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the incidence of pineal gland calcification (PGC), to investigate the interaction of PGC and aging, and to compare the incidence of PGC among the populations living in Turkey. In a prospective study the rate of PGC on CT scans of 1376 individuals in six referral centers from different regions of Turkey was investigated, with emphasis on effects of climatological parameters and aging on PGC. It was found that the incidence of PGC increased rapidly after first decade and the increase remains gradual thereafter, higher in males than in females for all age groups. There was a significant difference for incidence and degree of PGC between different clinics and between both sexes (p<0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference for the degree of PGC between the clinics in low altitude group and those in high altitude group (p<0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and intensity of sunlight exposure significantly affected the risk of PGC (odds ratios (OR) 1.335, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.261-1.414, p<0.001; OR 1.900, 95% CI 1.486-2.428, p<0.001; OR 0.715, 95% CI 0.517-0.990, p<0.05; OR 0.997, 95% CI 0.994-0.999, p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, by multiple linear regression analysis, high altitude and increased intensity of sunlight exposure were found to affect the degree of PGC (beta=0.003, p<0.001). It is concluded that there is a close relationship between PGC and the aforementioned parameters, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these. This study provides some reference data for new clinical studies on the putative role of pineal gland in future. PMID:18420391

  19. Age at First Drink and the First Incidence of Adult-Onset DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing studies of the association between age at first drink (AFD) and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) suffer from inconsistent levels of control and designs that may inflate associations by failure to control for duration of exposure to risk. Methods This study examined associations between AFD (ages <15 and 15-17 versus 18+ years) and first incidence of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, abuse, and specific AUD criteria over a 3-year follow-up in a longitudinal study of U.S. drinkers 18 years of age and older at baseline (n=22,316), controlling for duration of exposure, family history and a wide range of baseline and childhood risk factors. Results After adjusting for all risk factors, the incidence of dependence was increased for AFD <15 years (OR=1.38) and for women only with AFD at ages 15-17 (OR=1.54). The incidence of abuse was increased at AFD <15 and 15-17 years (OR=1.52 and 1.30, respectively). Most dependence criteria showed significant associations with AFD, but hazardous drinking and continued drinking despite interpersonal problems were the only abuse criteria to do so. All associations were nonsignificant after controlling for volume of consumption, except that AFD at all ages <18 combined was associated with a reduced likelihood of impaired control and AFD at ages 15-17 was associated with lower odds of drinking more/longer than intended among heavy-volume drinkers. In a population of low-risk drinkers that excluded those with positive family histories, personality disorders and childhood risk factors, there were strong associations between early AFD (<18) and the incidence of dependence (OR=3.79) and continued drinking despite physical/psychological problems (OR=2.71), but no association with incidence of abuse. Conclusions There is a robust association between AFD and the risk of AUD that appears to reflect willful rather than uncontrolled heavy drinking, consistent with misuse governed by poor decision-making and/or reward

  20. Bone tumors in a population of 400 000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 y of age: incidence and survival

    PubMed Central

    Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane; von Euler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of, survival until, and survival after the diagnosis of canine bone tumors by breed, sex, age, and geographic location of residence. Dogs under 10 y old and insured by a Swedish insurance company between 1995 and 2002 were studied. In total, 764 dogs had claims for bone tumors, and the incidence rate was 5.5 cases per 10 000 dog-years at risk (DYAR). At ages 6, 8, and 10 y, the proportions of dogs with bone tumors were 0.13%, 0.30%, and 0.64%. The top 3 breeds at risk were Irish wolfhound, St. Bernard, and leonberger (incidence rates 99, 78, and 53 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively). Median survival time after diagnosis was 56 d in the 419 dogs that survived ≥ 1 d. With a Cox regression model controlling for breed and age, females were shown to be at decreased risk of bone tumors, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (99% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.87). PMID:17955904

  1. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Donaldson, Anna L; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  2. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being. (c) All work in fire suppression is deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... as clearing fire trails or roads, piling and burning slash, maintaining firefighting equipment,...

  3. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being. (c) All work in fire suppression is deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... as clearing fire trails or roads, piling and burning slash, maintaining firefighting equipment,...

  4. Severity of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in 1 Eye and the Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Fellow Eye

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Importance Previous studies of the implications of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity in one eye on prognosis for the fellow eye have focused on incidence of neovascular AMD in the fellow eye of subjects with neovascular AMD in the other eye. It is unclear to what extent AMD severity in one eye impacts incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in its fellow eye across the entire range of AMD severity. Objective To investigate the impact of severity of AMD in one eye on incidence, progression, and regression of AMD in the fellow eye. Design, Setting and Participants The Beaver Dam Eye Study, a longitudinal population-based study of age-related eye diseases conducted in the city and township of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period (1988-1990 through 2008-2010). Study participants (N=4379) were aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination. At baseline and up to 4 subsequent examinations, retinal photographs were taken. Exposures Age, sex, and the Y402H polymorphism in the Complement Factor H gene on chromosome 1q; AMD severity in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, progression, and regression of AMD assessed in retinal photographs according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System; mortality. Results More severe AMD in one eye was associated with increased incidence and progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 1 to 2: hazard ratio [HR] 4.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.26-5.63; Level 2 to 3: HR 2.09, CI 1.42-3.06; Level 3 to 4: HR 2.38, CI 1.74-3.25; Level 4 to Level 5: HR 2.46, CI 1.65-3.66). Less severe AMD in one eye was associated with less progression of AMD in its fellow eye (Level 2 to 3: HR 0.42, CI 0.33-0.55; Level 3 to 4: HR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.83). We estimate that 51% of subjects who develop any AMD always maintain AMD severity states within 1 step of each other between eyes; 90% stay within 2 steps. Conclusions and Relevance Using multi-state models, we

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Incident Dementia: Evidence from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Megan; Mather, Karen A; Xu, Jing; Assareh, Amelia A; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-03-29

    Alcohol consumption is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, but the literature is not completely consistent. This inconsistency may be partly due to an interaction with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, an established risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident dementia or decline in specific cognitive domains over 4 years, and if this effect is modified by APOEɛ4 status. Non-demented community dwelling older adults (70-90 years) from an ongoing longitudinal study were assessed for cognitive impairment in attention/processing speed, language, executive function, visuospatial ability, and memory. Incident dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Compared to those who did not drink in the previous 12 months, neither low consumption (HR 0.64 95% CI 0.3-1.4) or risky consumption (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.2-1.5) was associated with incident dementia. Carriers of the APOEɛ4 allele were more likely to develop dementia, but there was no significant interaction with alcohol consumption. PMID:27031466

  6. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  7. Typical and Optimal Aging in Women and Men: Is There a Double Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetto, Silvia Sara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined gender stereotypes of typical and optimal mentally healthy aging. Respondents--young adults (n=232) and their older adult relatives/acquaintances (n=233)--reported more gender stereotypes than age stereotypes. Perceptions of typical aging varied with certain factors. Findings suggest a double standard of aging for typical but not for…

  8. INCIDENCE OF, AND RISK FACTORS FOR, MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 5-7 YEARS IN SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health problem contributing to the burden of disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of, and risk factors for, malnutrition among school-going children in south India. A total of 2496 children aged 5-7 years from rural and urban areas of south India were recruited in 1982 and followed up for malnutrition over a period of 9 years. Their body heights and weights were measured every six months and socio-demographic factors such as mother's education and father's education and relevant household characteristics and hygiene practices collected. Body mass index and height-for-age z-scores were used to determine children's levels of underweight and stunting, respectively, classified as normal, mild/moderate or severe. Risk factor analysis was done for pre-pubertal ages only using Generalized Estimating Equations with cumulative odds assumption. There was a significant difference between male and female children in the incidence of severe underweight and stunting (6.4% and 4.2% respectively). Children in households with no separate kitchen had 1.3 (1.0-1.6) times higher odds of being severely underweight (p=0.044) compared with those with a kitchen. Children without a toilet facility had significantly higher odds of severe underweight compared with those who did. Children with illiterate parents had higher odds of severe stunting than those with literate parents. In conclusion, the prevalence of malnutrition among these south Indian children has not changed over the years, and the incidence of severe malnutrition was highest in children when they were at pubertal age. The risk factors for stunting were mostly poverty-related, and those for underweight were mostly hygiene-related. Adolescent children in south India should be screened periodically at school for malnutrition and provided with nutritional intervention if necessary. PMID:26440753

  9. Programs for the Aging Population. Professional Standards Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarman, A. Marie

    1989-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent AAHPERD activities in aging and adult development, with emphasis on the need for qualified leaders and practitioners in the areas of physical activity, exercise, health promotion, and recreation for older adults. (IAH)

  10. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  11. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  12. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  13. Incidence of Elderly Eye Injuries in Automobile Crashes: The Effects of Lens Stiffness as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gail A.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Stefan M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the incidence of eye injuries with respect to occupant age in frontal automobile crashes as well as to investigate possible injury mechanisms of the elderly eye and the effects of lens stiffness. The National Automotive Sampling System was searched from years 1993–2000 for three separate occupant age groups of 16–35 years old, 36–65 years old, and 66 years old and greater in order to compare the total number of weighted occupants who sustained an eye injury to the number of occupants who sustained an eye injury per age group. Three separate impact scenarios simulating a foam particle (30 m/s), a steering wheel (15 m/s), and an air bag (67 m/s), were applied to a finite element eye model in order to elucidate the effects of aging on the eye when subjected to blunt trauma. The lens stiffness of the model was varied according to human lens stiffness values determined for each age group. Occupants aged 66 years old and greater were two to three times more likely to incur an eye injury than younger occupants. The computational eye model demonstrated that increased risk was related to the increasing stiffness of the lens, producing up to a 120% larger stress in the ciliary body. PMID:12941223

  14. Age- and gender-specific associations between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population: the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Liu, X; Wang, X; Wu, S

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the age- and sex-dependent association between sleep duration and incident hypertension in a Chinese population. The Kailuan prospective cohort study recruited 101 510 participants. Those participants were followed for an average of 3.98 years and the data obtained from 32 137 participants out of 101 510 were analyzed in this study. Sleep duration was categorized as five groups of⩽5, 6, 7, 8 and ⩾9 h. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze the association of sleep duration with incident hypertension. The 3.98 years' follow-up data showed that 12 732 out of 32 137 participants developed hypertension. Short duration of sleep (⩽5 h per night) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in woman (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.58) and participants aged <60 years (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), when compared with the group reported with 7 h of sleep per day. This study suggested that short sleep duration could cause an increased risk of hypertension in Chinese females and population aged <60 years. PMID:26763887

  15. Five-year incidence, progression and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Fridbert; Fisher, Diana E.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Klein, Ronald; Launer, Lenore J; Harris, Tamara; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and progression of age related m acular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and five-year follow-up. Methods Digital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main outcome measures AMD, defined as early or late. Results Among 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year 1.14 (95% CI 1.11, 1.17)), current smoking (OR 2.07 (1.38, 3.11)), former smoking (OR 1.36 (1.04, 1.79)), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR 1.62 per mmol/L (1.19, 2.22)), and body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.04 per kg/m2 (1.01, 1.07)). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy (GA) and 11.7% exudative AMD). In multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14 (1.07, 1.21)) and exudative AMD (OR 1.08 (1.01, 1.14)). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR 2.10 (1.10, 3.98)) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR 2.03 per mmol/L (1.02, 4.05)). Conclusion By age 85 years, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development. PMID:24768241

  16. Age-Varying Association Between Statin Use and Incident Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Shofer, Jane B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kukull, Walter A.; Peskind, Elaine R.; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Crane, Paul K.; Breitner, John C.S.; Larson, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier post hoc analysis suggested possible benefits of statins in reducing risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in younger participants (< age 80 years) with the APOE ε4 allele. We further investigated these findings with more follow-up time and more recently enrolled participants. Design A cohort of cognitively intact elderly was assessed biennially for dementia and AD. Setting Community based. Participants 3,392 non-demented member of a health maintenance organization (HMO) aged ≥ 65 years. Measurements We identified statin use from the HMO pharmacy database and applied proportional hazards models with statin use as a time-dependent covariate to assess the statin-AD association and the modifying effects of age and the APOE ε4 allele. Results Over an average of 6.1 years of follow-up of 3099 participants, 263 participants developed probable AD. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for statin use was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 – 0.97) for AD in models including demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors as covariates. The strength of the statin-AD association diminished with age (statin × age-at-entry interaction p = 0.04); the aHR in those younger than 80 was 0.44 (CI 0.25 – 0.78) vs. 1.22 (CI 0.61 – 2.42) for those older than 80. The interaction term for statin use × APOE ε4 was not significant (p = 0.65). Conclusion This enlarged study confirms earlier findings that statin therapy in early old age, but not in late age, may be associated with reduced risk of AD. The relationship between statin use and AD was consistent across APOE genotypes. PMID:20533968

  17. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  18. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Holford, T R

    1991-01-01

    Time trends for population-based disease rates often are summarized by using direct adjustment by period of diagnosis or death. Similarly, the effect of age often is presented graphically as age-specific rates for a given period of diagnosis. These approaches may be necessary if there is an absence of long-term data, as they provide a natural way for annually updating information when monitoring trends, or they may be a convenient way of summarizing a large amount of data (7, 10, 11, 39, 45). However, these summaries only can adjust for the effect of age in a given period; they implicitly ignore the cohort effect. The effect of cohort is an important factor in understanding time trends for many diseases. Thus, it is not advisable to use data analytic strategies that routinely ignore it. Another alternative to modeling is to give a graphical presentation of the age-specific rates themselves. As I noted in the introduction, some of the first analyses to identify the effect of cohort on diseases, such as tuberculosis and lung cancer, relied entirely on a graphical analysis. Although graphs certainly are an important part of the interpretation of time trends, it would be a mistake to limit your analysis to impressions of points on a graph. For example, such a perusal would not give an objective indication of the statistical significance of a particular pattern. Regression analysis forces us to recognize a fundamental problem with interpreting time trends in disease rates--a problem that you should remember, even when trying to understand a graphical display of time trends in age-specific rates. PMID:2049144

  19. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  20. Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in School-Aged Children in Puerto Rico: A Prospective Seroepidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, D. Fermín; Tomashek, Kay M.; Quiñones, Luz; Beltran, Manuela; Acosta, Luz; Santiago, Luis M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Pollissard-Gadroy, Laurence; Luxemburger, Christine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by the mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4). To estimate DENV seroincidence in school-aged children, a 1-year prospective cohort study was conducted in Patillas, Puerto Rico; 10- to 18-year-olds (N = 345) were randomly selected from 13 public schools. At enrollment, 49.8% of the entire cohort had DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-DENV antibodies, and there were individuals with neutralizing antibodies specific to each of the four DENV. The mean age of participants with incident DENV infection was 13.4 years. The 1-year seroincidence rate was 5.6%, and 61.1% of infections were inapparent. Having IgG anti-DENV at enrollment was associated with seroincidence (risk ratio = 6.8). Acute febrile illnesses during the study period were captured by a fever diary and an enhanced and passive surveillance system in the municipios of Patillas and Guayama. In summary, at enrollment, nearly one-half of the participants had a prior DENV infection, with the highest incidence in the 10- to 11-year-olds, of which most were inapparent infections, and symptomatic infections were considered mild. PMID:25646256

  1. Analysis of retinoblastoma age incidence data using a fully stochastic cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Stiller, Charles A.; Li, Guangquan; Kroll, Mary E.; Murphy, Michael F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is an important ocular malignancy of childhood. It has been commonly accepted for some time that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is the principal molecular target associated with the occurrence of RB. In this paper, we examine the validity of the two-hit theory for retinoblastoma by comparing the fit of a stochastic model with two or more mutational stages. Unlike many such models, our model assumes a fully stochastic stem cell compartment, which is crucial to its behavior. Models are fitted to a population-based dataset comprising 1,553 cases of retinoblastoma for the period 1962–2000 in Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales). The population incidence of retinoblastoma is best described by a fully stochastic model with two stages, although models with a deterministic stem cell compartment yield equivalent fit; models with three or more stages fit much less well. The results strongly suggest that knockout of the two alleles of the RB1 gene is necessary and may be largely sufficient for the development of retinoblastoma, in support of Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis. PMID:21387305

  2. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    PubMed Central

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  3. Emergency department patient safety incident characterization: an observational analysis of the findings of a standardized peer review process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Department (ED) care has been reported to be prone to patient safety incidents (PSIs). Improving our understanding of PSIs is essential to prevent them. A standardized, peer review process was implemented to identify and analyze ED PSIs. The primary objective of this investigation was to characterize ED PSIs identified by the peer review process. A secondary objective was to characterize PSIs that led to patient harm. In addition, we sought to provide a detailed description of the peer review process for others to consider as they conduct their own quality improvement initiatives. Methods An observational study was conducted in a large, urban, tertiary-care ED. Over a two-year period, all ED incident reports were investigated via a standardized, peer review process. PSIs were identified and analyzed for contributing factors including systems failures and practitioner-based errors. The classification system for factors contributing to PSIs was developed based on systems previously reported in the emergency medicine literature as well as the investigators’ experience in quality improvement and peer review. All cases in which a PSI was discovered were further adjudicated to determine if patient harm resulted. Results In 24 months, 469 cases were investigated, identifying 152 PSIs. In total, 188 systems failures and 96 practitioner-based errors were found to have contributed to the PSIs. In twelve cases, patient harm was determined to have resulted from PSIs. Systems failures were identified in eleven of the twelve cases in which a PSI resulted in patient harm. Conclusion Systems failures were almost twice as likely as practitioner-based errors to contribute to PSIs, and systems failures were present in the majority of cases resulting in patient harm. To effectively reduce PSIs, ED quality improvement initiatives should focus on systems failure reduction. PMID:25106803

  4. Standard errors of non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; Hakulinen, T; Brenner, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Relative survival estimates cancer survival in the absence of other causes of death. Previous work has shown that standard errors of non-standardised relative survival may be substantially overestimated by the conventionally used method. However, evidence was restricted to non-standardised relative survival estimates using Hakulinen's method. Here, we provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of standard errors including age-standardised survival and estimation by the Ederer II method. Methods: Five- and ten-year non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival was estimated for patients diagnosed with 25 common forms of cancer in Finland in 1989–1993, using data from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. Standard errors of mutually comparable non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival were computed by the conventionally used method and compared with bootstrap standard errors. Results: When using Hakulinen's method, standard errors of non-standardised relative survival were overestimated by up to 28%. In contrast, standard errors of age-standardised relative survival were accurately estimated. When using the Ederer II method, deviations of the standard errors of non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival were generally small to negligible. Conclusion: In most cases, overestimations of standard errors are effectively overcome by age standardisation and by using Ederer II rather than Hakulinen's method. PMID:22173672

  5. Incidence of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Fellow Eye in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Maureen G.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Shah, Ankoor R.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Avery, Robert L.; Huang, Jiayan; Martin, Revell W.; Roth, Daniel B.; Castellarin, Alessandro A.; Bakri, Sophie J.; Fine, Stuart L.; Martin, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of drug, dosing regimen, and traditional, non-traditional, and genetic risk factors on the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the fellow eye of patients treated for CNV with ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Design Cohort study of patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Participants Patients with no CNV in the fellow eye at the time of enrollment in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Methods Eligibility criteria for the clinical trial required that study eyes have evidence on fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and visual acuity between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to three different regimens for dosing over a two-year period. The genotypes for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) associated with risk of AMD were determined. Only patients without CNV in the fellow eye at baseline were considered at risk. CATT ophthalmologists examined patients every four weeks through two years and recorded treatment for CNV in the fellow eye. Main Outcome Measures Development of CNV in the fellow eye. Results Among 1185 CATT participants, 727 (61%) had no CNV in the fellow eye at enrollment. At two years, CNV had developed in 75 (20.6%) of 365 patients treated with ranibizumab and 60 (16.6%) of 362 patients treated with bevacizumab (absolute difference 4.0%, 95% confidence interval (−1.7%, 9.6%); p=0.17). The risk ratio for pro re nata (PRN) dosing relative to monthly dosing was 1.1 (95% confidence interval (0.8, 1.6)). Greater elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium and fluid in the foveal center of the study eye were associated with increased incidence of CNV in the fellow eye. Incidence was not associated with genotype on rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3

  6. Injury Rates in Age-Only Versus Age-and-Weight Playing Standard Conditions in American Youth Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Simon, Janet E.; Hayden, Ross; Snook, Erin M.; Dodge, Thomas; Gallo, Joseph A.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Murphy, Joseph M.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Ragan, Brian; Yeargin, Susan W.; Parsons, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: American youth football leagues are typically structured using either age-only (AO) or age-and-weight (AW) playing standard conditions. These playing standard conditions group players by age in the former condition and by a combination of age and weight in the latter condition. However, no study has systematically compared injury risk between these 2 playing standards. Purpose: To compare injury rates between youth tackle football players in the AO and AW playing standard conditions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers evaluated and recorded injuries at each practice and game during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Players (age, 5-14 years) were drawn from 13 recreational leagues across 6 states. The sample included 4092 athlete-seasons (AW, 2065; AO, 2027) from 210 teams (AW, 106; O, 104). Injury rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare the playing standard conditions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs adjusted for residual effects of age and clustering by team and league. There were 4 endpoints of interest: (1) any injury, (2) non–time loss (NTL) injuries only, (3) time loss (TL) injuries only, and (4) concussions only. Results: Over 2 seasons, the cohort accumulated 1475 injuries and 142,536 athlete-exposures (AEs). The most common injuries were contusions (34.4%), ligament sprains (16.3%), concussions (9.6%), and muscle strains (7.8%). The overall injury rate for both playing standard conditions combined was 10.3 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 9.8-10.9). The TL injury, NTL injury, and concussion rates in both playing standard conditions combined were 3.1, 7.2, and 1.0 per 1000 AEs, respectively. In multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, team, and league, no differences were found between playing standard conditions in the overall injury rate (RRoverall, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6). Rates for the other 3 endpoints were also similar (RRNTL, 1.1 [95% CI, 0

  7. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A.; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Methods Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Results Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Conclusions Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD. PMID:26906160

  8. Is There Relationship between Brain Atrophy and Higher Incidence of Hip Fracture in Old Age? -A Preliminary Study-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Suh, Seung Woo; Yoon, Tae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The studies on the correlation between incidence of fall and brain atrophy have been going on to find out the cause of fall and its prevention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between incidence of hip fracture and brain volume, measured by magnetic resonance image. Materials and Methods A total of 14 subjects with similar conditions (age, height, weight, and past history) were selected for this study. Fracture group (FG) was consisted of 5 subjects with intertrochanteric fracture. Control group (CG) had 9 subjects without intertrochanteric fracture. MRI-based brain volumetry was done in FG and CG with imaging software (V-works, CyberMed Co., Korea). Total brain (tBV), absolute cerebellar volumes (aCV) and relative cerebellar volumes (rCV) were compared between two groups. Student t-test was used to statistically analyze the results. Results In FG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were 1034.676±38.80, 108.648±76.80 and 10.50±0.72 cm3, respectively. In CG, average tBV, aCV and rCV were found to be 1106.459±89.15, 114.899±98.06 and 10.39±0.53 cm3, respectively, having no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the fracture and control groups. Patients with neurologic disease such as cerebellar ataxia definitely have high incidence of fall that causes fractures and have brain changes as well. However, FG without neurologic disease did not have brain volume change. We consider that high risk of fall with hip fracture might decrease brain function which is not obvious to pickup on MRI. PMID:24142659

  9. Age-related decline in differentiated neural responses to rare target versus frequent standard stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mott, Katherine K; Alperin, Brittany R; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2014-10-31

    One mechanism hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging is the failure to recruit specialized neural modules and generate differentiated neural responses to various classes of stimuli. Here, ERPs were used to examine the extent to which target and standard stimulus types were processed differently by well-matched adults ages 19-99. Subjects responded to designated visual target letters under low and high load conditions. Temporospatial PCA was used to parse the P3b component, an index of categorization/memory updating. The P3b amplitude difference between targets and standards decreased substantially as a function of age. Dedifferentiation began in middle age, and continued into old-old age. The reduced differentiation of neural responses was driven by an age-related decline in the size of the P3b to targets and an age-related increase in the P3b to standards. Larger P3b amplitude to standards among older subjects was associated with higher executive capacity and better task performance. In summary, dedifferentiation begins relatively early in adulthood and progresses in a linear fashion throughout the lifespan. The age-related augmentation of the P3b to standards appears to reflect a compensatory mechanism that helps maintain task performance. PMID:25171804

  10. Age-related decline in differentiated neural responses to rare target versus frequent standard stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Katherine K.; Alperin, Brittany R.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2014-01-01

    One mechanism hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging is the failure to recruit specialized neural modules and generate differentiated neural responses to various classes of stimuli. Here, ERPs were used to examine the extent to which target and standard stimulus types were processed differently by well-matched adults ages 19–99. Subjects responded to designated visual target letters under low and high load conditions. Temporospatial PCA was used to parse the P3b component, an index of categorization/memory updating. The P3b amplitude difference between targets and standards decreased substantially as a function of age. Dedifferentiation began in middle age, and continued into old-old age. The reduced differentiation of neural responses was driven by an age-related decline in the size of the P3b to targets and an age-related increase in the P3b to standards. Larger P3b amplitude to standards among older subjects was associated with higher executive capacity and better task performance. In summary, dedifferentiation begins relatively early in adulthood and progresses in a linear fashion throughout the lifespan. The age-related augmentation of the P3b to standards appears to reflect a compensatory mechanism that helps maintain task performance. PMID:25171804

  11. With increasing ageing in Western populations, what are the prospects for lowering the incidence of coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Walker, A R

    2001-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), rare in the early 1900s, in the 1970s was responsible for almost a third of deaths in Western populations. Although its mortality rate has fallen in the last 20 years, considerably in certain populations, it remains the leading cause of death, and there is little evidence of any fall in its incidence rate. The primary risk factors, which include pattern of diet, smoking practice, and level of physical activity, are well known, but explain only approximately 50% of variation in its occurrence. Despite the numerous health improvement recommendations made, alterations in diet have been relatively slight. Although smoking practice has halved in some populations, its prevalence is now rising in the young. The extent of physical activity is low, compared with that in the past, and may even be decreasing in the young. With the general ageing of populations, the near absence of strong encouragement from the state, and individuals' general failure to reduce risk factors significantly, the chances of decreases in the incidence of CHD appear remote. PMID:11181987

  12. Practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in normal aging vs. incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Machulda, Mary M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in a population based cohort classified as clinically normal at their initial evaluation. We examined 1390 individuals with a median age of 78.1 years and re-evaluated them up to four times at approximate 15 month intervals, with an average follow-up time of five years. Of the 1390 participants, 947 (69%) individuals remained cognitively normal, 397 (29%) progressed to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 46 (3%) to dementia. The stable normal group showed an initial practice effect in all domains which was sustained in memory and visuospatial reasoning. There was only a slight decline in attention and language after visit 3. We combined individuals with incident MCI and dementia to form one group representing those who declined. The incident MCI/dementia group showed an unexpected practice effect in memory from baseline to visit 2, with a significant decline thereafter. This group did not demonstrate practice effects in any other domain and showed a downward trajectory in all domains at each evaluation. Modeling cognitive change in an epidemiologic sample may serve as a useful benchmark for evaluating cognitive change in future intervention studies. PMID:24041121

  13. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  14. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  15. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  16. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by two contemporaneous events: the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and presc...

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity, and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and pr...

  18. First incident hospitalisation for Australian women aged 70 and beyond: A 10 year examination using competing risks.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding high hospital use among older adults and the capacity to manage the economic impact of the ageing population trend on healthcare systems. First hospitalisation in old age may act as a catalyst for ongoing intensification of health problems and acute care use. This study examined factors associated with first incident hospitalisation in women aged over 70, accounting for the health inequalities associated with geographic location. Survey data from 3780 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the Admitted Patients Data Collection and National Death Index. Days to first event (hospitalisation or death) were modelled using competing risks methods. A total of 3065 (80.3%) women had at least one hospital admission. More than half of the top 15 reasons for first hospitalisation were related to cardiovascular disease, with atrial fibrillation the most common. Proportional subdistribution hazards models showed that first hospital admission was driven by enabling and need factors including asthma/bronchitis diagnosis (HR=1.16; p=0.047), private health insurance (HR=1.16; p=0.004) more than two prescribed medications in previous month (HR=1.31; p=0.001), more than four general practitioner visits in previous year (HR=1.50; p=0.034), lower physical functioning (HR=0.99; p<0.001) and living in an inner regional area (HR=1.17; p=0.003). First overnight hospitalisation was primarily related with potentially preventable and treatable chronic diseases. Primary and secondary strategies aimed at chronic disease generally, and better chronic disease management particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, may play a vital role in disease prevention or delay in readmissions among this population. PMID:26952374

  19. The Contribution of Mammography Screening to Breast Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States: An Updated Age-period-cohort Model

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Alagoz, Oguz; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Holford, Theodore R.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of screening mammography on breast cancer incidence is difficult to disentangle from cohort- and age-related effects on incidence. Methods We developed an age-period-cohort model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer incidence in U.S. females using cancer registry data. Five functions were included in the model to estimate stage-specific effects for age, premenopausal birth cohorts, postmenopausal birth cohorts, period (for all years of diagnosis), and a mammography period effect limited to women aged ≥40 years after 1982. Incidence with and without the mammography period effect was calculated. Results More recent birth cohorts have elevated underlying risk compared to earlier cohorts for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Comparing models with and without the mammography period effect showed that overall breast cancer incidence would have been 23.1% lower in the absence of mammography in 2010 (95% CI 18.8, 27.4), including 14.7% (9.5, 19.3) lower for invasive breast cancer and 54.5% (47.4, 59.6) lower for DCIS. Incidence of distant-staged breast cancer in 2010 would have been 29.0% (13.1, 48.1) greater in the absence of mammography screening. Conclusions Mammography contributes to markedly elevated rates of DCIS and early stage invasive cancers, but also contributes to substantial reductions in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. Impact Mammography is an important tool for reducing the burden of breast cancer, but future work is needed to identify risk factors accounting for increasing underlying incidence and to distinguish between indolent and potentially lethal early stage breast cancers that are detected via mammography. PMID:25787716

  20. Age estimation standards for a Western Australian population using the dental age estimation technique developed by Kvaal et al.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Shalmira; Mack, Peter; Franklin, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In the present global socio-political scenario, an increasing demand exists for age estimation in living persons, such as refugees and asylum seekers, who seldom have any documentation for proof of identity. Age estimation in the living poses significant challenges because the methods need to be non-invasive, accurate and ethically viable. Methods based on the analysis of the pulp chamber are recommended for age estimation in living adults. There is, however, a paucity of studies of this nature and population specific standards in Western Australia. The aim of the present study is therefore, to test the reliability and applicability of the method developed by Kvaal et al. (1995) for the purpose of developing age estimation standards for an adult Western Australian population. A total of 279 digital orthopantomograms (143 female; and 136 male) of Australian individuals were analysed. A subset of the total sample (50) was removed as a cross-validation (holdout) sample. Following the method described in Kvaal et al. (1995), length and width measurements of the tooth and pulp chamber were acquired in maxillary central and lateral incisors; second premolars, mandibular lateral incisors; canines and first premolars. Those measurements were then used to calculate a series of ratios (length and width), which were subsequently used to formulate age estimation regression models. The most accurate model based on a single tooth was for the maxillary central incisor (SEE ±9.367 years), followed by the maxillary second premolar (SEE ±9.525 years). Regression models based on the measurement of multiple teeth improved age prediction accuracy (SEE ±7.963 years). The regression models presented here have expected accuracy rates comparable (if not higher than) to established skeletal morphoscopic methods. This method, therefore, offers a statistically quantified methodological approach for forensic age estimation in Western Australian adults. PMID:24411636

  1. Incidences of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Japanese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older From a Community-based Prospective Cohort Study: The SHEZ Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Yano, Shuichiro; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cross-sectional studies have examined the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but prospective studies in Japanese older adults are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a community-based prospective cohort study to determine the incidence in Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. Methods We recruited 12 522 participants from Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, between December 2008 and November 2009 and followed participants for 3 years. When a subject presented with symptoms suggestive of HZ, they were examined at collaborating medical institutions and cooperated with onset and recovery surveys (eg, measurement of varicella zoster virus-specific immunity and a pain survey). The hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ and PHN according to sex and age were analyzed by Cox regression analysis with a significance level of 5%. Results The incidence of HZ was 10.9/1000 person-years (men: 8.5/1000 person-years; women: 12.8/1000 person-years) and was significantly higher in women than in men (HR 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8). The incidence of PHN was 2.1/1000 person-years (men: 1.7/1000 person-years; women: 2.4/1000 person-years), with no significant sex differences. A total of 19% of HZ cases progressed to PHN; no sex-specific difference in the proportion of PHN cases was observed. Conclusions We clarified the accurate incidences of HZ and PHN in a population of Japanese older adults. These incidences increased with age. HZ incidence was higher in women than in men, while PHN incidence did not differ markedly between the sexes. PMID:26399445

  2. Age-Dependent Sex Difference of the Incidence and Mortality of Status Epilepticus: A Twelve Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cheung-Ter; Sheu, Shew-Meei; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Wong, Yi-Sin; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurologic emergency associated with a significant mortality. The objective of this study is to investigate its epidemiology in terms of age- and sex-specific incidences and mortality. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2000 to 2011, we identified hospitalized patients with a discharged diagnosis of SE and calculated the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE with respect to age and sex. The overall incidence of SE was 4.61 per 100,000 person-years, which displayed a “J-shaped” distribution by age with a little higher under the age of 5 and highest over 60 years. The male-to-female rate ratio was 1.57 and it demonstrated a “mountain-shape” across ages with the peak at 45 to 49 years old. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in males (7.38%) than in females (11.12%) with an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72). Notably, the in-hospital mortality for females increased rapidly after the age of 40 to 45 years. The multivariate analysis found males had a significantly lower risk of mortality than females after, but not before, 45 years of age with an odds ratio of 0.56 (95% CI 0.49-0.65). Sex and age are crucial factors associated with the incidence and in-hospital mortality of SE. The females over 45 years of age have a higher risk of occurrence and mortality from SE. The underlying mechanism deserves further study. PMID:25826701

  3. Incidence and recovery of neurosensory disturbances after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in different age groups: a retrospective study of 263 patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, J P; Mensink, G; Fiocco, M; van Merkesteyn, J P R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of neurosensory disturbance (NSD) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in different age groups and to assess the probability of sensory recovery in patients aged <19 years, 19-30 years, and >30 years. Hypoaesthesia of the lower lip was assessed subjectively and objectively immediately after BSSO and at 1 week and 1, 6, and 12 months after BSSO. Hypoaesthesia was considered permanent if it was present 1 year after BSSO. The frequency of NSD immediately after surgery was significantly higher in older patients. The cumulative incidence of recovery at 1 year was lower and the mean time to recovery was longer in the older patients, although these differences were not statistically significant. Older age was a significant risk factor for permanent hypoaesthesia, with an incidence of 4.8% per patient aged <19 years, 7.9% per patient aged 19-30 years, and 15.2% per patient aged >30 years. These findings show that the risk of NSD after BSSO is significantly higher in older patients. These results may aid surgeons in preoperative patient counselling and in deciding the optimal age at which to perform BSSO. PMID:26846794

  4. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.M.; McGee, V.E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order approximation formula for the propagation of error in the fission track age equation is given by PA = C[P2s+P2i+P2??-2rPsPi] 1 2, where PA, Ps, Pi and P?? are the percentage error of age, of spontaneous track density, of induced track density, and of neutron dose, respectively, and C is a constant. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age. In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method. ?? 1979.

  6. Comparison of suction above cuff and standard endotracheal tubes in neurological patients for the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and in-hospital outcome: A randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Sritam; Kamath, Sriganesh; Masapu, Dheeraj; Veenakumari, H. B.; Ramesh, Venkatapura J.; Bhadrinarayan, Varadarajan; Ravikumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication with endotracheal intubation. The occurrence of VAP results in significant mortality and morbidity. Earlier studies have shown reduction in the incidence of VAP with subglottic secretion drainage. The incidence of VAP in neurologically injured patients is higher and can impact the neurological outcome. This study aimed to compare the incidence of VAP with standard endotracheal tube (SETT) and suction above cuff endotracheal tube (SACETT) in neurologically ill patients and its impact on clinical outcome. Methods: Fifty-four patients with neurological illnesses aged ≥18 years and requiring intubation and/or ventilation and anticipated to remain on ETT for ≥48 h were randomized to receive either SETT or SACETT. All the VAP preventive measures were similar between two groups except for the difference in type of tube. Results: The data of 50 patients were analyzed. The incidence of clinical VAP was 20% in SETT group and 12% in SACETT group; (P = 0.70). The incidence of microbiological VAP was higher in the SETT group (52%) as compared to SACETT group (44%) but not statistically significant; (P = 0.78). There was no difference between the two groups for measured outcomes such as duration of intubation, mechanical ventilation, and Intensive Care Unit stay. Conclusions: In this pilot study in neurological population, a there was no significant difference in incidence of clinical and microbiological VAP was seen between SETT and SACETT, when other strategies for VAP prevention were similar. Other outcomes were similar with use of either tube for intubation. PMID:27275073

  7. Standards for Day Care Centers for Infants and Children Under 3 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    The Committee on Infant and Preschool Child of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed basic standards for quality day care for children under 3 years of age. The availability of day care provides a mother with the choice of group day care as one of the means of providing for her children. Options should include full-time or part-time day…

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of Memory Complaints in Employed Compared to Non-Employed Aged 55–64 Years and the Role of Employment Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC) in 55–64-year-olds. Methods Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525) and employment characteristics (n = 1071) with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline). Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526) and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain) with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up). Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits). Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population. Results At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC. Conclusions Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55–64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work. PMID:25742133

  9. Standardized cancer incidence disparities in Upper Manhattan New York City neighborhoods: the role of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and known risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Dana; Farhat, Zeinab; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall F; Thorpe, Lorna; Schymura, Maria J; Lucchini, Roberto G; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of race/ethnicity and neighborhood, a proxy of socioeconomic status, on cancer incidence in New York City neighborhoods: East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES). In this ecological study, Community Health Survey data (2002-2006) and New York State Cancer Registry incidence data (2007-2011) were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Logistic regression models were fitted to each cancer incidence rate with race/ethnicity, neighborhood, and Community Health Survey-derived risk factors as predictor variables. Neighborhood was significantly associated with all cancers and 14 out of 25 major cancers. EH and CH residence conferred a higher risk of all cancers compared with UES (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68; and OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.72, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes and tobacco smoking were the largest contributors toward high cancer rates. Despite juxtaposition and similar proximity to medical centers, cancer incidence disparities persist among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Targeted, neighborhood-specific outreach may aid in reducing cancer incidence rates. PMID:26186470

  10. Effect of Walking Distance on 8-Year Incident Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Men With and Without Chronic Disease: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Toby L.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Fong, Kaon; Abbott, Robert D.; Ross, George W.; Petrovitch, Helen; Blanchette, Patricia L.; White, Lon R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of walking on incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men with and without chronic disease Design Prospective cohort study Setting The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study Participants Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 years at baseline Measurements Physical activity was assessed by self-reported distance walked per day. Depressive symptoms were measured with an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at the 4th exam (n=3196) and again at the 7th exam 8 years later (1999-2000, n=1417). Presence of incident depressive symptoms was defined as CESD-11 score ≥ 9 or taking anti-depressants at Exam 7. Subjects with prevalent depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Results Age adjusted 8-year incident depressive symptoms were 13.6%, 7.6% and 8.5% for low (< ¼ miles/day), intermediate (¼ to 1.5 miles/day) and high (> 1.5 miles/day) walking groups at baseline, p=0.008. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, marital status, cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent diseases and functional impairment found that those in the intermediate and highest walking groups had significantly lower odds for developing 8-year incident depressive symptoms (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.32-0.83, p=0.006; and OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.39-0.97, p=0.04 respectively). Analysis found that this association was only significant in those without chronic diseases (CHD, CVA, Cancer, PD, Dementia or cognitive impairment) at baseline. Conclusion Daily physical activity (≥¼ mile/day) is significantly associated with a lower risk for 8-year incident depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men who do not have chronic disease at baseline. PMID:20670378

  11. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  12. Age estimation standards for a Western Australian population using the coronal pulp cavity index.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Shalmira; Mack, Peter; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    Age estimation is a vital aspect in creating a biological profile and aids investigators by narrowing down potentially matching identities from the available pool. In addition to routine casework, in the present global political scenario, age estimation in living individuals is required in cases of refugees, asylum seekers, human trafficking and to ascertain age of criminal responsibility. Thus robust methods that are simple, non-invasive and ethically viable are required. The aim of the present study is, therefore, to test the reliability and applicability of the coronal pulp cavity index method, for the purpose of developing age estimation standards for an adult Western Australian population. A total of 450 orthopantomograms (220 females and 230 males) of Australian individuals were analyzed. Crown and coronal pulp chamber heights were measured in the mandibular left and right premolars, and the first and second molars. These measurements were then used to calculate the tooth coronal index. Data was analyzed using paired sample t-tests to assess bilateral asymmetry followed by simple linear and multiple regressions to develop age estimation models. The most accurate age estimation based on simple linear regression model was with mandibular right first molar (SEE ±8.271 years). Multiple regression models improved age prediction accuracy considerably and the most accurate model was with bilateral first and second molars (SEE ±6.692 years). This study represents the first investigation of this method in a Western Australian population and our results indicate that the method is suitable for forensic application. PMID:23664550

  13. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  14. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Statin Medication Use and Incident Mobility Limitation in Community Older Adults. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Shorr, Ronald I; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Hanlon, Joseph T

    2012-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statin medications have been proposed as potential agents to prevent or delay physical disability; yet limited research has evaluated whether such use in older community dwelling adults is associated with a lower risk of incident mobility limitation. Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Participants 3055 participants who were well functioning at baseline (e.g., no mobility limitations). Measurements Summated standardized daily doses (low, medium and high) and duration of ACE inhibitor and statin use was computed. Mobility limitation (two consecutive self-reports of having any difficulty walking 1/4 mile or climbing 10 steps without resting) was assessed every 6 months after baseline. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted adjusting for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Results At baseline, ACE inhibitors and statins were used by 15.2% and 12.9%, respectively and both increased to over 25% by year 6. Over 6.5 years of follow-up, 49.8% had developed mobility limitation. In separate multivariable models, neither ACE inhibitor (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82–1.09) nor statin use (multivariate HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.87–1.17) was associated with a lower risk for mobility limitation. Similar findings were seen in analyses examining dose- and duration-response relationships and sensitivity analyses restricted to those with hypertension. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACE inhibitors and statins widely prescribed to treat hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively do not lower risk of mobility limitation, an important life quality indicator. PMID:22092102

  15. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  16. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Anders H; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward; Hutchinson, James; Vogt, Katrin; Boës, David; Niemann, Nadja; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20-84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The "ONE Study" panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells. Males and females showed different dynamics in age-dependent T cell activation and differentiation, indicating faster immunosenescence in males. Importantly, although both cohorts consisted of a small sample size, our standardized approach enabled validation of age-dependent changes with the second cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27144459

  17. A method for assessing age-standardized weight-for-height in children seen cross-sectionally.

    PubMed

    Cole, T J

    1979-01-01

    Weight-for-height standards in children are usually constructed on the basis that the expected weight for a given height does not depend on age, an assumption which is unjustified. The present paper investigates regression standards of age-standardized weight for age-standardized height, the standardization being achieved by expressing weight and height as fractions of the 50th centile for age from a suitable growth standard. The precise choice of standard is not critical. Data on 4631 children from five different countries, exhibiting a wide spectrum of growth status, show that throughout childhood until puberty, the following ratio is appropriate as a simple and convenient index of weight-for-height: age-standardized weight/(age-standardized height)2. During puberty a larger power than 2 is required, so the index as specified is inappropriate. Approximate values for the distribution centiles of the index are suggested. The index may be used to assess degree of malnutrition or obesity, for individuals or groups seen on a single occasion. A slide-rule is described which calculates the index directly, given the child's sex, age, height and weight. PMID:496386

  18. Normative and standardized data for cognitive measures in the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Arango, Silvia; Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the cognitive instrument used in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) in Mexican individuals aged 60 and over and to provide normative values for the Cross Cultural Cognitive Examination test and its modified versions (CCCE). Materials and methods The CCCE was administered to 5 120 subjects as part of a population-based sample free of neurologic and psychiatric disease from the MHAS 2012 survey. Normative data were generated by age and education for each test in the cognitive instrument as well as for the total cognition score. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationship of scores to demographic variables. Results Results present standardized normed scores for eight cognitive domains: orientation, attention, verbal learning memory, verbal recall memory, visuospatial abilities, visual memory, executive function, and numeracy in three education groups within three age groups. Conclusion These highlight the need for population-based norms for the CCCE, which has been used in population-based studies. Demographic factors such as age and education must be considered when interpreting the cognitive measures. PMID:26172239

  19. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  20. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Parametric Cox models and pooled logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CKD. We observed 238 incident cases of CKD during 70,515.8 person-years of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, the hazard ratios for CKD comparing quartiles 2–4 vs. quartile 1 of serum direct bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  1. Standard Extraction Methods May Underestimate Nitrate Stocks Captured by Field-Aged Biochar.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ghulam; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Kammann, Claudia I

    2016-07-01

    Biochar (BC) has been shown to increase the potential for N retention in agricultural soils. However, the form of N retained and its strength of retention are poorly understood. Here, we examined if the N retained could be readily extractable by standard methods and if the amount of N retained varied with BC field ageing. We investigated soil and field-aged BC (BC) particles of a field experiment (sandy soil amended with BC at 0, 15, and 30 t ha) under two watering regimes (irrigated and rain-fed). Throughout the study, greater nitrate than ammonium retention was observed with BC addition in topsoil (0-15 cm). Subsoil (15-30 cm) nitrate concentrations were reduced in BC treatments, indicating reduced nitrate leaching (standard 2 mol L KCl method). The mineral-N release of picked BC particles was examined with different methods: standard 2 mol L KCl extraction; repeated (10×) extraction in 2 mol L KCl at 22 ± 2°C and 80°C (M); electro-ultrafiltration (M); repeated water + KCl long-term shaking (M); and M plus one repeated shaking at 80°C (M). Nitrate amounts captured by BC particles were several-fold greater than those in the BC-amended soil. Compared with M, standard 2 mol L KCl or electro-ultrafiltration extractions retrieved only 13 and 30% of the total extractable nitrates, respectively. Our results suggest that "nitrate capture" by BC may reduce nitrate leaching in the field and that the inefficiency of standard extraction methods deserves closer research attention to decipher mechanisms for reactive N management. PMID:27380067

  2. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions. PMID:24150169

  3. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired hepatitis C infection from birth to 5 years of age in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Doa’a A.; Shebl, Fatma M.; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Magder, Laurence S.; Allam, Alif; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Hashem, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Strickland, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A prospective study in three Egyptian villages (A, B and C) having a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection examined incidence of community-acquired HCV infection in children; 2852 uninfected infants were prospectively followed from birth for up to 5.5 years. Fifteen seroconverted for either HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA (incidence of 0.53%). Ten had both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA; four had only anti-HCV; and one had HCV-RNA in the absence of antibody. The incidence rate at all ages was 2.7/1000 person-years (PY). It was 3.8/1000 PY during infancy and 2.0/1000 PY for the 1–5-years age group. Hospitalization and low birth weight increased the risk of infection; while living in village B, the family having a higher socioeconomic status, and advanced maternal education were protective. Six of eight HCV-infected infants reported iatrogenic exposures (e.g. hospitalization, therapeutic injections, ear piercing) prior to infection whereas only 2/7 children older than 1 year reported these exposures. Having an HCV-positive mother was the only other reported risk in two of these older children. The virus cleared in six (40%) children by the end of follow-up. Health education targeting iatrogenic exposures and focusing on risk factors could reduce HCV infection in children in high-risk populations. PMID:20153495

  4. Incidence and Mortality after Proximal Humerus Fractures Over 50 Years of Age in South Korea: National Claim Data from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Jang, Sunmee; Lee, Areum; Kim, Ha Young; Lee, Yong Beom; Ha, Yong Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been lack of epidemiology of proximal humerus fracture using nationwide database in Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of proximal humerus fracture and its mortality following proximal humerus fracture in Korean over 50 years of age. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance data were evaluated to determine the incidence and mortality of proximal humerus fracture aged 50 years or older from 2008 through 2012. Results Proximal humerus fracture increased by 40.5% over 5 year of study. The incidence of fracture increased from 104.7/100,000 in 2008 to 124.7/100,000 in 2012 in women and from 45.3/100,000 in 2008 to 52.0/100,000 in 2012 in men, respectively. One year mortality rate after proximal humerus fracture was 8.0% in 2008 and 7.0% in 2012. One year mortality rate were 10.8% for men and 7.0% for women in 2008 and 8.5% for men and 6.4% for women in 2012. Conclusions Our study showed that the proximal humerus fracture in elderly was recently increasing and associated with high mortality in Korea. Considering proximal humerus fracture was associated with an increased risk of associated fractures and an increased mortality risk, public health strategy to prevent the proximal humerus fracture in elderly will be mandatory. PMID:25774360

  5. [The incidence of caries in a school-age population sample of U.S.L. n. 15 Alta Val di Cecina-Volterra].

    PubMed

    Benetti, G L; Dini, M

    1990-01-01

    It was made a screening on children of some filter classes (1st and 3d class of primary school and 1st class of secondary school) of the Volterra's schools to estimate the incidence of caries and, if necessary, to activate programs for an adequate prevention. We examined 749 children arrived to the Dental Department of the Sanitary District owing an invitation letter; a set of question was given to their parents testing mainly alimentary and oral hygienic uses of the children examined by dentists. Elaboration of data obtained from replies and demonstrated that caries incidence in our population is of 65.29%, prevailing on male sex, and that this pathology is predominant on people taking insufficient care of oral hygiene, making no use of fluoridated toothpaste and eating any of cakes (especially between meals). These data show the high incidence of caries in evolutional age and how much this is strictly connected with wrong alimentary and hygienic uses. Therefore, to reduce this phenomenon, it's necessary to operate interventions of sanitary education and dental checking examinations, at least every 6-12 months, beginning in preschool age. PMID:2075102

  6. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  7. Analysis of 151 agricultural driveline-related incidents resulting in fatal and non-fatal injuries to U.S. children and adolescents under age 18 from 1970 through 2004.

    PubMed

    Beer, S R; Deboy, G R; Field, W E

    2007-04-01

    Agricultural driveline-related incidents have been identified as an important cause of farm-related injury resulting in death and permanently disabling conditions to children and adolescents. A database of driveline-related injuries, including both PTO drivelines and secondary shafts and drivelines on agricultural equipment, developed at Purdue University was mined to identify all cases involving children and adolescents under age 18 who had been involved in a driveline-related incident from 1970 through 2004. Although these incidents did not account for a high percentage of all childhood farm-related injuries, this age group was found to make up nearly one in four documented agricultural driveline incidents. Of the 685 cases in the database with known ages, 151 were identified as youth under age 18. Findings indicated that these incidents often resulted in catastrophic injuries including amputation, spinal cord injuries, and compound bone fractures. Over the period studied, the trend in documented cases is declining, with recent years reporting below the yearly average and 2004 reporting no fatalities. Youth, primarily males, age 13 had the highest frequency of incidents, and over 50% of all cases occurred to youth ages 12 to 17. Fall was identified as the season with the most reported incidents. Amputations were documented in nearly 50% of all cases, and augers, elevators, and conveyors were the machines most frequently identified as being involved in the incident. Recommendations and strategies that specifically target the childhood injury problem related to agricultural drivelines are provided. PMID:17555204

  8. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  9. Introduction of sugammadex as standard reversal agent: Impact on the incidence of residual neuromuscular blockade and postoperative patient outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ledowski, Thomas; Hillyard, Samuel; O’Dea, Brendan; Archer, Rob; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Kyle, Barney

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective audit was to investigate clinical practice related to muscle relaxant reversal and the impact made by the recent introduction of sugammadex on patient outcome at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods: Data from all patients intubated at our institution during two epochs of seven consecutive days each was collected prospectively. Directly prior to extubation, the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was assessed quantitatively by an independent observer. Postoperative outcome parameters were complications in the recovery room and radiological diagnosed atelectasis or pneumonia within 30 days. Results: Data from 146 patients were analysed. Three reversal strategies were used: no reversal, neostigmine or sugammadex. The TOF ratio was less than 0.7 in 17 patients (nine no reversal, eight neostigmine) and less than 0.9 in 47 patients (24 no reversal, 19 neostigmine, four sugammadex). Those reversed with sugammadex showed fewer episodes of postoperative oxygen desaturation (15% vs. 33%; P<0.05). TOF ratios of less than 0.7 (P<0.05) and also <0.9 (P<0.01) were more likely associated with X-ray results consistent with postoperative atelectasis or pneumonia. Conclusions: Our results suggest a significant impact of residual paralysis on patient outcome. The use of sugammadex resulted in the lowest incidence of residual paralysis. PMID:23716766

  10. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  11. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  12. Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability. PMID:26479983

  13. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  14. High incidence of adverse cerebral blood flow responses to spreading depolarization in the aged ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Menyhárt, Ákos; Makra, Péter; Szepes, Borbála É; Tóth, Orsolya M; Hertelendy, Péter; Bari, Ferenc; Farkas, Eszter

    2015-12-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the brain after stroke, exacerbate ischemic injury, and thus emerge as a potential target of intervention. Aging predicts worse outcome from stroke; yet, the impact of age on SD evolution is not clear. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in young (8-9 weeks old, n = 8) and old (2 year olds, n = 6) anesthetized rats. Sham-operated animals of both age groups served as control (n = 12). Electrocorticogram, direct current potential, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) variations were acquired via a small craniotomy above the parietal cortex. SDs were elicited by KCl through a second craniotomy distal to the recording site. Ischemia and age delayed the recovery from SD. CBF decreased progressively during ischemia in the old animals selectively, and inverse neurovascular coupling with SD evolved in the old but not in the young ischemic group. We propose that (mal)adaptation of cerebrovascular function with aging impairs the SD-related CBF response, which is implicated in the intensified expansion of ischemic damage in the old brain. PMID:26346140

  15. Immune-inflammatory Dysregulation Modulates the Incidence of Progressive Fibrosis and Diastolic Stiffness in the Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Taffet, George E.; Carlson, Signe; Hermosillo, Jesus; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction in the aging heart is a grave condition that challenges the life and lifestyle of a growing segment of our population. This report seeks to examine the role and interrelationship of inflammatory dysregulation in interstitial myocardial fibrosis and progressive diastolic dysfunction in aging mice. We studied a population of C57BL/6 mice that developed progressive diastolic dysfunction over 30 months of life. This progressive dysfunction was associated with increasing infiltration of CD45+ fibroblasts of myeloid origin. In addition, increased rates of collagen expression as measured by cellular procollagen were apparent in the heart as a function of age. These cellular and functional changes were associated with progressive increases in mRNA for MCP-1 and IL-13 which correlated both temporally and quantitatively with changes in fibrosis and cellular procollagen levels. MCP-1 protein was also increased and found to be primarily in the venular endothelium. Protein assays also demonstrated elevation of IL-4 and IL-13 suggesting a shift to a Th2 phenotype in the aging heart. In vitro studies demonstrated that IL-13 markedly enhanced monocyte fibroblast transformation. Our results indicate that immunoinflammatory dysregulation in the aging heart induces progressive MCP-1 production and an increased shift to a Th2 phenotype paralleled by an associated increase in myocardial interstitial fibrosis, cellular collagen synthesis, and increased numbers of CD45+ myeloid-derived fibroblasts that contain procollagen. The temporal association and functional correlations suggests a causative relationship between age-dependent immunoinflammatory dysfunction, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20974150

  16. The BALB/c mouse: Effect of standard vivarium lighting on retinal pathology during aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Bonilha, Vera L.; Rayborn, Mary E.; Shadrach, Karen; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2015-01-01

    BALB/cJ mice housed under normal vivarium lighting conditions can exhibit profound retinal abnormalities, including retinal infoldings, autofluorescent inflammatory cells, and photoreceptor degeneration. To explore the sensitivity of the outer retina to cyclic lighting during aging, a cohort of BALB/cJ mice was evaluated with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and conventional histopathology. Mice were bred and reared in a low-illuminance (extracage/intracage: 13 lx/1 lx) vivarium under cyclic light (14 h light: 10 h dark). Retinal imaging (around postnatal day 70) was performed to screen for any pre-existing abnormalities and to establish a baseline. Mice with normal retinas were separated into groups (A, B, C) and placed on bottom (Groups A & B) or top (Group C) of the cage racks where cage illumination was <10 & 150 lx respectively. Experimental groups B & C were imaged multiple times over a 17 month period. Mice from group A (controls) were imaged only once post-baseline at various times for comparison to groups B & C. Mice were assessed by histology at 8, 15, 20, 36, and 56 weeks and immunohistochemistry at 15 weeks post-baseline. SLO and OCT retinal images were measured and the resulting trends displayed as a function of age and light exposure. Retinal lesions (RL) and autofluorescent foci (AFF) were identified with histology as photoreceptor layer infoldings (IF) and localized microglia/macrophages (MM), respectively. Few RL and AFF were evident at baseline. Retinal infoldings were the earliest changes followed by subjacent punctate autofluorescent MM. The colocalization of IF and MM suggests a causal relationship. The incidence of these pathological features increased in all groups relative to baseline. OCT imaging revealed thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in all groups at 1 year relative to baseline. ONL thinning followed an exponential rate of change but the decay constant varied depending on

  17. International long-term trends and recent patterns in the incidence of leukemias and lymphomas among children and adolescents ages 0-19 years.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Brown, Linda M; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Check, David; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Landgren, Annelie; Devesa, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences in rates for non-Hodgkin and for Hodgkin lymphoma have diminished in some regions. Lymphoid leukemia rates during 2003-2007 in 54 populations varied about 10-fold, with rates highest in US white Hispanics (50.2 per million person-years) and Ecuador (48.3) and lowest in US blacks (20.4), Tunisia (17.7) and Uganda (6.9). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 30-fold, with very high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (146.0 in Malawi and 54.3 in Uganda) and low rates (≤ 10) in some Asian populations (China, Japan, India, the Philippines and Thailand) and U.S. Asian-Pacific Islanders, eastern and northern European populations and Puerto Rico. Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 15-fold, with rates highest in Italy (21.3) and lowest in China (1.7). Myeloid leukemia rates varied only about fivefold, with rates highest in the Philippines and Korea (exceeding 14.0) and lowest in Eastern Europe (5.9 in Serbia and 5.3 in the Czech Republic) and Uganda (2.7). The boy/girl average incidence rate ratios were 2.00 or lower. Age-specific patterns differed among the four hematopoietic malignancies, but were generally consistent within major categories world-wide, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic world-wide approach comparing postulated etiologic factors in low- versus high-risk populations may help clarify the etiology of these childhood malignancies. PMID:26562742

  18. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  19. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ‘‘concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication”. We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. Results The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80–104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17–1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09–1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12–1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of

  20. A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age

    PubMed Central

    Moro, G; Arslanoglu, S; Stahl, B; Jelinek, J; Wahn, U; Boehm, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. Aims To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto‐ and long chain fructo‐oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of atopy. Methods Prospective, double‐blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; 259 infants at risk for atopy were enrolled. A total of 102 infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. If bottle feeding was started, the infant was randomly assigned to one of two hydrolysed protein formula groups (0.8 g/100 ml prebiotics or maltodextrine as placebo). All infants were examined for clinical evidence of atopic dermatitis. In a subgroup of 98 infants, faecal flora was analysed. Results Ten infants (9.8%; 95 CI 5.4–17.1%) in the intervention group and 24 infants (23.1%; 95 CI 16.0–32.1%) in the control group developed AD. The severity of the dermatitis was not affected by diet. Prebiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher number of faecal bifidobacteria compared with controls but there was no significant difference in lactobacilli counts. Conclusion Results show for the first time a beneficial effect of prebiotics on the development of atopic dermatitis in a high risk population of infants. Although the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation, it appears likely that oligosaccharides modulate postnatal immune development by altering bowel flora and have a potential role in primary allergy prevention during infancy. PMID:16873437

  1. Towards Synthesis and Usage of Actinide-Bearing REE Phosphate age Standards: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. M.; Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Electron microprobe (EMP) dates result from a concentration-time unit conversion, so use of a concentration- based (rather than isotope-ratio based) fictive age standard is warranted. This observation has motivated our mineral synthesis program, aimed at producing actinide-doped REE phosphate EMP dating standards that meet the following criteria: 1) known concentrations of U, Th, and Pb; 2) homogeneous intragrain distribution of all components; 3) of suitable size, either as a single-crystal or polycrystalline sintered ceramic. Single-crystal synthesis of actinide-doped LaPO4 by flux-growth methods results in disproportionation of lanthanide and flux, alkali, and actinide components into phosphate and oxide phases, respectively, and flux- growth methods were abandoned. Actinide-doped La phosphate is successfully prepared by high-T annealing and hydrothermal processing of microcrystalline phosphate; both homogeneity and charge-balance of (Ca, Th, Pb)-bearing LaPO4 increase with increasing solvent acidity during cold-seal hydrothermal synthesis. A combination of pressing and high-T (1400° C) sintering transforms fine-grained (0.1-10 μm) run- products to ceramic pellets with 90-95% theoretical density. Our most recent runs focused on a target composition of La80(CaTh)17(CaU)2(PbTh)1PO4 processed with 6% 2M HCl at 820° C, 0.75 kbar for 1 week. The run products are 0.1-2 μm crystals identified by XRD as La-actinide phosphate solid solution. 2 μm grains (N=16) give a composition (mean±2 sd) of La79.77(1.26)(CaTh)17.87(1.00)(CaU)1.53(0.42)(PbTh)0.82(0.09)PO4. Th (8.07-9.13 wt. %) is homogeneous at the level of analytical precision, and the Pb concentration range (3500-4350 ppm) is restricted relative to untreated precipitate. Uranium concentration values are more variable (6500-10000 ppm). This run yields a fictive age of 702±4 Ma (mean±2 se), compared to the fictive age of 794 Ma for the target composition.

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of HIV Infection, Trends, and Risk Factors Among Persons Aged 15–64 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimanga, Davies O.; Ogola, Samuel; Umuro, Mamo; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Kimondo, Lucy; Murithi, Patrick; Muttunga, James; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Sharrif, Shahnaaz; De Cock, Kevin M.; (UK), FRCP; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently. Methods From October 2012 to February 2013, we conducted a 2-stage cluster sampling survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years in 9 geographic regions in Kenya. Participants answered questionnaires and provided blood for HIV testing. We estimated HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, described trends in HIV prevalence over the past 5 years, and identified factors associated with HIV infection. This analysis was restricted to persons aged 15–64 years. Results HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35–39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence has declined in Kenya since 2007. With improved access to treatment, HIV prevalence has become more challenging to interpret without data on new infections and mortality. Correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide important information on where to prioritize prevention interventions to reduce transmission of HIV in the broader population. PMID:24445338

  3. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects. PMID:21427880

  4. Incidence of Chromosome Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

  5. Association of Serum Vitamin D with the Risk of Incident Dementia and Subclinical Indices of Brain Aging: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Karakis, Ioannis; Pase, Matthew P.; Beiser, Alexa; Booth, Sarah L.; Jacques, Paul F.; Rogers, Gail; DeCarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Annweiler, Cedric; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer’s disease (AD), MRI markers of brain aging, and neuropsychological function. Methods Framingham Heart Study participants had baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured between 1986 and 2001. Vitamin D status was considered both as a continuous variable and dichotomized as deficient (<10 ng/mL), or at the cohort-specific 20th and 80th percentiles. Vitamin D was related to the 9-year risk of incident dementia (n= 1663), multiple neuropsychological tests (n= 1291) and MRI markers of brain volume, white matter hyperintensities and silent cerebral infarcts (n = 1139). Results In adjusted models, participants with vitamin D deficiency (n = 104, 8% of the cognitive sample) displayed poorer performance on Trail Making B-A (β = −0.03 to −0.05 ±0.02) and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (β = −0.09 to −0.12 ±0.05), indicating poorer executive function, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. These associations remained when vitamin D was examined as a continuous variable or dichotomized at the cohort specific 20th percentile. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with lower hippocampal volumes (β = −0.01 ±0.01) but not total brain volume, white matter hyperintensities, or silent brain infarcts. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and incident all-cause dementia or clinically characterized AD. Conclusions In this large community-based sample, low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and poorer neuropsychological function. PMID:26890771

  6. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy’s Classes– A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy’s Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  7. Trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Croatia, 1988 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Mateja; Samaržija, Miroslav; Jakopović, Marko; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To describe and interpret lung cancer incidence and mortality trends in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data on lung cancer for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry, while mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Population estimates for Croatia were obtained from the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. We also calculated and analyzed age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. To describe time incidence and mortality trends, we used joinpoint regression analysis. Results Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in men decreased significantly in all age groups younger than 70 years. Age-standardized incidence rates in men decreased significantly by -1.3% annually. Joinpoint analysis of mortality in men identified three trends, and average annual percent change (AAPC) decreased significantly by -1.1%. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates in women increased significantly in all age groups older than 40 years and decreased in younger women (30-39- years). Age-standardized incidence rates increased significantly by 1.7% annually. Joinpoint analysis of age-standardized mortality rates in women identified two trends, and AAPC increased significantly by 1.9%. Conclusion Despite the overall decreasing trend, Croatia is still among the European countries with the highest male lung cancer incidence and mortality. Although the incidence trend in women is increasing, their age standardized incidence rates are still 5-fold lower than in men. These trends follow the observed decrease and increase in the prevalence of male and female smokers, respectively. These findings indicate the need for further introduction of smoking prevention and cessation policies targeting younger population, particularly women. PMID:22522986

  8. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  9. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Atkinson, Hal H.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yaffe, Kristine; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Rubin, Susan M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Houston, Denise K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score ≥10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23–2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥30ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25326643

  10. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  11. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  12. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  13. A Call to Creativity: Writing, Reading, and Inspiring Students in an Age of Standardization. Language & Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Luke

    2012-01-01

    In this age of standardization, many English teachers are unsure about how to incorporate creative writing and thinking into their classroom. In a fresh new voice, Luke Reynolds emphasizes that "creativity in our lives as teachers and in the lives of our students is one of our most vital needs in the 21st century." Based on his own journey as an…

  14. Is Greulich and Pyle standards of skeletal maturation applicable for age estimation in South Indian Andhra children?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Goud, Alampur Srinivas; Sailaja, S.; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Now-a-day age determination has gained importance for various forensic and legal reasons. Skeletal age (SA) of a test population can be estimated by comparing with established standards of Greulich and Pyle (G-P). As this atlas has been prepared using data from upper-class children born between 1917 and 1942 in the USA and the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on Andhra children living in India. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the reliability of bone age calculated by G-P atlas in estimation of age in selected population. Materials and Methods: A total of 660 children (330 girls, 330 boys) between ages 9 and 20 years were randomly selected from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine in GITAM Dental College, Andhra Pradesh. Digital hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and assessed for SA using G-P atlas and the difference between estimated SA and chronological age (CA) were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: G-P method underestimated the SA by 0.23 ± 1.53 years for boys and overestimated SA by 0.02 ± 2 years in girls and mild underestimation was noted in the total sample of about 0.1 ± 1.78 years. Spearman rank test showed significant correlation between SA and CA (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that G-P standards were reliable in assessing age in South Indian Andhra children of age 9–20 years with unknown CA. PMID:26229357

  15. The impact of cannabis use on age of onset and clinical characteristics in first-episode psychotic patients. Data from the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS).

    PubMed

    Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Marrella, Giovanna; Lamonaca, Dario; Riolo, Rosanna; Gardellin, Francesco; Urbani, Anna; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis use is frequent among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and has been associated with several clinical features. This study aimed in an FEP sample to determine whether cannabis use is associated with (1) a higher level of positive symptoms, a lower level of depression and a better premorbid adjustment, (2) an earlier age of onset, and a better premorbid IQ. The study was conducted within the framework of the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS), a multisite collaborative research on FEP patients who attended the psychiatric services in Veneto Region, Italy. Standardized instruments were used to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and drug use data. A total of 555 FEP patients met the inclusion criteria, 517 of whom received an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychosis; 397 (55% males; mean age: 32 yrs ± 9.5) were assessed. Out of these, 311 patients agreed to be interviewed on drug and alcohol misuse; 20.3% was positive for drug misuse: cannabis (19.0%), cocaine (3.9%), and hallucinogens (3.9%). Cannabis use was not associated with a higher level of positive symptoms, but correlated with less severe depressive symptoms. No relationship was observed between premorbid adjustment or IQ and cannabis use. FEP patients who used cannabis had an earlier age of onset than abstinent patients, even after adjusting for gender and diagnosis. Our results suggest a possible causal role of cannabis in triggering psychosis in certain vulnerable subjects. Particular attention must be paid to this behaviour, because reducing cannabis use can delay or prevent some cases of psychosis. PMID:23290558

  16. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  17. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  18. The Compounding Impact of Age on Sex--Another Dimension of the Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Tish

    1974-01-01

    An examination of the multiple problems of discrimination confronting elderly women which argues that aging must be redefined in a way that is more functionally accurate for women and is not based upon male chronology. (EH)

  19. A cancer incidence survey in Tianjin: the third largest city in China-between 1981 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Song, Fengju; He, Min; Li, Haixin; Qian, Biyun; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Kexin; Hao, Xishan

    2008-06-01

    During the past three decades, the social/natural environment and lifestyle of people in China have undergone a marked transformation to westernization. However, age-standardized cancer rates have not been determined to any great extent in China. In this study, we tracked the cancer incidence between 1981 and 2000 in Tianjin, to identify the changes in incidence associated with social and economic changes. Cancer incidence data were collected by the Tianjin Cancer Registry. Sex, age, and organ site-specific incidence trends were analyzed by the "join-point regression" method. Overall crude cancer incidence increased, but the age-standardized incidence slightly decreased during the study period. The incidence of lung cancer increased between 1981 and 1996 but decreased between 1996 and 2000. The incidences of uterine, esophageal, stomach, and liver cancers decreased. However, the incidences of colorectal, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers all increased during the study period. There was an aging-related increase in the overall crude cancer incidence and an alteration in the distribution of cancer types in Tianjin. The incidences of cancer types that are more prevalent in developed countries appeared to increase in China, whereas the incidences of cancer types that are more prevalent in developing countries appeared to decline. PMID:18095173

  20. Is There a Double Standard of Aging?: Older Men and Women and Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Chetna

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine current young adults' attitudes toward older adults and to explore, more specifically, whether they hold different attitudes towards older men and women. An additional objective was to examine the association between knowledge of aging processes and attitudes towards older adults. A total of 405 (210 males, 195…

  1. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  2. This Is Only a Test: Teaching for Mathematical Understanding in an Age of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litton, Nancy; Wickett, Maryann

    2009-01-01

    "This Is Only a Test" helps teachers plan a year of instruction that takes testing into account while staying focused on a curriculum that encourages students to love and understand mathematics. Transform teachers' and students' feelings toward standardized tests from panic and anxiety to control and confidence. This book's proven strategies help…

  3. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Methods Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. Results The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26–39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. Conclusion This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010. PMID:25592123

  4. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  6. Incidence, mortality and survival patterns of prostate cancer among residents in Singapore from 1968 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Sin Eng; Tan, Chuen Seng; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Sim, Xueling; Pawitan, Yudi; Reilly, Marie; Mohamed Ali, Safiyya; Lau, Weber; Chia, Kee Seng

    2008-01-01

    Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost four-fold increase in prostate cancer incidence. This paper examines the incidence, mortality and survival patterns for prostate cancer among all residents in Singapore from 1968 to 2002. Methods This is a retrospective population-based cohort study including all prostate cancer cases aged over 20 (n = 3613) reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002. Age-standardized incidence, mortality rates and 5-year Relative Survival Ratios (RSRs) were obtained for each 5-year period. Follow-up was ascertained by matching with the National Death Register until 2002. A weighted linear regression was performed on the log-transformed age-standardized incidence and mortality rates over period. Results The percentage increase in the age-standardized incidence rate per year was 5.0%, 5.6%, 4.0% and 1.9% for all residents, Chinese, Malays and Indians respectively. The percentage increase in age-standardized mortality rate per year was 5.7%, 6.0%, 6.6% and 2.5% for all residents, Chinese, Malays and Indians respectively. When all Singapore residents were considered, the RSRs for prostate cancer were fairly constant across the study period with slight improvement from 1995 onwards among the Chinese. Conclusion Ethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival patterns were observed. There has been a substantial improvement in RSRs since the 1990s for the Chinese. PMID:19087276

  7. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Arends, Mark J.; Brownstein, David G.; Luo Feijun; Devenney, Paul S.; Rose, Lorraine; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; Berry, Rachel L.; Harrison, David J.; Hooper, Martin L.; Patek, Charles E. . E-mail: Charles.Patek@ed.ac.uk

    2006-01-01

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras {sup -/-} (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} and K-ras {sup -/-} ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras {sup -/-} cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras {sup -/-} cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice.

  8. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  9. Nationwide Cancer Incidence in Korea, 1999~2001; First Result Using the National Cancer Incidence Database

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Yim, Seon-Hee; Lee, Jung-Kyu; Noh, Hong-In; Lee, Jong-Koo; Pisani, Paola; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2005-01-01

    Purpose The first Korean national population-based cancer registry using nationwide hospital-based recording system and the regional cancer registries provided the source to obtain national cancer incidences for the period 1999~2001. Materials and Methods The incidence of cancer in Korea was calculated based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, data from additional medical record review survey, the Regional Cancer Registry databases, site-specific cancer registry databases, and cancer mortality data from the Korea National Statistical Office. Crude and age-standardized rates were calculated by sex for 18 age groups. Results The overall crude incidence rates (CR) were 247.3 and 188.3 per 100,000 for men and women and the overall age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were 281.2 and 160.3 per 100,000, respectively. Among men, five leading primary cancer sites were stomach (CR 58.6, ASR 65.6), lung (CR 42.1, ASR 50.9), liver (CR 41.9, ASR 44.9), colon and rectum (CR 24.2, ASR 27.3) and bladder (CR 7.7, ASR 9.2). Among women, the most common cancers were stomach (CR 30.8, ASR 25.8), breast (CR 25.7, ASR 21.7), colon and rectum (CR 19.6, ASR 16.7), uterine cervix (CR 18.4, ASR 15.5), and lung cancer (CR 15.1, ASR 12.4). In 0~14 age group, leukemia was most common for both sexes. For men, stomach cancer was most common in 15~64 age group, but lung cancer was more frequent for over 65 age group. For women, thyroid cancer in 15~34 age group, breast cancer in 35~64 age group, and stomach cancer in over 65 age group were most common for each age group. The proportions of death certificate only were 7.5% for men and 7.4% for women. Conclusion This is the first attempt to determine the national cancer incidence and this data will be useful to plan for research and national cancer control in Korea. PMID:19956367

  10. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  11. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  12. Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of 92 Hospitalized Adults with Down's Syndrome: Incidence of Cognitive Decline, Its Relationship to Age and Neuropathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margallo-Lana, M. L.; Moore, P. B.; Kay, D. W. K.; Perry, R. H.; Reid, B. E.; Berney, T. P.; Tyrer, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The clinical and neuropathological features associated with dementia in Down's syndrome (DS) are not well established. Aims: To examine clinico-pathological correlations and the incidence of cognitive decline in a cohort of adults with DS. Method: A total of 92 hospitalized persons with DS were followed up from 1985 to December 2000.…

  13. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Miseikyte-Kaubriene, Edita; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003. Methods The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur. Results During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years. Conclusion A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice. PMID:17156468

  14. Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Abdolvahab; Semnani, Shahryar; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Mirbehbehani, Narges; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Moghaddami, Abbas; Cheraghali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006. Methods GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis. Findings Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0–14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area. PMID:23056726

  15. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled. PMID:27405126

  16. [Cancer incidence estimates for Germany via log-linear models].

    PubMed

    Haberland, J; Bertz, J; Görsch, B; Schön, D

    2001-01-01

    In Germany presently no nationwide cancer registration exists. To estimate national cancer incidence, Poisson regression models were fitted to incidence/mortality ratios using age and sex specific data of the cancer registry of Saarland, Germany and were then applied to national mortality. The models estimate the absolute number of incident cases at a given point in time and moreover allow the assessment of time trends. Applied to nationwide mortality the models imply a total of 347,000 new cancer cases in Germany for 1998 with 179,000 females and 168,000 males. During the nineties the age-standardised rate (European standard) has slightly decreased for males and slightly increased for females. PMID:11561205

  17. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Lloyd D; Middleton, Rod M; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69-8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44-13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80-9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  18. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena, Lloyd D.; Middleton, Rod M.; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69–8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44–13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80–9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08–1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  19. Incidence of cerebral microbleeds in preclinical Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Patricia M.; Phal, Pramit M.; Steward, Christopher; Szoeke, Cassandra; Salvado, Olivier; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Villemagne, Victor L.; Rowe, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and associations of lobar microbleeds (LMBs) in a longitudinal cohort with 11C–Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging. Methods: One hundred seventy-four participants from the observational Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (97 with normal cognition [NC], 37 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 40 with Alzheimer disease [AD] dementia) were assessed at 3 time points over 3 years with 3-tesla susceptibility-weighted MRI and 11C-PiB PET. MRIs were inspected for microbleeds, siderosis, infarction, and white matter hyperintensity severity, blind to clinical and PiB findings. Neocortical PiB standardized uptake value ratio, normalized to cerebellar cortex, was dichotomized as positive or negative (PiB+/−, standardized uptake value ratio >1.5). Annualized LMB incidence was calculated, and logistic regression was used to determine the association of incident LMBs with PiB, APOE ε4+ status, and cerebrovascular disease. Results: LMBs were present in 18.6% of NC, 24.3% of MCI, and 40% of AD participants (p < 0.05 vs NC). LMB incidence was 0.2 ± 0.6 per year in NC participants, 0.2 ± 0.5 in MCI, and 0.7 ± 1.4 in AD (p < 0.03 vs NC) and was 6-fold higher in PiB+ than PiB-NC. Incident LMBs were associated with age, APOE ε4+, PiB+, and baseline LMBs. Incidence of multiple LMBs was also associated with lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensity severity. Conclusions: Older age, baseline LMBs, higher β-amyloid burden, and concomitant cerebrovascular disease may all confer higher risk of incident LMBs. This should be considered when designing protocols for amyloid-modifying clinical trials. PMID:24623839

  20. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study described the 2013 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including cancer incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999-2013 were obtained from Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2014. Mortality data from 1983-2013 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2014 among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude, and age-standardized and 5-year relative survival rates were also calculated. Results: In 2013, a total of 225,343 and 75,334 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer, respectively. The age-standardized rates for cancer incidence and mortality in 2013 were 290.5 and 87.9 per 100,000, respectively. The age-standardized cancer incidence rate increased 3.1% annually between 1999 and 2013. However, the overall cancer incidence rates have decreased slightly in recent years (2011 to 2013). The age-standardized rate for all-cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate for people diagnosed with cancer between 2009 and 2013 was 69.4%, which represents an improved survival rate as compared with 41.2% for people diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Conclusion: Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased between 2011 and 2013; mortality rates have also declined since 2002, while 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2009-2013 in Korea. PMID:26987395

  1. Standardization and Digital Enclosure: The Privatization of Standards, Knowledge, and Policy in the Age of Global Information Technology. Part of the Advances in IT Standards and Standardization Research (AISSR) Book Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoechle, Timothy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends have shown increasing privatization of standardization activities under various corporations, trade associations, and consortia, raising significant public policy issues about how the public interest may be represented. This book establishes a framework of analysis for public policy discussion and debate. Discussing topics such as…

  2. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for detection in liquid chromatography at UV wavelengths using standard cuvettes in a normal incidence geometry.

    PubMed

    van der Sneppen, L; Ariese, F; Gooijer, C; Ubachs, W

    2007-05-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) with cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) detection, using flow cuvettes (put under normal incidence inside the ring-down cavity), is demonstrated. Fresnel reflections are maintained within the capture range of a stable cavity of 4 cm length. This method circumvents the need for specific Brewster's angles and possible mirror degradation is avoided. The flow cuvettes are commercially available at low cost. At 355 nm (the frequency-tripled output of a Nd:YAG laser), the system surpasses the performance of conventional absorbance detectors; the baseline noise was 1.3 x 10(-5)AU and detection limits (injected concentrations) were between 40 and 80 nM for nitro-polyaromatic hydrocarbons with an extinction coefficient epsilon of 7.3-10.2 x 10(3)M(-1)cm(-1). The system was also tested at 273 nm, but in the deep UV the reflectivity of the currently best available mirrors (R>or=99.91%) is still too low to show a significant improvement as compared to conventional UV-vis detection. PMID:17383664

  3. Minor influence of lifelong voluntary exercise on composition, structure, and incidence of osteoarthritis in tibial articular cartilage of mice compared with major effects caused by growth, maturation, and aging.

    PubMed

    Närhi, Tommi; Siitonen, Ulrika; Lehto, Lauri J; Hyttinen, Mika M; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J; Julkunen, Petro

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of lifelong voluntary exercise on articular cartilage of mice. At the age of 4 weeks C57BL mice (n = 152) were divided into two groups, with one group serving as a sedentary control whereas the other was allowed free access to a running wheel from the age of 1 month onward. Mice were euthanized at four different time points (1, 2, 6, and 18 months of age). Articular cartilage samples were gathered from the load-bearing area of the tibial medial plateaus, and osteoarthritis was graded. Additionally, the proteoglycan content distribution was assessed using digital densitometry, collagen fibril orientation, and parallelism with polarized light microscopy, and collagen content using Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy. The incidence of osteoarthritis increased with aging, but exercise had no effect on this trend. Furthermore, the structure and composition revealed significant growth, maturation, and age-dependent properties. Exercise exerted a minor effect on collagen fibril orientation in the superficial zone. Fibril orientation at 2 months of age was more perpendicular to surface (p < 0.05) in controls compared with runners, whereas the situation was reversed at the age of 18 months (p < 0.05). The collagen content of the superficial zone was higher (p < 0.01) at the age of 18 months in controls compared with runners but the proteoglycan content did not display any exercise-dependent changes. In conclusion, growth, maturation, and aging exerted a clear effect on integrity, structure, and composition of medial tibial plateau articular cartilage in mice, whereas lifelong voluntary exercise had only a minor effect on collagen architecture and content. PMID:21405978

  4. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women. PMID:27222251

  5. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  6. The Incidence and Prevalence of Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Gryba, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has increased substantially over the last few years, but it is not known whether NMO has the same geographic and temporal variations in disease risk as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the worldwide incidence and prevalence of NMO through a systematic review of published peer-reviewed studies. We performed a search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1985 to March 2012. Search terms included “neuromyelitis optica,” “Devic's,” “opticospinal,” “incidence,” “prevalence,” and “epidemiology.” We assessed study quality using a standardized instrument. A total of five studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of the studies were from North America, and all studies were published between 2005 and 2012. All studies were of good quality, but only one study reported standardized rates, and subgroup-specific estimates were rarely reported. The incidence of NMO per 100,000 population ranged from 0.053 to 0.40, while the prevalence per 100,000 population ranged from 0.52 to 4.4. Heterogeneity was high among the incidence (I2 = 68.0%) and prevalence studies (I2 = 94.0%). This review highlights the limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of NMO and the importance of obtaining estimates standardized to common populations to enhance comparability of studies from different jurisdictions. Future studies would also benefit from reporting age-, sex-, and race- or ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:24453773

  7. Cancer Incidence and Trend Analysis in Shahroud, Iran, 2000 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Fateh, Mansooreh; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran, and its trend isincreasing in recent years. National reports state that cancer registries in Shahroud district had 204% coverage in 2008. This study investigated cancer situation in Shahroud with complete details between 2000-2010. Methods Data was obtained from national cancer registry software and analyzed after removing the repeated records. World standard population and direct standardization method was used to calculate Age Standardized incidence Rates (ASRs). Annual percentage changes calculated using Jointpoint software and Poisson regression model was performed to calculate cancer incidence trends. Results A total of 2240 cancer cases were identified, 1234 (55.1%) in man and 1006 (44.9%) in woman. The mean age was 61.6 years (Confidence Interval, CI 95%: 60.9- 62.3). ASRs of total cancers was 95.4 (CI 95%: 89.2-101.6) per 100,000; this rate was 114.8 (CI 95%: 107.9-121.6) for men and 105.2 (CI 95%: 100.6 -109.8) for women. The average annual increase in ASR was 12.4%, which could not be attributed only to improve reporting. Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in men, and breast cancer is most common in women. Conclusion Cancer incidence rate has increased significantly in Shahroud in recent years. A portion of this increase can be attributed to increased incidence of cancers, especially cancers of colorectal, gastric, breast, and skin. PMID:25250116

  8. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in age groups above 15 years: facts, hypothesis and prospects for future epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Gruden, G; Songini, M

    2016-06-01

    Although onset of type 1 diabetes can occur in adulthood, epidemiological data are scarce, limiting our potential to identify unknown determinants of the disease. Paucity of registries expanding the recruitment of incident cases up to adulthood, atypical clinical features of type 1 diabetes at onset, misclassification of type 1 as type 2 diabetes and little use of markers of β-cell autoimmunity represents major obstacles in studying the risk of type 1 diabetes in adults. New strategies in study design, data collection and analyses may overcome these problems in the future. Population-based surveys and registries including adulthood; use of etiological rather than clinical criteria to define type 1 diabetes; availability of electronic health records as prescription data sources to avoid missing data; and application of proper statistical methods will be instrumental to gain better insight on the epidemiology and natural history of the disease. PMID:26787492

  9. Report of cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Zeng, Hongmei; Zou, Xiaonong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010. Methods On basis of the evaluation procedures and data quality criteria described in the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), data from 219 cancer registries were evaluated. Data from 145 registries were identified as qualified and then accepted for the 2010 cancer registry report. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers and the overall incidence and mortality were stratified by residency (urban or rural), areas (eastern, middle, and western), gender, and age. The cancer cases and deaths were estimated based on age-specific rate and national population in 2010. The China 2010 Population Census data and Segi’s world population data were used for calculating the age-standardized cancer incidence/mortality rates. Results Data were obtained from a total of 145 cancer registries (63 in urban areas and 82 in rural areas) covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases (MV%) were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through proportion of death certification only (DCO%), with the mortality to incidence ratio of (M/I) 0.61. The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The crude incidence was 235.23/105 (268.65/105 in males and 200.21/105 in females), the age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/105 and 181.49/105, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.11%. The cancer incidence and ASR China were 256.41/105 and 187.53/105 in urban areas and 213.71/105 and 181.10/105 in rural areas. The crude cancer mortality in China was 148.81/105 (186.37/105 in males and 109.42/105 in females), the age-standardized mortalities by Chinese standard population and by world standard population were 113.92/105 and 112.86/105, and the cumulative

  10. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A non-randomized, age-matched single center trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Yoen TK; Bosscha, Koop; Prins, Hubert A; Lips, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected (body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different. RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group (42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen (45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal (3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group (3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups with regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique. PMID:26328034

  11. Comparative performance of current definitions of sarcopenia against the prospective incidence of falls among community dwelling seniors age 65 and older

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To compare the extent to which 7 available definitions of sarcopenia and 2 related definitions predict the prospective rate of falling. Methods: We studied a cohort of 445 seniors (mean age 71 years, 45% men) living in the community who were followed with a detailed fall assessment for 3 ...

  12. Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becheler, Ronan; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Noel, Philippe; Mouchel, Olivier; Morrison, Cheryl; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6–7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.

  13. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  14. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  15. Decreasing incidence and changes in serotype distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease in persons aged under 18 years since introduction of 10-valent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines in Portugal, July 2008 to June 2012.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, S I; Brito, M J; Horacio, A N; Lopes, J P; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2014-01-01

    The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) became available in Portugal in mid-2009 and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in early 2010. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients aged under 18 years decreased from 8.19 cases per 100,000 in 2008–09 to 4.52/100,000 in 2011–12. However, IPD incidence due to the serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children aged under two years remained constant. This fall resulted from significant decreases in the number of cases due to: (i) the additional serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13 (1, 5, 7F; from 37.6% to 20.6%), particularly serotype 1 in older children; and (ii) the additional serotypes included in PCV13 (3, 6A, 19A; from 31.6% to 16.2%), particularly serotype 19A in younger children. The decrease in serotype 19A before vaccination indicates that it was not triggered by PCV13 administration. The decrease of serotype 1 in all groups, concomitant with the introduction of PCV10, is also unlikely to have been triggered by vaccination, although PCVs may have intensified and supported these trends. PCV13 serotypes remain major causes of IPD, accounting for 63.2% of isolates recovered in Portugal in 2011–12, highlighting the potential role of enhanced vaccination in reducing paediatric IPD in Portugal. PMID:24698140

  16. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  17. National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries were collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). NCCR estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in China with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 261 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 193 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as national estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group [0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, …, 85+] and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding national population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 193 cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural registries) covered 198,060,406 populations (100,450,109 in urban and 97,610,297 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 69.13% and 2.38%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2012. The incidence rate was 264.85/100,000 (289.30/100,000 in males, 239.15/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 191.89/100,000 and 187.83/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 age years old) of 21.82%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 277.17/100,000, 195.56/100,000 and 190.88/100,000 compared to 251.20/100,000, 187.10/100,000 and 183.91/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 161.49/100,000 (198.99/100,000 in

  18. Incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer according to histologic subtypes in Korea, 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Won, Young-Joo; Seo, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate trends in the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), according to histologic subtypes, in Korean women between 1999 and 2012. Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry recorded between 1999 and 2012 were evaluated. The incidences of EOC histologic subtypes were counted. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in incidence rates were calculated. Patient data were divided into three groups based on age (<40, 40 to 59, and >59 years), and age-specific incidence rates were compared. Results Overall, the incidence of EOC has increased. Annual EOC cases increased from 922 in 1999 to 1,775 in 2012. In 1999, the ASR was 3.52 per 100,000 and increased to 4.79 per 100,000 in 2012 (APC, 2.53%; p<0.001). The ASRs in 2012 and APCs between 1999 and 2012 for the four major histologic subtypes were as follows (in order of incidence): serous carcinoma (ASR, 2.32 per 100,000; APC, 4.34%; p<0.001), mucinous carcinoma (ASR, 0.73 per 100,000; APC, –1.05%; p=0.131), endometrioid carcinoma (ASR, 0.51 per 100,000; APC, 1.48%; p=0.032), and clear cell carcinoma (ASR, 0.50 per 100,000; APC, 8.13%; p<0.001). In the sub-analyses based on age, clear cell carcinoma was confirmed as the histologic subtype whose incidence had increased the most since 1999. Conclusion The incidence of EOC is increasing in Korea. Among the histologic subtypes, the incidence of clear cell carcinoma has increased markedly across all age groups since 1999. PMID:26463436

  19. Sociodemographic determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma, Finland 1953-97.

    PubMed

    Riska, Annika; Leminen, Arto; Pukkala, Eero

    2003-05-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is very rare. In Western countries, it accounts for about 1% of all female genital malignant tumors. Its etiology remains poorly known, but high parity is considered to be protective. We studied determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Finland. Incidence rates for primary fallopian tube carcinoma, according to the population based Finnish Cancer Registry, from 1953- 97 were assessed by age, year of diagnosis, and type of residential area. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the years 1971- 95 were calculated by occupation and social class variables taken from the 1970 Population Census. There were 485 cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma registered during 45 years. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased from 1.2/1000000 in 1953-57 to 5.4/1000000 in 1993-97. This 4.5-fold increase in incidence rate corresponds to a 7-fold increase in the number of new cases. The increase is attributable to the age group beyond 55 years, the peak incidence occurring between 60-64 years. Although the relative increase in incidence rate has been larger in rural areas than in cities, the rate in the latter remains 2-fold. Women in the 2 highest social classes had a 1.8-fold incidence (95% CI = 1.2-2.6) as compared to the lowest social class. Women in agriculture and those not working outside the home had only half the cancer incidence of those in academic or clerical occupations. The incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma increases in Finland. Evidently, the incidence has increased simultaneously with the affluence of urban life. Part of the variation in incidence correlates with variation in parity. PMID:12594821

  20. A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Martin; Shadbolt, Bruce; Khurana, Vini G.; Jain, Sanjiv; Smith, Sarah F.; Smee, Robert; Dexter, Mark; Cook, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    There are conflicting reports from Europe and North America regarding trends in the incidence of primary brain tumor, whereas the incidence of primary brain tumors in Australia is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence in Australia with age-, sex-, and benign-versus-malignant histology-specific analyses. A multicenter study was performed in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which has a combined population of >7 million with >97% rate of population retention for medical care. We retrospectively mined pathology databases servicing neurosurgical centers in NSW and ACT for histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008. Data were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness. Incidence rates were age standardized and trends analyzed using joinpoint analysis. A weighted total of 7651 primary brain tumors were analyzed. The overall US-standardized incidence of primary brain tumors was 11.3 cases 100 000 person-years (±0.13; 95% confidence interval, 9.8–12.3) during the study period with no significant linear increase. A significant increase in primary malignant brain tumors from 2000 to 2008 was observed; this appears to be largely due to an increase in malignant tumor incidence in the ≥65-year age group. This collection represents the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Whether the observed increase in malignant primary brain tumors, particularly in persons aged ≥65 years, is due to improved detection, diagnosis, and care delivery or a true change in incidence remains undetermined. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence that can be independent of multiple interstate cancer registries. PMID:21727214

  1. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Assessing EL Students in the Age of Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Durán, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Subject-area standards such as Common Core State Standards for Language Arts and Mathematics and Next Generation Science Standards offer deeper, richer views of subject-area proficiency. In science, they underscore doing things with facts and concepts, such as explaining, planning, and investigating--activities that are intertwined with language,…

  2. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  3. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies. PMID:25494288

  4. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-adjusted, sex- and race-specific 1969-1971 cancer incidence ratios for the 722 census tracts of the San Francisco-Oakland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with measured chrysotile asbestos counts in tract drinking waters. The water supplies serving the are...

  5. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. Results The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1–4/1 000 adults aged 40–50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7–8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Conclusions

  6. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  7. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  8. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Incident Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Alonso, Alvaro; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is positively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; its relationship with incident CVD is unknown. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based multiethnic cohort study of 6,508 adults aged 45–84 years who were initially free of clinical CVD, we examined lifetime discrimination (experiences of unfair treatment in 6 life domains) and everyday discrimination (frequency of day-to-day occurrences of perceived unfair treatment) in relation to incident CVD. During a median 10.1 years of follow-up (2000–2011), 604 incident events occurred. Persons reporting lifetime discrimination in ≥2 domains (versus none) had increased CVD risk, after adjustment for race/ethnicity and sociodemographic factors, behaviors, and traditional CVD risk factors (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.70) and after control for chronic stress and depressive symptoms (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.60). Reported discrimination in 1 domain was unrelated to CVD (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.30). There were no differences by race/ethnicity, age, or sex. In contrast, everyday discrimination interacted with sex (P = 0.03). Stratified models showed increased risk only among men (for each 1–standard deviation increase in score, adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27); controlling for chronic stress and depressive symptoms slightly reduced this association (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.25). This study suggests that perceived discrimination is adversely related to CVD risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26085044

  10. Incidence and Mortality of Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Martinique

    PubMed Central

    Mehdaoui, Hossein; Hamlat, Abderrahmane; Piotin, Michel; Banydeen, Rishika; Mejdoubi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) varies wildly across the world and seems to be low in Central and South America (4.2 per 100 000 person-years; CI 95%; 3.1–5.7). The objective of our study was to describe the characteristics of SAH and to estimate its incidence and severity in Martinique, a small French island located in the Caribbean Sea. Methods Due to its insular nature and small captive population, Martinique is ideal for the setting up of population-based epidemiological studies with good exhaustiveness. Our study, spanning a 7 year period (2007–2013), consisted of retrospective case ascertainment with multiple overlapping methods. Crude incidence and 30 day case-fatality rates for SAH among the Martinican population were computed for the study period. Incidence and disease severity was also analyzed according to age, gender and aneurysm presence. World age-standardized incidence rates were also calculated. Results A total of 121 patients had a SAH during the study period, with a higher frequency of female cases (71.1% versus 28.9%, p<0.001). Patient mean age was 57.1 years (median = 55 [46–66]). An aneurysmal origin was found in 96 SAH cases (79.3%). Crude annual incidence was 4.36 per 100 000 person-years (CI 95% 2.30–6.42). World age-standardized incidence was 3.29 per 100 000 person-years (CI 95% 1.74–4.84). During the 30 days following SAH diagnosis, 29 patients died (case fatality rate: 24% (CI 95% 16.4–31.6)). Conclusions The incidence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in Martinique is much lower than in other parts of the world and similar to countries in Central and South America. These results are possibly related to environmental factors and most particularly to a low rate of smoking in the Martinican population. Thirty-day case-fatality rate is similar to what is observed in developed countries. PMID:27213614

  11. Relation of Multiple Inflammatory Biomarkers to Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Larson, Martin G.; Yamamoto, Jennifer F.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rong, Jian; Levy, Daniel; Keaney, John F.; Wang, Thomas J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2009-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies suggest that inflammation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). We assessed the association of 12 circulating inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (mass and activity), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, CD40 ligand, osteoprotegerin, P-selectin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II] with incident AF in 2863 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 60.7 years, SD=9.4, 55% women). During follow-up (median 6 years), 148 participants (43% women) developed incident AF. In multivariable proportional-hazards models, the inflammatory biomarker panel was associated with incident AF (p=0.03). With stepwise selection (p<0.01 for entry and retention), log-transformed osteoprotegerin was associated with incident AF (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.56, p=0.006). Adjusting for interim myocardial infarction or heart failure attenuated the association between osteoprotegerin and incident AF (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.98–1.43, p=0.09). In conclusion, circulating osteoprotegerin concentration was significantly associated with incident AF in our community-based sample, possibly mediated by interim cardiovascular events. PMID:19576326

  12. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  13. Differing trends in the incidence of vascular comorbidity in MS and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, John; Tremlett, Helen; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; Blanchard, James; Patten, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although the adverse effects of vascular comorbidities are increasingly recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS), the epidemiology of these conditions remains poorly understood. Methods: Using population-based administrative data, we identified 44,452 Canadians with MS and 220,849 age-, sex- and geographically matched controls. We applied validated definitions to estimate the incidence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) from 1995 to 2005. Results: Of the MS cases, 31,757 (71.4%) were in female participants, with a mean (SD) age at the index date of 43.8 (13.7) years. Over time, the age-standardized incidence of diabetes rose more in the MS population (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.08) than in the matched population (IRR per year 1.02; 95% CI 1.01–1.03). Temporal trends in the age-standardized incidence of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and IHD were similar in both populations. Among those aged 20–44 years, the incidence of IHD was higher in the MS population (IRR 1.59; 95% CI 1.19–2.11). The increased incidence of IHD in the MS population was attenuated among those aged 60 years and older (IRR 1.01; 95% CI 0.97–1.06). Conclusions: The incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are rising within the MS population. Programs to systematically prevent and treat these conditions are needed. PMID:27104065

  14. Incident-level analysis of 703 retrospective self-reports of ordinary violence recalled by 334 Swedes aged 6 to 45 years.

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter Edward; Larsson, Paula

    2015-07-01

    There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos. PMID:25304671

  15. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50-1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66-1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  16. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  17. Benefit Incidence Analysis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Tan, Jee-Peng

    2007-01-01

    The standard benefit incidence algebra generally produces biased estimates of the distribution of public spending on education when students from poor and rich families are enrolled in schools that receive different levels of public spending per student. Except in very rare instances, removing these biases entails combining several sources of…

  18. NH3-SCR performance of fresh and hydrothermally aged Fe-ZSM-5 in standard and fast selective catalytic reduction reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Fudong; Xie, Lijuan; Shan, Wenpo; He, Hong

    2013-04-01

    Hydrothermal stability is one of the challenges for the practical application of Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 (NH(3)-SCR) for diesel engines. The presence of NO(3) in the exhaust gases can enhance the deNOx activity because of the fast SCR reaction. In this work, a Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst was prepared by a solid-state ion-exchange method and was hydrothermally deactivated at 800 °C in the presence of 10% H(2)O. The activity of fresh and hydrothermal aged Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts was investigated in standard SCR (NO(2)/NOx = 0) and in fast SCR with NO(2)/NOx = 0.3 and 0.5. In standard SCR, hydrothermal aging of Fe-ZSM-5 resulted in a significant decrease of low-temperature activity and a slight increase in high-temperature activity. In fast SCR, NOx conversion over aged Fe-ZSM-5 was significantly increased but was still lower than that over fresh catalyst. Additionally, production of N(2)O in fast SCR was much more apparent over aged Fe-ZSM-5 than over fresh catalyst. We propose that, in fast SCR, the rate of key reactions related to NO is slower over aged Fe-ZSM-5 than over fresh catalyst, thus increasing the probabilities of side reactions involving the formation of N(2)O. PMID:23477804

  19. Brain and Central Nervous System Cancer Incidence in Navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and Projections for 2014

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, J.; San Román, E.; Burgui, R.; Guevara, M.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Urbina, M.J.; Ardanaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary. PMID:25561983

  20. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  1. Melanoma incidence increase in the elderly of Catalonia with stabilization of incidence in the younger population: effect of prevention or consequence of immigration?

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Susana; Marcoval, Joaquim; Paradelo, Cristina; Azon, Antoni; Bartralot, Ramon; Bel, Susana; Bigata, Xavier; Boada, Aram; Campoy, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Curco, Neus; Dalmau, Joan; Ferrandiz, Carlos; Ferreres, Josep R.; Formigon, Manel; Gallardo, Fernando; Gonzalez, Alberto; Just, Miquel; Llistosella, Enric; Marti, Rosa M.; Nogues, M. Elena; Pedragosa, Ramon; Pujol, Josep A.; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Sabat, Mireia; Salleras, Montserrat; Smandia, Juan A.; Zaballos, Pedro; Plana, Estel; Malvehy, Josep

    2016-01-01

    All cases of MM diagnosed in 23 Hospitals in Catalonia, from 2000 to 2007 were recorded and its incidence calculated and adjusted for the European standard population through the direct method. The age standardized rate varied from 6.74 in 2000 to 8.64 in 2007 for all melanomas and from 4.79 to 5.80 for invasive MMs, the Breslow thickness being stable during the period. The increase in invasive melanoma incidence in the elderly was remarkable, the crude rate increasing from 11.04 (2000) to 15.49 (2007) in the 60–64 yr population, while remaining more stable from 3.97 in 2000 to 4.55 in 2007 for the age range of 30–34 ys or with a tendency to decrease from 5.1 in 2000 to 2.5 in 2007 for age range of 25–29 yr, age ranges much more affected by immigration. Despite the large immigrant population (nearly one million immigrants that arrived in Catalonia during the study period from countries with a low melanoma incidence), melanoma incidence in our region has risen considerably and this trend will likely persist in the near future. PMID:25367888

  2. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  3. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Design Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Populations MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975–2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970–2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Main outcome measures Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Results MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975–1979 to 2005–2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100 000 to 5.4/100 000. The largest increases occurred among those 70–79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100 000 to 33.6/100 000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100 000. Conclusions MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. PMID:26801465

  4. Summarization of Injury and Fatality Factors Involving Children and Youth in Grain Storage and Handling Incidents.

    PubMed

    Issa, S F; Field, W E; Hamm, K E; Cheng, Y H; Roberts, M J; Riedel, S M

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes data gathered on 246 documented cases of children and youth under the age of 21 involved in grain storage and handling incidents in agricultural workplaces from 1964 to 2013 in the U.S. that have been entered into the Purdue Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database. The database is the result of ongoing efforts to collect and file information on documented injuries, fatalities, and entrapments in all forms of agricultural confined spaces. While the frequency of injuries and fatalities involving children and youth in agriculture has decreased in recent years, incidents related to agricultural confined spaces, especially grain storage and handling facilities, have remained largely unchanged during the same period. Approximately 21% of all documented incidents involved children and youth (age 20 and younger), and more than 77% of all documented incidents were fatal, suggesting an under-reporting of non-fatal incidents. Findings indicate that the majority of youth incidents occurred at OSHA exempt agricultural worksites. The states reporting the most incidents were Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, and Minnesota. Grain transport vehicles represented a significant portion of incidents involving children under the age of 16. The overwhelming majority of victims were male, and most incidents (50%) occurred in June, October, and November. Recommendations include developing intervention strategies that target OSHA exempt farms, feedlots, and seed processing facilities; preparing engineering design and best practice standards that reduce the exposure of children and youth to agricultural confined spaces; and developing gender-specific safety resources that incorporate gender-sensitive strategies to communicate safety information to the population of young males with the greatest risk of exposure to the hazards of agricultural confined spaces. PMID:27024990

  5. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  6. Latitude of the study place and age of the patient are associated with incidence of mediastinitis and microbiology in open-heart surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnoor, M; Vengen, Ø A; Johansen, O; Sandven, I; Abdelnoor, AM

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to summarize the pooled frequency of mediastinitis following open-heart surgery caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative bacteria. Design This study was a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods We searched the literature, and a total of 97 cohort studies were identified. Random-effect model was used to synthesize the results. Heterogeneity between studies was examined by subgroup and meta-regression analyses, considering study and patient-level variables. Small-study effect was evaluated. Results Substantial heterogeneity was present. The estimated incidence of mediastinitis evaluated from 97 studies was 1.58% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.42, 1.75) and that of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and MRSA bacteria evaluated from 63 studies was 0.90% (95% CI 0.81, 1.21), 0.24% (95% CI 0.18, 0.32), and 0.08% (95% CI 0.05, 0.12), respectively. A meta-regression pinpointed negative association between the frequency of mediastinitis and latitude of study place and positive association between the frequency of mediastinitis and the age of the patient at operation. Multivariate meta-regression showed that prospective cohort design and age of the patients and latitude of study place together or in combination accounted for 17% of heterogeneity for end point frequency of mediastinitis, 16.3% for Gram-positive bacteria, 14.7% for Gram-negative bacteria, and 23.3% for MRSA bacteria. Conclusion Evidence from this study suggests the importance of latitude of study place and advanced age as risk factors of mediastinitis. Latitude is a marker of thermally regulated bacterial virulence and other local surgical practice. There is concern of increasing risk of mediastinitis and of MRSA in elderly patients undergoing sternotomy. PMID:27330329

  7. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  8. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, J. E. N.; Obiechina, N. J. A.; Obionu, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. METHODS: Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age < or = 40 years), and group II included 105 women (age > or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year

  9. Radial fast-neutron fluence gradients during rotating 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation recorded with metallic fluence monitors and geological age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Koleška, Michal; Jonckheere, Raymond; Unterricker, Sepp

    2015-01-01

    the neutron-irradiation parameter J is one of the major uncertainties in 40Ar/39Ar dating. The associated uncertainty of the individual J-value for a sample of unknown age depends on the accuracy of the age of the geological standards, the fast-neutron fluence distribution in the reactor, and the distances between standards and samples during irradiation. While it is generally assumed that rotating irradiation evens out radial neutron fluence gradients, we observed axial and radial variations of the J-values in sample irradiations in the rotating channels of two reactors. To quantify them, we included three-dimensionally distributed metallic fast (Ni) and thermal- (Co) neutron fluence monitors in three irradiations and geological age standards in three more. Two irradiations were carried out under Cd shielding in the FRG1 reactor in Geesthacht, Germany, and four without Cd shielding in the LVR-15 reactor in Řež, Czech Republic. The 58Ni(nf,p)58Co activation reaction and γ-spectrometry of the 811 keV peak associated with the subsequent decay of 58Co to 58Fe allow one to calculate the fast-neutron fluence. The fast-neutron fluences at known positions in the irradiation container correlate with the J-values determined by mass-spectrometric 40Ar/39Ar measurements of the geological age standards. Radial neutron fluence gradients are up to 1.8 %/cm in FRG1 and up to 2.2 %/cm in LVR-15; the corresponding axial gradients are up to 5.9 and 2.1 %/cm. We conclude that sample rotation might not always suffice to meet the needs of high-precision dating and gradient monitoring can be crucial.

  10. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968--1977.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. W.; Kannan Kutty, M.; Dharmalingam, S. K.; Ponnudurai, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods. PMID:497106

  11. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  12. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  13. Estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhu, Junqing; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Hebei province using incidence and mortality data from 9 population-based cancer registries in 2012. Methods The data of new diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in 2012 were collected from 9 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province in 2015. All the data met the National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) criteria of data quality. The pooled data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All cancer registries covered 4,986,847 populations, 6.84% of Hebei provincial population (2,098,547 in urban and 2,888,300 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 76.40% and 4.72%, respectively. The mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.64. In 2012, it is estimated that there were about 187,900 new diagnosed cancer cases and 119,800 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 258.12/100,000 (275.75/100,000 in males, 239.78/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 210.65/100,000 and 208.50/100,000, with the cumulative incidence rates (0.74 years old) of 24.46%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.99/100,000 and 211.32/100,000 in urban areas and 258.94/100,000 and 209.99/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 164.63/100,000 (201.85/100,000 in males, 125.92/100,000 in females). Agestandardized mortality rates by Chinese

  14. A New Age Dawning? Australia's New Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Moves towards "Third Stage" Internationalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Minister for Education, Employment and Workplace Relations recently launched a new agency whose primary focus is the protection of the country's tertiary education system. The government is developing the new AUD$57 million (approximately US$51 million) agency, the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), in response to…

  15. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  16. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yuri; Nakaya, Tomoki; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Uehara, Shinichiro; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Endo, Ginji; Hayashi, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. Methods We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. Results We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004–2007. Conclusions There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents. PMID:26902168

  17. [Reproducibility of the answers of various groups of cardiovascular patients in a standardized questionnaire, differentiated by age and gender].

    PubMed

    Adelt, R; Bohm, R; Heinemann, L; Günther, K H

    1978-10-15

    For the purpose of the valuation of a questionnaire developed by us for the anamnestic recognition of angiocardiopathies, which consists of 63 questions, a repeated interrogation was performed with 220 patients of different age and sex during 14 days. The average reproducibility of the yes/no-decisions was good and varied only slightly in the 8 groups of diseases (86.3--99.4%). The average degree of reproducibility referred to the sexes is nearly the same (94.7% and 95.5%, respectively). Referred to the age groups the highest reproducibility was established in the patients older than 60 years (95.7%) and the lowest in patients between 50 and 60 years (93.3%). PMID:735245

  18. Increased incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Wu, Cheng-Chin; Sung, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Yen, Jeng-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Past studies have shown inconsistent results on whether there is an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate the possible relationship between the 2 autoimmune diseases, we performed a nationwide cohort study utilizing the National Health Insurance Research Database and the Registry of Catastrophic Illness. A total of 1456 newly diagnosed patients with MS and 10,362 control patients were matched for age, sex, and initial diagnosis date. Patients with MS had a higher incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.01–2.91). There was a positive correlation in being diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis in patients previously diagnosed with MS when stratified by sex and age. The strength of this association remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex, age, and smoking history (hazard ratio: 1.78, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.56, P = 0.002). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that a diagnosis of MS increased the likelihood of a subsequent diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in patients, independent of sex, age, and smoking history. PMID:27368008

  19. Trends in Incidence of Common Cancers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid; Karimirad, Mohammad Reza; Vaziri, Siavash; Mansouri, Fiezollah; Moudi, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in incidence of ten common cancers in Iran, based on the national cancer registry reports from 2004 to 2009. This epidemiological study was carried out based on existing age-standardized estimate cancer data from the national report on cancer registry/Ministry of Health in Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by test for linear trend and P ≥ 0.05 was taken as the significant level. Totals of 41,169 and 32,898 cases of cancer were registered in men and females, respectively, during these years. Overall age-standard incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population according to primary site weres 125.6 and 113.4 in males and females, respectively. Between 2004 and 2009, the ten most common cancers (excluding skin cancer) were stomach (16.2), bladder (12.6), prostate (11), colon-rectum (10.14), hematopoeitic system (7.1), lung (6.1), esophagus (6.4), brain (3.2), lymph node (3.8) and larynx (3.4) in males; and in females were breast (27.4), colon-rectum (9.3), stomach (7.6), esophagus (6.4), hematopoeitic system (4.9), thyroid (3.9), ovary (3.6), corpus uteri (2.9), bladder (3.2) and lung (2.6). Moreover, results showed that skin cancer was estimated as the most common cancer in both sexes. The lowest and the highest incidence in females and males were reported respectively in 2004 and 2009. Over this period, the incidence of cancer in both sexes has been significantly increasing (p<0.01). Like other less developed and epidemiologically transitioning countries, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of cancer in Iran is rising. Due to the increasing trends, the future burden of cancer in the Iran is going to be acute with the expected increases in aging populations. Determining and controlling potential risk factors of cancer should hopefully lead to decrease in its burden. PMID:27165205

  20. Effects of Age and Sex on Values Obtained by RAPDx® Pupillometer, and Determined the Standard Values for Detecting Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Tsukasa; Goseki, Toshiaki; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of age and sex on the amplitude and latency scores obtained by the RAPDx® pupillometer, and to determine the standard values for detecting relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in healthy subjects. Methods The study was conducted on 84 healthy subjects (52 males, 32 females), who had no ophthalmic diseases other than refractive errors with a mean age of 32 years. The amplitude and latency scores of the males were compared to that of females and also among the different age groups. The correlations between the amplitude and latency scores and age were determined. The standard values with the 90%, 95%, and 99% prediction intervals of the measured values were also calculated. Results The differences in the amplitude and latency scores between the sexes were not significant. In addition, both scores were not significantly related with age. The mean amplitude score for all subjects with prediction intervals of 90%, 95%, and 99% was 0.02 (−0.26 to 0.30, −0.32 to 0.35, and −0.42 to 0.46, respectively); the latency score was −0.02 (−0.24 to 0.20, −0.28 to 0.25, and −0.37 to 0.33, respectively). Conclusions RAPD is not present when the absolute values of the amplitude score and latency scores, measured by the RAPDx® pupillometer, are ≤ 0.2 log units. RAPD is present when either of the values are ≥ 0.5 log units. Translational Relevance Results of this study can be used for detection of RAPD in the clinic and it will be the basic data of RAPDx® pupillometer for future research. PMID:27152248

  1. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  2. Incidence patterns and trends of gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in Germany, 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Trabert, Britton; Katalinic, Alexander; Kieschke, Joachim; Emrich, Katharina; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Gonadal (GGCT) and extragonal germ cell tumors [GCT (EGCT)] are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. In contrast to well reported population-based data of GGCTs in males, analyses of GGCTs in females and EGCTs in both sexes remain limited. Methods In a pooling project of nine population-based cancer registries in Germany of the years 1998–2008, 16,883 GCTs and their topographical sites were identified using ICD-O morphology and topography for those aged 15 years and older. We estimated age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates. Results Among males, the incidence of testicular GCTs increased over time. In contrast, there was no increase in the incidence of EGCTs. Among females, rates of ovarian GCTs were stable, while rates of EGCTs declined over time. The most frequent extragonadal sites were mediastinum among males and placenta among females. Conclusions Our results underline different incidence trends and distinct age-specific incidence patterns of GGCTs and EGCTs, as reported recently by several population-based registries. The differences suggest that GGCTs and EGCTs may have different etiologies. PMID:23683844

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in France: incidence over 1980-2005 and projection to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ligier, Karine; Belot, Aurélien; Launoy, Guy; Velten, Michel; Bossard, Nadine; Iwaz, Jean; Righini, Christian Adrien; Delafosse, Patricia; Guizard, Anne-Valérie

    2011-04-01

    Over the 1998-2002 period, some French Départements have been shown to have the world's highest incidence of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in men. The objectives were to describe the changes in UADT cancer incidence in France over the 1980-2005 period, present projections for 2010, and describe the anatomical and histological characteristics of these tumours. The trend of cancer-incidence over 1980-2005 and projection up to 2010 were obtained using age-period-cohort models (data from eleven cancer registries) and incidence/mortality ratios in the area covered by these registries. The description of UADT cancers by anatomical and histological characteristics concerned data collected between 1980 and 2004 in eleven cancer registries. In men, cancer incidence decreased in all cancer sites and the world-standardized incidence rates decreased by 42.9% for lip-oral cavity-pharynx (LOCP) cancers and 50.4% for larynx cancer. In women, the world-standardized incidence rates increased by 48.6% for LOCP cancers and 66.7% for larynx cancer. Incidence increased the most for oropharynx, palate, and hypopharynx cancers. Incidence analysis by one-year cohorts revealed a progressive shift of the incidence peak towards younger and younger generations, with no change as yet in the mean age at diagnosis. In France, the incidence of these cancers is still higher than in other European and North American countries. This urges actions towards reducing the major risk factors for those cancers, namely alcohol and tobacco consumption, especially among young people, and reducing exposure to risk factors due to social inequalities. PMID:21397551

  4. Time Outdoors and Physical Activity as Predictors of Incident Myopia in Childhood: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Northstone, Kate; McMahon, George; Ness, Andy R.; Deere, Kevin; Mattocks, Calum; Pourcain, Beate St; Williams, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Time spent in “sports/outdoor activity” has shown a negative association with incident myopia during childhood. We investigated the association of incident myopia with time spent outdoors and physical activity separately. Methods. Participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed by noncycloplegic autorefraction at ages 7, 10, 11, 12, and 15 years, and classified as myopic (≤−1 diopters) or as emmetropic/hyperopic (≥−0.25 diopters) at each visit (N = 4,837–7,747). Physical activity at age 11 years was measured objectively using an accelerometer, worn for 1 week. Time spent outdoors was assessed via a parental questionnaire administered when children were aged 8–9 years. Variables associated with incident myopia were examined using Cox regression. Results. In analyses using all available data, both time spent outdoors and physical activity were associated with incident myopia, with time outdoors having the larger effect. The results were similar for analyses restricted to children classified as either nonmyopic or emmetropic/hyperopic at age 11 years. Thus, for children nonmyopic at age 11, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) for incident myopia was 0.66 (0.47–0.93) for a high versus low amount of time spent outdoors, and 0.87 (0.76–0.99) per unit standard deviation above average increase in moderate/vigorous physical activity. Conclusion. Time spent outdoors was predictive of incident myopia independently of physical activity level. The greater association observed for time outdoors suggests that the previously reported link between “sports/outdoor activity” and incident myopia is due mainly to its capture of information relating to time outdoors rather than physical activity. PMID:22491403

  5. [Time trends in cancer incidence in Osaka].

    PubMed

    Hanai, A; Fujimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Changes in environments and life styles in Japan have caused the recent changes in the time trends of cancer incidence for various sites. Using the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, time trends during 1966-80 were analysed for cancer incidence of the leading 5 sites: stomach, lung, liver, uterus and breast. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancers of the stomach (both sexes) and uterus (invasive cancer) decreased to 75% and 64% respectively between the two periods of 1966-68 and 1978-80 while cancers of the lung, liver, and breast reached 163%, 140%, and 143 % during the same period. Decrease of stomach cancer incidence was observed in all age-groups under 79, however, not in the 25-44 age-groups among females. Analyzing the histological data in the registry, it was noticed that estimated incidence of the intestinal type of stomach carcinoma had decreased more rapidly than the diffuse type. In the 30-49 age-groups among females, no decrease was observed of the diffuse type of carcinoma. Concerning lung cancer, a marked increase was observed over 60 years of age. The age-specific incidence curves by birth cohort showed no or very small cohort effects for the population born 1920-29. Among males, percentages of adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma have increased and that of epidermoid carcinoma decreased. The change was more marked in the age-groups younger than 59. Liver cancer showed the 3rd highest incidence rate among males and 6th among females. A rising trend in recent years was noticeable over 45 years of age among males. For the invasive uterine carcinoma, the incidence rate has been decreasing in all ages. Comparing these figures with those of whites in Connecticut or of Japanese in Hawaii, the former was higher than the latter and the difference was larger in age-groups over 40. The recent age incidence curve of breast cancer in Osaka came to be close to that in Iceland in 1930-49 when the curve had kept a constant level for age-groups after

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in Manizales 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Arias Ortiz, Nelson; Arboleda Ruiz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe cancer incidence and mortality in Manizales during the 2003-2007 period from population-based information. Methods: The information was obtained from the Manizales Cancer Registry and DANE. We analyzed new cases and cancer deaths of individuals residing in Manizales from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2007. Cases reported correspond to primary invasive malignant tumors, in all locations, except basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We checked the internal consistency of the data and applied quality indicators suggested by the IARC. The population at risk was obtained from population projections (1985 -- 2020, DANE). Specific rates were estimated by gender and age (18 quinquennial groups), and standardized to the world population directly referenced. Results: There were 3416 new cases and 1895 deaths from cancer. The age- standardized incidence rate (ASR) per 100,000 people-years for all primary locations (except skin) was 162.4 in women and 166.2 in men. Cancer accounted for 19.8% of mortality in Manizales with ASR per 100,000 people-years of 92.1 in men and 83.6 in women. Conclusions: The risk of developing cancer or dying from cancer in Manizales is intermediate and similar to national estimates. The information generated by the PCR-M meets international quality standards, so it is necessary to ensure sustainability and improvement. PMID:24893301

  7. Toward reliable biomarker signatures in the age of liquid biopsies - how to standardize the small RNA-Seq workflow.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Dominik; Haberberger, Anna; Kirchner, Benedikt; Spornraft, Melanie; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Schelling, Gustav; Pfaffl, Michael W

    2016-07-27

    Small RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful tool in transcriptomics, gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery. Sequencing cell-free nucleic acids, particularly microRNA (miRNA), from liquid biopsies additionally provides exciting possibilities for molecular diagnostics, and might help establish disease-specific biomarker signatures. The complexity of the small RNA-Seq workflow, however, bears challenges and biases that researchers need to be aware of in order to generate high-quality data. Rigorous standardization and extensive validation are required to guarantee reliability, reproducibility and comparability of research findings. Hypotheses based on flawed experimental conditions can be inconsistent and even misleading. Comparable to the well-established MIQE guidelines for qPCR experiments, this work aims at establishing guidelines for experimental design and pre-analytical sample processing, standardization of library preparation and sequencing reactions, as well as facilitating data analysis. We highlight bottlenecks in small RNA-Seq experiments, point out the importance of stringent quality control and validation, and provide a primer for differential expression analysis and biomarker discovery. Following our recommendations will encourage better sequencing practice, increase experimental transparency and lead to more reproducible small RNA-Seq results. This will ultimately enhance the validity of biomarker signatures, and allow reliable and robust clinical predictions. PMID:27317696

  8. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  9. North vs south differences in acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage in Croatia: hospitalization incidence trends, clinical features, and 30-day case fatality

    PubMed Central

    Ljubičić, Neven; Pavić, Tajana; Budimir, Ivan; Puljiz, Željko; Bišćanin, Alen; Bratanić, Andre; Nikolić, Marko; Hrabar, Davor; Troskot, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the seven-year trends of hospitalization incidence due to acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage (APUH) and associated risk factors, and examine the differences in these trends between two regions in Croatia. Methods The study collected sociodemographic, clinical, and endoscopic data on 2204 patients with endoscopically confirmed APUH who were admitted to the Clinical Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice,” Zagreb and Clinical Hospital Center Split between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We determined hospitalization incidence rates, 30-day case fatality rate, clinical outcomes, and incidence-associated factors. Results No differences were observed in APUH hospitalization incidence rates between the regions. Age-standardized one-year cumulative APUH hospitalization incidence rate calculated using the European Standard Population was significantly higher in Zagreb than in Split region (43.2/100 000 vs 29.2/100,000). A significantly higher APUH hospitalization incidence rates were observed in the above 65 years age group. Overall 30-day case fatality rate was 4.9%. Conclusion The hospitalization incidence of APUH in two populations did not change over the observational period and it was significantly higher in the Zagreb region. The incidence of acute duodenal ulcer hemorrhage also remained unchanged, whereas the incidence of acute gastric ulcer hemorrhage increased. The results of this study allow us to monitor epidemiological indicators of APUH and compare data with other countries. PMID:25559836

  10. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Antony; Jagannath, Pushpa; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC) score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD) of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001) for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]). Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. PMID:26139742

  11. Incidence and Time Trends of Cancer in Cyprus Over 11 Years (1998-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Cooter, Mary; Soliman, Amr S.; Pavlou, Pavlos; Demetriou, Anna; Orphanides, Chloe; Kritioti, Evie; Banerjee, Mousumi; Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyprus maintains a population-based cancer registry that allows for in-depth study of cancer in a culturally- and environmentally-unique setting. Using eleven years of collected data (1998-2008), we present the first comprehensive analysis of cancer in Cyprus. We calculated gender-specific, world age-adjusted incidence rates and time trends for the 26 most incident cancers. This study revealed that overall world age-standardized rates among males increased from 195.4 cases per 100,000 in 1998-2002 to 239.0 cases per 100,000 in 2006-2008. For the entire eleven-year period, prostate, lung, colorectal, and bladder cancers were the most incident cancers among males. Among females, the overall world age-standardized rate increased from 180.6 cases per 100,000 in 1998-2002 to 217.1 cases per 100,000 in 2006-2008. Over the entire period, breast, colorectal, uterine, and thyroid were the most incident cancers in females. There were sixteen sex-specific cancers that indicated statistically significant increasing incidence trends over the study period, and no types for which the rate was significantly decreasing. Thyroid cancer illustrated rapid increases in rates. Results were compared to other Mediterranean European registries reported in Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents report for 1997-2002. Overall cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than that of Southern Mediterranean countries, and given the known environmental risk factors in Cyprus, the low rate of lung cancer is especially interesting. The epidemiologic patterns reported in this study open the door for future etiologic studies to elucidate role of environmental and lifestyle factors of cancer in this population and highlight opportunities for cancer prevention and control. PMID:25702662

  12. The Trend in Histological Changes and the Incidence of Esophagus Cancer in Iran (2003–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Maleki, Farzad; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salemi, Morteza; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Esophageal cancer is the sixth cause of death in the world, there was a lack of population-based information on the trend and incidence rate of esophagus cancer, so this study aimed to determine the incidence and pathological changes of esophagus cancer in Iran. Methods: In this study, data were extracted from annual cancer registry reports of Iranian ministry of health between 2003 and 2008. Standardized incidence rates were calculated using the world standard population, and incidence rate was calculated by age groups, sex, and histological type. Data on epidemiologic trend and histology were analyzed using Joinpoint software package. Results: In this study, there were 18,177 recorded cases of esophagus cancer. Of all cases, 45.72% were females and 54.28% were males. Sex ratio was 1.19. The most common histological types related to squamous cell carcinoma NOS and adenocarcinoma NOS were 64.53% and 10.37%, respectively. The trend of annual changes of incidence rate significantly increased in both sexes. The annual percentage changes, the incidence rate was 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3–12.6) for women and 9.6 (95% CI: 6.0–13.2) for men. The histology type of SCC, large cell, nonkeratinizing and SCC, keratinizing and SCC, NOS had a significant decreasing trend in total population (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to this study, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of esophagus cancer in Iran is rising. Hence, to prevent and control this cancer, it is necessary to investigate related risk factors and implement prevention programs in Iran. PMID:26955461

  13. Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997–2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia. Methods Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997–2010 for incidence and 1999–2010 for mortality. Two years’ data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used. Results The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer. Conclusions This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across

  14. Increasing incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (1983-2006).

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Carrara, H; Shaik, F; Uldrick, T; Berkman, A; Aboobaker, J; Coovadia, H M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the temporal trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The study was designed as a retrospective record review. The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma was estimated using administrative records for patients receiving care for KS through public sector oncology clinics in KZN, 1983-2006. Annual age-standardized incidence rates were calculated using provincial census data for the denominator. Age-specific rates were calculated for the pre-AIDS (1983-1989) and for the generalized AIDS epidemic eras (2006). Age-standardized incidence of KS increased in KZN from <1:100,000 in 1990 to at least 15:100,000 in 2006; this increase was observed in both men and women. There was a shift in the peak age-specific incidence rates from the sixth decade of life in the pre-AIDS era to the fourth and fifth decades in the AIDS era. In conclusion, KS is a growing public health problem in KZN, South Africa. These data reinforce the need for comprehensive national access to and roll-out of antiretroviral drugs, given their success in prevention and treatment of KS in first-world settings. PMID:19625587

  15. [New incidence and mortality data. 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta

    2009-01-01

    This is an update of incidence and mortality cancer data provided by the Italian Network of Cancer Registry (AIRTUM) relative to the period 2003-2005.AIRTUM is a network of general and specialized population-based cancer registries that covers about 1/3 of the Italian resident population (www.registri-tumori.it). Incidence and mortality data for the period 2003-2005 are based on 20 Registries. The five most frequently diagnosed cancers were: - prostate (18.5%), non melanoma skin (15.8%), lung (13.1%), colorectal (12.0%), bladder (5.7%) among males; - breast (24.9%), non melanoma skin (15.1%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (5.0%) and stomach (4.1%) among females. In the same period the most frequent causes of cancer death were: - cancer of the lung (27.6%), colorectal (10.7%), prostate (8.5%), stomach (7.3%) and liver (6.1%) among males; - breast cancer (16.3%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (10.3%), stomach (7.2%) and pancreas (6.5%) among females. According to the age-specific incidence rates one man and one woman every two will receive a cancer diagnosis during his/hers life (from birth to the age of 84 years). From 1993-1995 to 2003-2005, overall crude cancer incidence rate (males and females together) increased from 555.4 to 654.8 x 100,000. Standardization showed that 63% of this increase was due to ageing of the population. Moreover, most of the residual increase was among those cancer sites (breast, prostate, colorectal, thyroid and melanoma) for which early detection may have played a relevant role in anticipating (and therefore increasing) the number of diagnoses. Due to population ageing also overall cancer mortality did not show any decrease when crude rates were compared. On the contrary, standardized mortality rates (all cancers together) showed a strong decrease (311.4 vs. 266.5 x 100.000). The risk of receiving a diagnosis or dying because of cancer is still lower in residents in the regions of the South of Italy than in those of Central and Northern Italy

  16. Cancer Incidence Among Employees of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1969-1980

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Peggy; Austin, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    The cancer incidence from 1969 through 1980 among active members of an occupational cohort (the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was compared with that of the same-age sector of the total population of the San Francisco-Oakland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. Excesses were found for malignant melanoma of the skin and salivary gland tumors and a deficit for lung cancer in men. No excesses were noted for radiosensitive tissue groups. The overall incidence of cancer among LLNL employees for this time period is approximately that for the general population. PMID:4013251

  17. Re-evaluation of Pleistocene and Holocene long bone robusticity trends with regards to age-at-death estimates and size standardization procedures.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Lukáš; Eisová, Stanislava; Holliday, Trenton W

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in robusticity of lower limb bones in the genus Homo through the Pleistocene until the present have been proposed, which have been interpreted as a consequence of decreasing levels of mobility and activity patterns, changes in lifestyle, and environmental factors. There has also long been evidence that skeletal strength increases over an individual's lifespan. This increase is caused by continuous bone remodeling that optimizes the structure of a bone to resist mechanical loadings and creates a balance between endosteal resorption and subperiosteal apposition. However, none of the previous studies of temporal trends in robusticity has considered both processes and analyzed how individual age-related robusticity might influence higher-level temporal trends. This paper therefore explores temporal trends in robusticity of lower limb long bones within the genus Homo and considers how individual ages-at-death can confound published evolutionary trends, given the fact that some aspects of relative bone strength tend to increase over individual lifespans. Cross-sectional diaphyseal properties of the midshaft and proximal femur and midshaft tibia of Pleistocene and early Holocene individuals, together with data on age-at-death are used to analyze changes in relative bone strength relative to individuals' ages and evolutionary time. The results show increasing bone strength in adulthood until the fourth decade and then a slight decrease, an observation that conforms to previously published results on recent human populations. However, no significant impact of age-at-death on the trends along an evolutionary trajectory has been detected. The evolutionary trends in femoral and tibial relative strength can be described as fluctuating, probably as a consequence of changing mobility patterns, environmentally and technologically influenced behaviors, and demographic processes. The differences between evolutionary trends published in several studies are explained

  18. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Campos, Miriam; Ansótegui, Emilio; Molina-Molina, María; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Pollán, Marina; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rates for the period 2000-2014. Immunohistochemical studies and exome sequence analysis were performed in two and one tumors, respectively. All cohorts revealed breast cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) ≥ 2.25. The combined analysis of all cases or restricted to pre-menopausal age groups revealed significantly higher incidence of breast cancer: SIR = 2.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-5.57, P = 0.009; and SIR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 2.29-9.99, P = 0.0007, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses showed positivity for known markers of lung metastatic potential. This study suggests the existence of increased breast cancer risk among LAM patients. Prospective studies may be warranted to corroborate this result, which may be particularly relevant for pre-menopausal women with LAM. PMID:26951504

  19. Cancer incidence in Songkhla, southern Thailand, 1990-1994.

    PubMed

    Thongsuksai, P; Sriplung, H; Phungrassami, T; Prechavittayakul, P

    1997-01-01

    A population-based cancer registry of Songkhla was established by the Cancer Unit of Songklanagarind Hospital under the support of the IARC in 1990. The province is in the southern region of Thailand and has a population of 1.2 million. This study presents the average annual incidence rate of the provincial total and of the district level covering 1990-1994. It is aimed at providing a comprehensive picture of descriptive epidemiology of cancer in the province. Data were collected from all hospitals in the provinces. Analysis was done under the program provided by IARC. There were 3,973 invasive cancer cases in the period. The age-standardized rate for all cancers was 116.7 in males and 88.7 in females. Lung, oral cavity, liver, and esophagus were the main leading sites in males while the cervix and breast were outstanding in females. By comparison, the incidence of most cancers were lower than other registries in Thailand except for two cancer sites. The incidence of male oral cavity and esophagus cancers in males (ASR 10.7 and 8.5 respectively) were considerably higher. Na Mom, Hat Yai, Sadao and Muang were districts having a high incidence of cancer. PMID:9640592

  20. A novel approach for estimating the nationwide incidence of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a novel approach for estimating the incidence of renal cancer in Germany by using hospitalization data from the years 2005–2006 and to compare these estimates with incidence rates from cancer registries. We used nationwide hospitalization data from the years 2005–2006 including 34.2 million hospitalizations. We used three definitions of potential incident renal cancer cases: 1) a main or secondary diagnosis of renal cancer and a partial or total nephrectomy; 2) a main diagnosis of renal cancer and a partial or total nephrectomy; and 3) a main diagnosis of renal cancer (without a secondary diagnosis of renal pelvis cancer) and a partial or total nephrectomy. In addition, we used cancer registry data for comparison of rates. Results Hospitalization data to which definition 2 applied provided incidence rate estimates nearly identical to those provided by the cancer registries (when the cases registered from death certificates only were excluded). Age-standardized (European standard population) incidence rates based on hospitalization data and cancer registry data were 15.6 per 100 000 and 15.7 per 100 000 among men and 8.0 per 100 000 and 7.6 per 100 000 among women respectively. Cancer registry-based incidence rates were lower especially among those federal states with an estimated completeness of registration below 90% (Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt). Conclusions Representative hospitalization data can be used to estimate incidence rates of renal cancer. We propose that incidence rates can be estimated by hospitalization data if 1) the primary treatment is performed during an in-hospital stay and 2) nearly all patients undergo a defined surgical procedure that is not repeated for the treatment of the same cancer. Our results may be useful for countries with no or incomplete cancer registration or for countries that use hospitalization data to provide a representative incidence of renal cancer. PMID:25057278

  1. Incidence of dementia in a Kashmiri migrant population

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Pandita, Kamal Kishore; Razdan, Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mishriwala is one of five exclusive clusters of Kashmiri migrants established in 1990 to accommodate Kashmiri Pandit families who left Kashmir valley in the wake of militancy. Mishriwala migrant camp has seen minimal immigration and out-migration since its establishment. In an earlier study we reported on the prevalence of dementia amongst a Kashmiri migrant population. That study was conducted in the migrant camp at Mishriwala, 12 km west of Jammu city, the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir State. We have developed standardized study methods and instruments for use in the Kashmiri-speaking population, which we used for screening for dementia during the prevalence study. We now report the results of a 1-year prospective study carried out to find out the incidence of dementia in the same population. Aim: To ascertain the incidence of dementiain the Kashmiri Pandit population aged 60 years and above. Materials and Methods: A 1-year, prospective, epidemiological study of 186 subjects aged 60 years and above, using cognitive and functional ability screening and clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of dementia in this population was 5.34 cases per 1000 person-years. PMID:20174494

  2. Rapidly rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Chinese population: epidemiology in Shanghai during 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuhui; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Pin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jun; Gu, Xuefan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Shuixian; Zhi, Dijing; Lu, Zhong; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Ruoqian; Xi, Li; Li, Xiaojing; Zheng, Zhangqian; Zhang, Miaoying; Luo, Feihong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trend of childhood type 1 diabetes in Shanghai, a megalopolis in east China. We established a population-based retrospective registry for the disease in the city's registered population during 1997-2011 and collected 622 incident type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years. Standardized incidence rates and 95 % CI were estimated by applying the capture-recapture method and assuming Poisson distribution. Incidence trend was analyzed using the Poisson regression model. The mean annual incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years. We did not observe significant difference in incidence between boys and girls. The incidence is unstable and had a mean annual increase 14.2 % per year during the studied period. A faster annual increase was observed in boys, warmer seasons, and in the outer regions of the city. If present trends continue, the number of new type 1 diabetes cases will double from 2016 to 2020, and prevalent cases will sextuple by 2025. Our results showed the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was rising rapidly in Shanghai. More studies are needed to analyze incidence changes in other regions of China for appropriate allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:24777734

  3. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer. PMID:22191038

  4. Fractionated gemtuzumab ozogamicin and standard dose cytarabine produced prolonged second remissions in patients over the age of 55 years with acute myeloid leukemia in late first relapse.

    PubMed

    Pilorge, Sylvain; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Rabian, Florence; Sarkozy, Clémentine; Taksin, Anne L; Farhat, Hassan; Merabet, Fathia; Ghez, Stéphanie; Raggueneau, Victoria; Terré, Christine; Garcia, Isabelle; Renneville, Aline; Preudhomme, Claude; Castaigne, Sylvie; Rousselot, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (fGO), a humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody linked to calicheamicin in combination with intensive chemotherapy gives high response rates in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in relapse. However, reduced intensity chemotherapy in combination with fractionated GO has not been tested in aged relapsing patients. Patients from our institution with CD33+ AML aged 55 years or more in first late relapse (≥ 6 months) were proposed participation in a GO compassionate use program. Induction therapy consisted in fractionated GO (fGO; 3 mg/m², days 1, 4, 7) with standard-dose cytarabine (200 mg/m² /day, 7 days). Patients were consolidated with two courses of GO and intermediate dose cytarabine. Twenty-four patients (median age 68 years) received fGO with cytarabine. Median follow-up was 42 months. The response rate was 75%, including complete remission (CR) in 16 patients and CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp) in two patients. Two-year overall survival (OS) was 51% (95% CI: 28-69) and 2 years relapse-free survival (RFS) was 51% (95%CI: 25-72). Duration of second CR (CR2) was longer than first CR (CR1) in 9 out of 18 patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was negative in evaluable patients in CR2, particularly in NPM1 mutated cases. Toxicity was in line with that of the same fractionated single agent GO schedule. Fractionated GO with low intensity chemotherapy produced high response rates and prolonged CR2 in aged AML patients in first late relapse. PMID:24375467

  5. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, Prakash; Thea, Donald M.; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Fox, Matthew P.; Coovadia, H. M.; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites with high HIV prevalence in Durban, South Africa and Ndola, Zambia. Primary outcome measures were clinical treatment failure at day 2 and day 14. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: CT00227331http://www.clinicaltrialsgov/show/NCT00227331). FINDINGS: Of the 523 children enrolled, HIV status was known for 464 participants; 106 (23%) of these were infected with HIV. By day 2, 57 (12.3%) children had failed treatment and 110 (23.7%) failed by day 14. Twenty (18.9%) HIV-infected children failed by day 2 compared with 37 (10.3%) uninfected children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.00). Thirty-four (32.1%) HIV-infected children failed treatment by day 14 compared with 76 (21.2%) uninfected children (adjusted OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.11-3.17). Analysis stratified by age showed that the greatest differential in treatment failure at day 2 and day 14 occurred in the children aged 3-5 months. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children with severe pneumonia fail WHO-standard treatment with parenteral penicillin or amoxicillin at day 2 and day 14 more often than do HIV-uninfected children, especially young infants. Standard case management of acute respiratory infection (ARI) using WHO treatment guidelines is inadequate in areas of high HIV prevalence and reappraisal of empiric antimicrobial therapy is urgently needed for severe pneumonia associated with HIV-1. PMID:16628299

  6. Trends in Incidence of Stroke and Transition of Stroke Subtypes in Rural Tianjin China: A Population-Based Study from 1992 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Long, Xue; Wang, Tao; Wei, Jian; Wang, Jinghua; Tu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of ischemic stroke has increased and that of hemorrhagic stroke has decreased in urban China; however, the trends in rural areas are unknown. We aimed to explore the secular trends in incidence and transition of stroke subtypes among rural Chinese. Methods This was a population-based stroke surveillance through the Tianjin Brain Study. A total of 14,538 residents in a township of Ji County in Tianjin, China participated in the study since 1985. We investigated the age-standardized stroke incidence (sex-specific, type-specific, and age-specific), the annual proportion of change in the incidence of stroke, and the proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage in the periods 1992–1998, 1999–2005, and 2006–2012, because the neuroimaging technique was available since 1992 in this area. Results The age-standardized incidence per 100,000 person-years increased significantly for both intracerebral hemorrhage (37.8 in 1992–1998, 46.5 in 1999–2005, and 76.5 in 2006–2012) and ischemic stroke (83.9 in 1992–1998, 135.3 in 1999–2005, and 238.0 in 2006–2012). The age-standardized incidence of first-ever stroke increased annually by 4.9% for intracerebral hemorrhage and by 7.3% for ischemic stroke. The greatest increase was observed in men aged 45–64 years for both stroke types (P < 0.001). The proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage was stable overall, increased among men aged 45–64 years, and decreased among men aged ≥65 years. The average age of intracerebral hemorrhage in men reduced by 7.5 years from 1992 to 2012. Conclusion The age-standardized incidence of main stroke subtypes increased significantly in rural China over the past 21 years; the overall proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage was stable, but the incidence increased significantly among middle-aged men. These findings imply that it is crucial to control stroke risk factors in middle-aged men for stroke prevention in future decades. PMID:26426803

  7. Significantly Increased Medical Expenditure on Breast Cancer Failing to Bring Down Its Mortality and Incidence Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Lin; Liaw, Yung-Po; Lai, Chien-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Horng-Der; Chou, Ming-Chih; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The direct impact of medical expenses on breast cancer incidence and mortality rate has not been sufficiently addressed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer and the medical expenses in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cases were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) with corresponding to International Classification of Diseases, and the Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 174, 1740-1749, 175, 1750 and 1759 from January 1999 to December 2006. Age-specific incidences were estimated by population data obtained from the Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. Medical expenses, including outpatient and inpatient services, were also retrieved from the NHIRD. Results: The incidence increased from 20.06 per 100,000 in 1999 to 30.34 per 100,000 in 2006; the total expenses increased from 1,449,333,521 in 1999 to 4,350,400,592 Taiwan dollars in 2006. The age-standardized mortality rate for female breast cancer remained essentially unchanged, while the age-standardized incidence increased steadily (except 2002-2003). Among the top 20 coexisting ICD-9 codes for expenses, four are directly on cancers, while 16 are on other diseases or symptoms, which are not necessarily caused by breast cancer. Conclusions: Significantly increased medical expenditure on breast cancer failed to bring down its mortality and incidence rate. The finding has implications for healthcare policy planners in proposing strategies for breast cancer control and allocating the resources. PMID:23983817

  8. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Xueling; Ali, R Ayesha; Wedren, Sara; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Tan, Chuen-Seng; Reilly, Marie; Hall, Per; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC) modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269) in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in childbearing trends and other risk

  9. Incidence of Medically Attended Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza Illnesses in Children 6–59 Months Old During Four Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Melissa D.; Kieke, Burney A.; Sundaram, Maria E.; McClure, David L.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Gasser, Robert A.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are significant causes of seasonal respiratory illness in children. The incidence of influenza and RSV hospitalization is well documented, but the incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed illness has not been assessed in a well defined community cohort. Methods. Children aged 6–59 months with medically attended acute respiratory illness were prospectively enrolled during the 2006–2007 through 2009–2010 influenza seasons in a Wisconsin community cohort. Nasal swabs were tested for RSV and influenza by multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The population incidence of medically attended RSV and influenza was estimated separately and standardized to weeks 40 through 18 of each season. Results. The cohort included 2800–3073 children each season. There were 2384 children enrolled with acute respiratory illness; 627 (26%) were positive for RSV and 314 (13%) for influenza. The mean age was 28 months (standard deviation [SD] = 15) for RSV-positive and 38 months (SD = 16) for influenza-positive children. Seasonal incidence (cases per 10 000) was 1718 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1602–1843) for RSV and 768 (95% CI, 696–848) for influenza. Respiratory syncytial virus incidence was highest among children 6–11 (2927) and 12–23 months old (2377). Influenza incidence was highest (850) in children 24–59 months old. The incidence of RSV was higher than influenza across all seasons and age groups. Conclusions. The incidence of medically attended RSV was highest in children 6–23 months old, and it was consistently higher than influenza. The burden of RSV remains high throughout the first 2 years of life. PMID:27419158

  10. Relationship between pelvic incidence and osteoarthritis of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, D. S.; Bohl, M. S.; Liu, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral spine, and specifically pelvic incidence (PI), has been implicated in the development of spine pathology, but generally ignored with regards to diseases of the hip. We aimed to determine if increased PI is correlated with higher rates of hip osteoarthritis (HOA). The effect of PI on the development of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) was used as a negative control. Methods We studied 400 well-preserved cadaveric skeletons ranging from 50 to 79 years of age at death. Each specimen’s OA of the hip and knee were graded using a previously described method. PI was measured from standardised lateral photographs of reconstructed pelvises. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between age and PI with HOA and KOA. Results The mean age was 60.2 years (standard deviation (sd) 8.1), and the mean PI was 46.7° (sd 10.7°). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between increased PI and HOA (standardised beta = 0.103, p = 0.017). There was no correlation between PI and KOA (standardised beta = 0.003, p = 0.912). Conclusion Higher PI in the younger individual may contribute to the development of HOA in later life. Cite this article: Dr J. J. Gebhart. Relationship between pelvic incidence and osteoarthritis of the hip. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:66–72. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000552. PMID:26912384

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  12. Five years cancer incidence in Aden Cancer Registry, Yemen (2002-2006).

    PubMed

    Ba Saleem, Huda Omer; Bawazir, Amin Ahmed; Moore, Malcolm; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled Abdulla

    2010-01-01

    The population-based Aden Cancer Registry (ACR) started its activities in 1997. The objective of the registry is to establish a reliable magnitude of cancer in the area covered and the first report was published in 2003. The present article describes data from the second report of cancer incidence over a five year period (2002-2006). Internationally accepted standardized cancer registration methodologies described by IACR and IARC were used. CanReg-4 using ICDO-3 and ICD-10 were applied in the data processing and analysis. Results showed no difference in the overall incidence between the males and females (ratio was 0.83:1) and age standardized rate s(ASR) per 100,000 inhabitants were 30.2 and 31.1. The five most common cancers were breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NH lymphoma), brain cancer and Hodgkin's disease (16.6%, 12.6%, 7.8%, 5.2% and 4.4%, respectively). Among males, leukemia was the first followed by NH lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, brain and liver. In females, breast was the first, then leukemia, NH lymphoma, thyroid and brain cancer. The highest ASR for males (145 per 100,00 inhabitants) was observed at age 70-74 years whereas for females, two peaks (each 105 per 100,000 inhabitants) were equally noticed at age 60-64 and 70-74 years. Generally, females showed equal or higher incidence compared to males until age 55-59 where males reported higher incidence. The overall pattern of cancer incidence in this report is not much different from that in the previous report. Furthermore, the report generally indicates that the pattern of the most common registered cancer bears some similarities with the adjacent Gulf Cooperation Council States with which we share many characteristics, despite differences that warrant further investigation. PMID:20843142

  13. Incidence and Prevalence of Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: A Population-Based Study Using the National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Yeon; Lee, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been a few national population-based epidemiological studies of myasthenia gravis (MG) with wide variation of incidence and prevalence rates worldwide. Herein we report the first nationwide population-based epidemiological study of MG in Korea. Methods We attempted to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates of MG using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database for 2010 to 2013. Cases with MG were defined as those having claim records with a principal diagnosis of MG and the prescription of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressive agents including corticosteroids and azathioprine within 2 years after the diagnosis. The year 2010 was set as a washout period, such that patients were defined as incident cases if their first records of MG were observed in 2011. Results In 2011 there were 1,236 incident cases, and the standardized incidence rate was 2.44 per 100,000 person-years. The standardized prevalence rates were 9.67 and 10.66 per 100,000 persons in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The incidence and prevalence rates peaked in the elderly population aged 60 to 69 years for both sexes. Conclusions This is one of the largest national population-based epidemiological studies of MG, and it has confirmed the high incidence and prevalence rates of MG in the elderly population of South Korea. PMID:27165426

  14. Incidence of Major Cardiovascular Events in Immigrants to Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anna; Rezai, Mohammad R.; Guo, Helen; Maclagan, Laura C.; Austin, Peter C.; Booth, Gillian L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Chiu, Maria; Ko, Dennis T.; Lee, Douglas S.; Shah, Baiju R.; Donovan, Linda R.; Sohail, Qazi Zain; Alter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Immigrants from ethnic minority groups represent an increasing proportion of the population in many high-income countries, but little is known about the causes and amount of variation between various immigrant groups in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. Methods and Results— We conducted the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) Immigrant Study, a big data initiative, linking information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Permanent Resident database to 9 population-based health databases. A cohort of 824 662 first-generation immigrants aged 30 to 74 as of January 2002 from 8 major ethnic groups and 201 countries of birth who immigrated to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2000 were compared with a reference group of 5.2 million long-term residents. The overall 10-year age-standardized incidence of major cardiovascular events was 30% lower among immigrants than among long-term residents. East Asian immigrants (predominantly ethnic Chinese) had the lowest incidence overall (2.4 in males, 1.1 in females per 1000 person-years), but this increased with greater duration of stay in Canada. South Asian immigrants, including those born in Guyana, had the highest event rates (8.9 in males, 3.6 in females per 1000 person-years), along with immigrants born in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adjustment for traditional risk factors reduced but did not eliminate the differences in cardiovascular risk between various ethnic groups and long-term residents. Conclusions— Striking differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events exist among immigrants to Canada from different ethnic backgrounds. Traditional risk factors explain a part but not all of these differences. PMID:26324719

  15. Incidences of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma Diagnosed on Extremities and Trunk Wall

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Liu, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Liu, Chien-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most epidemiological studies of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) were performed in the Western countries, and only limited data highlighting that in the Asian population. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive analysis for the incidence rates of STS in Taiwan. This was a population-based study analyzing the incidence rates and trends of the primary STS over extremities and trunk wall during 2003 to 2011 by using the nationwide Taiwan Cancer Registry. More specific analyses were conducted for subtypes. Incidence rates of overall STS by cities and counties were also investigated. A total of 3843 cases were diagnosed with STS during the study period, giving an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 1.63 per 100,000 person-years. Liposarcoma was the most frequent subtype, followed by undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. STS was more frequently diagnosed in males and angiosarcoma was the most prominent sex-specific type. ASR increased with age in most of the STS subtypes and varied by histologic subtype. The incidence of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was highest in children, whereas rhabdomyosarcoma revealed a bimodal age distribution. Annual percent change (APC) of STS was 2.2%, and significant change in trend was only in males (APC, 3.5%, P < 0.05). Geographical variations indicated that New Taipei City had a significantly higher rate compared with the rest areas. Significantly lower rates were observed in 1 major offshore island. Incidence variations of STS by sexes, ages, histologic subtypes, and geographic regions were observed in Taiwanese population. The emerging factors associated STS incidence rates deserve further studies to verify. PMID:26469906

  16. 28 CFR 115.186 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186 Section 115.186 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The lockup shall conduct a...

  17. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386 Section 115.386 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility...

  18. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286 Section 115.286 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.286 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The...

  19. Pediatric, elderly, and emerging adult-onset peaks in Burkitt lymphoma incidence diagnosed in four continents, excluding Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Anderson, William F.; Ferlay, Jacques; Bhatia, Kishor; Chang, Cindy; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Devesa, Susan S.; Parkin, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in the general population and immunosuppressed persons with AIDS in United States was characterized by three age-specific incidence peaks near 10, 40 and 70 years. We hypothesized that BL from different geographical areas may exhibit pediatric, adult, and elderly age incidence peaks. We investigated this hypothesis using data on 3403 cases obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (1978–2002). Data from Africa were sparse or incomplete, and thus were excluded. Age-standardized rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated, supplemented with calculations performed using age-period-cohort models. The ASR rose 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.0–5.6) per year in males and 4.6% (95% CI, 4.5–4.8) in females. The ASR increased gradually in children and steeply in adults and most rapidly in the elderly both in males and females. Overall, BL male/female ASR ratio was 2.5, but it declined from 3.1 (95% CI, 3.0–3.3) for pediatric BL to 2.3 (95% CI 2.2–2.4) for adult BL and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.4–1.6) for elderly BL. Age-specific incidence peaks occurred near 10 years and 70 years in all regions and periods. A peak near 40 years of age emerged in the mid-1990s, particularly in men. Findings using APC models confirmed those based on standard analyses. Our findings, based on international BL cases, support our hypothesis that BL is multimodal and that BL peaks at different ages may be clues to differences in the etiology and/or biology of BL at those ages. PMID:22488262

  20. Increased incidence of melanoma in situ in Denmark from 1997 to 2011: results from a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toender, Anita; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased markedly among white populations in the recent decades. This may suggest that the incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS), the precursor of malignant melanoma, has also increased; however, few studies have assessed the incidence of MIS drawing on large population-based data sets. The present study aimed to assess MIS incidence trends in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. Data on MIS overall and on the histological subtypes superficial spreading MIS (SSM) and lentigo maligna (LM) were obtained from the Danish Nationwide Registry of Pathology. We calculated overall and age-specific incidence rates for both sexes, age-adjusted according to the world standard population. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using log-linear Poisson models. Among both sexes, a high continued increase in MIS incidence rates overall and in that of the histological subtypes SSM and LM were observed during the period from 1997 to 2011. During this period, the age-adjusted MIS incidence rate increased from 2.6 to 8.1 cases among women and from 1.4 to 5.6 cases among men per 100 000 person-years. For both sexes, the highest AAPC in MIS incidence was observed during the most recent 5-year calendar period. A markedly higher AAPC was observed for SSM than for LM during the most recent 5-year calendar period for both sexes. The marked increase in incidence of MIS during the last 5 years of the period may indicate a growing awareness of skin cancer among the general Danish population and more frequent excision of suspicious skin lesions. PMID:24892956

  1. Comparison between continuous ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring and standard blood pressure measurements among patients of younger and older age group.

    PubMed

    Babić, Betty Korljan; Bagatin, Jugoslav; Kokić, Slaven; Ostojić, Sanja Barsić; Carević, Vedran; Berović, Nina

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between blood pressure measured in a physician's office and the average 24 hr continuous blood pressure monitored by hypertensive patients at home. If there is a difference between these two situations then is it possibly the result of a blood pressure response by the patient to the physician which is known as "white coat effect" or "white coat hypertension". We studied 80 hypertensive outpatients which were divided into two groups of 40 patients each--a younger patient group, with a mean age of 22.8 +/- 1.8 years, and an older patient group with a mean age of 50.3 +/- 5.7 years. They were selected because they had been diagnosed as essentially hypertension grade 1, according to 2007 ESH/ESC Guidelines, or the USA Joint National Committee Guidelines (JNC 7) (i.e., arterial blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg and < 160/100 mmHg) and 35 were not having any antihypertensive treatment. All participants in the study went through a two-week "wash-out" period without medication. At the beginning of the study blood pressure was measured using the Riva-Rocci-Korotkoff method (mercury sphygmomanometer) after 5 minutes of rest and with the patient in the sitting position. The average of the two last measurements by sphygmomanometer was used in the analysis. The subsequent measurement was made by continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207 device). Continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed that 17 patients of the younger age group (42.5%) who were diagnosed hypertonic, according to mercury sphygmomanometeric measurement, were in fact normotonic. In the older age group only 7 (17.5%) of participants were normotonic during 24 hr blood pressure monitoring. The proportion of miss-diagnosed normotonic younger patients was directly related to elevated clinic blood pressure, which could be referred to as office hypertension or isolated clinic hypertension (white coat hypertension

  2. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  3. Incidence of Primary Spinal Cord, Spinal Meninges, and Cauda Equina Tumors in Korea, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Kwang Hyon; Ha, Johyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Won, Young-Joo; Yoo, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Primary spinal cord and appendage tumors (PSCAT) originating from the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina are uncommon. Worldwide, population-based cancer registry data are mostly based on malignant tumors only, which means few data are available on PSCATs, including non-malignant tumors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide information regarding the incidence of both non-malignant and malignant PSCATs in Korea on a national level. Materials and Methods Incidence of PSCATs was estimated from cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 using the National Cancer Incidence Database in Korea. Age-adjusted rates were calculated using the world standard population, and male-to-female rate ratios were calculated by histology type. Results Of all PSCATs registered (n=3,312), 86.6% were non-malignant. The overall age-adjusted incidence of PSCATs was 1.08 per 100,000 person-years, with an incidence of 0.99 per 100,000 in females and 1.15 in males. The most common site of PSCATs was the spinal cord (83.4%), followed by spinal meninges (16.1%) and cauda equina (0.5%). The most common histological type was neurilemmoma (41.3%), followed by meningiomas (20.1%) and ependymomas (7.6%). Men had significantly higher rates than women for ependymomas and lymphomas but had lower rates for meningiomas. Conclusion This study provides the first population-based analysis of PSCATs in Korea. PMID:25544579

  4. Incidence of medulloblastoma in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Kostova, Maria; Strother, Douglas; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Fryer, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Fleming, Adam; Percy, Vanessa; Afzal, Samina; Wilson, Beverly; Bowes, Lynette; Zelcer, Shayna; Mpofu, Chris; Silva, Mariana; Larouche, Valerie; Brossard, Josee; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. There was a perception of pediatric neuro-oncologists that the incidence had declined in Canada. An epidemiological survey was undertaken to determine the incidence of this tumor in Canada and if a change had indeed occurred. All patients 14 years and under diagnosed with medulloblastoma from 1990 to 2009 inclusive in Canada were included. Data collected included date of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, stage, pathology, treatment, recurrence and current status. Data were analysed for change in incidence over time. Data were obtained on 574 eligible patients. The mean overall incidence per 1,000,000 persons was 4.82 (95 % CI 4.28-5.35) for the study time period. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.8 years, and there was a male predominance. Although there was an increase in incidence over the first three time periods (24 % for 1990-1994, 27.5 % for 1995-1999, 27.7 % for 2000-2004), the most recent time period (2005-2009) showed a decrease (21 %). This was true for male children while the incidence was stable for females. The mean incidence rate was double for children under the age of 5 years (7.92 per million) compared to those over 5 years (3.64 per million).This study showed that from 1990 to 2009 the incidence of medulloblastoma was relatively stable, with a slight decrease in the last five-year time period. PMID:25129547

  5. Gradual increase of chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence in Korea, 1999-2010: comparison to plasma cell myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and plasma cell myeloma (PCM) have markedly higher incidences in Western countries compared with Asian countries. To track the change of incidence in Korea, we investigated the 12-year incidence and compared findings with national cancer databases in Taiwan and the United States (US). The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of CLL and PCM in Korea during 1999-2010 were 0.13/100,000 and 1.23/100,000. The annual percentage change (APC) in the incidence rates were 4.17% for CLL and 4.68% for PCM. These increasing trends were similar findings to Taiwan. In the US, the ASRs of CLL and PCM were 3.21/100 000 and 3.97/100,000. The APC of CLL and PCM incidence rate were 0.68% and 0.50%. The incidence rates of CLL in Korea gradually increased during the study period, while those of PCM showed a steeper ascent. In contrast, the incidence rates of CLL and PCM in the US appear to be stable. PMID:26133722

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Growth and Development and the Incidence of Physical Defects at Ages 9 and 10. A Progress Report to the Bernard van Leer Foundation on the Growth and Development Study of the Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anne; O'Brien, Peter

    A longitudinal comparative study was made of the physical growth and development of Australian fourth-grade students from low, medium, and high socioeconomic groups. Specific questions addressed were (1) Do children differing in socioeconomic status differ in anthropometric characteristics and incidence of physical defects? (2) What is the…

  7. Incidence of syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Vosseller, J Turner; Karl, John W; Greisberg, Justin K

    2014-03-01

    Injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur with ankle sprain or fracture. The incidence of syndesmotic injury has not been specifically studied at a population level. Data on syndesmotic injury were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), a federal-state-private partnership. It is administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Two HCUP databases were queried for 8 states: the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database. The first 6 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) code diagnoses were searched for codes that are used for syndesmotic injury (ie, 845.03). These data, along with data from the 2010 US census, were used to yield incidence rates for syndesmosis injury, as well as for various demographic groups. National estimates of injury totals were also calculated. In the 8 states, there were a total of 1821 syndesmotic injuries. Given the population of these states, the incidence rate of syndesmotic injury was 2.09 syndesmotic injuries per 100,000 person-years. This incidence correlates to an estimated 6445 syndesmotic injuries per year in the United States. These data provide some baseline numbers as to the incidence of syndesmotic injury in the United States. Although the incidence was low relative to some other injuries, the fact that syndesmotic injuries tend to occur in younger patients may have a greater effect in terms of productive years of life lost. PMID:24762148

  8. Ischemic stroke incidence in Santa Coloma de Gramenet (ISISCOG), Spain. A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Sorribes, Marta; Heras, Antonio; Vila, Nicolás; Vicheto, Marisa; Forés, Rosa; Sánchez-Ojanguren, José; Sancho, Amparo; Pera, Guillem

    2008-01-01

    Background In Spain, stroke is one of the major causes of death and the main cause of severe disability in people over 65 years. We analyzed the incidence of ischemic stroke, stroke subtypes, case fatality and disability at 90 days after the event in a Spanish population. Methods A prospective community-based register of ischemic strokes was established in Santa Coloma de Gramenet (Barcelona) [116,220 inhabitants of all ages, according to the municipal census of December 31,2001], from January 1 to December 31, 2003. Standard definitions and case finding methods were used to identify all cases in all age groups. Every patient underwent a complete clinical evaluation and systematic tests including neuroimaging (CT/MRI) and vascular studies (carotid duplex ultrasound intra and extracranial and MR angiography). Results Over a one year period, 196 ischemic strokes were registered [107 men; median age = 76 years (range 39–98)], being the first event in 159 patients (81.1%) and a recurrent stroke in 37 (18.9%). After age-adjustment to the European population, the incidence of ischemic stroke per 100,000 inhabitants was 172 (95% CI, 148–196); 219 (176–261) in men and 133 (105–160) in women, with an annual incidence for first ischemic stroke of 139 (118–161); 165 (128–201) in men and 115 (89–140) in women. The incidence of stroke increased with age. Stroke subtypes (TOAST classification criteria) were lacunar in 28.8%, atherothrombotic in 18.6%, cardioembolic in 26.6% and undetermined in 26.0% of patients. At 90 days, the case-fatality was 12%, and among survivors, moderate-to-severe disability was present in 45 % at 3 months. Conclusion This prospective community-based study shows one of the lowest incidences of stroke in Europe, as well as one of the lowest case fatality and disability rates at 90 days after stroke. PMID:18371212

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061

  10. Incidence and etiology of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, T; Fukuda, K

    1979-11-01

    Incidence of lung cancer in the Pacific Basin was either compiled from published reports or computed by the authors. The results showed a great variation in age-standardized annual incidence rates of lung cancer among 10 countries and 17 areas in the Pacific Basin where tumor registry statistics are available. For males the incidence rates ranged from 10 to over 70 and for females from less than 5 to over 30/100,000 population. The reason(s) for the great variation is unclear. Ionizing radiation, carcinogenic chemical substances (e.g., chromium, arsenic compounds, asbestos, etc.), or air pollution are unlikely to be responsible. Because cigarette smoking is known to be a major cause of lung cancer, the authors have suggested that surveys on cigarette smoking be conducted among various populations in the Pacific Basin so that etiologic significance of cigarette smoking for the noted variation can be assessed. In Hawaii such a survey is underway, and a preliminary analysis was made to examine the association between lung cancer and cigarette smoking among five races. PMID:537621

  11. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Morassutto, Caterina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011-2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered "new" after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15-50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  12. Incidence and Estimated Prevalence of Endometriosis and Adenomyosis in Northeast Italy: A Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Barbone, Fabio; Ronfani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Despite being quite frequent and having serious implications in terms of symptomatology and fertility, data on incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis following gold standard definitions are dramatically lacking. The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in industrialized countries still ranges from five to ten years. Using the regional centralized data linkage system, we calculated incidence and prevalence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in the female population of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, for the years 2011–2013. Cases were defined as new diagnoses from hospital discharge records, following procedures allowing direct visualization for endometriosis and hysterectomy for adenomyosis, with or without histological confirmation. Diagnoses were considered “new” after verifying women had not been diagnosed in the previous ten years. Incidence of endometriosis and adenomyosis in women aged 15–50 years is 0.14%. Prevalence, estimated from incidence, is 2.00%. Adenomyosis, representing 28% of all diagnoses, becomes increasingly prevalent after the age of 50 years. Our results shows how the study of both endometriosis and adenomyosis should not be limited to women of premenopausal age. Further efforts are needed to sensitize women and health professional, and to find new data linkage possibilities to identify undiagnosed cases. PMID:27101396

  13. Protective effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelo L; Moreira, Luciana M; Arçari, Demetrius P; Dos Santos, Letícia França; Marques, Antônio Cezar; Pedrazzoli, José; Cerutti, Suzete M

    2016-10-15

    This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb) on short-term and long-term memory as well as on anxiety-like and locomotor activity using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of EGb on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of middle-aged rats using the comet assay. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were administered vehicle or EGb (0.5mgkg(-1) or 1.0gkg(-1)) for 30days. Behavioural data showed that EGb treatment improved short-term memory. Neither an anti-anxiety effect nor a change in locomotor activity was observed. Twenty-four hours after the behavioural tests, the rats were decapitated, and the PFC and DH were quickly dissected out and prepared for the comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in the PFC were significantly lower in rats that were treated with 1.0gkg(-1) EGb. Both doses of EGb decreased H2O2-induced DNA breakage in cortical cells, whereas the levels of DNA damage in the EGb-treated animals were significantly lower than those in the control animals. No significant differences in the level of DNA damage in hippocampal cells were observed among the experimental groups. EGb treatment was not able to reduce H2O2-induced DNA damage in hippocampal cells. Altogether, our data provide the first demonstration that chronic EGb treatment improved the short-term memory of middle-aged rats, an effect that could be associated with a reduction in free radical production in the PFC. These data suggest that EGb treatment might increase the survival of cortical neurons and corroborate and extend the view that EGb has protective and therapeutic properties. PMID:27424157

  14. Incidence and predictors of morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with an increased incidence of vertebral fractures (VFs); however the actual incidence and predictors of morphometric VFs are unknown. The present study examined the incidence and predictors of new VFs in a large AS cohort. Methods In total, 298 AS patients who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled and spinal radiographs were evaluated biennially. Clinical and laboratory data and radiographic progression were assessed according to the Bath AS Disease Activity Index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the Stoke AS spine score (SASSS). VF was defined according to the Genant criteria. The incidence of VFs at 2 and 4 years was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The age-specific standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) for AS patients in comparison with the general population was calculated. Results Of 298 patients, 31 (10.8%) had previous VFs at baseline. A total of 30 new VFs occurred in 26 patients over 4 years. The incidence of morphometric VFs was 4.7% at 2 years and 13.6% at 4 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that previous VFs at baseline and increased CRP levels at 2 years were predictors of new VFs (odds ratio (OR) =12.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6-45.3 and OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.4–15.9). The age-specific specific standardized prevalence ratio of morphometric VFs in AS was 3.3 (95% CI 2.1–4.5). Conclusions The incidence of morphometric VFs increased in AS. Previous VFs and increased CRP levels predicted future VFs. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of treatment interventions on the prevention of new VFs. PMID:24935156

  15. Safety Analysis of 'Older/Aged' Handling and Transportation Equipment for Heavy Loads, Radioactive Waste and Materials in Accordance with German Nuclear Standards KTA 3902, 3903 and 3905

    SciTech Connect

    Macias, P.; Prucker, E.; Stang, W.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general safety analysis of important handling and transportation processes and their related equipment ('load chains' consisting of cranes, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points). This project was arranged by the responsible Bavarian ministry for environment, health and consumer protection (StMUGV) in agreement with the power plant operators of all Bavarian nuclear power plants to work out potential safety improvements. The range of the equipment (e.g. reactor building, crane, refuelling machine, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points) covers the handling and transportation of fuel elements (e. g. with fuel flasks), heavy loads (e.g. reactor pressure vessel closure head, shielding slabs) and radioactive materials and waste (e.g. waste flasks, control elements, fuel channels, structure elements). The handling equipment was subjected to a general safety analysis taking into account the ageing of the equipment and the progress of standards. Compliance with the current valid requirements of the state of science and technology as required by German Atomic Act and particularly of the nuclear safety KTA-standards (3902, 3903 and 3905) was examined. The higher protection aims 'safe handling and transportation of heavy loads and safe handling of radioactive materials and waste' of the whole analysis are to avoid a criticality accident, the release of radioactivity and inadmissible effects on important technical equipment and buildings. The scope of the analysis was to check whether these protection aims were fulfilled for all important technical handling and transportation processes. In particularly the design and manufacturing of the components and the regulations of the handling itself were examined. (authors)

  16. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  17. Do incident and perpetrator characteristics of elder mistreatment differ by gender of the victim? Results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Cisler, Josh M; McCauley, Jenna L; Hernandez, Melba A; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Perpetrator and incident characteristics were studied in regard to incidents of emotional, physical, and sexual mistreatment of older adults (age 60+) in a national sample of older men and women. Random digit dialing across geographic strata was used to compile a nationally representative sample; computer assisted telephone interviewing was used to standardize collection of demographic, mistreatment, and perpetrator and incident characteristics data. The final sample size consisted of 5,777 older adults. Approximately one in ten adults reported at least one form of mistreatment, and the majority of incidents were not reported to authorities. Perpetrators of physical mistreatment against men had more "pathological" characteristics compared to perpetrators of physical mistreatment against women. Perpetrators of physical mistreatment (compared to emotional and sexual mistreatment) also evidenced increased likelihood of legal problems, psychological treatment, substance use during incident, living with the victim, and being related to the victim. Implications for future research and social policy are discussed. PMID:21253929

  18. Do Incident and Perpetrator Characteristics of Elder Mistreatment Differ by Gender of the Victim? Results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Cisler, Josh M.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Hernandez, Melba A.; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Perpetrator and incident characteristics were studied in regard to incidents of emotional, physical, and sexual mistreatment of older adults (age 60 +) in national sample of older men and women. Random Digit Dialing (RDD) across geographic strata was used to compile a nationally representative sample; Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) was used to standardize collection of demographic, mistreatment, and perpetrator and incident characteristics data. The final sample size consisted of 5,777 older adults. Approximately one in ten adults reported at least one form of mistreatment, and the majority of incidents were not reported to authorities. Perpetrators of physical mistreatment against men had more “pathological” characteristics compared to perpetrators of physical mistreatment against women. Perpetrators of physical mistreatment (compared to emotional and sexual mistreatment) also evidenced increased likelihood of legal problems, psychological treatment, substance use during incident, living with victim, and being related to the victim. Implications for future research and social policy are discussed. PMID:21253929

  19. Cancer incidence among Asian American populations in the United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei

    2016-05-01

    Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. PMID:26661680

  20. Recent trends in cancer incidence: impact of risk factors, diagnostic activities and data quality of registration.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Silvia; Tonev, Simeon; Korol, Dimitri; Rohrmann, Sabine; Dimitrova, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    Aims and background. Cancer incidence variations are influenced by different factors including socioeconomic status, risk factors and use of screening. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in cancer incidence in two urban areas in Europe showing differences in influencing factors but also some common characteristics in the context of data quality of the corresponding cancer registries.Methods. Age-standardized incidence rates (world standard - ASRW) for cases diagnosed in 2000-2009 for Sofia (Bulgaria) and the Canton of Zurich (Switzerland) were calculated using data from the corresponding cancer registries. Average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated with Joinpoint regression analysis. Data quality was estimated in terms of proportions of microscopically verified (MV%) and death-certificate-only (DCO%) cases. Results. ASRWs for all sites were higher in Zurich for men (311 vs 262 per 100,000) and women (241 vs 231 per 100,000) than in Sofia. Colorectal (both sexes), lung (men), cervical and corpus uteri cancer had a higher incidence in Sofia. Prostate, breast and lung (women) cancer were more often diagnosed in Zurich. A significant increase in female lung cancer incidence was observed in both areas. Overall incidence decreased in Zurich, while it did not significantly change in Sofia. MV% was lower in Sofia than in the Canton of Zurich but increased steadily up to 85% in 2009, whereas in the Canton of Zurich MV% was more or less stable around 95%. The DCO% of Sofia was 19% in 2000 and steadily decreased to 8% in 2009. In the Canton of Zurich, the DCO% decreased from 5% in 2000 but increased again from 2006 onwards, up to 3% in 2009. Conclusions. Cancer incidence rates differ between Sofia and Zurich. Differences concerning socioeconomic status, risk factors, use of cancer screening but also data quality may influence these results. PMID:25296588

  1. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients: A 12-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality in Indigenous Australian children, 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Ward, Leisa J; Green, Adele C; Aitken, Joanne F

    2013-01-01

    We report cancer incidence and mortality among Indigenous children in Australia and compare the results with corresponding data for non-Indigenous children. This information is important in understanding the overall burden of cancer in this population, and where disparities exist, to plan what action is required. Age-standardized rates, and indirectly standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated for the years 1997-2008. There were 224 cancers identified among Indigenous children (99.5 per million per year) and 52 Indigenous children died from cancer during the study period (22.9 per million per year). The SIR for all cancers was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.56-0.73; P < 0.001) while the SMR was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.61-1.07). These results provide a baseline with which to monitor cancer among Indigenous children over time. PMID:23015533

  3. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children <5 years old at the diagnosis) in Brazil. Data from 18 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) were analyzed (period 1999-2010). The analysis consisted of frequencies, age-adjusted incidence rates, and joinpoint regression results, including annual average percent change (AAPC) in incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  4. Time trends in incidence, clinical features and cardiovascular disease in Ankylosing Spondylitis over 3 decades: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kerry A.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Michet, Clement J.; Matteson, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in the incidence and clinical presentation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among patients with AS and compare the observed incidence of CVD with that predicted by the Framingham risk score (FRS). Method A population-based inception cohort of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota ≥18 years who fulfilled modified New York criteria for AS in 1980-2009 was assembled. Clinical features at presentation were recorded. Age and sex adjusted incidence rates and survival were estimated. Incident CVD and CV risk factors were identified. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the FRS. Standardized incidence ratios (ratios of observed CVD in AS to that predicted by the FRS) were calculated. Results 86 patients were diagnosed with AS over the study period with an age and sex-adjusted incidence of 3.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 2.5, 3.8). The mean age at diagnosis was 35 years (range: 19-69). Inflammatory back pain, seen in 90%, was the most common presenting manifestation. The 10-year cumulative incidence of CVD was 15.8% ± 6.1%, three times higher than the predicted events based on the FRS (SIR 3.01; 95% CI 1.35, 6.69; p=0.007). Overall survival was similar to the general population. Conclusions AS occurs in about 3 persons per 100,000 per year. Clinical features, extra-articular manifestations and interval from symptom onset to diagnosis have remained constant in this population over the study period. The CVD risk in these patients is higher than expected and underestimated by the FRS. PMID:25384671

  5. Cancer incidence patterns among children and adolescents in Taiwan from 1995 to 2009: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Chao-Chun; Lee, Chih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, little information is available on childhood cancer incidence rates in Eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to report the first population-based cancer surveillance of children and adolescents in Taiwan. METHODS Data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry were examined for cancer frequencies and incidence rates among individuals ages birth to 19 years from 1995 to 2009. Types of cancers were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Rates were compared by sex and age. For further comparisons with other countries, rates were age standardized to the 2000 world standard population in 5-year age groups. Trends in incidence rates also were evaluated. RESULTS In total, 12,315 individuals were diagnosed with childhood cancers, for an age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 132.1 per million person-years from 1995 to 2009. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.19. Overall, leukemias were the most common cancer (ASR, 39.1 per million person-years), followed by central nervous system neoplasms (15.8 per million person-years), and lymphomas (15.3 per million person-years). During the 15-year study period, the incidence rates increased by 1% annually. Compared with other countries, the rate of hepatic tumors was 2 times greater in Taiwan. The rate of germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan was similar to that in the United States and was 1.3 to 1.9 times greater compared with Canada, Brazil, Israel, and Japan. CONCLUSIONS Based on the current data, the observed increase in overall incidence rates was attributable only marginally to improvements in case ascertainment and diagnostic procedures. The high rates of malignant hepatic tumors and germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan suggest variations in the background risk factors. Cancer 2014;120:3545–3553. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. The authors examine cancer incidence patterns in children and adolescents

  6. Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Trends in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease over 2001 to 2011: A Public Health Point of View of the Burden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. An increase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence was reported in Canada despite the decline of the main risk factor. Objectives. To estimate incidence, prevalence, and mortality of COPD from 2001 to 2011 and establish the COPD burden by the evaluation of the age-period-cohort effects on incidence trends and the comorbidities prevalence estimations. Methods. A retrospective population-based cohort was built using Quebec health administrative data. Change in trends was measured by relative percentage of changes and by joinpoint regression. After a descriptive analysis of the trends, an age-period-cohort analysis was performed on incidence rates. Results. Overall increase in prevalence along with a decrease of incidence and all-cause mortality was observed. Over time, all age-standardized trends were higher in men than women. Despite higher rates, the number of incident and prevalent cases in women exceeds men since 2004. The curve analysis by age groups showed over time a downshift for both sexes in incidence and all-cause mortality. Further analysis showed the presence of a cohort effect in women. Conclusion. The burden of COPD has risen over time. Women younger than 65 years old have been identified as at-risk group for healthcare planning. PMID:27478397

  7. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  8. A European project on incidence, treatment, and outcome of sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare tumors (1-2% of all cancers) of mesenchymal origin that may develop in soft tissues and viscera. Since the International Classification of Disease (ICD) attributes visceral sarcomas (VS) to the organ of origin, the incidence of sarcoma is grossly underestimated. The rarity of the disease and the variety of histological types (more than 70) or locations account for the difficulty in acquiring sufficient personal experience. In view of the above the European Commission funded the project called Connective Tissues Cancers Network (CONTICANET), to improve the prognosis of sarcoma patients by increasing the level of standardization of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures through a multicentre collaboration. Methods/Design Two protocols of epidemiological researches are here presented. The first investigation aims to build the population-based incidence of sarcoma in a two-year period, using the new 2002 WHO classification and the "second opinion" given by an expert regional pathologist on the initial diagnosis by a local pathologist. A three to five year survival rate will also be determined. Pathology reports and clinical records will be the sources of information. The second study aims to compare the effects on survival or relapse-free period - allowing for histological subtypes, clinical stage, primary site, age and gender - when the disease was treated or not according to the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Discussion Within CONTICANET, each group was asked to design a particular study on a specific objective, the partners of the network being free to accept or not the proposed protocol. The first protocol was accepted by the other researchers, therefore the incidence of sarcoma will be assessed in three European regions, Rhone-Alpes and Aquitaine (France) and Veneto (Italy), where the geographic distribution of sarcoma will be compared after taking into account age and gender. The conformity of the clinical practice with the

  9. Trends in Cancer Incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Vilajeliu, Alba; Carrilho, Carla; Ismail, Mamudo R.; Castillo, Paola; Augusto, Orvalho; García-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Sidat, Mohsin; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Menéndez, Clara; Ordi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Background Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique). Methods We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs) and average annual percentage changes (AAPC). Results Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females) were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7–13.0), with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003–2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4–6) with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003–2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3–8.7). Conclusions Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast), combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver). Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase. PMID:26110774

  10. The etiology and incidence of anaphylaxis in Rochester, Minnesota: A report from the Rochester Epidemiology Project

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Wyatt W.; Campbell, Ronna L.; Manivannan, Veena; Luke, Anuradha; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Amy; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Stead, Latha G.; Li, James T. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reported incidences of anaphylaxis range from 3.2 to 20 per 100,000 population. The incidence and trend over time has meaningful public health implications but has not been well characterized because of a lack of a standard definition and deficiencies in reporting of events. Objective We sought to determine the incidence and cause of anaphylaxis over a 10-year period. Methods We performed a population-based incidence study that was conducted in Rochester, Minnesota, from 1990 through 2000. Anaphylaxis episodes were identified on the basis of symptoms and signs of mast cell and basophil mediator release plus mucocutaneous, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, or cardiovascular system involvement. Results Two hundred eleven cases of anaphylaxis were identified (55.9% in female subjects). The mean age was 29.3 years (SD, 18.2 years; range, 0.8–78.2 years). The overall age-and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 49.8 (95% CI, 45.0–54.5) per 100,000 person-years. Age-specific rates were highest for ages 0 to 19 years (70 per 100,000 person-years). Ingested foods accounted for 33.2% (70 cases), insect stings accounted for 18.5% (39 cases), medication accounted for 13.7% (29 cases), radiologic contrast agent accounted for 0.5% (1 case), “other” causes accounted for 9% (19 cases), and “unknown” causes accounted for 25.1% (53 cases). The “other” group included cats, latex, cleaning agents, environmental allergens, and exercise. There was an increase in the annual incidence rate during the study period from 46.9 per 100,000 persons in 1990 to 58.9 per 100,000 persons in 2000 (P = .03). Conclusion The overall incidence rate is 49.8 per 100,000 person-years, which is higher than previously reported. The annual incidence rate is also increasing. Food and insect stings continue to be major inciting agents for anaphylaxis. PMID:18992928

  11. Declining incidence of acromioplasty in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Paloneva, Juha; Lepola, Vesa; Karppinen, Jaro; Ylinen, Jari; Äärimaa, Ville; Mattila, Ville M

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose An increased incidence rate of acromioplasty has been reported; we analyzed data from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Patients and methods During the 14-year study period (1998–2011), 68,877 acromioplasties without rotator cuff repair were performed on subjects aged 18 years or older. Results The incidence of acromioplasty increased by 117% from 75 to 163 per 105 person years between 1998 and 2007. The highest incidence was observed in 2007, after which the incidence rate decreased by 20% to 131 per 105 person years in 2011. The incidence declined even more at non-profit public hospitals from 2007 to 2011. In contrast, it continued to rise at profit-based private orthopedic clinics. Interpretation We propose that this change in clinical practice is due to accumulating high-quality scientific evidence that shows no difference in outcome between acromioplasty and non-surgical interventions for rotator cuff disease with subacromial impingement syndrome. However, the exact cause of the declining incidence cannot be defined based solely on a registry study. Interestingly, this change was not observed at private clinics, where the number of operations increased steadily from 2007 to 2011. PMID:25340548

  12. Reproductive patterns and cancer incidence in women: a population-based correlation study in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Remennick, L I

    1989-09-01

    Many of the known or suspected risk factors of sex hormone-dependent cancers in women (low parity, delay in childbearing, etc) are typical features of modern reproductive behaviour. Within the USSR regional variations in principal reproductive characteristics and the incidence of breast and cervical cancers have been studied using standard correlation and regression analysis. The associations identified in previous analytical studies are generally present in the overall USSR population. However, the demographic peculiarities of this country (low mean ages at marriage and first birth, high rate of induced abortions, etc) introduce specificity into these relationships. The principal findings are: prevailing influence of parity versus age at first birth on regional variation of breast cancer incidence; consistent association between abortion rates (total, out-of-hospital and in primigravidas) and incidence of both breast and cervical cancers; suggested positive associations of early marriage and first birth with cervical cancer risk. Most of the reproductive variables studied affect the incidence of breast and cervical cancers in opposite ways. PMID:2807650

  13. Incident atrial fibrillation hazard in hypertensive population: a risk function from and for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; García-Gil, Maria; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Ponjoan, Anna; Martí, Ruth; Parramon, Dídac; Blanch, Jordi; Ramos, Rafel

    2015-06-01

    Determining the risk of atrial fibrillation within the hypertensive population without ischemic vascular disease would aid in decision making on preventive approaches. Accordingly, we aimed to estimate the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in this population. We conducted an historical cohort study between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, using anonymized longitudinal patient information from primary care and hospital discharge records contained in the System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database. We included 255 440 hypertensive patients, aged ≥55 years at the time of study entry. Individuals with previous atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease were excluded. To build the incident atrial fibrillation risk function, a derivation and a validation cohort were defined, representing 60% and 40% of the entire database, respectively, and a Cox proportional hazards model was fitted. Atrial fibrillation incidence was 7.24 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 7.08-7.40). The final model included age, weight, total cholesterol, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and antihypertensive treatment. Its concordance index (standard error) was 0.769 (0.004) and 0.768 (0.005) in the derivation and validation datasets, respectively. This research provides a tool, built with variables from daily clinical practice, that can be readily used in the primary care setting to predict atrial fibrillation incidence in the hypertensive population without ischemic vascular disease. The tool may help tailor individualized diagnostic and preventive care decisions. PMID:25847950

  14. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  15. Incidence of childhood cancer among Mexican children registered under a public medical insurance program.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Correa-González, Cecilia; Altamirano-Alvarez, Eduardo; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocio; Escamilla-Asian, Gabriela; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Bautista-Marquez, Aurora; Aguilar-Romo, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Prior to 2005, 51% of children in Mexico diagnosed with cancer received no standardized optimal multidisciplinary medical care. A government-subsidized national cancer treatment program was therefore created for these patients and a National Cooperative Childhood Cancer Treatment Group was consequently formed for these patients. Pediatric patients with a proven diagnosis of leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumor and who were registered in the Popular Medical Insurance (PMI) program from January 2007 to December 2010, are described in this report. These patients had been enrolled and registered in one of the 49 nationwide certified medical institutions in Mexico. The national incidence and frequency data for childhood cancers were analyzed for the whole program. At the end of a 4-year study, the analysis revealed that 8,936 children from across Mexico had been diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rate for the PMI patients was 150.3/million/year (2010) for children of 0-18 years. The highest age incidence rate was 51.9 between 0 and 4 years and boys were the predominant group for all types of cancer. The leukemia incidence was 75.3/million/year (2010), and an average frequency of 50.75% throughout the 4 years. The overall mortality rate was measured at 5.4/100,000/year (2010). This study demonstrates a high frequency and incidence of childhood cancer and a beneficial impact of the PMI program over the quality of life in these children. PMID:22886984

  16. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  17. Trends in the Incidence of Hospitalized Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Korea, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Jeong Wook; Lim, Young Shil; Kim, Hee Sook; Lee, Hey Jean; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Keon Yeop; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Park, Hyeung-Keun; Song, Jung-Kook; Park, Ki-Soo; Jeong, Baek Geun; Park, Chan Gyeong; Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Jong-Won; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Seong, In-Whan; Yoo, Weon-Seob

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to calculate and investigate the incidence of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance claim data, we investigated patients whose main diagnostic codes included AMI or stroke during 2006 to 2010. As a result, we found out that the number of AMI hospitalized patients had decreased since 2006 and amounted to 15,893 in 2010; and that the number of those with stroke had decreased since 2006 and amounted to 73,501 in 2010. The age-standardized incidence rate of hospitalized AMI, after adjustment for readmission, was 41.6 cases per 100,000-population in 2006, and had decreased to 29.4 cases in 2010 (for trend P < 0.001). In the case of stroke was estimated at 172.8 cases per 100,000-population in 2006, and had decreased to 135.1 cases in 2010 (for trend P < 0.001). In conclusion, the age-standardized incidence rates of both hospitalized AMI and stroke in Korea had decreased continuously during 2006 to 2010. We consider this decreasing trend due to the active use of pharmaceuticals, early vascular intervention, and the national cardio-cerebrovascular disease care project as the primary and secondary prevention efforts. PMID:23341707

  18. Trends in Incidence Rates during 1999-2008 and Prevalence in 2008 of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in GERMANY – Model-Based National Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Wieland; Kapellen, Thomas Michael; Stange, Thoralf; Manuwald, Ulf; Salzsieder, Eckhard; Holl, Reinhard Walter; Schoffer, Olaf; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Giani, Guido; Ehehalt, Stefan; Neu, Andreas; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Aims To estimate the national incidence rate and trend of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in Germany from 1999 to 2008 and the national prevalence in 2008 in the age group 0–14 years. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide registry for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–4 years and 3 regional registries (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg and Saxony) for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–14 years covering 41% of the child population in Germany. The degree of ascertainment was ≥ 97% in all registries. Incident and prevalent cases were grouped by region, sex, age (0–4, 5–9, 10–14 years), and, for incident data, additionally by two 5-year periods (1999–2003, 2004–2008). Poisson regression models were fitted to the data to derive national estimates of incidence rate trends and prevalence in the age groups 5–9, 10–14 and 0–14 years. We used direct age-standardization. Results The estimated national incidence rate in 0-14-year-olds increased significantly by 18.1% (95%CI: 11.6–25.0%, p<0.001) from 1999–2003 to 2004–2008, independent of sex, corresponding to an average annual increase of 3.4% (95%-CI: 2.2–4.6%). The overall incidence rate was estimated at 22.9 per 100,000 person-years and we identified a within-country west-east-gradient previously unknown. The national prevalence in the ages 0–14 years on 31/12/2008 was estimated to be 148.1 per 100,000 persons. Conclusions The national incidence rate of childhood T1DM in Germany is higher than in many other countries around the world. Importantly, the estimated trend of the incidence rate confirms the international data of a global increase of T1DM incidences. PMID:26181330

  19. The incidence of oesophageal cancer in Eastern Africa: identification of a new geographic hot spot?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Michael L; Zhang, Li; Borok, Margaret; Chokunonga, Eric; Dzamamala, Charles; Korir, Anne; Wabinga, Henry R; Hiatt, Robert A; Parkin, D Max; Van Loon, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of oesophageal cancer (OC) varies geographically, with more than 80% of cases and deaths worldwide occurring in developing countries. The aim of this study is to characterize the disease burden of OC in four urban populations in Eastern Africa, which may represent a previously undescribed high-incidence area. Data on all cases of OC diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from four population-based cancer registries in: Blantyre, Malawi; Harare, Zimbabwe; Kampala, Uganda; and Nairobi, Kenya. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated for each population, and descriptive statistics for incident cases were determined. In Blantyre, 351 male (59%) and 239 (41%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 47.2 and 30.3. In Harare, 213 male (61%) and 134 (39%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 33.4 and 25.3, respectively. In Kampala, 196 male (59%) and 137 female (41%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 36.7 and 24.8. In Nairobi, 323 male (57%) and 239 female (43%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 22.6 and 21.6. Median age at diagnosis was significantly different among the four populations, ranging from 50 years in Blantyre to 65 years in Harare (p<0.0001). Except in Nairobi, incidence among males was significantly higher than among females (p<0.01). Squamous cell OC was the predominant histologic subtype at all sites. ASRs at all four sites were remarkably higher than the mean worldwide ASR. Investigation to evaluate potential etiologic effects of dietary, lifestyle, environmental, and other factors impacting the incidence in this region is needed. PMID:25662402

  20. Incidence of phenylketonuria in British Columbia, 1950-1971

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R. B.; Tischler, B.; Cockcroft, W. H.; Renwick, D. H. G.

    1972-01-01

    The incidence of PKU in British Columbia in the 1950-1971 period is 1/18,750 which corresponds to that found in two other Canadian studies.2, 3 Evidence is presented which shows a trend toward a decline in incidence; however, this is not statistically significant. There is a preponderance of male cases in all age groups. PMID:5035136

  1. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  2. First attack of acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 – 2003: incidence, aetiological classification, procedures and mortality – a register study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Population-based studies suggest that the incidence of first attack of acute pancreatitis (FAAP) is increasing and that old age is associated with increased mortality. Beacuse nationwide data are limited and information on standardized mortality ratio (SMR) versus age is lacking, we wanted to describe incidence and mortality of first attack acute pancreatitis (FAAP) in Sweden. Methods Hospital discharge data concerning diagnoses and surgical procedures and death certificate data were linked for patients with FAAP in Sweden. Mortality was calculated as case fatality rate (CFR), i.e. deaths per 1000 patients and SMR using age-, gender- and calendar year-specific expected survival estimates, and is given as mean with 95% confidence intervals. Data are presented as median values with 25% and 75% percentiles, means and standard deviations, or proportions. Proportions have been compared using the chi square test, Poisson-regression test or Fisher exact test. Location of two groups of ratio scale variables were compared using independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test. Results From 1988 through 2003, 43415 patients (23801 men and 19614 women) were admitted for FAAP. Age adjusted incidence rose from 27.0 to 32.0 per 100000 individuals and year. Incidence increased with age for both men and women. At index stay 19.7% of men and 35.4% of women had biliary diagnoses, and 7.1% of men and 2.1% of women alcohol-related diagnoses. Of 10072 patients who underwent cholecystectomy, 7521 (74.7%) did so after index stay within the audit period. With increasing age CFR increased and SMR decreased. For the whole period studied SMR was 11.75 (11.34–12.17) within 90 days of index admission and 2.03 (1.93–2.13) from 91 to 365 days. Alcohol-related diagnoses and young age was associated with increased SMR. Length of stay and SMR decreased significantly during the audit period. Conclusion Incidence of FAAP increased slightly from 1988 to 2003. Incidence increased and

  3. Allopurinol and the incidence of bladder cancer: a Taiwan national retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chan, Ya-Ting; Chang, Shun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    Our aim is to investigate the risk association between allopurinol use and cancer incidence among gout patients using clinical evidence. Newly diagnosed male patients with gout, 20 years or older, were included after excluding those who had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and were followed up for 12 years in a retrospective cohort study of one million outpatients of a national database. The gout patients were matched to male controls by age and first diagnosis date of gout disease. We then estimated the risk associations between incident cancers and duration of allopurinol use by Cox hazard regression, age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence per 1000 person-years. A total of 24 050 gout patients and 76 129 controls were included. The incidence of all-cause cancers for gout patients and controls was 8.26 cases and 7.49 cases/1000 person-years, respectively; it was markedly increased in gout patients who used allopurinol for over 90 days. The hazard ratio of all-cause cancers was 1.21 (95% confidence interval=1.03-1.42, P=0.019) after adjustment for age and 2.26 for bladder cancer (95% confidence interval=1.32-3.87, P=0.003) on comparing those who used allopurinol for over 90 days with nonusers. Meanwhile, other cancers did not show the same significant result. We concluded that those who used allopurinol for a long duration had a higher occurrence of both bladder cancer and all-cause cancers in clinical evidence. PMID:25830898

  4. Why do I dread looking old?: A test of social identity theory, terror management theory, and the double standard of aging.

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M; Teater, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    Outward appearance is one of the means by which age is determined, and fear of looking old may stem from fears about social identity and death. This study explored how social identity theory and terror management theory may help to explain the dread of looking old. University students from the United States, England, and Australia (N = 1,042) completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes about aging and older adults. Results indicated that sex, age, beliefs about personal aging, and death anxiety explained 30.4% of the variance for participants' dread of looking old. Theoretical hypotheses were supported by our findings. PMID:26716474

  5. Increasing incidence of glioblastoma multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of Schwannoma (2000–2008): Findings of a multicenter Australian study

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Martin; Khurana, Vini G.; Shadbolt, Bruce; Jain, Sanjiv; Smith, Sarah F.; Smee, Robert; Dexter, Mark; Cook, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence of primary brain tumors by subtype is currently unknown in Australia. We report an analysis of incidence by tumor subtype in a retrospective multicenter study in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), with a combined population of >7 million with >97% retention rate for medical care. Methods: Data from histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008 were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness, and age standardized and analyzed using joinpoint analysis. Results: A significant increasing incidence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was observed in the study period (annual percentage change [APC], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4–4.6, n = 2275), particularly after 2006. In GBM patients in the ≥65-year group, a significantly increasing incidence for men and women combined (APC, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.5–5.6) and men only (APC, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.1–5.8) was seen. Rising trends in incidence were also seen for meningioma in the total male population (APC, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6–8.1, n = 515) and males aged 20–64 years (APC, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.8–8.8). Significantly decreasing incidence trends were observed for Schwannoma for the total study population (APC, –3.5; 95% CI, –7.2 to –0.2, n = 492), significant in women (APC, –5.3; 95% CI, –9.9 to –0.5) but not men. Conclusion: This collection is the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Our registries may observe an increase in malignant tumors in the next few years that they are not detecting now due to late ascertainment. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence by subtype, including the introduction of nonmalignant data collection. PMID:22276231

  6. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  7. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jennifer O.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968–2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993–2012, APC = 1.9%, p<0.001; women 1968–2012, APC = 2.0%, p = 0.01) and was 5 times higher in men than women. In contrast, non-OP HNC incidence declined between 1968–2012 among men (APC = -1.6%, p<0.001) and women (APC = -0.4%, p = 0.06). ASCC and ANSCC were rare (ASR = 0.2 and 0.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively) and did not change significantly over time except for increasing ANSCCs in men (APC = 2.8%, p<0.001). ICC was the most common HPV-associated cancer (ASR = 19.9 per 100,000 person-years) but declined significantly between 1968–2012 (APC = -2.4%). Incidence of each cancer varied across ethnicities. Similar to trends in Western countries, OPSCC incidence increased in recent years, while non-OP HNC decreased. ICC remains the most common HPV-related cancer in Singapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  8. International trends in liver cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1978-2007.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Braunlin, Megan; Laversanne, Mathieu; Valery, Patricia C; Bray, Freddie; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2016-10-01

    Primary liver cancer, the most common histologic types of which are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While rising incidence of liver cancer in low-risk areas and decreasing incidence in some high-risk areas has been reported, trends have not been thoroughly explored by country or by histologic type. We examined liver cancer incidence overall and by histology by calendar time and birth cohort for selected countries between 1978 and 2007. For each successive 5-year period, age-standardized incidence rates were calculated from volumes V-IX of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume X) database. Wide global variations persist in liver cancer incidence. Rates of liver cancer remain highest in Asian countries, specifically Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries. While rates in most of these high-risk countries have been decreasing in recent years, rates in India and several low-risk countries of Africa, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania have been on the rise. Liver cancer rates by histologic type tend to convey a similar temporal profile. However, in Thailand, France, and Italy, ICC rates have increased while HCC rates have declined. We expect rates in high-risk countries to continue to decrease, as the population seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to decline. In low-risk countries, targeted screening and treatment of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment of diabetes and primary prevention of obesity, will be key in reducing future liver cancer incidence. PMID:27244487

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population. PMID:26837668

  10. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jennifer O; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968-2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993-2012, APC = 1.9%, p<0.001; women 1968-2012, APC = 2.0%, p = 0.01) and was 5 times higher in men than women. In contrast, non-OP HNC incidence declined between 1968-2012 among men (APC = -1.6%, p<0.001) and women (APC = -0.4%, p = 0.06). ASCC and ANSCC were rare (ASR = 0.2 and 0.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively) and did not change significantly over time except for increasing ANSCCs in men (APC = 2.8%, p<0.001). ICC was the most common HPV-associated cancer (ASR = 19.9 per 100,000 person-years) but declined significantly between 1968-2012 (APC = -2.4%). Incidence of each cancer varied across ethnicities. Similar to trends in Western countries, OPSCC incidence increased in recent years, while non-OP HNC decreased. ICC remains the most common HPV-related cancer in Singapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  11. Increased incidence of cancer in adult Gaucher disease in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    de Fost, M; Vom Dahl, S; Weverling, G J; Brill, N; Brett, S; Häussinger, D; Hollak, C E M

    2006-01-01

    The adult form of Gaucher disease (type I GD) is associated with a high prevalence of hypergammaglobulinemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). A significantly increased risk of cancer, especially of hematological types, has been found in Ashkenazi-Jewish GD type 1 patients. In this study, incidence and mortality of cancer were assessed in a total of 131 GD patients of mixed ancestry in a population from Western Europe, i.e. 2 Gaucher referral centers in Germany (Düsseldorf) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam). Standardized rate ratios were determined by indirect standardization, using age- and sex-specific incidence and mortality rates of the Dutch population. A total of 14 GD patients of non-Ashkenazi-Jewish descent were identified of whom 5 had a hematologic malignancy. These numbers correspond to an increased risk of cancer of 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-4.7) and an increased risk of hematologic cancer of 12.7 (95% CI 2.6-37.0) among GD patients compared to the general population. In particular, the incidences of multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma in absence of preexisting cirrhosis were highly elevated, with standardized rate ratios of 51.1 (95% CI 6.2-184) and 141.3 (95% CI 17.1-510.5), respectively. These strongly increased risks on developing cancer suggest that measures for early detection and prevention of hematological and hepatic malignancies in patients with Gaucher type I disease are mandatory. PMID:16246599

  12. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  13. Incidence Patterns and Temporal Trends of Invasive Nonmelanotic Vulvar Tumors in Germany 1999-2011. A Population-Based Cancer Registry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buttmann-Schweiger, Nina; Klug, Stefanie J.; Luyten, Alexander; Holleczek, Bernd; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Kraywinkel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Time trends on the incidence and characteristics of invasive vulvar cancer in Germany have so far been studied in few local population- and hospital based tumor registries. We aimed to provide an overview on recent developments of vulvar cancer in Germany, using population-based cancer registry data. Methods We analyzed the data on vulvar cancer of eight population-based German cancer registries for the period 1999-2011. ICD-10 codes and ICD-O-3 morphology codes were used to select site and histologic types. The annual percentage change was calculated on age-adjusted incidence rates with a joinpoint regression model. Results A total of 12,711 registered cases of invasive carcinoma of the vulva were included in the analyses, hereof were 12,205 of squamous cell origin. Age-standardized incidence rates of vulvar cancer annually increased by 6.7% (95% confidence limits: 5.6-7.9) from 1.7 per 100,000 women in 1999 to 3.6 per 100,000 women in 2011. An increase was observed among women of all ages, and especially between 30 and 69 years of age. Conclusion The annual incidence of invasive carcinoma of the vulva nearly doubled in the past decade in Germany, considerably exceeding the rates observed in other Western European countries. A combination of changes in risk factors, and documentation practice might have contributed to the observed substantial increase in vulvar cancer incidence. PMID:26020540

  14. Estimation of global and regional incidence and prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Norman, Paul E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Aboyans, Victor; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Denenberg, Julie O; McDermott, Mary M; Criqui, Michael H; Mensah, George A; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The global burden of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been studied previously. Such information is important given the emergence of cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. We conducted a systematic literature review and estimated the global and regional incidence and prevalence of AAA in 21 world regions by age and sex. The search for prevalence and incidence of AAA using standard clinical and epidemiological terms was conducted using MEDLINE (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010), AMED (1985 to 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 2010), and LILACS (2008 to 2010). Data abstracted from the systematic review served as priors for Bayesian meta-regression analyses. The analysis drew from 26 high-quality studies to estimate AAA prevalence and incidence. In 1990, the global age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 ranged from 8.43 (95% CI: 7.03 to 10.14) in the 40 to 44 years age group to 2,422.53 (95% CI: 2,298.63 to 2,562.25) in the 75 to 79 years age group; the corresponding range in 2010 was 7.88 (95% CI: 6.54 to 9.59) to 2,274.82 (95% CI: 2,149.77 to 2,410.17). Prevalence was higher in developed versus developing nations, and the rates within each development stratum decreased between 1990 and 2010. Globally, the age-specific annual incidence rate per 100,000 in 1990 ranged from 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.17) in 40 to 44 years age group to 176.08 (95% CI: 162.72 to 190.28) in the 75 to 79 years age group. In 2010, this range was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.61 to 1.11) to 164.57 (95% CI: 152.20 to 178.78). The highest prevalence in 1990 was in Australasia and North America high income regions: 382.65 (95% CI: 356.27 to 410.88) and 300.59 (95% CI: 280.93 to 321.54), respectively. Australasia had the highest prevalence in 2010, although the prevalence decreased to 310.27 (95% CI: 289.01 to 332.94). Regional prevalence increased in Oceania, tropical Latin America, Asia Pacific high income, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Central SSA, South Asia, Western SSA, and Central Asia. AAA

  15. Breast cancer and age in Black and White women in South East England.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Møller, Henrik

    2012-03-01

    Black women have lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates than White women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about such differences in risk in separate age groups. Records on female residents of South East England diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-specific incidence rates were calculated for each 5-year age group using 2001 Census population data for White, Black Caribbean and Black African women. Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients were younger than both the White patients and those with no ethnicity recorded. Black Caribbean and Black African women in the population also had a younger age profile than White women. The computed age-specific incidence rates in women aged under 50 were similar in the different ethnic groups, whereas in women aged 50 and over White women had higher rates. The younger age of Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients in South East England reflects the younger age of these populations, rather than an increased risk of disease at younger ages. PMID:21445965

  16. Incidence of Sarcoma Histotypes and Molecular Subtypes in a Prospective Epidemiological Study with Central Pathology Review and Molecular Testing

    PubMed Central

    Ducimetière, Françoise; Lurkin, Antoine; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Decouvelaere, Anne-Valérie; Péoc'h, Michel; Istier, Luc; Chalabreysse, Philippe; Muller, Christine; Alberti, Laurent; Bringuier, Pierre-Paul; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Schott, Anne-Marie; Bergeron, Christophe; Cellier, Dominic; Blay, Jean-Yves; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The exact overall incidence of sarcoma and sarcoma subtypes is not known. The objective of the present population-based study was to determine this incidence in a European region (Rhone-Alpes) of six million inhabitants, based on a central pathological review of the cases. Methodology/Principal Findings From March 2005 to February 2007, pathology reports and tumor blocks were prospectively collected from the 158 pathologists of the Rhone-Alpes region. All diagnosed or suspected cases of sarcoma were collected, reviewed centrally, examined for molecular alterations and classified according to the 2002 World Health Organization classification. Of the 1287 patients screened during the study period, 748 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall crude and world age-standardized incidence rates were respectively 6.2 and 4.8 per 100,000/year. Incidence rates for soft tissue, visceral and bone sarcomas were respectively 3.6, 2.0 and 0.6 per 100,000. The most frequent histological subtypes were gastrointestinal stromal tumor (18%; 1.1/100,000), unclassified sarcoma (16%; 1/100,000), liposarcoma (15%; 0.9/100,000) and leiomyosarcoma (11%; 0.7/100,000). Conclusions/Significance The observed incidence of sarcomas was higher than expected. This study is the first detailed investigation of the crude incidence of histological and molecular subtypes of sarcomas. PMID:21826194

  17. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  18. Racist Incident-Based Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ocampo, Carlota

    2005-01-01

    Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist incidents in the United States is difficult to estimate; however, data from several sources permit the inference that the prevalence of racist incidents,…

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality in Guangdong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ruilin; Wei, Kuangrong; Xia, Liang; Xu, Yanjun; Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province by analyzing the cancer data of selected population-based cancer registries in Guangdong province in 2012. Methods Eight of nine population-based cancer registries submitted cancer data to the Guangdong Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Guangdong CDC), whose data met the data quality criteria were included for analysis. The statistics of selected registries, stratified by areas, gender, age and cancer types, were used to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in 2012 in Guangdong province according to the population data in Guangdong province. Segi’s population and the national census population in 2000 were used for calculating the age-standardized rates (ASR). Results A total of 15,084,942 people, accounted for 17.47% of all population in Guangdong province, were covered in 8 selected population-based cancer registries in 2012. The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and the percentage of death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 72.84% and 0.87%, respectively, and the mortality/incidence (M/I) ratio was 0.56. It was estimated that there were 211,300 new cancer cases and 117,300 cancer deaths. The incidence crude rate (CR), the ASR by Chinese standard population (ASRC) and by world standard population (ASRW), and the accumulated rate (AR) (0.74 years) were 250.20/100,000 (265.39/100,000 in males, 234.29/100,000 in females), 207.04/100,000, 201.34/100,000 and 22.91%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The incidence CR and ASRC were 267.25/100,000 and 221.43/100,000 in urban areas, and 215.51/100,000 and 178.77/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The death CR, ASRC, ASRW and AR (0.74 years) were 148.44/100,000 (190.95/100,000 in males, 105.06/100,000 in females), 103.73/100,000, 102.44/100,000 and 11.68%, respectively, in Guangdong province in 2012. The death CR and ASRC were 164.57/100,000 and 105.46/100,000 in urban areas

  20. Blueberries and neuronal aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the population of people in the United States over the age of 65 years continues to increase, so too will the incidence of age-related pathologies, including decreases in cognitive and motor function. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care ...

  1. 40Ar- 39Ar laser dating of tektites from the Cheb Basin (Czech Republic): Evidence for coevality with moldavites and influence of the dating standard on the age of the Ries impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Skála, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Moldavites (Central European tektites) are genetically related to the impact event that produced the ˜24-km diameter Ries crater in Germany, representing one of the youngest large impact structures on Earth. Although several geochronological studies have been completed, there is still no agreement among 40Ar- 39Ar ages on both moldavites and glasses from Ries suevites. Even recently published data yielded within-sample mean ages with a nominal spread of more than 0.6 Ma (14.24-14.88 Ma). This age spread, which significantly exceeds current internal errors, must be in part ascribed to geological and/or analytical causes. This study reports the results of a detailed geochronological investigation of moldavites from the Cheb area (Czech Republic), which have never been dated before, and, for comparison, of two samples from type localities, one in southern Bohemia and the other in western Moravia. We used 40Ar- 39Ar laser step-heating and total fusion techniques in conjunction with microscale petrographic and chemical characterization. In addition, with the purpose of ascertaining the influence of the dating standards on the age of the Ries impact and making data from this study and literature consistent with the now widely used Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) standard, we performed a direct calibration of multi-grain splits of the Fish Canyon biotite (FCT-3) with FCs. The intercalibration factors ( RFCsFCT-3), determined for eight stack positions in one of the three performed irradiations, were indistinguishable within errors and gave an arithmetic mean and a standard deviation of 1.0086 ± 0.0031 (±2 σ), in agreement with previous works suggesting that biotite from the Fish Canyon Tuff is somewhat older (˜0.8%) than the coexisting sanidine. Laser total fusion analysis of milligram to sub-milligram splits of five tektite samples from the Cheb area yielded mostly concordant intrasample 40Ar- 39Ar ages, and within-sample weighted mean ages of 14.66 ± 0.08-14.75 ± 0

  2. Trends in oesophageal cancer incidence and mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Cristina; Levi, Fabio; Ferlay, Jacques; Garavello, Werner; Lucchini, Franca; Bertuccio, Paola; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2008-03-01

    To monitor recent trends in mortality from oesophageal cancer in 33 European countries, we analyzed the data provided by the World Health Organization over the last 2 decades, using also joinpoint regression. For selected European cancer registration areas, we also analyzed incidence rates for different histological types. For men in the European Union (EU), age-standardized (world population) mortality rates were stable around 6/100,000 between the early 1980s and the early 1990 s, and slightly declined in the last decade (5.4/100,000 in the early 2000s, annual percent change, APC = -1.1%). In several western European countries, male rates have started to level off or decline during the last decade (APC = -3.4% in France, and -3.0% in Italy). Also in Spain and the UK, which showed upward trends in the 1990 s, the rates tended to level off in most recent years. A levelling of rates was observed only more recently in countries of central and eastern Europe, which had had substantial rises up to the late 1990 s. Oesophageal cancer mortality rates remained comparatively low in European women, and overall EU female rates were stable around 1.1-1.2/100,000 over the last 2 decades (APC = -0.1%). In northern Europe a clear upward trend was observed in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and in Denmark and Scotland incidence of adenocarcinoma in men is now higher than that of squamous-cell carcinoma. Squamous-cell carcinoma remained the prevalent histological type in southern Europe. Changes in smoking habits and alcohol drinking for men, and perhaps nutrition, diet and physical activity for both sexes, can partly or largely explain these trends. PMID:17990321

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  4. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  5. Cancer incidence in North West Algeria (Mascara) 2000-2010: results from a population-based cancer registry

    PubMed Central

    Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Hamdani, Houria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 7.4 million deaths. Cancer has become a major public health concern in Algeria. The aim of the present study was to estimate cancer incidence in Mascara Province based on the population-based cancer registry. We analyzed data from the cancer registry of Mascara covering all cancer cases diagnosed by all methods and included in the registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010. The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site, sex, age, and crude rate. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs) were calculated, using the direct method of standardization to the world population. A total of 1875 cases of invasive cancer were recorded. The mean age of diagnosis for all cancers was 52.66 ± 0.5 in men and 59.18 ± 0.6 in women. The ASR for all cancers in females was 27.8 per 100,000, and that for males was 23.6 per 100,000. The most important finding of the present study was the high incidence of liver cancer among males and females in Mascara. Among females, breast cancer was the most frequently reported followed by Cervix uteri, liver and colon. The most frequent cancer types in males were lung, colon, esophagus and stomach and liver. Cancer incidence in Mascara province was lower than that reported in other national and regional registries. Findings of the present study revealed high incidence of liver cancer in the province, the highest in Algeria, suggesting high prevalence of risk factors. PMID:26417294

  6. Mechanisms of and facility types involved in hazardous materials incidents.

    PubMed Central

    Kales, S N; Polyhronopoulos, G N; Castro, M J; Goldman, R H; Christiani, D C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate hazardous materials (hazmat) releases and determine the mechanisms of these accidents, and the industries/activities and chemicals involved. We analyzed responses by Massachusetts' six district hazmat teams from their inception through May 1996. Information from incident reports was extracted onto standard coding sheets. The majority of hazardous materials incidents were caused by spills, leaks, or escapes of hazardous materials (76%) and occurred at fixed facilities (80%). Transportation-related accidents accounted for 20% of incidents. Eleven percent of hazardous materials incidents were at schools or health care facilities. Petroleum-derived fuels were involved in over half of transportation-related accidents, and these accounted for the majority of petroleum fuel releases. Chlorine derivatives were involved in 18% of all accidents and were associated with a wide variety of facility types and activities. In conclusion, systematic study of hazardous materials incidents allows the identification of preventable causes of these incidents. PMID:9300926

  7. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits. PMID:18669179

  8. Development of a Standardized Method for Contouring the Lumbosacral Plexus: A Preliminary Dosimetric Analysis of this Organ at Risk Among 15 Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lower Gastrointestinal Cancers and the Incidence of Radiation-Induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Sun K.; Mak, Walter; Yang, Claus C.; Liu Tianxiao; Cui Jing; Chen, Allen M.; Purdy, James A.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Do, Ly

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To generate a reproducible step-wise guideline for the delineation of the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) on axial computed tomography (CT) planning images and to provide a preliminary dosimetric analysis on 15 representative patients with rectal or anal cancers treated with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: A standardized method for contouring the LSP on axial CT images was devised. The LSP was referenced to identifiable anatomic structures from the L4-5 interspace to the level of the sciatic nerve. It was then contoured retrospectively on 15 patients treated with IMRT for rectal or anal cancer. No dose limitations were placed on this organ at risk during initial treatment planning. Dosimetric parameters were evaluated. The incidence of radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP) was calculated. Results: Total prescribed dose to 95% of the planned target volume ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy (median 54 Gy). The mean ({+-}standard deviation [SD]) LSP volume for the 15 patients was 100 {+-} 22 cm{sup 3} (range, 71-138 cm{sup 3}). The mean maximal dose to the LSP was 52.6 {+-} 3.9 Gy (range, 44.5-58.6 Gy). The mean irradiated volumes of the LSP were V40Gy = 58% {+-} 19%, V50Gy = 22% {+-} 23%, and V55Gy = 0.5% {+-} 0.9%. One patient (7%) was found to have developed RILSP at 13 months after treatment. Conclusions: The true incidence of RILSP in the literature is likely underreported and is not a toxicity commonly assessed by radiation oncologists. In our analysis the LSP commonly received doses approaching the prescribed target dose, and 1 patient developed RILSP. Identification of the LSP during IMRT planning may reduce RILSP. We have provided a reproducible method for delineation of the LSP on CT images and a preliminary dosimetric analysis for potential future dose constraints.

  9. The Incidence Characteristics of Second Primary Malignancy after Diagnosis of Primary Colon and Rectal Cancer: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xu; Jin, Yinghu; Chen, Yinggang; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Zhixun; Yan, Peng; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the expanding population of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the United States, one concerning issue is the risk of developing second primary malignancies (SPMs) for these CRC survivors. The present study attempts to identify the incidence characteristics of SPMs after diagnosis of first primary colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC). Methods 189,890 CC and 83,802 RC cases were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. We performed rate analysis on incidence trend of SPMs in both CC and RC. Expected incidence rates were stratified by age, race and stage, calendar year of first CRC diagnosis and latency period since first CRC diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), measure for estimating risk of SPMs, were calculated for CC and RC respectively. Results The trends of incidence of SPMs in both CC and RC were decreasing from 1992 to 2012. Both CC and RC survivors had higher risk of developing SPMs (SIRCC = 1.13; SIRRC = 1.05). For CC patients, the highest risks of SPM were cancers of small intestine (SIR = 4.03), colon (SIR = 1.87) and rectum (SIR = 1.80). For RC patients, the highest risks of SPMs were cancers of rectum (SIR = 2.88), small intestine (SIR = 2.16) and thyroid (SIR = 1.46). According to stratified analyses, we also identified incidence characteristics which were contributed to higher risk of developing SPMs, including the age between 20 and 40, American Indian/Alaska Native, localized stage, diagnosed at calendar year from 2002 to 2012 and the latency between 12 and 59 months. Conclusions Both CC and RC survivors remain at higher risk of developing SPMs. The identification of incidence characteristics of SPMs is extremely essential for continuous cancer surveillance among CRC survivors. PMID:26571301

  10. Increase in Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Incidence among Hispanic Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Franklin L.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Johnson, Rebecca H.

    2014-01-01

    Background While rising incidence rates of testicular germ cell tumors have been well documented in white men, relatively little is known about rates in men of Hispanic origin. In the current study, we compared germ cell tumor trends between men of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin as a function of age at diagnosis. Methods We analyzed testicular germ cell tumor incidence trends in white men by Hispanic ethnicity in two datasets of the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, spanning 1992 to 2010 and 2000 to 2010, and sampling 15% and 28% of the United States population, respectively. Rates were age-adjusted to the year 2000 United States standard population. Results Between 1992 and 2010, the annual incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in 15- to 39-year-old Hispanic whites increased 58% from 7.18 cases per 100,000 in 1992 to 11.34 cases per 100,000 by 2010 (p < 1×10−9). Their incidence rates increased in metropolitan areas for both seminoma and non-seminoma subtypes and for all stages at diagnosis. In the same 19-year interval, incidence among non-Hispanic white young adults increased 7%, from 12.41 to 13.22 per 100,000. During the 2000 to 2010 interval, no significant trends were observed in incidence among non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion There has been a recent substantial increase in testicular germ cell tumor incidence among Hispanic adolescents and young adults in the United States. Similar trends were not observed in non-Hispanic whites. PMID:25044313

  11. Epidemiology, incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship with the development index in the world

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpour, Mojtaba; Khani, Farah; Hesami, Sayed Mohammadali; Shamlou, Reza; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Moini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of lung cancer is seen in North America and the lowest incidence in central Africa. Socioeconomic factors of inequality reflect regional disparities in human development. Due to the importance of awareness about incidence and mortality of lung cancer in health programming and the possible role of the human development index (HDI), this study was done with the aim to investigate the epidemiology of lung cancer in the world and its relationship with HDI. Methods The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Data about the age-specific incidence and mortality rate (ASR) for every country in 2012 were getting from the global cancer project. To analyze data, correlation tests between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components were employed with a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Lung cancer with standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and standardized mortality rate (ASMR), equal to 23.1 and 19.7 (in 100,000 people), respectively. The highest and lowest values of mortality incidence ratio (MIR) for lung cancer due to continents division were 0.93 and 0.71 for Eastern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, respectively. Univariate analysis showed significant relationship (P<0.0001) between ASIR and ASMR with life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling. Conclusions The highest MIR for lung cancer was for medium human development countries. Linear regression analysis showed a reverse significant relationship between MIR and HDI. PMID:27293825

  12. Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Texas 1990-1992: a comparison of rural classifications.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Sarah Tropman; Chang, Shine; Risser, David; Zhang, Qing

    2002-01-01

    Although cancer incidence and mortality rates are known to be higher in urban populations, more unstaged tumors and later staged cancer are diagnosed in rural populations. Most investigators have used a dichotomous definition of urban and rural in studying these populations, and they have not considered whether a more detailed categorization of rural areas could influence their findings. The objective of this study was to evaluate colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates in Texas from 1990 to 1992 by using a dichotomous definition (Metropolitan Area vs. Nonmetropolitan Area [MA/non-MA]) and two more detailed rural classifications (the Rural-Urban Continuum Code [RUCC] and the Urban Influence Code [UIC]). Cancer data were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry for 1990 to 1992 and supplemented with data from the Texas State Department of Vital Statistics (mortality), the US Census Bureau (age, gender, race) and the Area Resource File (rural and urban definitions). Incidence and mortality rates, age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population, were calculated for non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic males and females. Results revealed a nonlinear relationship between rural category and colorectal cancer incidence or mortality for all races. Applying the MA definition yielded rates in the middle of the ranges obtained with using RUCC or UIC classifications and most closely reflected the result for non-Hispanic Whites using the more detailed scales. Our results suggest that a dichotomous definition of rural and urban may mask important variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates within rural areas. PMID:12380896

  13. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  14. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Amal S.; Khaled, Hussein M.; Mikhail, Nabiel NH; Baraka, Hoda; Kamel, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes), 175.9 (males), and 157.0 (females). Commonest sites were liver (23.8%), breast (15.4%), and bladder (6.9%) (both sexes): liver (33.6%) and bladder (10.7%) among men, and breast (32.0%) and liver (13.5%) among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs. PMID:25328522

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors for Neonatal Tetanus in Admissions to Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ibinda, Fredrick; Bauni, Evasius; Kariuki, Symon M.; Fegan, Greg; Lewa, Joy; Mwikamba, Monica; Boga, Mwanamvua; Odhiambo, Rachael; Mwagandi, Kiponda; Seale, Anna C.; Berkley, James A.; Dorfman, Jeffrey R.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal Tetanus (NT) is a preventable cause of mortality and neurological sequelae that occurs at higher incidence in resource-poor countries, presumably because of low maternal immunisation rates and unhygienic cord care practices. We aimed to determine changes in the incidence of NT, characterize and investigate the associated risk factors and mortality in a prospective cohort study including all admissions over a 15-year period at a County hospital on the Kenyan coast, a region with relatively high historical NT rates within Kenya. Methods We assessed all neonatal admissions to Kilifi County Hospital in Kenya (1999–2013) and identified cases of NT (standard clinical case definition) admitted during this time. Poisson regression was used to examine change in incidence of NT using accurate denominator data from an area of active demographic surveillance. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors for NT and factors associated with mortality in NT amongst neonatal admissions. A subset of sera from mothers (n = 61) and neonates (n = 47) were tested for anti-tetanus antibodies. Results There were 191 NT admissions, of whom 187 (98%) were home deliveries. Incidence of NT declined significantly (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.85 (95% Confidence interval 0.81–0.89), P<0.001) but the case fatality (62%) did not change over the study period (P = 0.536). Younger infant age at admission (P = 0.001) was the only independent predictor of mortality. Compared to neonatal hospital admittee controls, the proportion of home births was higher among the cases. Sera tested for antitetanus antibodies showed most mothers (50/61, 82%) had undetectable levels of antitetanus antibodies, and most (8/9, 89%) mothers with detectable antibodies had a neonate without protective levels. Conclusions Incidence of NT in Kilifi County has significantly reduced, with reductions following immunisation campaigns. Our results suggest immunisation efforts are effective if

  16. Age and Its Effect on Language Arts Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of California Standards Tests (CST) for 2nd through 6th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBerry, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Entrance age in kindergarten has been a controversial issue as the range from the youngest to the oldest student spans up to 24 months. This range leaves a heterogeneous gap for teachers who are already differentiating for their English Language Learners, struggling students, and high achieving students. This is compounded by the fact that the…

  17. Cancer incidence, mortality, and stage at diagnosis in First Nations living in Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Decker, K.M.; Kliewer, E.V.; Demers, A.A.; Fradette, K.; Biswanger, N.; Musto, G.; Elias, B.; Turner, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined breast (bca) and colorectal cancer (crc) incidence and mortality and stage at diagnosis for First Nations (fn) individuals and all other Manitobans (aoms). Methods Several population-based databases were linked to determine ethnicity and to calculate age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Logistic regression was used to compare bca and crc stage at diagnosis. Results From 1984–1988 to 2004–2008, the incidence of bca increased for fn and aom women. Breast cancer mortality increased for fn women and decreased for aom women. First Nations women were significantly more likely than aom women to be diagnosed at stages iii–iv than at stage i [odds ratio (or) for women ≤50 years of age: 3.11; 95% confidence limits (cl): 1.20, 8.06; or for women 50–69 years of age: 1.72; 95% cl: 1.03, 2.88). The incidence and mortality of crc increased for fn individuals, but decreased for aoms. First Nations status was not significantly associated with crc stage at diagnosis (or for stages i–ii compared with stages iii–iv: 0.98; 95% cl: 0.68, 1.41; or for stages i–iii compared with stage iv: 0.91; 95% cl: 0.59, 1.40). Conclusions Our results underscore the need for improved cancer screening participation and targeted initiatives that emphasis collaboration with fn communities to reduce barriers to screening and to promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:27536172

  18. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  19. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Results Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing

  20. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...

  1. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...

  2. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...

  3. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  4. Standardization versus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Examines differences between old state-designed norm-referenced tests and new tests aligned with the curriculum. Concludes that new state tests are very similar to old ones. Discusses impact of new high-stakes standardized tests on students and teachers. Argues the new wave of standardized testing is not the answer to improving student…

  5. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  6. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  7. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly. Results: A total of 254,962 new cancer cases and 75,172 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2016. The five leading primary cancer incident sites in 2016 were estimated colorectal, stomach, lung, liver and thyroid cancer in men; thyroid, breast, colorectal, stomach, and lung cancer in women. Conclusion: Currently cancer is one of the foremost public health concerns in Korea. Although cancer rates are anticipated to decrease the nation’s cancer burden will continue to increase as the population ages. PMID:27034143

  8. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  9. Test-Retest Reliability and Standard Error of Measurement for the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) With Healthy School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leark, Robert A.; Wallace, Denise R.; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Test-retest reliability of the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) was investigated in two studies using two different time intervals: 90 min and 1 week (plus or minus 2 days). To investigate the 90-min reliability, 31 school-age children (M = 10 years, SD = 2.66) were administered the T.O.V.A. then read ministered the test 90 min afterward.…

  10. [Anatomic incidence of meniscochondrocalcinosis of the knee].

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, D; Stankovic, A; Morin, J; Borda-Iriarte, O; Uzan, M; Quintero, M; Memin, Y; Bard, M; de Sèze, S; Richewaert, A

    1982-06-01

    The authors have studied the incidence of menisco-calcinosis (MC) and that of menisco-chondrocalcinosis (MCC) of knee joints of 108 non selected cadavera. The mean age of the subjects was 71.8 +/- 13.8 years. The study was performed by radiographic examination of the menisci and cartilagineous fragments of femoral condyles using high contrast films. The incidence of MC or MCC was found to be 18.5 per cent. It was slightly higher in females (21.5 p. cent) than in males (15.8 p. cent) subjects but this difference failed to reach the level of statistical significance. No positive case was detected before the age of 60 years. For the age groups of: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and over 90 years, its incidence was: 11.7; 26.9; 21.2 and 50 (4 subjects out of 8) per cent respectively. Approximately 40 per cent of all positive cases had meniscocalcinosis without associated chondrocalcinosis. No single case of chondrocalcinosis without meniscocalcinosis was observed. Six out of 8 cases with MC calcinosis and 2 out of 12 cases with MCC were unilateral. The external menisci were more frequently and more heavily affected than internal ones. Eighty per cent of the knees affected by either MC or MCC were at the same time associated to an osteoarthrotic lesion compared to 35 p. cent of the knees without MC or MCC matched for age: a result which appeared to be highly significant difference. PMID:6896928

  11. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  12. Unchanged incidence and increased survival in children with neuroblastoma in Denmark 1981–2000: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H; Wacher, J; Larsson, H; Rosthoej, S; Rechnitzer, C; Pedersen, B L; Carlsen, N L T

    2009-01-01

    Treatment results for neuroblastoma in Denmark have been poorer than in other Nordic countries, so we investigated whether a change in incidence, stage distribution and survival had occurred between 1981 and 2000. Clinical data were retrieved from the medical charts of 160 children <15 years of age with extra-cranial neuroblastoma (n=139) or ganglioneuroblastoma (n=21) diagnosed in Denmark between 1981 and 2000. The minimal follow-up time was 52 months. Statistical analyses were performed in STATA. The incidence was 8.55 per million children below 15 years of age (world standard 9.6) and 42.6 per million children below 12 months of age, and it has remained unchanged since 1970. The median age at diagnosis was 27 months. In all, 32% of the children were aged below 12 months at diagnosis, 53% had metastatic disease and in 12% the diagnosis was made incidentally. Prognostic factors such as age, stage and site of primary tumour were the same as in other studies and did not change. During the study period, the mortality rate decreased steadily, and the 5-year survival rate increased from 38% in 1981–1985 to 59% in 1996–2000, corresponding to the level found in other Western countries. Increased survival was also seen in children with metastatic disease. Participation in international studies, better supportive care and possibly postoperative autologous stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the increased survival. PMID:19223904

  13. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology. PMID:26435739

  14. Critical incidents: effective communication and documentation.

    PubMed

    Carelock, J; Innerarity, S

    2001-02-01

    Critical incidents can be defined at sentinel events, critical patient care issues, or any patient event outside the normal parameters of care. Nurses are central to maintaining the standard of care for patients in these situations. Miscommunication, including inadequate communication and illegible or incomplete documentation, forms a basis for many clinical and interpersonal problems in nursing practice. This practical article discusses expectations, both professional and legal, for avoiding and/or managing critical incidents. Suggestions for assessment parameters to report are included in table format, which the nurse can 'clip and use' as a reminder of data to have prepared before calling and/or presenting the problem. Steps are proposed for a logical, organized plan to help the nurse communicate more effectively. Recommendations for essentials of documentation regarding the verbal interaction and orders received are also presented. PMID:11852951

  15. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Businge, Charles Bitamazire; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mathews, Verona

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol. PMID:26800877

  16. [Tooth decay complications incidence].

    PubMed

    Petrikas, A Zh; Zakharova, E L; Ol'khovskaia, E B; Chestnykh, E V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to assess the quality of endodontic therapy and estimate further treatment needs. 900 orthopantomograms of 442 men and 458 women (aged 18-70) without any clinical manifestations of endodontic pathology were examined for endodontic treatment. 1,170 patients (41%) had additional intraoral radiographs taken for assessment of their periapical status. 2,852 (13.8%) of the 20,724 teeth examined had periapical lesions and/or root fillings. 2,503 of the 2,853 teeth were endodontically treated, only 1,011 of them (40.4%) having all their root canals obturated. 612 (41.3%) of the 1,492 (59.6%) teeth with inadequate root canal fillings hat a healthy apical periodontium. Of the 1,229 teeth to be endodontically treated 349 teeth required primary treatment, 880 required retreatment. PMID:24576961

  17. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  18. A nationwide cohort study on the incidence of meningioma in women using postmenopausal hormone therapy in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Katariina; Auvinen, Anssi; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-02-15

    The authors conducted a nationwide cohort study to evaluate the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy and meningioma incidence in Finland. All women who had used hormone therapy at least for 6 months at the age of 50 years or older during 1994-2009 were included. Women who had used postmenopausal hormone therapy were identified from the medical reimbursement register of the Social Insurance Institution (131,480 estradiol users and 131,248 estradiol-progestin users), and meningioma cases were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. During the average 9 years of follow-up, 289 estradiol users and 196 estradiol-progestin users were diagnosed with meningioma. Ever use of estradiol-only therapy was associated with an increased risk of meningioma (standardized incidence ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.44). Among women who had been using estradiol-only therapy for at least 3 years, the incidence of meningioma was 1.40-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.64; P < 0.001) than in the background population. In contrast, this risk was not increased in users of combination therapy (standardized incidence ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.06). There was no difference in risk between continuous and sequential use of hormone therapy. Estradiol-only therapy was accompanied with a slightly increased risk of meningioma. PMID:22287638

  19. Rising incidence of breast cancer among young women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ranstam, J.; Janzon, L.; Olsson, H.

    1990-01-01

    The national Swedish cancer registry was used to analyse the age-specific time trends in breast cancer incidence in Sweden from 1970 to 1984. The analysis included both a calendar year and a birth cohort approach to estimate time trends in disease occurrence. According to the birth cohort approach there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence with an average annual increase of the incidence of 3.2% (P = 0.0114), 3.4% (P = 0.0002) and 2.2% (P = 0.0264) in the age groups 25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively. Possible causes of the observed increasing incidence are discussed. PMID:2297482

  20. A Predictive Model for Root Caries Incidence.

    PubMed

    Ritter, André V; Preisser, John S; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Chung, Yunro; Bader, James D; Shugars, Daniel A; Makhija, Sonia; Vollmer, William M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find the set of risk indicators best able to predict root caries (RC) incidence in caries-active adults utilizing data from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). Five logistic regression models were compared with respect to their predictive performance for incident RC using data from placebo-control participants with exposed root surfaces at baseline and from two study centers with ancillary data collection (n = 155). Prediction performance was assessed from baseline variables and after including ancillary variables [smoking, diet, use of removable partial dentures (RPD), toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance]. A sensitivity analysis added treatment to the models for both the control and treatment participants (n = 301) to predict RC for the control participants. Forty-nine percent of the control participants had incident RC. The model including the number of follow-up years at risk, the number of root surfaces at risk, RC index, gender, race, age, and smoking resulted in the best prediction performance, having the highest AUC and lowest Brier score. The sensitivity analysis supported the primary analysis and gave slightly better performance summary measures. The set of risk indicators best able to predict RC incidence included an increased number of root surfaces at risk and increased RC index at baseline, followed by white race and nonsmoking, which were strong nonsignificant predictors. Gender, age, and increased number of follow-up years at risk, while included in the model, were also not statistically significant. The inclusion of health, diet, RPD use, toothbrush use, income, education, and dental insurance variables did not improve the prediction performance. PMID:27160516

  1. Incidence and Burden of the Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    Since 2001, cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) have been tracked by cancer registries. Examining registry data in the USA, the reported age-adjusted incidence of MDS per 100,000 was 3.3 per year for 2001-2003 and 4.9 per year for 2007-2011, with increases likely a result of growing awareness of reporting requirements. However, active case-finding methods repeatedly demonstrate that population-based registries have underestimated the incidence of MDS due to underreporting and underdiagnosis. Using keyword search strategies of electronic pathology reports or other novel case capture methods, the true incidence of MDS has been estimated between 5.3 and 13.1 per 100,000. Using Medicare billing claims data, the incidence of MDS per 100,000 in patients aged ≥65 years has been estimated between 75 and 162. MDS prevalence is estimated to be 60,000 and -170,000 in the USA and projected to grow. Epidemiologic data can help estimate the burden of MDS and expose unmet clinical needs. For example, patients with MDS receiving transfusions had significantly higher reported health care costs versus those that did not (3-year mean of $88,824 vs $29,519). Epidemiologic data also revealed that most MDS patients receiving transfusions do not receive active therapies, despite strong evidence that hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide significantly reduce transfusion burden. Other unmet needs identified by epidemiologic studies include high need for treatment options after failing first-line therapy and shared decision making by older MDS patients. PMID:26134527

  2. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related e...

  3. The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Schnell, Beverly M; Hoekstra, Robert M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Keswick, Bruce H

    2002-10-01

    We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice controls. After adjustment for household clustering and covariates, the incidence of impetigo among children living in households receiving triclocarban-containing soap (1.10 episodes per 100 person-weeks) was 23% lower than in households receiving placebo soap (P = 0.28) and 43% lower than the standard habit and practice controls (P = 0.02). The routine use of triclocarban-containing soap by children living in a community with a high incidence of impetigo was associated with a reduced incidence of impetigo. PMID:12452499

  4. Idiot savants: rate of incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, A L

    1977-02-01

    Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586

  5. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  6. [Caries incidence assessment in young and mature nulliparous pregnant].

    PubMed

    Bakhmudov, B R; Alieva, Z B; Bakhmudov, M B

    2011-01-01

    Caries incidence was assessed in young (15-17 years) and mature (30-34 years) nulliparous pregnant. In young women the incidence was 1.62 +/- 0.16, while in mature pregnant--1.38 +/- 0.17. This values are significantly higher than in non-pregnant women of the same age: 0.48 +/- 0.09 and 0.24 +/- 0.08, correspondently. PMID:22332376

  7. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  8. Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Europe: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    breadth of the literature on the epidemiology of MS in Europe, inter-study comparisons are hampered by the lack of standardization. Further research should focus on regions not yet studied and the evaluation of ethnic differences in MS prevalence and incidence. National-level studies using current diagnostic criteria, validated case definitions and similar age- and sex-standardization would allow better geographical comparisons. PMID:24070256

  9. The Faroese IBD Study: Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Across 54 Years of Population-based Data

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Turid; Nielsen, Kári R.; Munkholm, Pia; Burisch, Johan; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs] include Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and IBD unclassified [IBDU]. In 2010 and 2011, the ECCO-EpiCom study found the worldwide highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the Faroe Islands: 83 per 100 000 [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. Methods: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed between July 1960 and July 2014. Patients of all ages were included and diagnoses were defined according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria. Results: A total of 664 incident IBD patients were diagnosed: 113 with CD, 417 with UC, and 134 with IBDU. Of these, 51 [8%] were diagnosed with paediatric-onset IBD. Between 1960 and 1979, a total of 55 persons were diagnosed; 105 in 1980–89; 166 in 1990–99; 180 in 2000–09; and 158 in 2010–14. This represented an increase in the age-standardised IBD incidence rate from 7, 25, 40, and 42 to 74 per 100 000 [ESP]. For CD, the increase was from 1 to 10, for UC from 4 to 44, and for IBDU from 2 to 21 per 100 000 [ESP]. Conclusions: The high IBD incidence was found to be a relatively new phenomenon. The observed increase is unlikely to be an artefact resulting from, for instance, better registration. Our study indicated a real and increasing disease burden resulting from changing—so far unidentified—exposures. PMID:26933031

  10. Incidence of plutonium-induced bone cancer in neutered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Charrier, K.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence of bone cancer, after a single i.p. injection of monomeric /sup 239/Pu citrate, is significantly higher in female than in male mice. To evaluate the role of the gonads in this sex-related difference, male and female C57BL/Do (albino) mice were castrated at 40 days of age. Fifty days later, they were given injections of /sup 239/Pu. After castration, the frequency of bone sarcomas in the two sexes was approximately equal. This resulted from an increased incidence in the castrated males and a decreased incidence in the ovariectomized females as compared to the intact plutonium-treated mice.

  11. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. PMID:24018010

  12. Incidence Trends and Geographical Distribution of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Naini, Ali; Raad, Nasim; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Ramezani-Daryasar, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has known as a highly distinct kind of head and neck cancer. This distinction has been due to its clinical presentation, epidemiology, outcome, and treatment. There have not been any reports of epidemiological analysis of NPC in Iran. This study has evaluated the incidence rates and trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Iranian population during 2004 to 2009. Methods The data have collected from the Iranian national cancer data system registry. All the cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (with the topography code 11 and histology of carcinoma) have retrieved and analyzed from an overall cancer database during a 6-year period. The data have analyzed by using the SPSS, version 16. Results To determine the current incidence of NPC in Iran, we have examined the NPC cases from 2004 to 2009. A total of 1431 cases (981 male and 450 female NPC patients) have analyzed epidemiologically in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.1 years. The incidence was 0.33 per 100000 persons. The overall incidence rate have increased annually (p<0.05). The incidence of NPC gradually increased with age. Prefectures that bordering the Caspian Sea have proved to have a higher incidence than the other studied areas. Conclusion Our study has indicated an increasing trend in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore; attempts should be precipitated for prevention. PMID:26396710

  13. Recommendations for Development of New Standardized Forms of Cocoa Breeds and Cocoa Extract Processing for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Cocoa in Promotion of Cognitive Resilience and Healthy Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Dubner, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD. PMID:26402120

  14. Validity of Footprint Analysis to Determine Flatfoot Using Clinical Diagnosis as the Gold Standard in a Random Sample Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Martín, Cristina; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to determine the prevalence and variables associated with the diagnosis of flatfoot, and to evaluate the validity of three footprint analysis methods for diagnosing flatfoot, using clinical diagnosis as a benchmark. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of a population-based random sample ≥40 years old (n = 1002) in A Coruña, Spain. Anthropometric variables, Charlson’s comorbidity score, and podiatric examination (including measurement of Clarke’s angle, the Chippaux-Smirak index, and the Staheli index) were used for comparison with a clinical diagnosis method using a podoscope. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Results Prevalence of flatfoot in the left and right footprint, measured using the podoscope, was 19.0% and 18.9%, respectively. Variables independently associated with flatfoot diagnosis were age (OR 1.07), female gender (OR 3.55) and BMI (OR 1.39). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) showed that Clarke’s angle is highly accurate in predicting flatfoot (AUC 0.94), followed by the Chippaux-Smirak (AUC 0.83) and Staheli (AUC 0.80) indices. Sensitivity values were 89.8% for Clarke’s angle, 94.2% for the Chippaux-Smirak index, and 81.8% for the Staheli index, with respective positive likelihood ratios or 9.7, 2.1, and 2.0. Conclusions Age, gender, and BMI were associated with a flatfoot diagnosis. The indices studied are suitable for diagnosing flatfoot in adults, especially Clarke’s angle, which is highly accurate for flatfoot diagnosis in this population. PMID:25382154

  15. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    PubMed Central

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh I.S.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues. PMID:25909343

  16. Incidence of Near-Death and Intense Spiritual Experiences in an Intergenerational Sample: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, L. Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined incidence of near-death and intense spiritual experiences for a sample of 305 persons from ages 17-85. Found incidence of near-death reports did not vary significantly by age of respondents, but elderly respondents were significantly less likely to report intense spiritual experiences. (Author)

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Osma, Sonia; Herrera, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA) during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR). Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS). We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR(W)) and mortality (ASMR(W)) rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women). Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4%) were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1%) were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W) for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W) was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs. PMID:24893302

  18. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    PubMed

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date. PMID:26317384

  19. Metal Emissions and Urban Incident Parkinson Disease: A Community Health Study of Medicare Beneficiaries by Using Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Allison W.; Evanoff, Bradley A.; Lian, Min; Galarza, Aiden; Wegrzyn, Andrew; Schootman, Mario; Racette, Brad A.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson disease associated with farming and exposure to agricultural chemicals has been reported in numerous studies; little is known about Parkinson disease risk factors for those living in urban areas. The authors investigated the relation between copper, lead, or manganese emissions and Parkinson disease incidence in the urban United States, studying 29 million Medicare beneficiaries in the year 2003. Parkinson disease incidence was determined by using beneficiaries who had not changed residence since 1995. Over 35,000 nonmobile incident Parkinson disease cases, diagnosed by a neurologist, were identified for analysis. Age-, race-, and sex-standardized Parkinson disease incidence was compared between counties with high cumulative industrial release of copper, manganese, or lead (as reported to the Environmental Protection Agency) and counties with no/low reported release of all 3 metals. Parkinson disease incidence (per 100,000) in counties with no/low copper/lead/manganese release was 274.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 226.8, 353.5). Incidence was greater in counties with high manganese release: 489.4 (95% CI: 368.3, 689.5) (relative risk = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.07) and counties with high copper release: 304.2 (95% CI: 276.0, 336.8) (relative risk = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.31). Urban Parkinson disease incidence is greater in counties with high reported industrial release of copper or manganese. Environmental exposure to metals may be a risk factor for Parkinson disease in urban areas. PMID:20959505

  20. Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Li, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Jing; Qin, Li-Qiang; Wang, Pei-Yu; Sato, Akio

    2002-03-10

    The incidence and mortality rates of testicular and prostatic cancers in 42 countries were correlated with the dietary practices in these countries using the cancer rates (1988-92) provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the food supply data (1961-90) provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Among the food items we examined, cheese was most closely correlated with the incidence of testicular cancer at ages 20-39, followed by animal fats and milk. The correlation coefficient (r) was highest (r = 0.804) when calculated for cheese consumed during the period 1961-65 (maternal or prepubertal consumption). Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis revealed that milk + cheese (1961-65) made a significant contribution to the incidence of testicular cancer (standardized regression coefficient [R] = 0.654). Concerning prostatic cancer, milk (1961-90) was most closely correlated (r = 0.711) with its incidence, followed by meat and coffee. Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis identified milk + cheese as a factor contributing to the incidence of prostatic cancer (R = 0.525). The food that was most closely correlated with the mortality rate of prostatic cancer was milk (r = 0.766), followed by coffee, cheese and animal fats. Stepwise-multiple-regression analysis revealed that milk + cheese was a factor contributing to mortality from prostatic cancer (R = 0.580). The results of our study suggest a role of milk and dairy products in the development and growth of testicular and prostatic cancers. The close correlation between cheese and testicular cancer and between milk and prostatic cancer suggests that further mechanistic studies should be undertaken concerning the development of male genital organ cancers. PMID:11857417

  1. Geographic Variation in Cancer Incidence among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying; Lee, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from our recent study suggested that the overall trend for cancer incidence in children and adolescents has been increasing in Taiwan. Methods To analyze geographic variations in this trend, cancer frequencies and incidence rates of disease groups were quantified according to geographic areas among 12,633 patients aged <20 years during 1995–2009 by using the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Three geographic levels were defined, namely county or city, region (Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan), and local administrative area (special municipality, provincial city, county-administered city, township, and aboriginal area). Results Of the regions, Northern Taiwan had the highest incidence rate at 139.6 per million person-years, followed by Central (132.8), Southern (131.8), and Eastern (128.4) Taiwan. Significantly higher standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were observed in Northern Taiwan (SRR = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02–1.10) and at the township level (SRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03–1.11). Of the cities or counties, New Taipei City yielded the highest SRR (1.08), followed by Taipei City (SRR = 1.07). A comparison of the rates in the four regions and the remainder of Taiwan according to cancer type revealed that only the rate of neuroblastomas in Eastern Taiwan was significantly low. Trend analysis showed that the most significant increase in incidence rate was observed at the township level, with an annual percent change of 1.8% during the 15-year study period. Conclusions The high rate of childhood cancer in Northern Taiwan and at the township level deserves further attention. The potential impacts of environmental factors on the upward trend of childhood cancer incidence rate in townships warrant further investigation. PMID:26192415

  2. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  3. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. PMID:20807386

  4. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  5. The Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Diabetic (Compared to the Non-Diabetic) Population: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Narres, Maria; Claessen, Heiner; Droste, Sigrid; Kvitkina, Tatjana; Koch, Michael; Kuss, Oliver; Icks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetes is a life threatening complication resulting in a poor prognosis for patients as well as high medical costs. The aims of this systematic review were (1) to evaluate the incidence of ESRD due to all causes and due to diabetic nephropathy in the diabetic population and differences between incidences of ESRD with respect to sex, ethnicity, age and regions, (2) to compare incidence rates in the diabetic and non-diabetic population, and (3) to investigate time trends. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in the biomedical databases until January 3rd 2015; thirty-two studies were included. Among patients with incident type 1 diabetes the 30-year cumulative incidence ranged from 3.3% to 7.8%. Among patients with prevalent diabetes, incidence rates of ESRD due to all causes ranged from 132.0 to 167.0 per 100,000 person-years, whereas incidence rates of ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy varied from 38.4 to 804.0 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of ESRD in the diabetic population was higher compared to the non-diabetic population, and relative risks varied from 6.2 in the white population to 62.0 among Native Americans. The results regarding time trends were inconsistent. The review conducted demonstrates the considerable variation of incidences of ESRD among the diabetic population. Consistent findings included an excess risk when comparing the diabetic to the non-diabetic population and ethnic differences. We recommend that newly designed studies should use standardized methods for the determination of ESRD and population at risk. PMID:26812415

  6. The Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Diabetic (Compared to the Non-Diabetic) Population: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Narres, Maria; Claessen, Heiner; Droste, Sigrid; Kvitkina, Tatjana; Koch, Michael; Kuss, Oliver; Icks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetes is a life threatening complication resulting in a poor prognosis for patients as well as high medical costs. The aims of this systematic review were (1) to evaluate the incidence of ESRD due to all causes and due to diabetic nephropathy in the diabetic population and differences between incidences of ESRD with respect to sex, ethnicity, age and regions, (2) to compare incidence rates in the diabetic and non-diabetic population, and (3) to investigate time trends. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in the biomedical databases until January 3rd 2015; thirty-two studies were included. Among patients with incident type 1 diabetes the 30-year cumulative incidence ranged from 3.3% to 7.8%. Among patients with prevalent diabetes, incidence rates of ESRD due to all causes ranged from 132.0 to 167.0 per 100,000 person-years, whereas incidence rates of ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy varied from 38.4 to 804.0 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of ESRD in the diabetic population was higher compared to the non-diabetic population, and relative risks varied from 6.2 in the white population to 62.0 among Native Americans. The results regarding time trends were inconsistent. The review conducted demonstrates the considerable variation of incidences of ESRD among the diabetic population. Consistent findings included an excess risk when comparing the diabetic to the non-diabetic population and ethnic differences. We recommend that newly designed studies should use standardized methods for the determination of ESRD and population at risk. PMID:26812415

  7. A Population-Based Cohort Study of All-Cause and Site-Specific Cancer Incidence Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Chun; Lin, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Te-Hui; Lee, Hui-Mei; Kuo, Chieh; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and cancer incidence remains unclear. We sought to assess the all-cause and site-specific cancer incidence in patients with T1DM. Methods A retrospective cohort study design was employed, in which 14 619 patients with T1DM were retrieved from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance medical claims between 2000 and 2007. The study subjects were followed to the end of 2008, and cancer incidence was assessed. We calculated age-, sex-, and calendar year-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of all-cause cancer incidence and site-specific neoplasm incidence, with reference to the general population. Results Seven hundred and sixty patients were identified for all-cause cancer over 86 610 person-years, representing an incidence rate of 87.75 cases per 10 000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in males than in female patients (109.86 vs 69.75 cases per 10 000 person-years). T1DM was associated with a significantly increased SIR of all-cause cancer (1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.22). The sex-specific SIR was significantly elevated in female patients (1.19; 95% CI, 1.07–1.33), but the SIR for male patients was insignificantly elevated (1.09; 95% CI, 0.99–1.20). Pancreatic cancer showed the greatest increase in SIR among both male and female patients with T1DM. Male patients experienced significantly increased SIRs for kidney, rectum, liver, and colon neoplasm, and significantly increased SIRs were noted for ovarian, bladder, and colon cancer in female patients. Conclusions T1DM was associated with a 13% increase in risk of all-cause cancer incidence. Patients with T1DM should be advised to undergo cancer screening for certain types of cancer. PMID:26212724

  8. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  9. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Todberg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Lous, Jørgen; Homøe, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0–7 years born in 1996–2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection was ability to understand and speak Danish. Methods Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT) was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions. Results Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755). For children with OM, 16.2% (7143/44194) had their first OM episodes between 0–6 months of age, 44.3% (19579/44194) between 7–18 months, and 39.5% (17472/44194) between 19 months and 7 years. Four or more OM episodes before 7 years were reported by 39.5% (12620/31982) and by 64.0% (2482/3881) of those who had their OM debut between 0–6 months; by 48.2% (4998/10378) with debut between 7–18 months; and by 28.7% (4996/17344) with debut between 19 months and 7 years. These figures are essentially unchanged from earlier figures from Denmark. VT insertion at least once was reported by 26,1% in the 7-year interview. Assuming recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold