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Sample records for age standardized prevalence

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years in Bahrain: a comparison between two reference standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Raees, Ghada Y; Al-Amer, Maryam A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on Bahraini preschoolers aged 2-5 years (354 males and 344 females) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity using the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force cut-off values. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated to determine the proportion of overweight and obesity. Using the World Health Organization percentile cut-off values, overweight (12.3%) and obesity (8.4%) was higher in females between 2 and <4 years of age whereas, the proportion of both overweight (8.4%) and obesity (7.2%) were higher in males between 4 and <6 years of age. Relative to the International Obesity Task Force indicators, the World Health Organization cut-off values produced nearly a 2-fold increase in both overweight and obesity at most ages. It is therefore important to ensure that the same cut-off reference values are used to define overweight and obesity particularly in preschoolers. Shifting to the new World Health Organization child growth standards may have important implications for child health programmes.

  2. Age, colors and ISO standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2010-01-01

    Age influences all bodily functions, also vision. Therefore, the effects of age on vision should be mirrored in ergonomic requirements laid down in display standards such as ISO 9241-300/307, 'Electronic visual display requirements'. However, this is only true to a limited extent - just as is the case with other standards dealing with ergonomic requirements, because developers of such standards do not possess the necessary specific knowledge. It therefore was an important step by ISO and IEC to publish in 2001 ISO/IEC Guide 71: 'Guidelines for standard developers to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities'. This guide was followed by a more specific and detailed Technical Report from ISO, ISO/TR 22411, as well as by 'Guidelines on Accessibility' from CIE. These three guidelines are reviewed. The paper concludes with developments around ISO 9241-300/307 in general, especially future additions on autostereoscopic displays and electronic paper. As to the former, the visual fatigue often accompanying viewing 3D displays needs methods for characterizing and validating such displays, to reduce visual fatigue as much as possible. Standardizing certain properties of electronic paper is an example of the present pro-active way of working of ISO/TC159/SC4/WG2, 'Visual Display Requirements', that developed ISO 9241-300/307.

  3. The Sexual Double Standard: How Prevalent Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Alan R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied the sexual double standard among university students. Females showed a stronger association between premarital intercourse and affection and perceived less approval from five reference groups for their sexual behavior than did males. Results indicate the sexual double standard is still evident among the present group of college students.…

  4. The Prevalence of Standard Large Modules in Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Bierschenk, J.

    2015-06-01

    The thermoelectric industry serves a broad range of applications using, mainly, a few standard module designs. This paper first briefly describes types of modules and two types of thermoelectric material used by the industry, after which the focus is on selected features of the standard designs and reasons for their prevalence. Whereas cost reduction and the need to maximize reliability drive the adoption of standard modules, other factors contribute to shaping the particular features of the standard thermoelectric cooling modules. These factors include the magnitude of heat loads, heat-sink performance, durability and performance expectations, and relative ease of manufacture. This discussion of the features and prevalence of standard modules relates to broader aspects of both the production and implementation of thermoelectric modules, and an estimate of current thermoelectric industry output is included.

  5. Impact of rail medical standard on obstructive sleep apnoea prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2004 edition of the National Standard for Health Assessment of Rail Safety Workers (the standard) used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to screen for excessive daytime sleepiness related to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The 2012 edition of the standard expanded the OSA screening matrix to include body mass index, comorbid hypertension and type 2 diabetes as triggers requiring a sleep study to be undertaken irrespective of the ESS. Aims To assess the impact of the new standard on the estimated prevalence of OSA in railway workers. Methods An analysis of data on safety critical employees referred for rail safety health assessment during the 2013 calendar year and meeting the criteria for sleep study referral. Sleep study outcomes were used to assess the predictive value of screening under the new standard. Results A total of 200/4311 workers were investigated with a sleep study. One hundred and ninety-three met the new risk factor criteria and 182 (91%) were newly diagnosed with OSA. The prevalence of OSA in the study population was 7%, compared with 2% in 2009. No worker reported an elevated ESS. The false positive to true positive ratio was 0.1 (95% CI 0.06–0.16). Conclusions The new medical standard has resulted in an increased estimate of the prevalence of OSA in rail workers. This study supports the use of objective clinical risk factors to select workers for further investigation, aiming to minimize the risk of accidents associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and other comorbid conditions of OSA. PMID:26276756

  6. Prevalence of successful aging in the elderly in Western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores; Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Martha Judith; Cueva-Contreras, Jazmín; Vazquez Arias, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of successful aging in the elderly in Western Mexico and to analyze its variability by age, sex, education, marital status, and pension. Methods. This study employs data from the Health, Wellbeing, and Aging Study (SABE) in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Successful aging was operationalized in accordance with no important disease, no disability, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and being actively. There were a total of 3116 elderly. Results. 12.6% of older adults were "successful" aging. The old-old is a lower proportion of successful aging people; it ranges from 18.9% among people aged 60-69 years to 3.9% in the 80-89 years and up to 1% in people 90 and older. There were also differences according to sex (P = .000), with a higher proportion of successful aging men (18.4% compared with 9.2% of women). There were differences in educational level (P = .000); those higher with education were found to be more successful aging, and also there were differences in marital status for married people (P = .000). Discussion. A small number of older adults meet the criteria definition of successful aging, suggesting the need to analyze in depth the concept and the indicators.

  7. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  8. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  9. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  10. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year minimum age. The Act, in section 3(l), sets a general 16-year minimum age, which applies to all...

  11. Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes by sex and age group for five regions of Canada. DESIGN: Prevalence survey. SETTING: Community and institutional settings in Canada, excluding those in the two territories, Indian reserves and military units. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of people aged 65 and over interviewed between February 1991 and May 1992. Those in the community (9008 subjects) were chosen randomly from medicare lists in nine provinces or from the Enumeration Composite Record in Ontario. People in institutions (1255) were randomly selected from residents in stratified random samples of institutions in each region. INTERVENTIONS: Screening with the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination to identify cognitive impairment. Clinical examination of all those in institutions, those in the community with a 3MS score of less than 78 and a sample of those in the community with a 3MS score of 78 or more to diagnose dementia. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease were defined according to established criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of dementia of all types, by region, sex and age group, the estimated number of cases in the population by type of dementia and the age-standardized rate per 1000 population. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates suggested that 252,600 (8.0%) of all Canadians aged 65 and over met the criteria for dementia (95% confidence interval [CI] 236,800 to 268,400). These were divided roughly equally between the community and institutional samples; the female:male ratio was 2:1. The age-standardized rate ranged from 2.4%, among those aged 65 to 74 years, to 34.5%, among those aged 85 and over. The corresponding figures for Alzheimer's disease were 5.1% overall (161,000 cases; 95% CI 148,100 to 173,900), ranging from 1.0% to 26.0%; for vascular dementia it was 1.5% overall, ranging from 0.6% to 4.8%. If the prevalence estimates remain constant, the number of Canadians with dementia will rise to 592,000 by

  12. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  13. Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…

  14. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  15. The prevalence of wasting in Czech infants: a comparison of the WHO child growth standards and the Czech growth references.

    PubMed

    Vignerová, Jana; Paulová, Markéta; Shriver, Lenka H; Riedlová, Jitka; Schneidrová, Dagmar; Kudlová, Eva; Lhotská, Lída

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate the performance of the international World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards in the Czech Republic and determine the prevalence of wasting among children using the 1991 Czech growth reference and the WHO growth standards. The study utilized the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards and the 1991 Czech growth references. The WHO standards were based on a longitudinal study of 882 children aged 0-24 months and on cross-sectional studies of 6669 children aged 18-71 months. The 1991 Czech growth references were based on a cross-sectional survey including 90 910 children aged 0-18 years (34 164 were children aged < 5 years). The prevalence of wasting was significantly higher among Czech children when using the WHO growth standards compared with the Czech references. The prevalence of wasting among 0-5-month-old children was 15.5% among boys and 12.9% among girls compared with the expected 2.3% of the WHO standards. In the length category of 50 cm, 9.0% of boys and 9.9% of girls fell under the WHO wasting cut-off compared with the 3% from the Czech growth reference. The application of the WHO growth standards may results in a significant increase of Czech children classified in the category of wasting, especially among infants aged 0-5 months. The performance and potential impacts of the WHO growth standards should be evaluated further before their adoption in the Czech Republic and other countries with local growth references.

  16. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  17. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  18. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  19. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  20. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  1. Standards for reporting chronic periodontitis prevalence and severity in epidemiologic studies: Proposed standards from the Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group.

    PubMed

    Holtfreter, Birte; Albandar, Jasim M; Dietrich, Thomas; Dye, Bruce A; Eaton, Kenneth A; Eke, Paul I; Papapanou, Panos N; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal diseases are common and their prevalence varies in different populations. However, prevalence estimates are influenced by the methodology used, including measurement techniques, case definitions, and periodontal examination protocols, as well as differences in oral health status. As a consequence, comparisons between populations are severely hampered and inferences regarding the global variation in prevalence can hardly be drawn. To overcome these limitations, the authors suggest standardized principles for the reporting of the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in future epidemiological studies. These principles include the comprehensive reporting of the study design, the recording protocol, and specific subject-related and oral data. Further, a range of periodontal data should be reported in the total population and within specific age groups. Periodontal data include the prevalence and extent of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing depth (PD) on site and tooth level according to specific thresholds, mean CAL/PD, the CDC/AAP case definition, and bleeding on probing. Consistent implementation of these standards in future studies will ensure improved reporting quality, permit meaningful comparisons of the prevalence of periodontal diseases across populations, and provide better insights into the determinants of such variation.

  2. Age standardization in mapping adult overweight and obesity trends in the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Doak, C M; Wijnhoven, T M A; Schokker, D F; Visscher, T L S; Seidell, J C

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to improve comparability of available data within the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region taking into account differences related to the aging of the population. Surveys were included if they were conducted on adults aged 25-64 years between 1985 and 2010 in the WHO European Region. Overweight/obesity prevalences were adjusted to the European standard population aged 25-64. Data were entered for each of the 5-year categories between 1981 and 2010. Measured height and weight data were available for males in 16 and females in 24 of the 53 countries. The 50-64-year-olds had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared to the 25-49-year-olds. This pattern occurs in every country, by male and female, in almost all surveys. Age-standardized overweight prevalence was higher among males than females in all countries. Trend data showed increases in most countries. Age-standardized maps were based on self-reported data because of insufficient availability of measured data. Results showed more countries with available data as well as the higher category of obesity in the later surveys. Measured values are needed and age adjustment is important in documenting emerging overweight and obesity trends, independent of demographic changes, in the WHO European Region.

  3. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children as an appropriate indicator of its prevalence in the community.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula Braz; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Galvão, Aline Favre; Beck, Lilian; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento

    2010-07-01

    School-aged children (6-15 years) from the endemic area of Pernambuco were evaluated both as a target group for and an indicator of schistosomiasis control in the community. Parasitological data were drawn from baseline stool surveys of whole populations that were obtained to diagnose Schistosoma mansoni infection. Nineteen representative localities were selected for assessing the prevalence of schistosomiasis among individuals in the following age groups: 0-5, 6-15, 16-25, 26-40 and 41-80 years. For each locality, the prevalence in each age group was compared to that of the overall population using contingency table analysis. To select a reference group, the operational difficulties of conducting residential surveys were considered. School-aged children may be considered to be the group of choice as the reference group for the overall population for the following reasons: (i) the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this age group had the highest correlation with the prevalence in the overall population (r = 0.967), (ii) this age group is particularly vulnerable to infection and plays an important role in parasite transmission and (iii) school-aged children are the main target of the World Health Organization in terms of helminth control. The Schistosomiasis Control Program should consider school-aged children both as a reference group for assessing the need for intervention at the community level and as a target group for integrated health care actions of the Unified Health System that are focused on high-risk groups.

  4. Impact of population aging on trends in diabetes prevalence: A meta-regression analysis of 160,000 Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and Methods In the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). Results For both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70 years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5–6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5–8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2–9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9–16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5–12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. Conclusions This large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population. PMID:26417410

  5. Prevalence of primary headaches and cranial neuralgias in men and women aged 55-94 years (Bruneck Study).

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, J; Kiechl, S; Seppi, K; Sawires, M; Stockner, H; Erlacher, T; Mairhofer, M L; Niederkofler, H; Rungger, G; Gasperi, A; Poewe, W; Willeit, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of all primary headaches and cranial neuralgias in the general community. As part of the population-based Bruneck Study, 574 men and women aged 55-94 years underwent extensive neurological and laboratory examinations involving a standardized headache interview. In the Bruneck Study population the lifetime prevalence of all primary headaches combined and of cranial neuralgias was 51.7 and 1.6%, respectively. Tension-type headache (40.9%) and migraine (19.3%) emerged as the most common types of headache. In men and women aged 55-94 years the 1-year prevalence of primary headaches was high at 40.5%. In this age range headaches caused significant impairment of health-related quality of life. The Bruneck Study has confirmed the high lifetime prevalence of primary headaches and cranial neuralgias in the general population and provided first valid prevalence data for all primary headaches based on International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria.

  6. MARK-AGE standard operating procedures (SOPs): A successful effort.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Villanueva, María; Capri, Miriam; Breusing, Nicolle; Siepelmeyer, Anne; Sevini, Federica; Ghezzo, Alessandro; de Craen, Anton J M; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Schön, Christiane; Grune, Tilman; Franceschi, Claudio; Bürkle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Within the MARK-AGE project, a population study (3337 subjects) was conducted to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any single marker. The MARK-AGE project involves 14 European countries and a total of 26 research centres. In such a study, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an essential task, which are binding for all MARK-AGE Beneficiaries. The SOPs cover all aspects of subject's recruitment, collection, shipment and distribution of biological samples (blood and its components, buccal mucosa cells or BMC and urine) as well as the anthropometric measurements and questionnaires.

  7. Trends of smoking prevalence among Lithuanian school-aged children in 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Zemaitiene, Nida; Grabauskas, Vilius; Veryga, Aurelijus; Petkevicius, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite much effort spent on antismoking programs in schools in different countries, limited effects have been observed in many cases. Evidence from European countries shows that active tobacco control actions such as ban on tobacco advertising, increase of tobacco taxes could lead to successful results. Our study was aimed to analyze time trends on smoking in Lithuanian school-aged children during the period of 1994-2006 in the context of antismoking policies, which were implemented in Lithuania. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was a part of WHO Cross-National Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study carried out in Lithuania. The standardized methods of international HBSC study protocol were applied. Stratified random representative samples of 5428, 4513, 5645, and 5632 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included into school-based anonymous questionnaire surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively (spring semester). Questions on frequency of smoking, age of initiation and other questions were included. Response rates of each of these four questionnaire surveys were higher than 90%. RESULTS. Smoking behavior was more common among boys. The prevalence gap in smoking between boys and girls diminished during period of observation. Prevalence of smoking increased significantly among boys during the period of 1994-2002 (11.3%, 19.8%, and 23.6% in 1994, 1998, and 2002, respectively), but started to decline after (17.3% in 2006, P<0.05). Similar trends were observed among girls: 3.6%, 8.5%, 14.6%, and 12.5% of girls reported smoking in cross-sectional surveys of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively. Boys living in rural areas were more frequent smokers than those living in urban areas in 1994-1998 (9.5% vs 13.9%, P<0.05). However, the surveys of 2002-2006 showed opposite changes (25.6% vs 22.1%, P<0.05 and 17.8% vs 16.9%, P>0.05). Urban girls have reported smoking more frequently in comparison with rural girls. CONCLUSIONS. An

  8. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  9. Ar/Ar Dating Independent of Monitor Standard Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, S.; Hemming, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Because the reported age of an analyzed sample is dependent on the age of the co-irradiated monitor standard(s), Ar/Ar dating is a relative dating technique. There is disagreement at the 1% scale in the age of commonly used monitor standards, and there is a great need to improve the inter-laboratory calibrations. Additionally, new approaches and insights are needed to meet the challenge of bringing the Ar/Ar chronometer to the highest possible precision and accuracy. In this spirit, we present a conceptual framework for Ar/Ar dating that does not depend on the age of monitor standards, but only on the K content of a solid standard. The concept is demonstrated by introducing a re-expressed irradiation parameter (JK) that depends on the ratio of 39ArK to 40Ar* rather than the 40Ar*/39ArK ratio. JK is equivalent to the traditional irradiation parameter J and is defined as JK = (39Ar/40K) • (λ/λe). The ultimate precision and accuracy of the method will depend on how precisely and accurately the 39Ar and 40K can be estimated, and will require isotope dilution measurements of both from the same aliquot. We are testing the workability of our technique at the 1% level by measuring weighed and irradiated hornblende and biotite monitor standards using GLO-1 glauconite to define a calibration curve for argon signals versus abundance.

  10. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  11. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Genaro G.; Arias-Merino, Elva D.; Flores-Saiffe, María E.; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60. PMID:23243421

  12. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  13. Standards-Based Grading Practices among Practicing Music Educators: Prevalence and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Nathan A.; Wuttke, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to describe the prevalence of Standards-based grading (SBG) among practicing music teachers and report the rationale teachers provided for or against its use. Participants were music educators (N = 96) responsible for grading students. Most participants (52.08%, n = 50) indicated that they were not familiar with SBG. Many…

  14. Toward "Our Ways of Knowing" in the Age of Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz; De Moed, Simone Tuinhof

    2011-01-01

    Current neoliberal educational policies are impacting young children and their teachers in the United States in many ways. Young children and teachers find themselves in vulnerable positions within a framework of an imperialist education in the age of standardization. Part of the struggle is to open spaces of decolonization that include home…

  15. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian market-age pigs.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, A A; Aramini, J J; Tiffin, G; Bisaillon, J R

    1998-08-01

    During 1991 and 1992, 2,800 market-age pigs were sampled at federally inspected abattoirs from across Canada. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG at titers of > or =1:32 were found in 240 pigs examined by a commercial, latex agglutination test. Seroprevalences ranged from 3.5 to 13.2% in the different regions of the country. Tissue hybridization studies using a previously developed probe demonstrated T. gondii ribosomal RNA in 9 of 36 animals, whereas mouse bioassay testing of heart muscle and diaphragm from all 2,800 pigs failed to demonstrate the presence of infective stages of T. gondii in tissues. Although serology results from this study indicated that Canadian market-age pigs are infected with T. gondii at rates similar to those reported from other parts of North America, mouse bioassay results suggested that Canadian pork products contain low levels of infective organisms. This apparent discrepancy suggests that serological evidence of T. gondii infection in pigs alone does not accurately assess the public health risks associated with consuming improperly cooked pork products.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition among children aged 5 years and less in the Lefaragatlha village of Bophuthatswana.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G

    1994-08-01

    A cross-sectioned study was conducted at the Lefaragatha village of Bophuthatswana to document the prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition in children aged 0-5 years in June 1991. Fifty four households, in which there were children in the right age groups, were interviewed over three weeks. Of these children 14 (25.9%) were below the 3rd percentile of weight for age of the 1976 National Centre for Health Statistics standards; in the age group of 2 years and less, this figure was 28.6%, while in children older than 2 years the corresponding figure was 71.4%. Malnutrition was associated with a mother's consumption of alcohol and lack of resources such as water and an inappropriate staple diet. Education and income were not significant variables.

  18. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. PMID:27672303

  20. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation among Boys and Men Assessed Annually from Ages 9 to 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 206 boys (90% Caucasian), self-reported suicidal ideation (SI; ages 12 to 29) and parent-reported youth suicidal talk (ages 9 to 20) were assessed annually by questionnaire. One-week point prevalence of self-reported SI ranged from 2.6% to 16.3%. New cases emerged across adolescence; by age 29, 57.3% self-reported SI at least once.…

  1. The Prevalence of Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria: Can New Cutoff Values Be Suggested According to Age and Sex?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP) and to define new cutoff values according to age and sex for both conditions. Methods Data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted among a random sample of 2,128 adults were analyzed in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire including the International Continence Society (ICS) definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form. Additionally, a 1-day bladder diary was given to each individual. The participants were divided into 5 age groups. The prevalence of nocturia was calculated based on definitions of nocturia as ≥1 voiding episodes, ≥2 episodes, and ≥3 episodes. NP was evaluated according to the ICS definition. The mean±standard errors and 95th percentile values were calculated in each group as new cutoff values for NP. Results The prevalence of nocturia was estimated as 28.4%, 17.6%, and 8.9% for ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 voiding episodes each night, respectively. When nocturia was defined as 2 or more voiding episodes at night, the prevalence decreased significantly. The mean NP index was 29.4%±15.0% in men and 23.1%±11.8% in women. For the age groups of <50 years, 50–59 years, and ≥60 years, the new cutoff values for the diagnosis of NP were calculated as 48%, 69%, and 59% for men and 41%, 50%, and 42% for women, respectively. Conclusions We found that the definition of nocturia was still controversial and that waking up once for voiding might be within the normal spectrum of behavior. The definition of NP should be modified, and new cutoff values should be defined using the data presented in our study and in other forthcoming studies. PMID:28043108

  2. Recommendations for the treatment of aging in standard technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Allen, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the standard technical specifications for nuclear power plants to determine whether the current surveillance requirements (SRs) were effective in detecting age-related degradation. Nuclear Plant Aging Research findings for selected systems and components were reviewed to identify the stressors and operative aging mechanisms and to evaluate the methods available to detect, differentiate, and trend the resulting aging degradation. Current surveillance and testing requirements for these systems and components were reviewed for their effectiveness in detecting degraded conditions and for potential contributions to premature degradation. When the current surveillance and testing requirements appeared ineffective in detecting aging degradation or potentially could contribute to premature degradation, a possible deficiency in the SRs was identified that could result in undetected degradation. Based on this evaluation, PNL developed recommendations for inspection, surveillance, trending, and condition monitoring methods to be incorporated in the SRs to better detect age- related degradation of these selected systems and components.

  3. The Prevalence and Distribution of Aging-Friendly Human Resource Practices.

    PubMed

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B

    2015-07-01

    The aging of the workforce in the developed world has prompted organizations to implement human resource (HR) policies and practices encouraging older workers to defer retirement. However, little is known about the prevalence of such practices, and the organizational factors associated with their adoption. In this study, we used data collected from 2008 to 2009 from a national probability sample of retirement eligible workers in the United States (N = 407) to assess the prevalence of aging-friendly human resource practices (AFHRP), and their organizational predictors. Results indicate that employee wellness programs, unpaid leave, and reassignment based on physical needs are among the most prevalent AFHRP. However, in the vast majority of enterprises, AFHRP are limited. Results also indicate that projected organizational growth and a focus on internal labor market practices are positively associated with the adoption of AFHRP. Organizational size and the degree of unionization, while positively associated with aging-friendly benefits, were inversely associated with flexibility practices.

  4. Deriving age-specific incidence from prevalence with an ordinary differential equation.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Ralph; Landwehr, Sandra; Icks, Andrea; Koch, Michael; Giani, Guido

    2013-05-30

    This article describes new relationships between the age-specific incidence of, the prevalence of and mortality from a chronic disease. We express these relationships in terms of an ordinary differential equation and form the methodological basis for a novel approach to estimating incidences from age-specific prevalence data. We examine practical aspects of the relationships and a comparison with a known stochastic method in a simulation study. Finally, we apply the novel method to a data set of renal replacement therapy recorded from patients with chronic kidney failure in a region of Germany with approximately 310,000 inhabitants from 2002 to 2010.

  5. First report of asthma prevalence in Afghanistan using international standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Bemanin, M H; Fallahpour, M; Arshi, S; Nabavi, M; Yousofi, T; Shariatifar, A

    2015-05-19

    No data on the prevalence of asthma in Afghanistan have been published before. In a school-based survey in 2010-2011 the wheezing section of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 1500 children aged 6-7 years and 1500 adolescents aged 13-14 years old. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 12.5% in 6-7-year-olds and 17.3% in 13-14-year-olds (P = 0.002). The prevalence of wheeze in the last 12 months was similar in children and adolescents (19.2% and 21.7% respectively). The prevalence of ever wheezing, night attacks, speech-limiting wheeze and exercise-induced wheeze was 23.1%, 4.8%, 12.2% and 9.6% respectively in children and 30.5%, 4.4%, 13.0% and 13.6% respectively in adolescents. These rates are higher than those in neighbouring countries. This first epidemiological survey of asthma in Afghanistan shows that asthma and wheezing are common in Kabul students.

  6. The Prevalence of Depression among Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using a Standardized Psychiatric Interview

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Erla; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Pack, Allan I.; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Kuna, Samuel T.; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Keenan, Brendan T.; Maislin, Greg; Sigurdsson, Jón Fridrik

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aims of this study were: (1) to use a standardized psychiatric interview, conducted by a trained psychologist to assess the prevalence of depression among patients with untreated OSA, and (2) to identify if OSA severity or other comorbid disorders (insomnia, hypertension, and diabetes) are related to depression among patients with untreated OSA. Methods: Participants were newly diagnosed patients with OSA (n = 284) waiting to start positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess depression. Results: Overall, 15.5% of the sample met the diagnosis for dysthymia. Women had a significantly higher prevalence (29.5% versus 11.7% among men, p < 0.001). The prevalence of major depression was 6% in the overall sample and there was no difference in the prevalence among sexes (5.8% among men versus 6.6 % among women). Obesity, daytime sleepiness, low physical activity, initial and late insomnia, low quality of life, and sleep medication and antidepressant use were all related to depression, whereas OSA severity, as measured by apnea-hypopnea index or oxygen desaturation index, was not. Daytime sleepiness, initial insomnia, and sleep medication use were the strongest predictors of depression in multivariable analyses. Conclusions: Sleep medication use, daytime sleepiness, and symptoms of initial insomnia were independently related to depression but OSA severity was not. Increased awareness of the relationship between depression and OSA and the appropriate use of assessment tools might substantially improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcome for both disorders. Citation: Björnsdóttir E, Benediktsdóttir B, Pack AI, Arnardottir ES, Kuna ST, Gíslason T, Keenan BT, Maislin G, Sigurdsson JF. The prevalence of depression among untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients using a standardized psychiatric interview. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):105–112. PMID:26350608

  7. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  8. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  9. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in Spain, and the existing information shows important variations depending on the geographical setting and the methodology employed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CI in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area, and to analyze its associated risk factors. Methods Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional, home questionnaire-based study; Setting: Populational, urban setting. Participants: The reference population comprised over-65s living in the city of Salamanca (Spain) in 2009. Randomized sampling stratified according to health district was carried out, and a total of 480 people were selected. In all, 327 patients were interviewed (68.10%), with a mean age of 76.35 years (SD: 7.33). Women accounted for 64.5% of the total. Measurements: A home health questionnaire was used to obtain the following data: age, sex, educational level, family structure, morbidity and functionality. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. The prevalence data were compared with those of the European population, with direct adjustment for age and sex. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment - no dementia (CIND), and dementia. Results The prevalence of CI among these over-65s was 19% (14.7% CIND and 4.3% dementia). The age-and sex-adjusted global prevalence of CI was 14.9%. CI increased with age (p < 0.001) and decreased with increasing educational level (p < 0.001). Significant risk factors were found with the multivariate analyses: age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.12), anxiety-depression (OR = 3.47, 95%CI: 1.61-7.51) and diabetes (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18). In turn, years of education was found to be a protective factor (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.70-0.90). Although CI was more frequent among women and in people living without a partner, these characteristics were not significantly associated with CI risk

  10. Standardized Prevalence Ratios for Atrial Fibrillation in Adult Dialysis Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Okamura, Tomonori; Yonekura, Yuki; Kato, Karen; Fujishima, Yosuke; Obara, Wataru; Abe, Takaya; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Omama, Shinichi; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Morino, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kuribayashi, Toru; Makita, Shinji; Yoshida, Yuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Ohta, Mutsuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Okayama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background While it is assumed that dialysis patients in Japan have a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) than the general population, the magnitude of this difference is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for AF in dialysis patients (n = 1510) were calculated compared to data from the general population (n = 26 454) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of AF were 3.8% and 1.6% in dialysis patients and the general population, respectively. In male subjects, these respective values were 4.9% and 3.3%, and in female subjects they were 1.6% and 0.6%. The SPRs for AF were 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88–3.19) in all dialysis patients, 1.80 (95% CI, 1.30–2.29) in male dialysis patients, and 2.13 (95% CI, 0.66–3.61) in female dialysis patients. Conclusions The prevalence of AF in dialysis patients was twice that in the population-based controls. Since AF strongly contributes to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, further longitudinal studies should be conducted regarding the risk of several outcomes attributable to AF among Japanese dialysis patients. PMID:26804038

  11. The prevalence of multimorbidity in a geographically defined American population: patterns by age, sex, and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bobo, William V.; Rutten, Lila J.; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauver, Jennifer L. St.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity involving 20 selected chronic conditions in a geographically defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system, we identified all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2010, and we electronically extracted the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes associated with all healthcare visits made between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010 (5-year capture frame). Using these ICD-9 codes, we defined the 20 common chronic conditions recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We counted only persons who received at least two codes for a given condition separated by more than 30 days, and calculated the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of multimorbidity. Results Of the 138,858 study subjects, 52.4% were women, 38.9% had one or more conditions, 22.6% had two or more, and 4.9% had 5 or more conditions. The prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) increased steeply with older age and reached 77.3% at ages 65 years and older. However, the absolute number of people affected by multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity was similar in men and women overall, the most common dyads and triads of conditions varied by sex. Compared to Whites, the prevalence of multimorbidity was slightly higher in Blacks and slightly lower in Asians. Conclusion Multimorbidity is common in the general population; it increases steeply with older age, has different patterns in men and women, and varies by ethnicity. PMID:25220409

  12. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Chinese Children aged 1–7 ys

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yifeng; Li, Ping; Tang, Jianping; Han, Xiuping; Zou, Xiaoyan; Xu, Gang; Xu, Zigang; Wei, Fenglei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Min; Xiao, Fengli; Zong, Wenkai; Shen, Chunping; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Luo, Yongqi; Chang, Jing; Sheng, Nan; Dong, Chun; Zhang, Duo; Dai, Xing; Zhou, Jinjie; Meng, Chi; Niu, Hongxi; Shi, Xuemei; Zhang, Xinglian; Xiang, Juan; Xu, Haitao; Ran, Qin; Zhou, Yi; Li, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Ruhong; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Hua; Gu, Heng; Ma, Lin; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Up to date, there has been no face-to-face nation-wide study in China. We aim to explore the prevalence of clinical diagnosed AD in children aged 1–7 ys in China. Twelve metropolises were chosen from different areas of China. In each region, we selected 4–10 kindergartens and 2–5 vaccination clinics randomly. A complete history-taking and skin examination were performed by dermatologists. The definite diagnosis of AD and the severity were determined by two or three dermatologists. All criteria concerned in UK diagnosis criteria, characteristic presentation of AD and atypical manifestations were recorded in detail. A total of 13998 children from 84 kindergartens and 40 vaccination clinics were included. The prevalence of AD was 12.94% by clinical diagnosis of dermatologists overall, with 74.6% of mild AD. Comparatively, prevalence of AD based on UK diagnostic criteria was 4.76%. This is the first face-to-face nation-wide study in Chinese children aged 1–7 ys, revealing that the prevalence of AD in children is closer to that of wealthier nations. PMID:27432148

  13. Comparing the role of standard references on the prevalence of Iranian children and adolescents’ overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Saeed; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children < 6, 6–12, and 12–20 years old, despite differences between definitions of childhood obesity, were included in the study. We combined the reported prevalence of the overweight and obesity with regard to age and gender, and also by the different standard references which are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) references. The analysis was carried out using STATA software. Results: Our review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.

  14. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  15. Semi-parametric estimation of age-time specific infection incidence from serial prevalence data.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerke, N; Heisterkamp, S; Borgdorff, M; Broekmans, J; Van Houwelingen, H

    1999-02-15

    Many infections cause lasting detectable immune responses, whose prevalence can be estimated from cross-sectional surveys. However, such surveys do not provide direct information on the incidence of infection. We address the issue of estimating age and time specific incidence from a series of prevalence surveys under the assumption that incidence changes exponentially with time, but make no assumption about the age specific incidence. We show that these assumptions lead to a proportional hazards model and estimate its parameters using semi-parametric maximum likelihood methods. The method is applied to tuberculin surveys in The Netherlands to explore age dependence of the risk of tuberculous infection in the presence of a strong secular decline in this risk.

  16. Leukocyte telomere length and prevalence of age-related diseases in semisupercentenarians, centenarians and centenarians' offspring.

    PubMed

    Tedone, Enzo; Arosio, Beatrice; Gussago, Cristina; Casati, Martina; Ferri, Evelyn; Ogliari, Giulia; Ronchetti, Francesco; Porta, Alessandra; Massariello, Francesca; Nicolini, Paola; Mari, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Centenarians and their offspring are increasingly considered a useful model to study and characterize the mechanisms underlying healthy aging and longevity. The aim of this project is to compare the prevalence of age-related diseases and telomere length (TL), a marker of biological age and mortality, across five groups of subjects: semisupercentenarians (SSCENT) (105-109years old), centenarians (CENT) (100-104years old), centenarians' offspring (CO), age- and gender-matched offspring of parents who both died at an age in line with life expectancy (CT) and age- and gender-matched offspring of both non-long-lived parents (NLO). Information was collected on lifestyle, past and current diseases, medical history and medication use. SSCENT displayed a lower prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (p=0.027), angina (p=0.016) and depression (p=0.021) relative to CENT. CO appeared to be healthier compared to CT who, in turn, displayed a lower prevalence of both arrhythmia (p=0.034) and hypertension (p=0.046) than NLO, characterized by the lowest parental longevity. Interestingly, CO and SSCENT exhibited the longest (p<0.001) and the shortest (p<0.001) telomeres respectively while CENT showed no difference in TL compared to the younger CT and NLO. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that the longevity of parents may influence the health status of their offspring. Moreover, our data also suggest that both CENT and their offspring may be characterized by a better TL maintenance which, in turn, may contribute to their longevity and healthy aging. The observation that SSCENT showed considerable shorter telomeres compared to CENT may suggest a progressive impairment of TL maintenance mechanisms over the transition from centenarian to semisupercentenarian age.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  18. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients and the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chao; Tuo, Bi-Guang; Wu, Wei-Min; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Kui

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients in China to analyze the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The results showed that the prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcer increased with age. In patients under 60 years old, the prevalence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in females was markedly lower than that in males, especially the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients was markedly higher than in patients without H. pylori infection. In the patients under 60 years old, sex differences were still seen in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcers was markedly increased with age in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, and H. pylori infection were three independent risk factors for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

  19. The anorexia of ageing: physiopathology, prevalence, associated comorbidity and mortality. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Malafarina, Vincenzo; Uriz-Otano, Francisco; Gil-Guerrero, Lucía; Iniesta, Raquel

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes of ageing and factors prevalent in the elderly such as comorbidities and polypharmacy often cause loss of appetite in the elderly, which we call anorexia of ageing. Social factors, together with changes in the sensory organs, can be important causes of a reduction in both appetite and ingestion. This review assesses the regulation of appetite in the elderly and the development of anorexia of ageing. It also examines the prevalence of this type of anorexia, its associated comorbidities and mortality rates. We have reviewed 27 studies, with a total of 6208 patients. These reported changes in the secretion and response of both central and peripheral hormones that regulate appetite. Anorexia, very prevalent among hospitalized and institutionalized elderly people, is associated with comorbidity and represents a predictive factor for mortality. No treatment for it has been proved to be effective. The mechanism regulating ingestion in elderly people is complex and difficult to resolve. Comorbidity as a cause or a consequence of anorexia of ageing has become a research field of great interest in geriatrics. A correct nutritional evaluation is a fundamental part of an integrated geriatric assessment.

  20. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  1. The Age Related Prevalence of Aggression and Self-Injury in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Louise; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse statistically published data regarding the age related prevalence of aggression and self-injury in persons with intellectual disability. Studies including prevalence data for aggression and/or self-injury broken down by age band were identified and relative risk analyses conducted to generate indices of age…

  2. Monitoring trends in HIV prevalence among young people, aged 15 to 24 years, in Manicaland, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In June 2001, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) set a target of reducing HIV prevalence among young women and men, aged 15 to 24 years, by 25% in the worst-affected countries by 2005, and by 25% globally by 2010. We assessed progress toward this target in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, using repeated household-based population serosurvey data. We also validated the representativeness of surveillance data from young pregnant women, aged 15 to 24 years, attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics, which UNAIDS recommends for monitoring population HIV prevalence trends in this age group. Changes in socio-demographic characteristics and reported sexual behaviour are investigated. Methods Progress towards the UNGASS target was measured by calculating the proportional change in HIV prevalence among youth and young ANC attendees over three survey periods (round 1: 1998-2000; round 2: 2001-2003; and round 3: 2003-2005). The Z-score test was used to compare differences in trends between the two data sources. Characteristics of participants and trends in sexual risk behaviour were analyzed using Student's and two-tailed Z-score tests. Results HIV prevalence among youth in the general population declined by 50.7% (from 12.2% to 6.0%) from round 1 to 3. Intermediary trends showed a large decline from round 1 to 2 of 60.9% (from 12.2% to 4.8%), offset by an increase from round 2 to 3 of 26.0% (from 4.8% to 6.0%). Among young ANC attendees, the proportional decline in prevalence of 43.5% (from 17.9% to 10.1%) was similar to that in the population (test for differences in trend: p value = 0.488) although ANC data significantly underestimated the population prevalence decline from round 1 to 2 (test for difference in trend: p value = 0.003) and underestimated the increase from round 2 to 3 (test for difference in trend: p value = 0.012). Reductions in risk behaviour between rounds 1 and 2 may have been responsible for general population prevalence declines

  3. The prevalence of asthma in children of elementary school age in western New York.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined

  4. 573 Prevalence of Allergen Sensitization in Children with Atopy Suspicion between Six Months and Five Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marinovic, Maria Angelica; Rojas, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically we have been taught that the skin prick test (SPT) must be performed over 4 years of age mainly because of the lack of sensibility the test has on younger children, now a days the utility of the SPT in younger children with atopic history is controversial and it would help make an early diagnosis. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of allergen sensitization in children between 0 and 5 years of age that have atopic history. We also describe the sensitization percentages to the most relevant allergens according to age group. Methods SPT performed between January 2006 and July 2010 at the Respiratory and Allergy Department of Clínica Santa Maria to children with atopic story were analyzed. A standard base of 21 allergens from LETI laboratory was used. Results Seven hundred and fifty two children with SPT were studied; they were divided into 2 groups. Group A corresponding to children between 6 and 24 months of age, group B corresponding to children between 25 months and 5 years of age. In group A 76 SPT and group B 676 SPT were performed. The total number of SPT positive to 1 or more allergens was 46.4%. (Group A: 6.4%, group B 40%). The most prevalent allergens according to age were: group A: grass 16%, egg 16%, cat dander 10% and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinsus and farinae) 10%. Group B: grass 15%, house dust mite 13.6%, fungal allergens (Aspergillus an Alternaria) 11.4%, trees 9% and cat dander 6.6%. Conclusions A high sensitization percentage to grass and egg is seen under 24 months of age. Egg sensitization diminishes significantly over 2 years of age, on the other hand house dust mite and fungal sensitization increases with age which could be explained by a longer exposure time in genetically predisposed children. Forty-six percent of the children are sensitized to 1 or more allergens which make us question the classical indication that SPT will be done over 4 years of age. When high suspicion of

  5. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators.

  6. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  7. Prevalence of ultrasound-determined cystic endometrial hyperplasia and the relationship with age in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Whiteside, Helen; England, Gary C W

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential relationship between age and diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the bitches, 348 ultrasound examinations from 240 bitches (Labradors, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Flat Coated Retrievers, or crosses of those breeds aged between 1.6 and 7.2 years at examination) were examined. A subpopulation of 32 bitches that had completed their breeding careers at 6 years or more of age was also identified. Of all, 18.3% of the bitches were diagnosed with CEH; these cases were newly diagnosed when bitches were between 2.5 years and 7.3 years of age. The proportion of ultrasound examinations in which CEH was identified increased from 6.8% of examinations on 2-year-old breeding bitches to 60.0% of examinations on 6-year-old bitches. Logistic regression identified a positive correlation between mean age at the examination and presence of CEH (χ(2) = 30.74, degrees of freedom = 1, P < 0.001). For 32 bitches that had completed their breeding career, the prevalence of CEH was 56.3%, age at the diagnosis ranged from 3.8 to 7.3 years, and the proportion of bitches affected with CEH increased from 6.3% at 3 years of age to 56.3% at 7 years of age. These data support the contention that the prevalence of CEH increases with age.

  8. HCV synthesis project: preliminary analyses of HCV prevalence in relation to age and duration of injection.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Holly; Des Jarlais, Don C; Stern, Rebecca; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Scheinmann, Roberta; Strauss, Shiela; Flom, Peter L

    2007-10-01

    Early acquisition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection appears to affect a substantial proportion of injection drug users (IDUs)--between 20 percent and 90 percent. Analysing the range of HCV prevalence estimates in new injectors may help identify factors that can be modified to reduce HCV transmission. The HCV Synthesis Project is a meta-analysis of studies of HCV epidemiology and prevention in drug users worldwide. In this preliminary analysis, we examined data from 127 studies of IDUs that reported HCV prevalence in relation to age or year since onset of drug injection, analysing heterogeneity and calculating summary statistics where appropriate. Six studies reported gender-specific HCV prevalence rates among young or new injectors; the group mean prevalence was 47 percent for men and 44 percent for women (NS). Group mean age for HCV-negatives was 24.7 years (range 24-28) and 26.1 years (range 21-31) for HCV-positives (n=8 studies). Data were examined from 13 studies that compared HCV prevalence among young injectors to older injectors using 5-year age categories; substantial variation was present within these categories such that measures of central tendency were not calculated. Similarly, among studies reporting HCV prevalence among IDUs in relation to 1-year intervals of duration of injection (<1 year, <2 years, and <3 years), considerable variability was observed. Notably, there were studies in each category that reported prevalence of 70 percent or higher among recent-onset drug injectors. Our findings confirm previous studies reporting high risk of acquiring HCV shortly after onset of injection; thus, HCV prevention programmes must emphasize methods to reach new injectors. Future research should (1) report data on time to infection in depth, (2) provide detailed information on study methodology, and (3) characterize the research setting with respect to underlying factors that affect injection practices and networks. This will permit synthesis of a greater

  9. Height and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies reported that height was inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the association between height and hypertension was unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between height and blood pressure or prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. A total of 33,197 participants aged 37 to 94 years were recruited from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study in Hubei province, China. All participants completed baseline questionnaires, medical examinations and provided blood samples. Hypertension was define as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 140 mmHg or/and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over 90 mmHg, or current use of antihypertensive medication, or participants with self-reported physician diagnosis of hypertension. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of hypertension was 69.1% for men and 58.0% for women. Pulse pressure (PP) and SBP, but not DBP decreased linearly with increasing height among men and women. Comparing the highest with the shortest quartile of height, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.71, 0.91) for men and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for women. In conclusion, height was associated with reduced SBP, PP and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. PMID:28000763

  10. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  11. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  12. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (<45, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75 years). The prevalence and burden of AAC increased monotonically and supralinearly with age in both sexes but was greater in men than women in each age group. Below age 45 <16% of referent-subsample participants had any quantifiable AAC, while above age 65 nearly 90% of referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181

  13. Frailty prevalence and slow walking speed in persons age 65 and older: implications for primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Frailty in the elderly increases their vulnerability and leads to a greater risk of adverse events. According to various studies, the prevalence of the frailty syndrome in persons age 65 and over ranges between 3% and 37%, depending on age and sex. Walking speed in itself is considered a simple indicator of health status and of survival in older persons. Detecting frailty in primary care consultations can help improve care of the elderly, and walking speed may be an indicator that could facilitate the early diagnosis of frailty in primary care. The objective of this work was to estimate frailty-syndrome prevalence and walking speed in an urban population aged 65 years and over, and to analyze the relationship between the two indicators from the perspective of early diagnosis of frailty in the primary care setting. Methods Population cohort of persons age 65 and over from two urban neighborhoods in northern Madrid (Spain). Cross-sectional analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analysis with binary logistic regression to study the variables associated with frailty. Different cut-off points between 0.4 and 1.4 m/s were used to study walking speed in this population. The relationship between frailty and walking speed was analyzed using likelihood ratios. Results The study sample comprised 1,327 individuals age 65 and older with mean age 75.41 ± 7.41 years; 53.4% were women. Estimated frailty in the study population was 10.5% [95% CI: 8.9-12.3]. Frailty increased with age (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.19) and was associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.43-4.44), number of drugs prescribed (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26) and disability (OR = 6.58; 95% CI: 3.92-11.05). Walking speed less than 0.8 m/s was found in 42.6% of cases and in 56.4% of persons age 75 and over. Walking speed greater than 0.9 m/s ruled out frailty in the study sample. Persons age 75 and older with walking speed <0.8 m/s are at particularly high

  14. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  15. Frailty in Older Breast Cancer Survivors: Age, Prevalence, and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jill A.; Winters-Stone, Kerri M.; Dobek, Jessica; Nail, Lillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Describe frailty and associated factors in breast cancer survivors Design Cross-sectional descriptive Setting School of nursing Sample 216 breast cancer survivors (BCS) aged 53–87 not currently participating in exercise Methods Performance tests, clinical measures, and self-reported questionnaires provided baseline data analyzed for this study Main Research Variables Frailty was defined as meeting 3 of the 5 criteria of the Frailty Phenotype: shrinking, exhaustion, low activity, slowness, and weakness. Data were compared to published data from women in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Women’s Health and Aging Study (WHAS). Findings 18% of BCS aged 70–79 were frail, compared to 11% of CHS and WHAS women aged 70–79. Frailty was more common at a younger age in BCS and more BCS were frail in all age groups compared to CHS women until approximately age 80 when prevalence of frailty was similar in the two groups. 50% of BCS were classified as prefrail because they met 1–2 of the 5 frailty criteria. Higher body mass index increased the odds of frailty and higher physical activity decreased the odds of frailty (OR= 1.12, p=.003 and OR=.99, p=.000 respectively). Conclusions Frailty and prefrailty may be common in BCS and may occur at an earlier age than in adults without a history of cancer. PMID:23615146

  16. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, W J; Segreto, V; Collins, E

    1985-01-01

    The severity of dental mottling in 2,592 school-aged, lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities was investigated in 1980-81 to identify factors associated with mottling and to construct a prediction model for the prevalence of mottling. The communities were selected to obtain a wide range of levels of fluoride in the drinking water. The children within each of the communities were contacted through their schools and received a dental examination to assess the severity of mottling. Information on demographic, dental health practice, and other candidate predictor variables was obtained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. A number of water quality measurements were also recorded for each community. White and Spanish-surname children had about the same prevalence of mottling while Blacks had a higher prevalence, odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 3.7. Children from homes which had air conditioning had a lower prevalence of mottling (OR = .6, (0.4, 0.8)). The use of fluoride toothpaste or drops and the number of fluoride treatments were almost identical among those who did and did not develop moderate mottling. In addition to fluoride, total dissolved solids and zinc were water quality variables associated with mottling. PMID:4061713

  17. Age-related prevalence and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection in a St. Lucian community.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Cooper, E S; Thompson, D E; Anderson, R M; Didier, J M

    1987-01-01

    Age-related changes in the average worm burden and the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection, in a village community in St. Lucia, were examined by field studies based on worm expulsion techniques. Horizontal age-intensity profiles were convex in form with peak parasite loads occurring in the 2 to 15-year-old children. Prevalence is shown to be a poor indicator of changes in average worm load with age. Faecal egg counts (epg and epd) provide a qualitative measure of worm burdens since fecundity is shown to be approximately independent of worm load. The parasites were highly aggregated within the study community, with most people harbouring low burdens while a few individuals harboured very heavy burdens. Of the total parasite populations in the study sample, 84% were harboured by the 2 to 15-year-old children. Of those individuals harbouring 100 worms or more, 87% were in the 2 to 10-year-old age range. Crude estimates of population parameters (basic reproductive rate, 4-5; rate of reinfection, 90 year-1) suggest that the rate of reinfection is higher than for other helminth parasites of man. The control of morbidity and parasite transmission is discussed in the context of targeting drug treatment at the child segment of the study population.

  18. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account. PMID:26339507

  19. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  20. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; O'Brien, Louise M; Cluydts, Raymond; Verleye, Gino Benjamin; Ferri, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence, odds, and predictors of 36 paediatric sleep behaviours and describe their coexistence in a school-age normal population. The design was community-based questionnaire survey of sleep-wake patterns, sleep environment, and 36 sleep behaviours indicative of six sleep disorder-subscales using the Health-Behaviour Questionnaire. A caregivers' report of 3045 children aged 6-13 years in Belgium constituted the participants. Prevalence of each sleep behaviour was calculated. Log-linear modelling within and between the sleep disorder-subscales was used to screen for coexistence. The effect size of selected night-time parameters to the likelihood of sleep behaviours and disorder-subscale was expressed as odds ratios via logit regression analysis. Significant differences in sleep-wake patterns were found between weekday and weekend. Ranking by odds showed that: (1) sleep problems such as 'tired when waking up', 'repetitive limb movements', 'going to bed reluctantly', and 'sleep paralysis' and; (2) the disorder-subscale 'excessive somnolence' are common in children. Coexistences within and between disorder-subscales of sleep problems are evident in a school-age, normal population. These results suggest that disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are highly prevalent in a non-clinical sample of school-age children. Furthermore, sleep-onset latency and a noisy, not well-darkened room are predictive towards the odds for exhibiting sleep problems and disorders. It is advocated that more information on the importance of good sleep-wake hygiene should reach parents and children.

  1. Teething disturbances; prevalence of objective manifestations in children under age 4 months to 36 months

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Sakeenabi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to present data as responded by parents on teething manifestation during eruption of primary teeth and the occurrence of objective manifestations in children ages 4 months to 36 months. Settings and Design: Hospital based face-to-face questionnaire study. Study Design: One thousand and one hundred children ages four to 36 months who had at least one erupting tooth were included in the study. Parents were asked to complete a short questionnaire and children were then checked by one of the authors. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square analysis was performed to analyze information obtained. Level of significance was set at P<.05. Results: There were 660 girls (60%) and 440 boys (40%) in the study. The most frequent clinical manifestations were: Fever (16%), drooling (12%), diarrhea (8%), fever-drooling (15%), fever-diarrhea(8%) and drooling-diarrhea (6%). In the study sample, boys demonstrated a higher prevalence of diarrhea than girls (P<.05). No statistical significance regarding other clinical manifestations and gender were observed. Teething manifestations were most prevalent during the eruption of primary incisors. Occurrence of clinical manifestations in 4-12months and 13-24 months age was statistically significant when compared with 25-36months age (P<0.05). Conclusions: An association has been shown between general objective manifestations like fever (the most prevalent), drooling and diarrhea, and the eruption of primary teeth. Most manifestations appeared during the eruption of the primary incisors. Key words:Teething, primary teeth, eruption. PMID:22143712

  2. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  3. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  4. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans among Brazilian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula; Ferreira, Lana Cristina Evangelista Sá; Da Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are no studies assessing the simultaneous occurrence of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) in the primary health care in Brazil. Despite different conditions to establishment of each one, the co-detection of both has been reported by some authors in previous studies from other regions. Aim To compare the prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. albicans in correlation with associated variables. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in a family health clinic in the Federal District of Brazil, between November 2014 and March 2015. Vaginal swabs were collected from 201 women of the reproductive age selected from women registered at the family health clinic. Minors and pregnant women were excluded. The rates of T. vaginalis and Candida albicans prevalence were evaluated with vaginal pH, the whiff test, sexual practices and other social and demographic variables. Difference between proportions was assessed by Z-Test. Results C. albicans was present in 20% of the women, while 16% of them had T. vaginalis. The simultaneous occurrence of the agents was found in 1.5%. Significant differences were found between prevalence rates for the variables race/skin colour, practice of anilingus and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusion The prevalence of T. vaginalis exceeds C.albicans among women with higher numbers of sexual partners. The prevalence of C. albicans was higher than T. vaginalis among white women and those who practice active and receptive anilingus. The simultaneous occurrence of the two microorganisms was uncommon. PMID:28050410

  6. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  7. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Young Children in the Absence of a Gold Standard

    PubMed Central

    Ascaso, Carlos; Malheiro, Adriana; Bührer, Samira; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor; Abellana, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children up to 6 years of age in Manaus/Brazil during the years 2009–2010. All the children had been vaccinated with the BCG and were classified into two groups according to the presence of a TB-HCC or no known contact with tuberculosis (TB). The variables studied were: the TST and QFT results and the intensity and length of exposure to the index tuberculosis case. We used the latent class model to determine the prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of the tests. Results Fifty percent of the children with TB-HCC had LTBI, with the prevalence depending on the intensity and length of exposure to the index case. The sensitivity and specificity of TST were 73% [95% confidence interval (CI): 53–91] and 97% (95%CI: 89–100), respectively, versus 53% (95%CI: 41–66) and 81% (95%CI:71–90) for QFT. The positive predictive value of TST in children with TB-HCC was 91% (95%CI: 61–99), being 74% for QFT (95%CI: 47–95). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in children and the parameters of the main diagnostic tests using a latent class model. Our results suggest that children in contact with an index case have a high risk of infection. The accuracy and the predictive value of the two tests did not significantly differ. Combined use of the two tests showed scarce improvement in the diagnosis of LTBI. PMID:27783642

  8. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-12-03

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1-4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1-4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites.

  9. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  10. Prevalence and distribution of abdominal aortic calcium by gender and age group in a community-based cohort (from the Framingham Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Chuang, Michael L; Massaro, Joseph M; Levitzky, Yamini S; Fox, Caroline S; Manders, Emily S; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2012-09-15

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease. However, the age- and gender-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3,285 participants (aged 50.2 ± 9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography from 1998 to 2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (n = 1,656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by gender and age (<45, 45 to 54, 55 to 64, 65 to 74, and ≥75 years). The prevalence and burden of AAC increased monotonically and supra-linearly with age in both genders but was greater in men than in women in each age group. For those <45 years old, <16% of the referent subsample participants had any quantifiable AAC. However, for those >65 years old, nearly 90% of the referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of the referent group AAC as "high," the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each gender in the overall study sample. The AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort.

  11. Construction Industry Apprentices' Substance Use: A Survey of Prevalence Rates, Reasons for Use, and Regional and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence rates and reasons for substance use were studied in a sample of 172 male construction industry apprentices who had a mean age of 20 years. Results were compared with those of men in similar age groups in Victoria, and regional and age differences were explored. Findings indicate that more metropolitan apprentices had experimented with…

  12. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

  13. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians.

  14. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  15. Prevalence of Elevated Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in a Rural School-Aged Population: Implications for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Carol Ann; Meadows, Beth Bender; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight in students and adolescents has become a matter of national concern and is linked to a rise in chronic health conditions in students who previously had low prevalence rates, such as cardiovascular disease. This study examined the relationships between age, ethnicity, race, body mass index (BMI), and elevated…

  16. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Colombara, Danny V.; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011–2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ2 tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0–5 months, those 6–23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  17. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in a central district in Islamic Republic of Iran: a population-based study on adults aged 40-80 years.

    PubMed

    Katibeh, M; Hosseini, S; Soleimanizad, R; Manaviat, M R; Kheiri, B; Khabazkhoob, M; Daftarian, N; Dehghan, M H

    2015-09-08

    Previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Islamic Republic of Iran were mainly performed in provinces with large populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in an adult population (40-80 years old) from Yazd district. Multistage, systematic cluster random sampling was used in a crosssectional, population-based survey. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected, with diabetes defined as fasting blood sugar ≥ 7 mmol/L or a positive medical history of diabetes. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2090 individuals participants was 24.5% (95% CI: 22.2-26.8%), including 10.5% new cases. For each year of ageing, the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly by 4% and this trend was more pronounced in females than males. Low education and hypertension were significantly associated with diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Yazd is greater than the average levels nationwide and those of nearby countries.

  19. Caught in the act? Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of physician detection of unannounced standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Franz, Carol E; Epstein, Ron; Miller, Katherine N; Brown, Arthur; Song, Jun; Feldman, Mitchell; Franks, Peter; Kelly-Reif, Steven; Kravitz, Richard L

    2006-12-01

    Objective. To examine the prevalence, predictors, and consequences of physician detection of unannounced standardized patients (SPs) in a study of the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on treatment for depression. Data Sources. Eighteen trained SPs were randomly assigned to conduct 298 unannounced audio-recorded visits with 152 primary care physicians in three U.S. cities between May 2003 and May 2004. Study Design. Randomized controlled trial using SPs. SPs portrayed six roles, created by crossing two clinical conditions (major depression or adjustment disorder) with three medication request scripts (brand-specific request, general request for an antidepressant, or no request). Data Collection. Within 2 weeks following the visit, physicians completed a form asking whether they "suspected" conducting an office visit with an SP during the past 2 weeks; 296 (99 percent) detection forms were returned. Physicians provided contextual data, a Clinician Background Questionnaire. SPs filled in a Standardized Patient Reporting Form for each visit and returned all written prescriptions and medication samples to the laboratory. Principal Findings. Depending on the definition, detection rates ranged from 5 percent (unambiguous detection) to 23.6 percent (any degree of suspicion) of SP visits. In 12.8 percent of encounters, physicians accurately detected the SP before or during the visit but they only rarely believed their suspicions affected their clinical behavior. In random effects logistic regression analyses controlling for role, actor, physician, and practice factors, suspected visits occurred less frequently in HMO settings than in solo practice settings (p<.05). Physicians more frequently referred SPs to mental health professionals when visits aroused high suspicion (p<.05). Conclusions. Trained actors portrayed patient roles conveying mood disorders at low levels of detection. There was some evidence for differential treatment of detected standardized patients

  20. Prevalence of microalbuminuria among middle-aged population of China: a multiple center cardiovascular epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang; Wang, ZengWu; Zhang, Linfeng; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Shao, Lan; Zhu, Manlu

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and the relationships with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among a middle-aged Chinese population. Data from 10 313 participants were included in our cross-sectional survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as the urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 30:300 mg/g from a single-spot morning urine sample. Microalbuminuria was found to be common in males and females (15.04% vs 10.09%) aged 35 to 64 years in this Chinese general population, especially in those with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Multivariate analysis found that body mass index, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and diabetes were independently associated with MAU. Microalbuminuria may be a useful indicator for risk of CV disease in general populations.

  1. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  2. Prevalence of diabetes and unrecognized diabetes in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya; Hu, Rong; Ouyang, Ling-yun; Liu, Jian-xiong; Li, Xiu-jun; Yi, Yan-jing; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Zhao, Shui-ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of diabetes and unrecognized diabetes in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China. From September 2013 to March 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4021 hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years living in Chengdu and Chongqing, China. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h plasma glucose (2-hPG) in an oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) were used for assessments. Whether the patients previously had diabetes (DM) was determined by their own reports. The survey was carried out by the same questionnaire for all respondents. DM prevalence was 32.0% in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China, with the rates of 29.6% and 33.5% in men and women, respectively (P<0.001). DM prevalence increased with age age and body-mass index. DM prevalence rates were 16.9%, 24.7%, 38.2% and 41.9% in hypertensive patients aged 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and over 70, respectively. DM prevalence were 30.6%, 27.9%, 37.1%, and 37.4%, for BMI<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, and ≥30, respectively. Prevalence of unrecognized DM were 20.8% in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China. Using only fasting blood glucose testing without OGTT would have resulted in 65.0% of missed DM diagnosis in these newly diagnosed patients. The prevalence of DM and unrecognized DM were high in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China.These findings indicate that hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years should regularly submit to community-based OGTT screening for timely DM diagnosis. PMID:28192474

  3. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  4. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  5. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed.

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus in slaughter-age pigs in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Crossan, C; Grierson, S; Thomson, J; Ward, A; Nunez-Garcia, J; Banks, M; Scobie, L

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of anti-HEV isotype-specific antibodies and viraemia were investigated in serum samples collected from slaughter-age pigs (aged 22-24 weeks) from 23 farms in Scotland. Of 176 serum samples tested, 29·0% (n = 51) were anti-HEV IgG positive, 36·9% (n = 65) anti-HEV IgA positive and 29·0% (n = 51) anti-HEV IgM positive. Overall seroprevalence (anti-HEV IgG+ and/or IgA+ and/or IgM+) was 61·4% (n = 108). HEV RNA was detected in 72/162 serum samples (44·4%). Partial sequence of ORF2 (98 nt) was obtained from eight HEV RNA-positive samples and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that they were all of genotype 3. This is the first report on the prevalence of HEV in pigs in Scotland. Given the increasing incidence of locally acquired HEV infection in the UK, evidence that HEV is a foodborne zoonosis emphasizes the need for surveillance in pigs.

  7. Prevalence and severity of anaemia stratified by age and gender in rural India.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Yalla, Pradeep S; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR), 9.8-12.4) in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6-14.2) in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children <10 years, women after puberty, and older adults. Children <5 years had the highest prevalence of anaemia, especially children aged 1-2 years. The high proportion of microcytic anaemia and the fact that gender differences were only seen after the menarche period in women suggest that iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban Colombian adolescents aged 10-16 years using three different pediatric definitions.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in adolescents using three different definitions for this age group. The evaluated sample consisted of 718 male and 743 female adolescents. Definitions by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al. and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for adolescents were used to estimate the prevalence of MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 8.5, 2.5 and 1.2% by de Ferranti et al., Cook et al. and IDF definitions, respectively. High fasting glucose component had the lower prevalence whereas high triglycerides levels component was the most prevalent. In obese adolescents, the prevalence of MetS was higher. MetS classification in adolescents strongly depends on the definition chosen. Further research is required for the evaluation of the current definitions (multicentric studies), and for addition or design of new and useful criteria.

  9. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Age Range of 20-39 Years Old Individuals in Lome

    PubMed Central

    Kolou, Malewe; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Salou, Mounerou; Gozo-Akakpo, Komlan Selom; Dossim, Sika; Kwarteng, Alexander; Prince-David, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo. Method: The present study is a cross-sectional study about the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage from 2009 to 2011. All study participants were screened for HBsAg at the Immunology laboratory of CHU Campus of Lome. Results: One thousand two hundred individuals were screened for HBsAg from 2009-2011. The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.08%. This prevalence was significantly higher in men (25.00%) than women (14.80%). The highest prevalence of HBV was observed in age range of 20-29 years and 30-39 years with respectively 26.33% and 21.67%. The lowest prevalence was 6.08%, found in people over 50 years. Concerning the clinical indication of the test, the prevalence during the clinical abnormalities related to liver (CARL) was the highest (26.21%), followed by the systematic screening (SS) with 20.25% while the pre-operative assessment (POA) showed the lowest prevalence with 5.56%. Conclusion: The study shows the high prevalence of HBsAg carriage in young people. This could be used to enhance prevention and treatment of HBV infection in Togo. PMID:28217218

  10. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  11. Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence By Ages 18 and 23

    PubMed Central

    Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.; Paternoster, Ray; Turner, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine race, sex, and self-reported arrest histories (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 7,335) for the period 1997 through 2008 covering cumulative arrest histories through ages 18 and 23. The analysis produces three key findings: (1) males have higher cumulative prevalence of arrest than females; and (2) there are important race differences in the probability of arrest for males but not for females. Assuming the missing cases are missing at random, about 30% of black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for white males); by age 23 about 49% of black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for white males). Earlier research using the NLSY showed that the risk of arrest by age 23 was 30%, with nonresponse bounds [25.3%, 41.4%]. This study indicates that the risk of arrest is not evenly distributed across the population. Future research should focus on the identification and management of collateral risks that often accompany arrest experiences. PMID:26023241

  12. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in Golestan schoolchildren aged 6-7 and 13-14 years in Northeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehravar, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Soheil; Bazrafshan, Behnaz; Khodadost, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children, and its incidences are often imminent among elementary schoolchildren. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in Golestan schoolchildren aged 6-7 and 13-14 years in Northeast Iran. The prevalence rate was compared according to age group (aged 6-7 years vs. aged 13-14 years) and gender (male vs. female). In this cross-sectional study, 1706 Iranian schoolchildren aged 6-7 and 13-14 years in Golestan Province were enrolled. Participants completed questionnaires between February and July 2014. Asthma symptoms were assessed using the questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol in Persian. The logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the asthma symptoms for each of the gender and age groups. The prevalence rates of "current asthma" symptoms and "asthma ever" in all the children were estimated as 9.5% and 7.5%, respectively. The prevalence of asthma ("asthma ever" and "wheezing in the past 12 months") in junior high schoolchildren (aged 13-14 years) is higher than that in elementary schoolchildren (aged 6-7 years) (P < 0.05). The prevalence of the severity of wheezing in girls is lower than that in boys (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.06-2.96, P = 0.02). Asthma is still a major public health problem. This study shows that the prevalence of the asthma symptoms in boys is lower than that in girls in both age groups, and the severity of asthma in girls is higher than that in boys aged 13-14 years.

  13. Impact of coccidiosis control program and feeding plan on white striping prevalence and severity degree on broiler breast fillets evaluated at three growing ages.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, A; Tasoniero, G; Russo, E; Longoni, C; Cecchinato, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of 2 coccidiosis control systems (vaccine vs anticoccidial) and 2 feeding plans (standard energy vs low energy content, the latter supplemented with threonine and enzymes in the second half of the production cycle) on white striping (WS) prevalence and severity in chicken broiler breasts at commercial slaughter age (51 d). The age of lesion onset was also investigated with the sacrifice of 80 chicks at 12, and 80 chicks at 25 d of age. Seven hundred and twenty ROSS 708 strain male chicks were divided into 4 groups: a non-vaccinated group fed with standard diet (CONTROL); two groups vaccinated against coccidiosis but fed either a standard diet (VACC) or a low-energy diet supplemented with threonine and enzymes (VACC-LE plus); and a fourth group fed a standard diet containing anticoccidial additive except during the finishing period (COX). After live performance, yields, and fillet pH were measured, the breasts were weighed and scored as level 0 (no WS), level 1 (moderate WS), and level 2 (severe WS) at each of the 3 ages; data were covariate for slaughter weight. The results suggest an ameliorative effect of coccidiosis control systems when compared to the control group in terms of live weight, breast yield, and whole breast weight, with heavier fillets characterized by higher pH values. WS appeared at 25 d of age with an average prevalence of 11.5% and with lesions of moderate severity. There were no statistically significant differences due to the experimental treatment at this age. At commercial slaughter age, total average prevalence was 96%, with COX birds showing higher level 2 prevalence (77.6%). This could be related to the higher slaughter weight reached by the COX group (P<0.001) and the treatment effect (P<0.01) that probably adds to the effect of live weight. Diet had no effect on overall live performance of VACC-LE plus chickens, which were similar to those of the VACC group.

  14. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  15. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  16. Congenital cataract: prevalence and surgery age at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC).

    PubMed

    Lin, Haotian; Yang, Ye; Chen, Jingjing; Zhong, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhaochuan; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Wan; Luo, Lixia; Qu, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Danying; Zhan, Jiao; Wu, Hanfu; Wang, Zhirong; Geng, Yu; Xiang, Wu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness. Population-based assessments of prevalence and surgery age of CC, which are critical for improving management strategies, have been unavailable in China until now. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of the hospital charts of CC patients younger than 18 years old from January 2005 to December 2010 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC) in Guangzhou, China. Residence, gender, age at surgery, hospitalization time, and the presence of other ocular abnormalities were extracted and statistically analyzed in different subgroups. The search identified 1314 patients diagnosed with CC from a total of 136154 hospitalizations, which accounted for 2.39% of all the cataract in-patients and 1.06% of the total in-patients over the six-year study period. Of the identified CC patients, 9.2% had ≥ 2 hospitalizations due to the necessity of additional surgeries, with a total ratio of boys to girls of 1.75 ∶ 1. Based on a subgroup analysis according to age, patients 2-6 years old constituted the highest proportion (29.22%) of all hospitalized CC patients, and those 13-18 years old constituted the lowest proportion (13.47%) of the total number. The average age at surgery was 27.62 ± 23.36 months, but CC patients ≤ 6 years old (especially ≤ 6 months old) became increasingly prevalent throughout the 6-year study period. A total of 276 cases (20.93%) of CC were associated with one or more other ocular abnormalities, the highest incidence rates were observed for exotropia (6.24%), nystagmus (6.16%), and refractive error (3.65%). In conclusion, CC patients accounted for 2.39% of all cataract in-patients in a review of 6 years of hospitalization charts from ZOC. The age at the time of surgery decreased over the 6-year study period, which probably reflects the continuing improvement of public awareness of children's eye care in China.

  17. Typical and Optimal Aging in Women and Men: Is There a Double Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetto, Silvia Sara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined gender stereotypes of typical and optimal mentally healthy aging. Respondents--young adults (n=232) and their older adult relatives/acquaintances (n=233)--reported more gender stereotypes than age stereotypes. Perceptions of typical aging varied with certain factors. Findings suggest a double standard of aging for typical but not for…

  18. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  19. Unpaid Informal Caregivers in South Australia: Population Characteristics, Prevalence and Age-Period-Cohort Effects 1994–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Tiffany K.; Price, Kay; Warmington, Rosemary; Taylor, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing need for an availability of informal carers is taking on greater relevance as the global burden of disease transitions from acute fatal diseases to long term morbidity. Growing evidence suggests that extra burden on family carers may further impact on their health and ability to provide care. Important as it is to monitor the prevalence of those conditions which influence the burden of disease, it is also important to monitor the prevalence and health profiles of those who provide the informal care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence and demographics of adult carers aged 15 and over in the state of South Australia over 20 years between 1994 and 2014. Methods Data from nine representative, cross-sectional population surveys, conducted in South Australia, Australia were used, (total N = 26,788 and n = 1,504 carers). The adjusted prevalence estimate of carers and their demographic characteristics were determined. So as to examine whether there were any generational effects on the prevalence of carers, an Age-Period Cohort (APC) analysis was undertaken. Results The prevalence estimates of carers increased during the two decades from 3.7% in 1994 to 6.7% by 2014. Large increases in the proportion of retired carers, those aged 70 years and over, those carers employed, and those with higher educational qualifications were observed. There were also larger proportions of respondents with a country of birth other than Australia, UK, Ireland and European counties. The APC analysis illustrated an increasing prevalence rate over each decade for carers aged 20–80 years, especially for those over the age of 60 years. Conclusions The results illustrate changing carer characteristics and carer prevalence estimates in South Australia as new generations of carers take on the caring role. There is a need to include questions regarding informal carers within ongoing mainstream population surveys, particularly at state levels, so as to plan

  20. Prevalence of owner-reported behaviours in dogs separated from the litter at two different ages.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F

    2011-10-29

    The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  2. Age and gender differences among Australian suicide ideators: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, A Kate; Anstey, Kaarin J; Rodgers, Bryan; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in an Australian population sample at three stages of adulthood. Random sampling of a community acquired 7485 participants. Cohorts were 20 to 24, 40 to 44, or 60 to 64 years old. Twelve-month prevalence of suicidal ideation was 8.2%. Suicidal ideation was highest among the youngest cohort. Males with chronic physical illness were more prone to suicidal ideation, as were those aged 20 to 24 and 60 to 64. Furthermore, under-employed subjects 60 to 64 years old were seven times more likely to experience suicidal ideation than their counterparts working full-time. Childhood adversity and rumination had positive associations with suicidality; however, considering oneself more masterful was linked with lower levels of suicidal ideation. Contrary to clinical and popular views, our results highlight that proximal non-mental health variables such as employment, physical health, social factors, and personality are equally important to experiencing suicidal ideation as symptoms of psychological distress.

  3. Prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients over 40 years of age with spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Short, D J; Stradling, J R; Williams, S J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty two patients over the age of 40 with stable spinal cord damage underwent overnight sleep studies to investigate the prevalence of sleep apnoea. Ten patients had some evidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Hypoxic events were scored as number of dips of SaO2 more than 4% below the preceding 10 minute average (> 4% SaO2 dip rate). All the patients had more than five such dips per hour and six had clearly abnormal dip rates of more than 15 per hour. Two other patients had dip rates above 10 per hour without apnoeas but periods of central hypoventilation mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. OSA appears to be more common in older patients with spinal cord injury than in the general population. Possible relevant factors include patient selection, reduced ventilatory function secondary to spinal cord damage, sleep posture and medication. PMID:1469399

  4. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Etiology of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Lee, Paul C.; Pauls, David L.; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A.; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A.; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M.; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each TS-associated comorbidity or their etiologic relationship to TS. Objective To characterize the lifetime prevalence, clinical associations, ages of highest risk, and etiology of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional structured diagnostic interviews conducted between April 1, 1992, and December 31, 2008, of participants with TS (n = 1374) and TS-unaffected family members (n = 1142). Main Outcomes and Measures Lifetime prevalence of comorbid DSM-IV-TR disorders, their heritabilities, ages of maximal risk, and associations with symptom severity, age at onset, and parental psychiatric history. Results The lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS was 85.7%; 57.7% of the population had 2 or more psychiatric disorders. The mean (SD) number of lifetime comorbid diagnoses was 2.1 (1.6); the mean number was 0.9 (1.3) when obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were excluded, and 72.1% of the individuals met the criteria for OCD or ADHD. Other disorders, including mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior, each occurred in approximately 30% of the participants. The age of greatest risk for the onset of most comorbid psychiatric disorders was between 4 and 10 years, with the exception of eating and substance use disorders, which began in adolescence (interquartile range, 15–19 years for both). Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates

  5. Age-standardized Incidence Rates for Leukemia Associated with Consanguineous Marriages in 68 Countries, an Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage that defines as a union between biologically related persons has a variety of known deleterious correlations with factors that affect public health within human populations. To investigate the association between the mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and incidence of leukemia, the present ecological study on 68 countries was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia positively correlated with log10GNI per capita (r=0.699, df=66, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with log10α (r=−0.609, df=66, P<0.001). Controlling log10GNI per capita, a significant negative correlation between log10α and the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia was observed (r=−0.392, df=65, P=0.001). The countries were stratified according to their annual GNI per capita, low and high-income countries with GNI per capita less than and more than 10,000$, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that in high-income countries, after controlling for log10GNI per capita, the correlation between the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia and log10α was still significant (r=−0.600, df=36, P<0.001). It should be noted that there was no significant association between the age-standardized mortality rate due to leukemia and log10α (P>0.05). The present finding indicates that the rate of leukemia, age-standardized for incidence, is lower in countries with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. PMID:25960855

  6. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  7. Variations of pterygium prevalence by age, gender and geographic characteristics in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Chang, Xinlei; Wang, Manli

    2017-01-01

    Background Pterygium is a common chronic ophthalmic condition, which may result in significant visual morbidity or lead to blindness in extreme cases. The prevalence of pterygium in China has not been reported at the sub-national level. Methods In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of pterygium in China. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database (CBM-SinoMed), PubMed, Embase and Medline were searched before September 2016. We performed a multilevel mixed-effect meta-regression based on the included studies, our results showed that age, gender and latitude were significantly associated with pterygium prevalence. Based on the final model, the age and gender-specific prevalence of pterygium in 31 Chinese provinces (except Hongkong, Macau and Taiwan) and the whole country was generated. Results In 2010, the overall prevalence of pterygium in Chinese people aged 15–84 years was 9.84% (95% CI: 6.72–14.14), and the number of pterygium cases in China was 108.65 million (95% CI: 74.23–156.13). Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of pterygium in Chinese population in 2010 was estimated at both the national and provincial levels. The higher burden of pterygium across the country calls for efforts to advocate public health education encouraging people to take appropriate protective measures. PMID:28355301

  8. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  9. Age-dependent prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in hooded seals Cystophora cristata.

    PubMed

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Tryland, Morten; Frie, Anne Kirstine; Haug, Tore; Foster, Geoffrey; Rødven, Rolf; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-11-06

    Investigations of hooded seals Cystophora cristata have revealed high prevalences of Brucella-positive seals in the reduced Northeast Atlantic stock, compared to the increasing Northwest Atlantic stock. This study evaluated the relation between Brucella-serostatus in seals in the Northeast Atlantic stock and age, sex, body condition and reproduction. Bacteriology documented which animals and organs were B. pinnipedialis positive. No relationship was observed between Brucella-serostatus and body condition or reproductive traits. Pups (<1 mo old) had a substantially lower probability of being seropositive (4/159, 2.5%) than yearlings (6/17, 35.3%), suggesting that exposure may occur post-weaning, during the first year of life. For seals >1 yr old, the mean probability of being seropositive decreased with age, with no seropositives older than 5 yr, indicating loss of antibody titre with either chronicity or clearance of infection. The latter explanation seems to be most likely as B. pinnipedialis has never been isolated from a hooded seal >18 mo old, which is consistent with findings in this study; B. pinnipedialis was isolated from the retropharyngeal lymph node in 1 seropositive yearling (1/21, 5%). We hypothesize that this serological and bacteriological pattern is due to environmental exposure to B. pinnipedialis early in life, with a subsequent clearance of infection. This raises the question of a reservoir of B. pinnipedialis in the hooded seal food web.

  10. Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Goiter in Middle-Aged Euthyroid Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Vainikonyte-Kristapone, Jelena; Seibokaite, Audrone; Ceponis, Jonas; Sidlauskas, Vygantas; Daugintyte-Petrusiene, Laura; Norkus, Antanas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine associations of thyroid hormone levels and different metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with volume of nodular and nonnodular thyroid as well as with prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in middle-aged euthyroid subjects. Methods. The study consisted of 317 euthyroid subjects aged 48-49 from the Kaunas Cardiovascular Risk Cohort study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO) levels, as well as anthropometric and metabolic parameters and smoking information, were evaluated. Results. In subjects with and without thyroid nodules, thyroid volume correlated with components of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and TSH levels. In the nonnodular thyroid group, thyroid volume was also positively related to serum insulin and HOMA-IR, whereas a negative correlation between thyroid volume and leptin was identified in the nodular thyroid group. The goiter was identified in 12.3% of subjects. Female gender, thyroid nodules, smoking, BMI, and levels of TSH were independent predictors for goiter. Thyroid nodules were found in 31.2% of participants. Female gender, higher TSH levels, and thyroid volume were independent risk factors for thyroid nodules. Conclusions. Female gender, thyroid nodules, smoking, BMI, and TSH levels were identified as potential predictors of goiter. Female gender, TSH levels, and thyroid volume predicted the presence of thyroid nodules. PMID:28356911

  11. Prevalence of thrombophilia according to age at the first manifestation of venous thromboembolism: results from the MAISTHRO registry.

    PubMed

    Weingarz, Lea; Schwonberg, Jan; Schindewolf, Marc; Hecking, Carola; Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Erbe, Matthias; Weber, Adele; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Linnemann, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    Thrombophilia is a well-established risk factor for a venous thromboembolic event (VTE), and it has been proposed that hereditary thrombophilia may substantially contribute to the development of VTE in young patients. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of thrombophilia with special regard to the age of VTE manifestation. The study cohort consisted of 1490 patients (58% females) with a median age 43 years at the time of their first VTE. At least one thrombophilic disorder was identified in 50·1% of patients. The probability of detecting a hereditary thrombophilia declined significantly with advancing age (from 49·3% in patients aged 20 years and younger to 21·9% in patients over the age of 70 years; P < 0·001). This may be primarily attributed to the decreasing frequencies of the F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) mutation and deficiencies of protein C or protein S with older age at the time of the initial VTE event. Moreover, thrombophilia was more prevalent in unprovoked compared with risk-associated VTE (57·7% vs. 47·7%; P = 0·001). The decline in the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia with older ages supports the use of a selected thrombophilia screening strategy dependent on age and the presence or absence of additional VTE risk factors.

  12. Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition among Guatemalan Children at 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gippetti, James; Wager, Stefan; Chavez, Alejandro; Wise, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. Results Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0.67 ± 1.01 at 1 year to -1.07 ± 0.87 at 2 years, while mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) declined from -1.88 ± 1.19 at 1 year to -2.37 ± 0.99 at 2 years. Using multiple linear regression modeling, number of children <5 years old, vomiting in the past week, fever in the past week, and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of WAZ at 2 years. Significant predictors of HAZ at 2 years included household size, number of children <5 years old, diarrhea in the past week, WAZ at 1 year, and HAZ at 1 year. Vomiting in the past week and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at 2 years. Conclusions Number of children <5 years old, symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea in the previous week, and prior nutritional status were the most significant predictors of malnutrition in this cohort. Future research may focus on the application of models to develop predictive algorithms for mobile device technology, as well as the identification of other predictors of malnutrition that are not well characterized such as the interaction of environmental exposures with protein consumption and epigenetics. PMID:27806066

  13. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Indonesian Adults Aged ≥40 Years: Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS)

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah Al; Reid, Christopher; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing Indonesia in the 21st century. Understanding the socioeconomic inequalities associated with hypertension is essential for designing effective intervention strategies. The aim of the current study was to use sub-nationally representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indonesian adults. Methods We investigated factors associated with hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and control using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurements, collected from 9755 respondents aged 40 years and up in the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS 4). Results Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the study participants was 47.8% (95% CI: 46.8, 48.9), of which almost 70% were undiagnosed. Hypertension was significantly higher in women than men (52.3% versus 43.1%, p-value<0.001). Prevalence of hypertension increased significantly with ageing (Pfor trend <0.001). Over 91% (men: 92.1%, women: 90.0%) of hypertension cases were uncontrolled. Gender, education and socioeconomic status had differential impact on the diagnosis of hypertension and in receiving treatment. Conclusions Overall, less than a third were aware of their hypertension and a quarter of those on medication had their blood pressure effectively controlled. Men and those of younger age were more vulnerable to have undiagnosed and untreated hypertension. Substantial effort should be given to improve awareness about the condition and making provision for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27556532

  15. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  16. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775

  17. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  18. Predictors and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring in 1001 middle aged men.

    PubMed

    Stradling, J R; Crosby, J H

    1991-02-01

    One thousand and one men, aged 35-65 years, were identified from the age-sex register of one group general practice. Over four years 900 men were visited at home and asked questions about symptoms potentially related to sleep apnoea and snoring. Height, weight, neck circumference, resting arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and spirometric values were also determined. All night oximetry was then performed at home and the tracing analysed for the number of dips in SaO2 of more than 4%. Subjects with more than five dips of 4% SaO2 or more per hour were invited for sleep laboratory polysomnography. Seventeen per cent of the men admitted to snoring "often." Multiple linear regression techniques identified and ranked neck circumference (r2 = 7.2%), cigarette consumption (r2 = 3.4%), and nasal stuffiness (r2 = 2%) as the only significant independent predictors of snoring. Together these account for at least a sixfold variation in the likelihood of being an "often" snorer. Forty six subjects (5%) had greater than 4% SaO2 dip rates of over five an hour and 31 of these had full sleep studies. Three subjects had clinically obvious and severe symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea, giving a prevalence of three per 1001 men (0.3%; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.9%). Eighteen men had obstructive sleep apnoea only when supine and in 10 the cause of the SaO2 dipping on the original home tracing was not elucidated. The greater than 4% SaO2 dip rates correlated with the history of snoring. Multiple linear regression techniques identified and ranked neck circumference (r2 = 7.9%), alcohol consumption (r2 = 3.7%), age (r2 = 1%) and obesity (r2 = 1%) as the only significant independent predictors of the rate of overnight hypoxic dipping. This study shows that snoring in this randomly selected population correlates best with neck size, smoking, and nasal stuffiness. Obstructive sleep apnoea, defined by nocturnal hypoxaemia, correlates best with neck size and alcohol, and less so with age

  19. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-01-19

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  20. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonellae isolated from market-age swine.

    PubMed

    Farrington, L A; Harvey, R B; Buckley, S A; Droleskey, R E; Nisbet, D J; Inskip, P D

    2001-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance levels were examined for 365 Salmonella isolates recovered from the lymph nodes (n = 224) and cecal contents (n = 141) of market-age swine at slaughter. Antimicrobial resistance testing was performed by disk diffusion using 13 antibiotics common in the treatment of disease in human and veterinary medicine. Although none of the antibiotics tested were used subtherapeutically within the last 5 years on the farms sampled, resistance to chlortetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was common. Penicillin G resistance was significantly more frequent (P = 0.03) and sulfisoxazole resistance was significantly less frequent (P < 0.01) in lymph node versus cecal isolates. Multidrug resistance was observed among 94.7% of the lymph node isolates and 93.5% of the cecal isolates. The most frequent multidrug resistance pattern included three antibiotics-penicillin G, streptomycin, and chlortetracycline. Isolates in somatic serogroup B, and more specifically, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Schwarzengrund isolates, were often resistant to a greater number of antibiotics than were isolates in the other serogroups. Streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin (lymph node isolates), and nitrofurantoin (cecal isolates) resistance levels differed significantly between somatic serogroups. The prevalence of penicillin G-, streptomycin-, and sulfisoxazole-resistant isolates differed significantly between serovars for both lymph node and cecal isolates. Results of this study suggest that a correlation exists between the somatic serogroup or serovar of a Salmonella isolate and its antimicrobial resistance status, which is specific to the antibiotic of interest and the source of the isolate (lymph node versus cecal contents).

  1. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  2. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  3. The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age.

    PubMed

    Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter successfully colonizes broiler chickens, but little is known about the longer term natural history of colonization, since most flocks are slaughtered at an immature age. In this study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter colonizing a single free-range broiler breeder flock was investigated over the course of a year. The age of the flock was the most important factor in determining both the prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter over time. There was no correlation with season, temperature, the amount of rain and sunshine, or the dynamics of colonization amongst geographically and temporally matched broiler flocks. The higher prevalence rates coincided with the age at which broiler chickens are typically slaughtered, but then in the absence of bio-security or other intervention methods, and despite changes in flock management, the prevalence fell to significantly lower levels for the remainder of the study. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter increased as the flock aged, implying that genotypes were accumulated within the flock and may persist for a long time. A better understanding of the ecology of Campylobacter within commercial chicken flocks will allow the design of more effective farm-based interventions.

  4. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  5. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial.

    PubMed

    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-05-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24,510 women (age range: 20-64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.

  6. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  7. Varying Teacher Expectations and Standards: Curriculum Differentiation in the Age of Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Ability grouping and tracking have been a major focus in educational research because of its role in promoting curriculum differentiation. However, there has been limited attention to how this differentiation occurs in contemporary schools involved with reform efforts including those focused on subject specific academic standards designed to…

  8. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  9. Estimating the Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer Symptoms in Women Aged 50 Years or Older: Problems and Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Gilbert, Lucy; Ciampi, Antonio; Kaufman, Jay S; Basso, Olga

    2016-11-01

    Diagnostic testing is recommended in women with "ovarian cancer symptoms." However, these symptoms are nonspecific. The ongoing Diagnosing Ovarian Cancer Early (DOVE) Study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provides diagnostic testing to women aged 50 years or older with symptoms lasting for more than 2 weeks and less than 1 year. The prevalence of ovarian cancer in DOVE is 10 times that of large screening trials, prompting us to estimate the prevalence of these symptoms in this population. We sent a questionnaire to 3,000 randomly sampled women in 2014-2015. Overall, 833 women responded; 81.5% reported at least 1 symptom, and 59.7% reported at least 1 symptom within the duration window specified in DOVE. We explored whether such high prevalence resulted from low survey response by applying inverse probability weighting to correct the estimates. Older women and those from deprived areas were less likely to respond, but only age was associated with symptom reporting. Prevalence was similar in early and late responders. Inverse probability weighting had a minimal impact on estimates, suggesting little evidence of nonresponse bias. This is the first study investigating symptoms that have proven to identify a subset of women with a high prevalence of ovarian cancer. However, the high frequency of symptoms warrants further refinements before symptom-triggered diagnostic testing can be implemented.

  10. Geographical Differences in the Population-Based Cross-Sectional Growth Curve and Age at Peak Height Velocity with respect to the Prevalence Rate of Overweight in Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, Masana; Higuchi, Yukito

    2014-01-01

    The School Health Examination Survey is a nationwide examination carried out annually in Japan, and the results are entered into a prefectural-level physical measurement database. We used this database to determine the geographical differences in a population-based cross-sectional growth curve and investigated the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV) and the prevalence rate of overweight in children among Japanese prefectures. Mean prefectural-level age at PHV was estimated by the cubic spline-fitting procedure using cross-sectional whole-year prefectural mean height data (5-17 years, 2006-2013), and 8-year (2006-2013) means of the standardized prevalence rates of overweight children and other anatomical data (8-year standardized weight and height) were recalculated. Mean prefectural age at PHV was more strongly correlated with the mean prefectural prevalence rate of overweight (age 5-8 years) than with other weights or heights in both sexes. On the basis of these findings and their confirmation by multiple regression analysis, the prevalence rate of overweight was selected as a primary factor to explain the geographical difference in age at PHV. These findings suggest that childhood overweight is a dominant factor responsible for the observed geographical differences in onset of puberty in Japan.

  11. Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

  12. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  13. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  14. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  15. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  17. Age-standardized incidence rates of primordial cyst (keratocyst) on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Rachanis, C C; Shear, M

    1978-11-01

    Cases of primordial cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965-74. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. Age-specific morbidity rates for each sex and race were calculated, as well as age-standardized incidence rates standardized against African, World and European standard populations. The age-standardized incidence rates for primordial cysts, standardized against a World standard population, per million per year are 0.61, 0, 4.86 and 3.50 for Black males and females and White males and females, respectively. In the population at risk, primordial cysts are much more common in Whites than in Blacks, the incidence being eight times higher in White males than in Black males. The present study confirms that there is a bimodal age distribution but with a higher incidence of the cyst in the age group 50-64 years than previously suspected. This may be either because a substantial number of cases remain undiagnosed for many years or because there are two groups of primordial cyst: one which is triggered in young patients and the other in older patients.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors among children and adolescents of Ahvaz aged 10 – 19

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population-based studies for prevalence of metabolic syndrome (M.S) in children and adolescents are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to assess the Prevalence of M.S and correlated factors among children and adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in Ahvaz. Methods In this descriptive-analytical population- based study, 2246 children and adolescents, 10–19 years old (1113 male and 1133 female) in Ahvaz, were evaluated. Anthropometry, biochemical measurement and blood pressure (BP) were assessed. Modified ATP III criteria 2005 were used for M.S. definition. Center for disease and Control preventions (CDC) percentile were applied to define cut off points of waist circumference and BP. Results Prevalence of M.S. was 9% (95% CI: 8-10%) with prevalence in male 11% (95% CI: 10-12%) and female 7% (95% CI 6-8%). Among individuals with M.S, triglyceride (TG) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were the most common components (33.5% and 24.1%, respectively). Prevalence of M.S was higher in overweight persons comparing to participants with at risk and normal weight group (in male: 24.1%, 14.3% and 9.9% respectively P = 0.0001), (in female: 22.6%, 18.3% and 4.5% respectively P = 0.0001). Among the correlated factors of M.S age (P = 0.0006), sex and BMI (P = 0.0001) had significant differences between subjects with and without M.S. whereas there was no significant difference between two groups in ethnicity, history of breast fed, birth weight neonatal ICU admission, maternal history(GDM, gestational HTN, Parity) and family history of HTN, obesity and DM (P > 0.05). Conclusion This study shows high prevalence of M.S in Children and Adolescents in south west of Iran (Ahvaz) especially in overweight persons. PMID:24860794

  19. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc.) are accessible and effectively used. PMID:22840190

  20. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  1. Age- and gender-related changes in the cellularity of human bone marrow and the prevalence of osteoblastic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Muschler, G F; Nitto, H; Boehm, C A; Easley, K A

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow harvested by aspiration contains connective tissue progenitor cells which can be induced to express a bone phenotype in vitro. The number of osteoblastic progenitors can be estimated by counting the colony-forming units which express alkaline phosphatase (CFU-APs). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that human aging is associated with a significant change in the number or prevalence of osteoblastic progenitors in the bone marrow. Four 2-ml bone marrow aspirates were harvested bilaterally from the anterior iliac crest of 57 patients, 31 men (age 15-83) and 26 women (age 13-79). A mean of 64 million nucleated cells was harvested per aspirate. The mean prevalence of CFU-APs was found to be 55 per million nucleated cells. These data revealed a significant age-related decline in the number of nucleated cells harvested per aspirate for both men and women (P = 0.002). The number of CFU-APs harvested per aspirate also decreased significantly with age for women (P = 0.02), but not for men (P = 0.3). These findings are relevant to the harvest of bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitors for bone grafting and other tissue engineering applications, and may also be relevant to the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss and post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in eastern centre province, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tamboura, H H; Banga-Mboko, H; Maes, D; Youssao, I; Traore, A; Bayala, B; Dembele, M A

    2006-03-01

    The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG) counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months) were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91% were infected by one or more parasites. Ascaris suum (40%; 100-1 400 EPG) was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21%; 100-4200 EPG), Oesophagostomum spp. (18%; 100-1000 EPG), Hyostrongylus rubidus (11%; 100-1 800 EPG), Globocephalus spp. (10%; 100-400 EPG) and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG). The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239) than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05) more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  3. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  4. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p<0.05). Hypercalciuria was present in 7 of 141 patients who were obese (4.96%) and 58 of 1 234 patients who were not obese (4.70%) (p>0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  5. Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged ≤20 Years in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-03-31

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China.

  7. Prevalence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Sexually Experienced Women of Reproductive Age - United States, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Kreisel, Kristen; Torrone, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Hong, Jaeyoung; Gorwitz, Rachel

    2017-01-27

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (1). PID occurs when microorganisms ascend from the vagina or cervix to the fallopian tubes and other upper genital tract structures (1). PID can result from untreated bacterial infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (1). Because there is no single diagnostic test for PID, clinicians rely on nonspecific signs and symptoms for diagnosis. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle. Starting in 2013, NHANES female participants aged 18-44 years were asked about a lifetime history of PID diagnosis. Based on these data, the estimated prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was 4.4% in sexually experienced women of reproductive age (18-44 years). The prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was highest in women at increased risk, such as women reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Stratified by race/ethnicity and having a previous STI diagnosis, non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) women reporting a previous STI diagnosis had nearly equal self-reported lifetime PID prevalence (10.0% versus 10.3%). However, the lifetime prevalence of PID among black women was 2.2 times that among white women if no previous STI was diagnosed (6.0% versus 2.7%). These findings suggest that PID is prevalent and associated with previous STI diagnoses; therefore, it is important for clinicians to screen female patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea to reduce the incidence of PID.

  8. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Michal Szymon; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.44-9.64) subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.18-14.03). AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.14-5.54 ) of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.21-4.30 ) had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.47-1.69) had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.17-6.85) of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.68-3.56) had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.95-2.48) and 0.45% (95% CI 0.06-0.85), respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population.

  9. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.M.; McGee, V.E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order approximation formula for the propagation of error in the fission track age equation is given by PA = C[P2s+P2i+P2??-2rPsPi] 1 2, where PA, Ps, Pi and P?? are the percentage error of age, of spontaneous track density, of induced track density, and of neutron dose, respectively, and C is a constant. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age. In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method. ?? 1979.

  10. Pedagogy Redefined: Frameworks of Learning Approaches Prevalent in the Current Digital Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to delineate the frameworks of learner-centered vis-à-vis teacher-centered processes of learning prevalent in the second decade of the twenty-first century. It defines the pedagogical changes that have emerged due to the development of delivery technologies, and the interrelations among teachers, students, and knowledge. The…

  11. Prevalence of Diagnosed Tourette Syndrome in Persons Aged 6-17 Years--United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is an inheritable, childhood-onset neurologic disorder marked by persistent multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic. Tics are involuntary, repetitive, stereotypic movements or vocalizations that are usually sudden and rapid and often can be suppressed for short periods. The prevalence of TS is uncertain; the broad…

  12. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4–6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Methods Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. Results The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (p<0.001), thus schoolchildren in the higher adiposity categories had significantly higher BP levels (p<0.001). Conclusions Our results show a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life. PMID:28141860

  13. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Young and Middle-Aged Rural Population in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ching Thon, Chang; Ping Yein, Lee; Whye Lian, Cheah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) was the second leading cause of death in Malaysia in 2006. CHD has known risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among 260 participants aged 20 to 65 years in a rural community in Sarawak. Results: The prevalences of overweight and obesity in this study were 39.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Approximately 13% of participants had hypertension, and 1.5% had a random blood sugar greater than 11.1 mmol/L. Chi-square tests showed significant associations between obesity and gender (P = 0.007), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and race (P = 0.05), high total cholesterol and age (P = 0.007), age and hypertension (P = 0.011), smoking and gender (P < 0.001), and smoking and income (P = 0.050). Age-adjusted logistic regression showed that women were 0.246 times more likely to be obese, that older participants (> 45 years) were 0.395 times more likely to have high cholesterol and that those with a higher monthly household income (> RM830) were 2.471 times more likely to smoke. Conclusion: These findings indicate that we should be concerned about the high rates of overweight in this rural community to prevent obesity. PMID:22973135

  14. Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    PubMed

    Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

    1992-01-01

    Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population.

  15. Prevalence of a few variant dental features in children aged 11–16 years in Davangere, a city in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, P.; Kirthiga, M.; Sasalwad, Shilpa; Nagaveni, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Variations in morphology of shape of teeth have always been of interest to dentists from ancient times. But to our surprise, till date, no studies related to the prevalence of dental features have been conducted in any part of the world. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of a few variant dental features in a group of children aged from 11 to 16 years in the city of Davangere that belongs to the state of Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where children aged 11–16 years were selected (both girls and boys) and type III clinical examination was done. They were checked for the following features – Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped maxillary 2nd molar, 5-cusped maxillary 1st molar, 4-cusped mandibular 1st molar, 5-cusped mandibular 2nd molar, cusp 6 present in mandibular 1st molar, and 7-cusped mandibular 1st molar. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: Around 99.3% of the school children examined had at least one of the dental variations that were examined in relation to the shape of teeth. Conclusions: This study definitely provides us with baseline data, but further epidemiological studies are required to determine the prevalence of the above mentioned dental anomalies. PMID:27051217

  16. Time trends in prevalence of activities of daily living (ADL) disability and survival: comparing two populations (aged 78+ years) living in a rural area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Wimo, Anders; Qiu, Chengxuan; Engström, Maria; von Strauss, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to study time trends in prevalence of disability in ADL and survival among men and women 78 years and older comparing two cohorts. The study was a time trend study based on two population-based community cohorts, the Nordanstig Project (NP), collected 1995-1998 and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Nordanstig (SNAC-N), collected 2001-2003. The participants were people aged 78 years and older from the NP cohort (N=303) and from the SNAC-N cohort (N=406). All were clinically examined by physicians and nurses using standardized protocols. Disability was defined as a need for assistance in one or more ADL activities. The prevalence of disability and survival were compared using logistic and Cox models. The prevalence of ADL disability was stable for men, while women became more disabled in ADL during the time period, OR 2.36 (1.12-4.94). There was no significant difference in survival time between the cohorts in either ADL disabled persons or non-disabled persons. There was a tendency for increased survival for non-disabled persons in SNAC-N compared with NP, although not significant; this was particularly true for women. In general, women survived longer than men did regardless of whether they were ADL disabled or not. The time trends for ADL disability found in the study show that ADL disability had increased in women but not in men. More studies are needed to identify risk factors for ADL disability with a view to preventing it in time.

  17. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne W; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005) from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis). A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes), separation/divorce (asthma), unemployment (cancer), high waist circumference (diabetes), elevated cholesterol (angina) and a family history of obesity (angina). Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated) should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives. PMID:18664294

  18. Pathogen prevalence, group bias, and collectivism in the standard cross-cultural sample.

    PubMed

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Steele, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that cultures in high pathogen areas were more likely to socialize children toward collectivist values (obedience rather than self-reliance). There was some evidence that pathogens were associated with reduced adult dispersal. However, we found no evidence of an association between pathogens and our measures of group bias (in-group loyalty and xenophobia) or intergroup contact.

  19. Prevalence of the developmental defects of the enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Rathy; Saji, Ajish M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district and to examine the etiological factors associated with the developmental defects of the enamel (DDE). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,500 children from 10 urban and 10 rural schools were examined using modified DDE criteria for recording enamel defects. Ten index permanent teeth were screened for the DDE. Results: The overall prevalence of the DDE was found to be 32% and the prevalence is higher in urban schools (34.3%) compared to rural schools (29.6%). The most common tooth affected by the defect was maxillary right lateral incisor (P = 28.6%) and the tooth least affected was maxillary right first premolar (P = 3%). The most common deformity was demarcated opacities (P = 28.76%) and the least common deformity was combination of diffuse opacities and hypoplasia and combination of demarcated, diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia (P = 0%). There was a very high significant association between DDE and the mothers’ pregnancy age, illness during pregnancy for mother, medication taken during pregnancy by mother, prematurity of birth, intubation done during prematurity, birth weight, systemic illness during the first 5 years of life, intake of drugs or chemicals during the first 5 years of life, nutritional status, and trauma or infection on deciduous teeth and dental caries. Conclusions: The study population showed a prevalence of 32% and very high significant association between perinatal, natal, and postnatal etiological factors. It indicates the need for educating the population about the risk factors for the DDE. PMID:27011929

  20. The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in soccer player children, ages 7 to 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Yousefi, Azizollah; Movahedi, Massoud; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Noorian, Rohollah

    2007-03-01

    This study represents an attempt to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm among soccer player children. A total of 234 soccer player boys of all soccer schools from Shahr-Rey enrolled in this study. They did not have any history of a recent or chronic respiratory tract disease, a history of allergic diseases, and history of bronchodilator drugs consumption during the 24 hours prior to the study. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed for each participant before exercise and 6 and 15 minutes after playing soccer. The diagnosis of EIB was by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by at least 10% and in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) by at least 15% with exercise challenge. If there was reduction in one parameter alone, the participants were considered as prone to EIB. Considering both FEV1 and PEFR the prevalence of EIB was 2.1% and 18.4% were prone to EIB. If FEV1 or PEFR tests were used as criteria for diagnosis of airway obstruction, the prevalence of EIB would be 6% and 15.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the post of players, family history of allergic disease and EIB in soccer players. This study suggests that at least 2.1% of soccer players will develop bronchospasm even if they do not have any history of asthma and allergy.

  1. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  2. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Hypertensive Adults Aged 45 to 75 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wei; Fan, Fangfang; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Xiaobin; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45–75 years. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/l] and IFG (6.1–6.9mmol/l) were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90cm for men and ≥80cm for women), non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal) were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal) were important independent associated factors for IFG. Conclusion In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG

  3. Prevalence of Spina Bifida Occulta and Its Relationship With Overactive Bladder in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of <0.05 denoting statistical significance. Results: A total of 1,061 subjects were qualified for the final statistical analysis (58.8±11.7 years; male, 471 [44.4%]; female, 590 [55.6%]). The overall prevalence of SBO was 15.1% (160 of 1,061): 18.3% (86 of 471) in men and 12.5% (74 of 590) in women. Among these subjects, 13.7% (145 of 1,061) had OAB: 13.2% (62 of 471) in men and 14.1% (83 of 590) in women. The results of logistic regression showed that age, SBO, history of cerebral infarction (HCI), and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while sex, history of childhood enuresis (HCE), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were not (P>0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, HCI, and benign prostate hyperplasia were not (P>0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, vaginal delivery, and constipation were not (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China. PMID:27377948

  4. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age

    PubMed Central

    Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  5. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  6. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  7. High prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia among Mozambican children <5 years of age admitted to hospital with clinical severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lanaspa, M; O'Callaghan-Gordo, C; Machevo, S; Madrid, L; Nhampossa, T; Acácio, S; de la Horra, C; Friaza, V; Campano, E; Alonso, P L; Calderón, E J; Roca, A; Bassat, Q

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to describe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prevalence and features in children from sub-Saharan Africa and to investigate PCP-associated risk factors. During 2006-2007 we used molecular methods to test children younger than 5 years old admitted with severe pneumonia to a hospital in southern Mozambique for Pneumocystis infection. We recruited 834 children. PCP prevalence was 6.8% and HIV prevalence was 25.7%. The in-hospital and delayed mortality were significantly higher among children with PCP (20.8% vs. 10.2%, p 0.021, and 11.5% vs. 3.6%, p 0.044, respectively). Clinical features were mostly overlapping between the two groups. Independent risk factors for PCP were age less than a year (odds ratio (OR) 6.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86-21.65), HIV infection (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.70), grunting (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.04-6.73) and digital clubbing (OR 10.75, 95% CI 1.21-95.56). PCP is a common and life-threatening cause of severe pneumonia in Mozambican children. Mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention should be strengthened. Better diagnostic tools are needed.

  8. Prevalence of Age-Related Changes in Ovine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs during Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nisolle, Jean-François; Bihin, Benoît; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Neveu, Fabienne; Clegg, Peter; Dugdale, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaoqing; Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Ovine models are used to study intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The objective of the current study was to assess the naturally occurring age-related changes of the IVD that can be diagnosed by CT and MRI in the lumbar spine of sheep. We used CT and T2-weighted MR images to score the IVD (L6S1 to L1L2) in 41 sheep (age, 6 mo to 11 y) that were euthanized for reasons not related to musculoskeletal disease. T2 mapping and measurement of T2 time of L6S1 to L2L3 were performed in 22 of the sheep. Degenerative changes manifested as early as 2 y of age and occurred at every IVD level. Discs were more severely damaged in older sheep. The age effect of the L6S1 IVD was larger than the average age effect for the other IVD. The current study provides evidence that lesions similar to those encountered in humans can be identified by CT and MRI in lumbar spine of sheep. Ideally, research animals should be assessed at the initiation of preclinical trials to determine the extent of prevalent degenerative changes. The ovine lumbosacral disc seems particularly prone to degeneration and might be a favorable anatomic site for studying IVD degeneration. PMID:27538861

  9. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  10. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Louis; Spiess, Alexandra; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Germany. Methods: This study included 7,580 patients between the ages of 40 and 90 diagnosed with AMD between January 2011 and December 2014 in 1,072 primary care practices (index date). The last follow-up was in July 2016. We also included 7,580 controls without AMD, which were matched (1:1) to the AMD cases by age, sex, type of health insurance (private or statutory), physician, and Charlson comorbidity score as a generic marker of comorbidity. The outcome of the study was the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders recorded in the database between the index date and the end of follow-up. Results: The mean age among subjects was 75.7 years (SD=10.1 years), 34.0% were men, and 7.8% had private health insurance coverage. The Charlson comorbidity index was 2.0 (SD=1.8). Depression was the most frequent disease (33.7% in AMD patients versus 27.3% in controls), followed by somatoform disorders (19.6% and 16.7%), adjustment disorders (14.8% and 10.5%), and anxiety disorders (11.7% and 8.2%). Depression (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.27–1.47), anxiety (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.35–1.67), adjustment disorders (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.36–1.65), and somatoform disorders (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) were all positively associated with AMD. Conclusion: Overall, a significant association was found between AMD and depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders. PMID:28243189

  11. Prevalence of Anaemia and Associated Factors among Children below Five Years of Age in Cape Verde, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Semedo, Rosa M.L.; Santos, Marta M.A.S.; Baião, Mirian R.; Luiz, Ronir R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 children aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for children below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions. PMID:25895198

  12. Prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among children below five years of age in Cape Verde, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Rosa M L; Santos, Marta M A S; Baião, Mirian R; Luiz, Ronir R; da Veiga, Gloria V

    2014-12-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 chil- dren aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for chil- dren below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions.

  13. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%.

  14. Prevalence of skin disorders in primary and secondary school age children in Canakkale, Turkey: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıc, Sevilay Oguz; Isık, Selda; Haydar Ertekin, Yusuf; Tekin, Murat; Cevizci, Sibel; Ogretmen, Zerrin; Topaloglu, Naci; Sahin, Erkan Melih; Cıbık, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin lesions may be of dermatological importance, affect appearance, and cause problems communicating with peers and may be especially more significant in childhood. Aim Information on the prevalence of pediatric dermatoses in Western Turkey. This study was aimed to define the existing data. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Canakkale, Turkey, in September-December 2013. It involved 1,957 students from five randomly selected primary and secondary schools. Each student was interviewed for age, gender, and family history, and a dermatologic examination was performed by a dermatologist. Data were coded and analyzed. Results Of the students, 79.9% revealed at least one dermatosis. The most common disease was benign neoplasms (76%), followed by pigmentary disorders (26.8%), and xerosis (5.8%). In primary schools, the acquired melanocytic nevus, hypopigmented macule, and xerosis; in secondary school the acne was statistically significantly more common. Acne and xerosis was more common in girls, and pityriasis alba was statistically more common in boys. Students who had at least one dermatosis were positively correlated with monthly income. Conclusions In Turkish school age children, the prevalence of dermatosis is 79.9%. It may be due to not using preventive means for adequate protection from the sun and other environmental factors. Infectious dermatosis and atopic dermatitis are rare and it may depend on the adequacy of public health work. PMID:27512351

  15. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Gomez, F; Alvarado, B; Guerra, R O; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J; Zunzunegui, M V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in the elderly populations of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Approximately 200 men and 200 women aged 65-74 years were recruited at each site (n=1995) during IMIAS' 2012 baseline survey at five cities: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken at participants' homes. Hypertension prevalence ranged from 53.4% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 83.5% in Tirana. Diabetes and obesity were identified as risk factors in all cities. More than two-thirds of hypertensive participants were aware of their condition (from 67.3% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 85.4% in Tirana); women were more aware than men. Awareness was positively associated with diabetes in Kingston, Manizales and Natal. Though most of those aware of their hypertensive condition were being treated pharmacologically, associations between awareness and physical activity and refraining from smoking were weak. Control among treated hypertensive participants was low, especially in Tirana and Natal. Diabetes and physical inactivity were associated with poor hypertension control. Hypertension is common in the older populations of IMIAS. Diabetes is strongly associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness and lack of control of hypertension. The fact that awareness is not strongly associated with healthy behaviours suggests that antihypertensive medication is not accompanied by non-pharmacological therapies. Improved health behaviours could strengthen hypertension control. Efforts should be made to increase men's awareness of hypertension. Hypertension control in diabetic patients is a challenge.

  16. The Association Between Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors and the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Middle-Aged and Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older men. Methods The subjects included 445 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dialysis treatment, who were not taking medications. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and were defined as follows: 1) lack of habitual moderate exercise, 2) lack of daily physical activity, 3) slow walking speed, 4) fast eating speed, 5) late-night dinner, 6) bedtime snacking, and 7) skipping breakfast. The participants were divided into four categories, which were classified into quartile distributions based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (0–1, 2, 3, and ≥4 unhealthy behaviors). Results According to a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria) was found to be significantly higher in the ≥4 group than in the 0–1 group (OR 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51–14.40). Moreover, subjects’ lack of habitual moderate exercise (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.13–8.32) and presence of late-night dinner (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.40–5.75) and bedtime snacking behaviors (OR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.27–6.45) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD. Conclusions These results suggest that an accumulation of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially those related to lack of habitual moderate exercise and presence of late-night dinner and bedtime snacking may be associated with the prevalence of CKD. PMID:26947951

  17. [Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Remission from the Ages of 20 to 50].

    PubMed

    Angst, Jules; Rufer, Michael; Fineberg, Naomi; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-11-25

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience recurrent obsessive and/or compulsive thoughts and behaviours which cause them distress, and significantly impair their daily lives. The disorder is thought to have a chronic course and a low rate of remission, as evidenced by mainly clinical samples. Longitudinal psychiatric epidemiological studies are few and far between. This article presents the findings relating to OCD from one such study, the Zurich Study: OCD defined according to DSM-5 criteria had a high prevalence rate and frequently a chronic course but it had a long-term remission rate of almost 60%, which is higher than hitherto believed. OCD was generally highly comorbid with other disorders and particularly closely associated with social phobia.

  18. [High prevalence of arterial hypertension in women over 50 years of age in the city of Leon, Guanajuato].

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, C; Malacara, J M; Donato, F; Botello, D

    1994-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its associated risk factors in the urban population of León, State of Guanajuato. Using a cross sectional design we selected by home interview 1000 volunteers 16 to 70 years old from three socioeconomic levels. Forty seven of 468 males (10.0%) and 67 of 532 females (12.6%) were found with hypertension. Increased rates for women were significant (p < 0.01). The rates of hypertension increased slowly with age for men, but for women a sudden increase was found at 48 years of age, the mean age of menopause. At 50 years of age or older, the rate for hypertension was 22.3% for men and 41.7% for women (chi 2 = 7.27, p = 0.007). The multivariate study of factors associated with hypertension showed significance for age, body mass index and smoking habit for the total group and for men, but only age and body weight for women. No association was seen for alcoholism, life style and socioeconomy. A univariate analysis of menopause was strongly associated with hypertension (chi 2 = 46.8, p < 0.0001) and the relative risk for hypertension in menopausal women was 8.04 (7.56-9.73). We conclude that the frequency of hypertension in this urban population is similar to that found in other studies except for women over 50 years of age. Such excess risk of hypertension in this group may be explained by an increased frequency of obesity and an increment in sedentary habits which occur in our female population, and the possible participation of hormone deprivation.

  19. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  20. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  1. PREVALENCE, CLINICAL AND LIFE-STYLE CORRELATE OF DIZZINESS AMONG THE COMMUNITY ELDERLY FROM THE IBADAN STUDY OF AGEING

    PubMed Central

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Gureje, Oye

    2011-01-01

    Dizziness has been reported to be preponderant among the elderly people, however, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors in the sub Saharan population. This longitudinal cohort study determines the prevalence of dizziness and the clinical and socio-epidemiological correlates in elderly persons residing in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria. Dizziness was reported 318/1299, representing a prevalence of 24.6%. They were made up of 197(58.5%) females and 121(41.5%) males, 39 (27.6%) were in the 65-69 years age range, 91 in the 70-74years age range, 66(26.8%) in the 75-79 years and 122(45.5%) were above 80 years. The majority of the subjects (253/318) (%) lived in rural-sub-urban, with no formal education in (172/318) (%) and more than two-third (213/318) were of low economic status. Balance test conducted in 1, 006 elderly subjects revealed poor balance (mean balance test score <3.3) in 93/250(37.2%) subjects with dizziness and 189/756(25%) subjects without dizziness(P=0.01). Logistic regression adjusting for age and gender revealed that the odds for poor balance were 1.5 times greater in elderly with dizziness. Low economic status (P=0.05) and smoking (P=0.01) were found to be significant in univariate analysis while logistic regression revealed smoking(OR=1.51, CI=1.17-1.95, P=0.01) and gender(OR=0.77, CI=0.59-0.99, P=0.05) as significant correlate of dizziness while none of age, residence or educational level was significant. Significant clinical correlates in the experience of dizziness included self report of suppurative otitis media (OR =2.07, CI=1.21- 3.52, P=0.01), head injury (OR=2.41, CI=1.61-3.61, P=0.00), recurrent rhinosinusitis (OR=2.97, CI=2.05-4.29,P=0.00), current hypertension(OR=1.43, CI=1.03-2.00, P=0.03) and transient ischemic attack(OR=1.97, CI=1.19-3.23, P=0.01), while diabetes mellitus(OR=1.50, CI= 0.83- 2.71, P= 0.18) was not. The high incidence of dizziness among the community elderly and significant correlation with

  2. Societal integration and age-standardized suicide rates in 21 developed countries, 1955-1989.

    PubMed

    Fernquist, R M; Cutright, P

    1998-01-01

    Gender-specific age-standardized suicide rates for 21 developed countries over seven 5-year periods (1955-59...1985-89) form the two dependent variables. Durkheim's theory of societal integration is the framework used to generate the independent variables, although several recent theories are also examined. The results from a MGLS multiple regression analysis of both male and female rates provide overwhelming support for a multidimensional theory of societal integration and suicide, as first suggested by Durkheim.

  3. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in Chile in 2013.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02).

  4. The prevalence of internal and external parasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in Southeast District, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Nsoso, S J; Mosala, K P; Ndebele, R T; Ramabu, S S

    2000-09-01

    Botswana imports most pig-based products from neighbouring countries. Pig farming is limited by, among other things, the negative effect of parasites and diseases on production. The object of this study was to determine the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in the Southeast District of Botswana. Thirty-nine pigs were sampled for endoparasites and 19 for ectoparasites during a period of 2 1/2 months. Of all the pigs sampled, 54,55% were infected with Ascaris suum, 20,45% with Trichostrongylus spp. and 6,82% with Trichuris suis. Ascaris suum was found to be the most common endoparasite infesting both mature, i.e. 12 months and older, and young, i.e. less than 12 months old, pigs. Although not significantly different (P > 0,05), the prevalence of this parasite species was slightly higher (68,42% with an average of 1,023 +/- 545 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces per pig) in mature than in young pigs (55% with an of average 1,500 +/- 846 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus spp. was lower in mature (5,26% with 20 +/- 14 EPG of faeces per pig) than in young pigs (25% with 22 +/- 9 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of T. suis was also lower in mature (0% infection) than in young pigs (15% with 9 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of the three endoparasite species was not significantly different between the sexes A. suum (1,020 +/- 883 v. 1,503 +/- 522 EPG of faeces per pig), Trichostrongylus spp. (24 +/- 14 v. 18 +/- 8 EPG of faeces per pig) and T. suis (11 +/- 6 v. 2 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig) for male and female pigs respectively. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only ectoparasite identified on the pigs sampled for external parasites. It infested 40% of all pigs but the infestation on young pigs (70%) was higher than on the mature ones (33,33%). Since the infection of internal and external parasites was similar in young and old pigs of both sexes, controlling parasites is of great importance since these

  5. High Prevalence of Superior Labral Tears Diagnosed by MRI in Middle-Aged Patients With Asymptomatic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Reuss, Bryan L.; Burkhart, Bradd G.; Butterfield, Matt; Wu, James Y.; McLean, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of superior labral surgery has increased in the past decade in the United States, and a contributing factor could be an increased rate of superior labral tears diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior MRI studies of the asymptomatic shoulder have focused on rotator cuff pathology or pathology in a narrow and specific group of athletes. Labral abnormalities have not previously been thoroughly evaluated in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in the asymptomatic shoulders of middle-aged people (age range, 45-60 years). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 53 asymptomatic adults (age range, 45-60 years) with no history of surgery or injury to either shoulder were included in the study. Physical examinations of all shoulders were performed. Noncontrast MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 1 randomly determined shoulder of each subject. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the purpose of the study and ages of the subjects evaluated each MRI. Results: Radiologists interpreted the MRIs as consistent with superior labral tears in 55% and 72% of the cohort. Comparison of the radiological evaluations of the superior labra were moderate (κ = 0.410, P = .033). There were no differences in readings for superior labral tear regarding age (P = .87), sex (P = .41), whether the dominant shoulder underwent MRI (P = .99), whether the subject worked a physical job (P = .08), or whether the subject participated in overhead sports for a period of 1 year (P = .62). Conclusion: Superior labral tears are diagnosed with high frequency using MRI in 45- to 60-year-old individuals with asymptomatic shoulders. These shoulder MRI findings in middle-aged populations emphasize the need for supporting clinical judgment when making treatment decisions for this patient population. Clinical Relevance: To avoid

  6. Prevalence and intensity of dentition defects and secondary deformations in the population of 15-40 age group.

    PubMed

    Kraveishvili, S; Shonia, N; Sakvarelidze, Z; Sakvarelidze, N

    2014-01-01

    Partial secondary adentia together with caries and parodont diseases is among the most widespread diseases of dentofacial system, correlated, in addition, to the number of lost teeth, with the age. Result in speech and chewing functions' disorders, change of face shape, esthetic and psychosocial inferiority, pathologies of digestive and other systems, formation of the chronic infection areas, changes of reactivity etc,. Improvement of the methods of prevention and treatment of the above diseases is one of the most significant problems in the dentistry. Effectiveness of dental assistance organization and planning is based on the epidemiological studies. In Georgia, epidemiological studies were conducted in the populations of various age groups in previous years though, according to our data, no studies of dentition defects and deformations were conducted in the recent decades. Goal of our research was study of prevalence and severity of dentition defects and deformations, regarding sizes of existing defects, their localization, causes and types of deformation in different age groups, for development of specialized dentistry assistance plans and prevention programs. We have studied 147 patients of ages between 15 and 40 years. We have developed special questionnaire. Researches showed that in the studied age group (15-40), 62% (96 patients), i.e. more than half of studied 147 patients had secondary adentia. Most of them had the defects in the buccal teeth area. 112 of studied 147 patients required orthopedic treatment but only 18 (16%) of them have visited the clinic for this purpose while 94 (83.9%) of them were unaware about need of prothetic assistance. Regarding significance of the mentioned problem, the obtained results show the need of timely orthopedic intervention for the purpose of prevention of further complications. As a result, a specialized dental assistance plan and prevention measures' program has been developed to prevent further complications.

  7. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  9. Age-specific prevalence of Escherichia coli with localized and aggregative adherence in Venezuelan infants with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    González, R; Díaz, C; Mariño, M; Cloralt, R; Pequeneze, M; Pérez-Schael, I

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the epidemiological significance of HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli isolates in diarrheal disease, we performed a study with 513 Venezuelan infants with diarrhea and 241 age-matched controls to determine the prevalence of enteropathogenic E. coli (enteroadherent E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli) and their correlation with O:H serotypes. E. coli isolates exhibiting localized and aggregative adherence in the HEp-2 cell assay were significantly more frequently isolated from the patients (8.5 and 26.9%, respectively) than from the controls (1.7 and 15%, respectively). This difference was significant for the group 0 to 2 months of age but for older infants. Regardless of age, E. coli isolates with diffuse adherence were found at similar frequencies in both the patients and the controls. A striking correlation between classic O serogroups and localized adherence was also observed. These findings confirm the pathogenic role of E. coli with localized and aggregative adherence in diarrheal disease, as well as the epidemiological importance of O:H serotyping for characterizing localized-adhering E. coli.

  10. Low prevalence of contraceptive counseling at Srinagarind hospital, Thailand among women of reproductive age with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Unplanned pregnancy in women with SLE can have grave complications both for the child and the woman. We studied the prevalence of contraceptive counseling among women of reproductive age with SLE at a university hospital in Northeast Thailand. Methods Recruited: 125 women with SLE, between 15 and 50 years, followed up at the Rheumatology Clinic. A questionnaire was administered and the results analyzed to identify the prevalence of contraceptive counseling. Results The majority of women with SLE had had their reproductive goals evaluated (76.00%, 95% CI 66–83) and received contraceptive counseling (72%). Among the SLE patients at risk for pregnancy, only one-third used effective contraception and one-fifth of those did not have any background knowledge about SLE and pregnancy. Contraceptive counseling was more frequently given to women who had had a previous pregnancy or who were already concerned about SLE as related to pregnancy. Conclusion The majority of SLE patients had at one time or other received contraceptive counseling, but some reported not grasping the gravity. The survey results presented herein suggest that a multidisciplinary team is needed to improve patient knowledge regarding SLE as it affects on pregnancy and relatedly contraceptive counseling. PMID:23577791

  11. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL

  12. Overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to three BMI classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the suitability of three commonly-used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (8–14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS) with data collected in 2005–2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted Kappa (kw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Results The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (kw=0.87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (kw=0.69), and CDC and WHO (kw=0.73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Conclusion Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. PMID:26095406

  13. Low Prevalence of Pneumococcal Carriage and High Serotype and Genotype Diversity among Adults over 60 Years of Age Living in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Santos Paulo, Ana Cristina; Valadares, Idalina; Martins, Sara; Breia, Fátima; Brito-Avô, António; Morais, Ana; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age, living in an urban area (n = 1,945) or in a rural area (n = 1,416), were obtained. Pneumococci were isolated by culture-based standard procedures, identified by optochin susceptibility, bile solubility and PCR screening for lytA and cpsA, and characterized by antibiotype, serotype, and MLST. Associations between pneumococcal carriage, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. The global prevalence of carriage was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8–2.8). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking, being at a retirement home, and living in a rural area increased the odds of being a pneumococcal carrier by 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.9–9.2), 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.1–3.6) and 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.2–3.5), respectively. Among the 77 pneumococcal isolates, 26 serotypes and 40 STs were identified. The most prevalent serotypes were (in decreasing order) 19A, 6C, 22F, 23A, 35F, 11A, and 23B, which accounted, in total, for 60.0% of the isolates. Most isolates (93.5%) had STs previously described in the MLST database. Resistance to macrolides, non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance were found in 19.5%, 11.7%, and 15.6% of the isolates, respectively. We conclude that the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the elderly, in Portugal, as determined by culture-based methods, is low. Serotype and genotype diversity is high. Living in a rural area, in a retirement home, and being a smoker increased the risk of pneumococcal carriage. This study contributes to the establishment of a baseline that may be used to monitor how novel

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for falls in older men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan

    2016-01-01

    Background falls are a major cause of disability and death in older people. Women are more likely to fall than men, but little is known about whether risk factors for falls differ between the sexes. We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to investigate the prevalence of falls by sex and to examine cross-sectionally sex-specific associations between a range of potential risk factors and likelihood of falling. Methods participants were 4,301 men and women aged 60 and over who had taken part in the 2012–13 survey of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. They provided information about sociodemographic, lifestyle and behavioural and medical factors, had their physical and cognitive function assessed and responded to a question about whether they had fallen down in the last two years. Results in multivariable logistic regression models, severe pain and diagnosis of at least one chronic disease were independently associated with falls in both sexes. Sex-specific risk factors were incontinence (odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19, 1.85) and frailty (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.06, 2.69) in women, and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.04, 1.07), high levels of depressive symptoms (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.68), and being unable to perform a standing balance test (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.09, 5.29) in men. Conclusion although we found some homogeneity between the sexes in the risk factors that were associated with falls, the existence of several sex-specific risk factors suggests that gender should be taken into account in designing fall-prevention strategies. PMID:27496938

  15. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls.

  16. Prevalence of memory disorders in ambulatory patients aged ≥70 years with chronic heart failure (from the EFICARE study).

    PubMed

    Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; de Groote, Pascal; Galinier, Michel; Isnard, Richard; Logeart, Damien; Komajda, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this multicenter observational study conducted in France was to determine the prevalence of memory impairment in ambulatory patients aged≥70 years with chronic heart failure (HF). Two hundred ninety-one cardiologists recruited 912 ambulatory patients with HF (mean age 79.2±5.8 years) from January to November 2009. Memory was evaluated by the delayed-recall Memory Impairment Screen (MIS-D). Memory impairment was defined as MIS-D score≤6 and severe memory impairment as MIS-D score≤4. HF was diagnosed 4.4±4.8 years earlier and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 43.6±12.0%. Memory impairment was found in 416 subjects (45.6%, 95% confidence interval 42.4 to 48.8) and severe memory impairment in 213 subjects (23.4%, 95% confidence interval 20.6 to 26.1), whereas cardiologists only suspected memory impairment in 109 patients (12%; before evaluation by MIS). Determinants of memory disorders included older age, lower education level, depression, history of stroke, renal failure, and less regular physical activity. The severity of memory impairment increased with increasing severity of HF (New York Heart Association classification; p<0.00001). In conclusion, memory impairment in older patients with HF is common. The use of a simple-to-use tool such as the MIS-D may identify patients at risk and enable implementation of management strategies to improve therapeutic compliance.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children aged 14 to 18 years (china).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijun; Chen, Yan; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Ren, Xiaohua; Gu, Qijun; Nie, Zhognhua; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-05-01

    Antecedentes: La Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes ha ido en aumento durante los últimos decenios. El presente estudio pretende evaluar la prevalencia de la obesidad en los niños de la escuela secundaria de 14 a 18 años de edad Anhui, y proporcionar directrices más amplias para los programas de intervención. Métodos: Este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en 4788 niños de escuela secundaria, y la fecha de la encuesta de salud de rutina fue analizado. Los trabajadores sanitarios capacitados tomaron medidas antropométricas, la altura y el peso, en la escuela. La definicion de los niños con sobrepeso y obesidad basada en la edad y sexo del índice de masa corporal estándar de referencia propuesto por el Grupo de trabajo internacional sobre obesidad y el Centro Nacional de estadísticas de salud. Resultados: De acuerdo a la IOTF Standard la prevalencia de sobrepeso (obesidad) y la obesidad reveló disminución tendencia con la edad en varones (sobrepeso, del 17,3% en 14-y a 5,3% en 18-y; la obesidad, from 3.8% en 14-y al 2,3% en 18-y). Dependiendo de la NCHS referencias utilizadas, la prevalencia global de sobrepeso (obesidad) y la obesidad en hombres de entre 14 y 18 años de edad disminuye a partir de un 16,4% a 11,7% y del 4,6% al 2,8%, respectivamente. Conclusión: El sobrepeso (obesidad) y la obesidad de diciembre de los 14 a los 18 años de edad tienen una tendencia a la disminucion, y más atención debe ser tomado para estudiantes varones en China. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la escuela secundaria y el Gobierno deben formular directrices apropiadas para mantener saludables a los adolescentes en China.

  18. Prevalence and course of somatic symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion: does sex or age matter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both mental and somatic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with stress-related problems. We have explored the prevalence of somatic symptoms in patients seeking medical care for stress-related mental health problems and followed the course of illnes alongside with that the patients receive multimodal treatment. Method This study comprises data from 228 patients (69% women, mean age 43 years) who fulfilled the criteria for Exhaustion Disorder (ED). Somatic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months using the one-page questionnaire Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Prevalence of different symptoms was compared between men and women and patients, over and below 40 years of age, and possible predictors of recovery were explored. Results Tiredness and low energy are the core symptom reported by the patients. Almost all (98%) reported at least one somatic symptom and 45% reported six symptoms or more, which was similar for men and women. Nausea, gas or indigestion are the most common symptoms (67%) followed by headaches (65%) and dizziness (57%). The number of symptoms reported was significantly related to the severity of mental health problems. The only difference between the sexes was that “chest pain” and “pain or problems during sexual intercourse” were more common among males. Patients over forty more often reported “pain in arms, legs or joints, knees, hips” and this was also the only symptom that did not significantly decline during treatment. Neither sex, age, symptom duration before seeking medical care, education or any other predictor tested was shown to predict recovery in patients reporting six symptoms or more. Conclusion A heavy burden of somatic symptoms was generally seen in most patients with stress-related exhaustion. Somatic symptoms are equally common in males and females and in younger and older patients. The somatic symptoms seem to be mostly stress-related since all symptoms

  19. Probit Models to Investigate Prevalence of Total Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes among Aged 45 Years or Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Minghui; Augustin, Balekouzou; Shu, Chang; Qin, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to identify the most important predictors of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and estimate the mean change in the predicted probability among aged 45+ adults in China. We used baseline data collected from 2011 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (n = 9,513). First, we estimated the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed, and undiagnosed diabetes. Second, we used probit models to determine whether individual attributes, socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral health factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, central obesity, are associated with total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. We also consider other factors, including contact with medical system, hypertension and urban/rural settings. Third, we estimated average marginal effects of variables in probit models. Among Chinese people aged 45+, the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were 5.8% (95%CI, 5.3%-6.3%), 14.7% (95%CI, 14.0%-15.4%), 17.0% (95%CI, 16.3%-17.7%), 11.3% (95%CI, 10.6%-12.0%), respectively. The probability of total diagnosed diabetes is 3.3% (95% CI, 1.2%-5.3%) and 10.2% (95% CI, 7.0%-13.5%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 5.0% (95% CI, 3.0%-7.1%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference, 5.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-7.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8%- 2.7%) higher in urban areas than in rural areas, respectively. The probability of undiagnosed diabetes is 2.7% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.2%) and 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-9.6%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 2.6% (95% CI, 0.9%-4.4%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference and 2.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive, respectively, and -1.5% (95% CI, -2.5% to -0.5%) lower for individuals who were in contact with the medical system. Greater focus on prevention of diabetes is necessary for obesity

  20. Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (p<0.001), but 38.3% (95%CI 30.1%–47.3%) of the subjects aged 80 years or older still had a normally preserved gait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; p<0.001 for multiple neurological gait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower

  1. Socioeconomic status, body mass index and prevalence of underweight and overweight among Polish girls aged 7-18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence.

  2. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Kharmandar, Alireza; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys); about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04), lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02), and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02) compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039). Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures. PMID:28246621

  3. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465

  4. Trends in the prevalences of congenital anomalies and age at motherhood in a southern European region: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Cambra, K; Ibañez, B; Urzelai, D; Portillo, I; Montoya, I; Esnaola, S; Cirarda, F B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalences of the main groups of congenital anomalies and to assess their trend over time. Design Population-based study of prevalences. Setting The Basque Country, Spain. Participants All births and all congenital anomalies diagnosed prenatally, at birth or during the first year of age, in all hospitals of the country, from 1999 to 2008. Main outcomes measures Total diagnosed prevalences and prevalences at birth of all chromosomal and non-chromosomal anomalies, Down's syndrome, anomalies of the nervous system, urinary, limbs, digestive system and congenital heart defects. Results Mean age (SD) of women at childbirth and the proportion of them over 35 years of age shifted from 32.1 (4.5) years, with 18.3% in 1999–2001, to 32.3 (4.7) years, with 23.9% in 2006–2008. Between 1999 and 2008, 991 cases of chromosomal anomalies and 3090 of non-chromosomal anomalies were diagnosed, which yields, respectively, total prevalences of 5.2‰ and of 16.2‰. Among chromosomal anomalies, Down's syndrome is the most frequent (2.9‰). With marginal statistical significance, the results point at an increasing trend in total diagnosed chromosomal anomalies, but a decreasing one in prevalences at birth. Among non-chromosomal congenital anomalies, congenital heart defects are the most frequent (5.2‰) one. Rates of all non-chromosomal, urinary and limb anomalies grew during the study period, whereas those of congenital heart defects and anomalies of the digestive system did not change significantly. Conclusions In the Basque Country, rates of chromosomal anomalies are higher than the overall estimated prevalence in European countries, and continue to increase slightly, which may be related to the rise in maternal age. Rates of non-chromosomal anomalies are within the European frequent range of values, and the increases observed need to be checked in the following years. PMID:24589823

  5. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  6. Influence of age and geographical origin in the prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in migrant female sex workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    del Amo, J; Gonzalez, C; Losana, J; Clavo, P; Munoz, L; Ballesteros, J; Garcia-Saiz, A; Belza, M; Ortiz, M; Menendez, B; del Romero, J; Bolumar, F

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in migrant female sex workers (FSW) according to age and geographical origin. Methods: Cross sectional study of migrant FSW attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Madrid during 2002. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive and sexual health, smoking, time in commercial sex work, history of STIs, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and genitourinary infections was collected. High risk HPV Infection was determined through the Digene HPV Test, Hybrid Capture II. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Results: 734 women were studied. Overall HPV prevalence was 39%; 61% in eastern Europeans, 42% in Ecuadorians, 39% in Colombians, 29% in sub-Saharan Africans, and 24% in Caribbeans (p = 0.057). HPV prevalence showed a decreasing trend by age; 49% under 20 years, 35% in 21–25 years,14% over 36 years% (p<0.005). In multivariate analyses, area of origin (p = 0.07), hormonal contraception in women not using condoms (OR 19.45 95% CI: 2.45 to 154.27), smoking, age, and an interaction between these last two variables (p = 0.039) had statistically significant associations with HPV prevalence. STI prevalence was 11% and was not related to age or geographical origin. Conclusions: High risk HPV prevalence in migrant FSW is elevated and related to age, area of origin, and use of oral contraceptives in women not using condoms. These data support the role of acquired immunity in the epidemiology of HPV infection and identifies migrant FSW as a priority group for sexual health promotion. PMID:15681729

  7. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women of childbearing age in Africa during 2000–2016: protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Werfalli; Magodoro, Itai; Kengne, Andre P; Norris, Shane A; Levitt, Naomi S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction African women of childbearing age are increasingly being exposed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), most particularly obesity. A differentiating feature of diabetes in women of childbearing age is that the disease may affect the mother and the developing fetus. Apart from mapping the extent of the problem, understanding the prevalence of T2DM in African women of childbearing age can help to galvanise targeted interventions for reducing the burden of T2DM. This is a protocol for a systematic review aiming to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for T2DM in women of childbearing age (15–49 years) in Africa. Methods and analyses We will carry out a comprehensive literature search among a number of databases, using appropriate adaptations of the African search filter to identify diabetes prevalence studies, published from 2000 to 2016, among African women of childbearing age (15–49 years) according to the WHO definition. Full copies of articles identified through searches and considered to meet the inclusion criteria will be obtained for data extraction and synthesis. The analysis of the primary outcome (prevalent diabetes) will include two steps: (1) identification of data sources and documenting estimates and (2) application of the random-effects meta-analysis model to aggregate prevalence estimates and account for between-study variability in calculating the overall pooled estimates and 95% CI for diabetes prevalence. We will assess heterogeneity and publication bias using established methods. This systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required for this study, given that this is a protocol for a systematic review, which utilises published data. The findings of this study will be widely disseminated through peer reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial

  8. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  9. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  10. Age-related and regional differences in the prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibodies in pigs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Joel, Sebastian; Neubert, Anne; Dremsek, Paul; Dürrwald, Ralf; Johne, Reimar; Hlinak, Andreas; Walther, Mario; Lange, Jeannette; Wutzler, Peter; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Zell, Roland

    2013-12-27

    An increasing number of acute autochthonous human hepatitis E virus (HEV)-infections was noticed in Germany and other developed countries, most likely the result of a zoonotic virus transmission from pig, wild boar and deer. Currently there is still a lack of profound data concerning the actual prevalence of HEV-specific antibodies in domestic pig herds in Germany, in particular for regions with high pig density, and its age-dependency. 2273 domestic pig sera were collected in 2011 mainly from Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony from areas having a high pig density. Initially, 420 randomly selected pig sera were tested in three commercially available and in two in-house HEV-antibody ELISAs. 43.6% (183/420) to 65.5% (275/420) of the sera were demonstrated to be reactive against human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1 and/or 3. The majority of sera reacted only weakly or not at all with the rat HEV antigen with very few sera showing a stronger reactivity to this antigen compared to the genotype 3 antigen. The results of all three HEV-IgG tests, i.e. the PrioCHECK(®) HEV Ab porcine ELISA kit, the ID Screen(®) Hepatitis E Indirect Multi-species ELISA kit and the genotype 3 in-house ELISA were in good accordance. Therefore, the remaining sera were tested using the PrioCHECK(®) HEV Ab porcine ELISA kit. Samples with a borderline result were finally determined by application of the conjugate-modified recomLine HEV IgG assay. A total of 1065 of the 2273 sera (46.9%) were found to be anti-HEV IgG-positive. While 38.4% (306/796) of fatteners (age between 3 and 9 months) exhibited HEV-specific antibodies, 51.4% (759/1477) of sows (age older than 9 months) exhibited anti-HEV antibodies (P<0.001). Fatteners kept in Southern Germany had a significantly higher HEV IgG prevalence compared to fatteners kept in the high pig density federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony but also in German federal states with a low pig density. In conclusion, the present

  11. Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer dementia in blacks and whites: a report from the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B; Zimmerman, Molly E; Sanders, Amy E; Verghese, Joe; Dickson, Dennis W; Derby, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    As the population ages, the need to characterize rates of cognitive impairment and dementia within demographic groups defined by age, sex, and race becomes increasingly important. There are limited data available on the prevalence and incidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) from population-based studies. The Einstein Aging Study, a systematically recruited community-based cohort of 1944 adults aged 70 or older (1168 dementia free at baseline; mean age, 78.8 y; average follow-up, 3.9 y), provides the opportunity to examine the prevalence and incidence rates for dementia, Alzheimer dementia (AD), aMCI, and naMCI by demographic characteristics. Dementia prevalence was 6.5% (4.9% AD). Overall dementia incidence was 2.9/100 person-years (2.3/100 person-years for AD). Dementia and AD rates increased with age but did not differ by sex. Prevalence of aMCI was 11.6%, and naMCI prevalence was 9.9%. aMCI incidence was 3.8 and naMCI incidence was 3.9/100 person-years. Rates of aMCI increased significantly with age in men and in blacks; sex, education, and race were not significant risk factors. In contrast, naMCI incidence did not increase with age; however, blacks were at higher risk compared with whites, even when controlling for sex and education. Results highlight the public health significance of preclinical cognitive disease.

  12. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among People Aged 15 to 89 Years Inhabiting the Department of Casanare (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Fredy Roberto Salazar; Trujillo Güiza, Martha Liliana; Escobar Martínez, Magally del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a sample of inhabitants from a region considered to be at high risk of natural transmission of Chagas disease in Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects from 5 municipalities, recruited in urban and rural locations, distributed by gender according to the demographic information available. Socio-demographic information, history of potential exposure to insect vectors, blood donating, as well as symptoms suggesting cardiac disease were collected using a questionnaire. After giving written informed consent, blood specimens were obtained from 486 people to determine the serologic evidence of past exposure to T. cruzi. Infection was diagnosed when two different tests (ELISA and IHA) were positive. The seroprevalence of antibodies against T. cruzi was 16.91% considering an estimated population of 44,355 aged between 15 and 89 years (95%IC: 13.72 to 20.01). The factors significantly associated with the infection were: 1- Housing materials like vegetable material, adobe or unfinished brick walls; 2- The fact of having previous tests for Chagas disease (regardless of the result). Of note, the mean ages among infected and not infected participants were significantly different (49.19 vs. 41.66, p≤0.0001). Among the studied municipalities, the one with the highest frequency of T. cruzi infection was Nunchia, with 31.15% of the surveyed subjects. Therefore it may be concluded that T. cruzi infection is highly prevalent in the north region of Casanare, in Colombia. PMID:23505592

  13. The age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus and risk of cytologic abnormalities in rural Nigeria: Implications for screen-and-treat strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Julia C.; Ajenifuja, Kayode O.; Wentzensen, Nicolas A.; Adepiti, Akinfolarin C.; Eklund, Claire; Reilly, Mary; Hutchinson, Martha; Wacholder, Sholom; Harford, Joe; Soliman, Amr S.; Burk, Robert D.; Schiffman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Cervical screening for carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is being considered for low income countries. Effectiveness requires targeted screening in older women in whom prevalent infections are more likely to be persistent and predictive of precancer. Some studies in West Africa have found unusually high HPV prevalences across all adult ages, that may reduce the positive predictive value (PPV) of HPV-based screening, if positivity in older women does not sufficiently predict elevated risk. We conducted a population-based study in rural Nigeria to identify HPV prevalence and associated cervical abnormalities. Using stratified random sampling, we enrolled women age 15+. Non-virgins had a cervical exam including liquid-based cytology and PCR HPV DNA testing from residual cytology specimens. Two-thirds of invited women participated, and 14.7% had detectable carcinogenic HPV, a proportion that did not decline with age (p-trend=.36) and showed slight peaks in the 15–29 and 60–69 age groups. Among women of the age typically considered for screen-and-treat programs (30–49 years), 12.8% were HPV-positive and the PPV for high-grade or worse cytology was 16.4%. Comparatively, women age <30, were more likely to be HPV-positive (18.9%, p=.03) with a lower PPV (4.2% p=.05). Among women age 50+ (typically excluded from screening in resource-poor settings because inexpensive treatment is not available), HPV positivity was 14.2% with a PPV of 13.9%. In Irun and similar settings where HPV does not decline with age, HPV-based screen-and-treat programs might be feasible for mid-adult women, since prevalence is sufficiently low, positivity predicts elevated risk of more easily treated precancer. PMID:21630264

  14. [Prevalence of Elevated Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Patients < 60 Years of Age with Retinal Vein Occlusion].

    PubMed

    Kuhli-Hattenbach, C; Hellstern, P; Miesbach, W; Kohnen, T; Hattenbach, L-O

    2016-09-19

    Background: The potential impact of elevated Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels on retinal venous occlusive (RVO) diseases with regard to age and various risk factors has not been studied extensively. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective case-control study, thrombophilia data of 106 young patients (< 60 years at the time of the RVO or a previous thromboembolic event) with RVO and 76 healthy subjects were evaluated. Results: Elevated Lp(a) plasma levels were significantly more prevalent among RVO patients (29.2 %) than among controls (9.2 %; p = 0.0009). Lp(a) levels were found to be significantly (p = 0.012) different between patients and controls. Moreover, we found that an unusual personal or family history of thromboembolism was a strong predictor of elevated Lp(a) (p = 0.03). We observed a significant correlation between elevated Lp(a) and other coagulation disorders (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that elevated lipoprotein(a) levels (OR: 3.5; p = 0.003) were an independent risk factor for the development of RVO. Conclusions: Elevated plasma levels of Lp(a) are associated with the development of RVO. Selective screening of young patients and subjects with a personal or family history of thromboembolism may be helpful in identifying RVO patients with elevated Lp(a).

  15. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  16. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  17. A two-decade comparison of prevalence of dementia in individuals aged 65 years and older from three geographical areas of England: results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Fiona E; Arthur, Antony; Barnes, Linda E; Bond, John; Jagger, Carol; Robinson, Louise; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of dementia is of interest worldwide. Contemporary estimates are needed to plan for future care provision, but much evidence is decades old. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of dementia had changed in the past two decades by repeating the same approach and diagnostic methods as used in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) in three of the original study areas in England. Methods Between 1989 and 1994, MRC CFAS investigators did baseline interviews in populations aged 65 years and older in six geographically defined areas in England and Wales. A two stage process, with screening followed by diagnostic assessment, was used to obtain data for algorithmic diagnoses (geriatric mental state–automated geriatric examination for computer assisted taxonomy), which were then used to estimate dementia prevalence. Data from three of these areas—Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham—were selected for CFAS I. Between 2008 and 2011, new fieldwork was done in the same three areas for the CFAS II study. For both CFAS I and II, each area needed to include 2500 individuals aged 65 years and older to provide power for geographical and generational comparison. Sampling was stratified according to age group (65–74 years vs ≥75 years). CFAS II used identical sampling, approach, and diagnostic methods to CFAS I, except that screening and assessement were combined into one stage. Prevalence estimates were calculated using inverse probability weighting methods to adjust for sampling design and non-response. Full likelihood Bayesian models were used to investigate informative non-response. Findings 7635 people aged 65 years or older were interviewed in CFAS I (9602 approached, 80% response) in Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham, with 1457 being diagnostically assessed. In the same geographical areas, the CFAS II investigators interviewed 7796 individuals (14 242 approached, 242 with

  18. Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years.

    PubMed

    Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the use of different methodologies, target populations, and clinical definitions of sexual problems, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the occurrence of sexual difficulties is a very common experience among men from the general population regardless of their age. The objective of this study was to present epidemiological data on the prevalence of sexual difficulties in a community sample of 650 sexually active Portuguese men, stratified by age, marital status, and educational level. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing sexual function in the previous four weeks (International Index of Erectile Function). Results showed that sexual difficulties were relatively common among this sample. Rapid ejaculation was the most frequently reported sexual difficulty (23.2%), followed by erectile difficulties (10.2%), orgasm problems (8.2%), and low desire (2.9%) in the previous four weeks. With the exception of rapid ejaculation, all categories showed age-specific prevalence rates, with sexual difficulties increasing gradually in men above age 45. Age was a significant predictor of all sexual difficulties except rapid ejaculation, and lower educational levels were related to orgasm difficulties. Findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating a high prevalence of sexual difficulties among men in the general population and highlight the importance and the need to implement sexual health promotion programs in the target population.

  19. Population prevalence of ultrasound features of osteoarthritis in the hand, knee and hip at age 63 years: the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal ultrasound has been found to be more sensitive than radiographs in detecting osteophytes. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of features of osteoarthritis (OA), in the dominant hand, knees and hips using ultrasound, within the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort. Methods Participants were aged 61–63 (mean 63) years. Knee images were scored for presence of osteophytes and effusion. Hip images were scored for the presence of osteophytes and femoral head abnormality. The first carpometacarpal joint, metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of the index finger (dominant hand) were imaged for osteophytes. Results Among 311 participants, prevalence of osteophytes at the distal interphalangeal joint was 70% while it was 23%, 10% and 41% for index proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal and thumb base carpometacarpal joints respectively. Prevalence of knee osteophytes was 30%, hip OA was 41%. Prevalence of knee effusions was 24% (right) and 20% (left). Ultrasound evidence of generalised OA (48%) and isolated hand OA (31%) was common, compared to isolated hip or knee OA (5%) and both hip and knee OA (3%). Conclusion This is the first study to assess prevalence of ultrasound features of OA in a population-based sample. The higher prevalence of hand/hip OA, when compared to previous radiographic studies, supports the hypothesis that ultrasound is more sensitive than radiography in detecting OA, particularly for osteophytes. PMID:24884977

  20. How do different diagnostic criteria, age and gender affect the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults? An epidemiological study in a Hungarian community sample.

    PubMed

    Bitter, István; Simon, Viktoria; Bálint, Sára; Mészáros, Agnes; Czobor, Pál

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of different diagnostic criteria on prevalence estimates of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (2) to provide prevalence estimates of adult ADHD for the first time in a Hungarian sample. Subjects between 18 and 60 years were included in the screening phase of the study (N = 3,529), conducted in 17 GP practices in Budapest. Adult self-report scale 6-item version was used for screening. Out of 279 positively screened subjects 161 subjects participated in a clinical interview and filled out a self-report questionnaire to confirm the diagnosis. Beside DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, we applied four alternative diagnostic criteria: 'No-onset' (DSM-IV criteria without the specific requirement for onset); full/Sx (DSM-IV "symptoms only" criteria); and reduced/Sx (DSM-IV "symptoms only" criteria with a reduced threshold for symptom count). Crude prevalence estimates adjusted for the specificity and sensitivity data of the screener were 1.35% in the 'DSM-IV' group, 1.64% in the 'No-onset' group, 3.65% in the 'Sx/full' group and 4.16% in the 'Sx/reduced' group. Logistic regression analysis showed that ADHD was significantly more prevalent with younger age and male gender [chi(2) = 14.46; P = 0.0007]. Prevalence estimates corrected for the 'not-interviewed' subsample and adjusted for specificity and sensitivity data of the screener was 2.3% in males, 0.91% in females; 2.02% in the < or =40 years age group and 0.70% in the >40 years age group, based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Prevalence rates found in this study are somewhat lower, but still are in line with those reported in the literature.

  1. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. Objective To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1) socio-demographic information, 2) diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3) behaviour and knowledge, 4) socio-economic indicators, 5) access to water and water chain as well as 6) sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. Results A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255) of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17) had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%), boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4%) and were aged 40 or older (17.9%). Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Conclusions Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level. PMID:25150028

  2. The Prevalence of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Marfan syndrome (MFS) in Korean adults. Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2013. The data consisted of primary diagnoses related to MFS (Q87.4) diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The age-standardized prevalence of MFS in adults was calculated using the estimated Korean population in 2010 as a reference. Overall, the prevalence of MFS was 0.90 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 2.27 in 2013. For males in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 2.61 in overall and 4.32 in 15–19 years-old. For females in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 1.92 in overall and 3.02 in 10–14 years-old. In conclusion, currently, the age-standardized overall prevalence of MFS was 2.27 persons per 100,000 persons. And the overall age-standardized prevalence of MFS increased between 2006 and 2013 especially in 15–19 years-old males and 10–14 years-old females. PMID:28244281

  3. Population-based survey of prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment in an aging Chinese metropolitan population

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian-Yan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Yong-Dong; Du, Xin-Hua; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, De-An; Xu, Dong-Hong; Huang, Yi-Min; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment among elderly (≥60 years of age) Chinese people in a metropolitan area of Shanghai, China. METHODS Random cluster sampling was conducted to identify participants among residents ≥60 years of age living in the Xietu Block, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were checked by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual chart. All eligible participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Blindness and visual impairment were defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS A total of 4190 persons (1688 men and 2502 women) participated in the study, and the response rate was 91.1%. Based on PVA, the prevalence of blindness was 1.1% and that of visual impairment was 7.6%. Based on BCVA, the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment decreased to 0.9% and 3.9%, respectively. Older (≥80 years of age) women, with low educational levels and smoking habits, exhibited a significantly greater chance for blindness and visual impairment than did those with high educational levels and no smoking habits (P<0.05). Based on PVA and BCVA, the main causes of blindness were cataract, myopic maculopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CONCLUSION Our findings help to identify the population in need of intervention, to highlight the need for additional eye healthcare services in urban China. PMID:28149791

  4. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  5. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  6. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health. PMID:28058102

  7. Alcoholism in the Families of Origin of MSW Students: Estimating the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems Using Standardized Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Catherine A.; Hawkins, Raymond C., II

    1996-01-01

    A 1991 study of 136 graduate social work students determined students' status as adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by self-report and standardized screening test scores, and evaluated mental health functioning with four standardized measures. Results found that 47% of the social work students were ACAs, and not all (or only) ACAs were vulnerable…

  8. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations.

  9. [Analysis on prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z H; Dong, Y H; Song, Y; Yang, Z P; Ma, J

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To explore the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China. Methods: A total of 220 159 students (110 039 boys and 110 120 girls) aged 9-22 years who completed the questionnaire of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors were selected from " 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" for the current study. All the participants were divided into 2 groups, i.e. physical activity time <1 hour and physical activity time ≥1 hour according the suggestion of Central Government, stratified by age and gender. χ(2) tests were used to compare the difference in the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour between boys and girls in every age groups. Univariate and multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to explore the factors that influenced the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour. Results: The boy's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 73.3%, with the lowest (57.0%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (82.5%) in 18 years old group. The girl's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 79.1%, with the lowest (60.1%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (89.8%) in 21 years old group. Overall, The prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<0.001), and the prevalence were significantly higher in girls than in boys in all the age groups (P<0.001), and it was observed that the prevalence of physical activity <1 hour increased with age in both boys and girls (P<0.001). Multivariate log-binomial regression model found that being girl (PR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.05-1.06), parents' disliking children to participate physical activity (PR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.07-1.09), heavy homework (PR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.12-1.14), long homework time (PR =1.08, 95%CI: 1.07-1.08), long time spending on electronic screen watching (PR=1.01, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) and disliking physical class (PR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.10-1.12) could be the risk factors for

  10. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    PubMed

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals.

  11. Prevalence gradients of Friedreich's ataxia and R1b haplotype in Europe co-localize, suggesting a common Palaeolithic origin in the Franco-Cantabrian ice age refuge.

    PubMed

    Vankan, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Combining data from epidemiological studies in Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) and patient organization membership lists, shows that FRDA prevalence exhibits large regional differences in Europe with a prevalence gradient from west to east. Highest levels are observed in northern Spain, south of France and Ireland, lowest levels in Scandinavia and Russia. The observed distribution of FRDA in Europe co-localizes with the gradient of the chromosomal R1b marker as detected within west Europe. This gradient is either derived from Palaeolithic migrations out of the Franco-Cantabrian Ice age refuge or from Neolithic migrations entering west Europe with the advance of agriculture. FRDA prevalence may have been increased in this population anytime after its separation from the closely related R1a carrying group. East European populations with a high frequency of the R1a marker show 10 fold lower prevalence of FRDA, indicating that the FRDA mutation was present in the common ancestor and was increased in the R1b carrying group. The FRDA carrying population went through a Palaeolithic population bottleneck supporting the view that the observed FRDA distribution and potentially the R1b distribution are derived from Palaeolithic migrations out of the Franco-Cantabrian ice age refuge.

  12. Impact of Age, Season, and Flowing vs. Stagnant Water Habitat on Avian Influenza Prevalence in Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, B; Marché, S; Houdart, P; van den Berg, T; Vangeluwe, D

    2016-05-01

    Due to their probable role in the spread of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, and in order to explore its implication in the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus epidemiology, mute swans represent one particular wild bird species specifically targeted in the avian influenza (AI) surveillance elaborated in Belgium. A total of 640 individual mute swans have been sampled during a 4-yr AI surveillance program (2007-2010) to determine the AI seroprevalence and viroprevalence in this species; all were analyzed through age, temporal, and habitat (flowing and stagnant water) factors. Using a nucleoprotein (NP)-based ELISA, a global antibody prevalence of 35% has been found and was characterized by two peaks in the winter and the summer that might be indicative of a greater LPAI virus circulation in the autumn than in the spring. A significantly higher antibody prevalence was detected in adult swans (53.8%) as compared to juveniles (15.5%). In contrast, a low prevalence of infection (2.7%) was found, mainly in juvenile mute swans and only during the autumn migration period. Interestingly, an impact of water habitat was observed based on the comparison of the antibody prevalence and prevalence of infection from swan populations living on stagnant water vs. flowing water, suggesting that stagnant water provides a more-favorable environment for LPAI persistence and transmission.

  13. Assessing the WHO 50% Prevalence Threshold in School-Aged Children as Indication for Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Adults in Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Darin S.; King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Adamani, William; Alphonsus, Kal; Sambo, Yohanna; Miri, Emmanual S.; Goshit, Danjuma; Ogah, Gladys; Richards, Frank O.

    2013-01-01

    Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is recommended in adults by the World Health Organization when prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children (SAC) is ≥ 50%. This study ascertained the value of this threshold in predicting prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma hematobium (SH) infection in adults in central Nigeria. We evaluated urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence in 1,164 adults: 659 adults in 12 communities where mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 26.6% and 505 adults in 7 communities where the mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 70.4%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of adults in prevalence of hematuria, prevalence of SH eggs, or intensity of infections. We conclude that, in this setting, the SAC threshold is not useful for treatment decisions in adults. Given the increased risk of subtle morbidity or urogenital schistosomiasis as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), more liberal treatment of adults with praziquantel is warranted. PMID:23382170

  14. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, Prakash; Thea, Donald M.; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Fox, Matthew P.; Coovadia, H. M.; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites with high HIV prevalence in Durban, South Africa and Ndola, Zambia. Primary outcome measures were clinical treatment failure at day 2 and day 14. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: CT00227331http://www.clinicaltrialsgov/show/NCT00227331). FINDINGS: Of the 523 children enrolled, HIV status was known for 464 participants; 106 (23%) of these were infected with HIV. By day 2, 57 (12.3%) children had failed treatment and 110 (23.7%) failed by day 14. Twenty (18.9%) HIV-infected children failed by day 2 compared with 37 (10.3%) uninfected children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.00). Thirty-four (32.1%) HIV-infected children failed treatment by day 14 compared with 76 (21.2%) uninfected children (adjusted OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.11-3.17). Analysis stratified by age showed that the greatest differential in treatment failure at day 2 and day 14 occurred in the children aged 3-5 months. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children with severe pneumonia fail WHO-standard treatment with parenteral penicillin or amoxicillin at day 2 and day 14 more often than do HIV-uninfected children, especially young infants. Standard case management of acute respiratory infection (ARI) using WHO treatment guidelines is inadequate in areas of high HIV prevalence and reappraisal of empiric antimicrobial therapy is urgently needed for severe pneumonia associated with HIV-1. PMID:16628299

  15. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Guatemala 2009–2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. Methods A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15–49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009–2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1,473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. Results National prevalence estimates for deficient serum (<10 nanomoles per liter [nmol/L]) and RBC folate (<340 nmol/L) concentrations were 5.1% (95% CI 3.8, 6.4) and 8.9% (95% CI 6.7, 11.7), respectively; for vitamin B12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) 18.5% (95% CI 15.6, 21.3). Serum and RBC folate deficiency prevalences were higher for rural areas than for urban areas (8.0% vs. 2.0% and 13.5% vs. 3.9%, respectively). The prevalence of RBC folate deficiency showed wide variation by geographic region (3.2%–24.9%) and by wealth index (4.1%–15.1%). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency also varied among regions (12.3% –26.1%). Conclusions In Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations. PMID:26002178

  16. Secular Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Sicilian Schoolchildren Aged 11–13 Years During the Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Roberto; La Spina, Nadia; La Delfa, Lavinia; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11–13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999–2001 and 2009–2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009–2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI), BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999–2001 (p<0.0001 for all); these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999–2001 to 13.7% in 2009–2010 (p<0.0001), whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001) in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006) than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04) and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002) than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012). The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24–2.15; p = 0.0005) in 2009–2010 than in 1999–2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles. PMID:22506027

  17. Secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren aged 11-13 years during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Cristina; Rossetti, Paola; Baratta, Roberto; La Spina, Nadia; La Delfa, Lavinia; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11-13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999-2001 and 2009-2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009-2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI), BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999-2001 (p<0.0001 for all); these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999-2001 to 13.7% in 2009-2010 (p<0.0001), whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001) in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006) than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04) and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002) than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012). The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-2.15; p = 0.0005) in 2009-2010 than in 1999-2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles.

  18. Teaching Traditional and Non-Traditional Age Individuals: How Should Methods, Expectations, and Standards Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.

    A study examined achievement and attitudes of traditional and nontraditional age students enrolled in an undergraduate behavioral sciences statistics course. Performance and attitude data were collected from a class of 25 traditional students (average age 22) and from a class of 15 nontraditional students (average age 35). The two groups were…

  19. The prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in rural-urban India, Sankara Nethralaya Rural-Urban Age-related Macular degeneration study, Report No. 1.

    PubMed

    Raman, R; Pal, S S; Ganesan, S; Gella, L; Vaitheeswaran, K; Sharma, T

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rates of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) and associated risk factors in rural and urban Indian population.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in South India between 2009 and 2011. Of the 6617 subjects ≥60 years enumerated ones, 5495 (83.04%) participated in the eye examination. A detailed history including data on demographic, socioeconomic, and ocular history was obtained. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including 30° 3-field photograph as per Age-Related Eye Disease Study protocol. The ARM was graded according to the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group.ResultsAge- and gender-adjusted prevalence of early ARM was 20.91% (20.86-20.94) in the rural population and 16.37% (16.32-16.42) in the urban population. Similarly, the prevalence of late ARM was 2.26% (2.24-2.29) and 2.32% (2.29-2.34) in the rural and urban population, respectively. In both rural and urban populations, risk factors that were related to both early and late ARM were age, per year increase (OR, range 1.00-1.08); middle socioeconomic status (OR, range 1.05-1.83); and smokeless tobacco (OR, range 1.11-2.21). Protective factor in both was the presence of diabetes mellitus in all ARM (OR, range 0.34-0.83). Risk factors, only in the rural arm, were female gender (OR, range 1.06-1.64), past smoker (OR, 1.14), and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (OR, 1.03).ConclusionsThe study reports smokessless tobacco as a risk factor for both early and late ARM and identified a higher prevalence of early ARM in the rural population compared with urban population.

  20. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Metabolic Comorbidities Was Associated with Age at Onset of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yunlu; Ding, Yangfeng

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been found to be highly prevalent in psoriatic patients. Adult onset psoriasis could be divided into either early or late onset psoriasis. The associations between NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities and age at onset of psoriasis have not yet been investigated. Our study was to evaluate the associations between prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic conditions and early, late, and childhood onset psoriasis. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Data on clinical characteristics of NAFLD and related metabolic diseases (diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome) were collected. The prevalence of NAFLD in 439 patients (mean: 51±14 years, range: 18–85 years) was 55.8%. NAFLD was frequently identified in early onset patients (74.2%), and this diagnosis was particularly common in patients currently younger than 40 (85.3%). Diabetes was the least prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in early onset patients with metabolic syndrome but the most often found component in late onset ones. Patients with childhood onset psoriasis had the lowest frequencies of all metabolic comorbidities except hyperuricemia among the three groups. In the multivariate analyses, early onset was independently and positively associated with NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and independently and negatively associated with diabetes among early and late onset patients. The results suggested prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities was associated with age at onset of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Early onset of psoriasis was independently associated with greater odds of NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia and smaller odds of diabetes compared to late onset. Early onset patients have metabolic syndrome mainly related to lipid disorders and abnormal glucose metabolism was not often involved. PMID:28099469

  1. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  2. Age of Exploration. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.2. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 5.2 is delineated as: Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas. The Age of Exploration, which began in the late 1400s, was an important era in the discovery and development of land yet unknown to Europeans. During this period, Europeans sought new sea routes to Asia…

  3. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  4. Prevalence and impact of pain among older adults in the United States: findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Dansie, Elizabeth J; Turk, Dennis C

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States. Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the United States. Pain did not vary across age groups (P = 0.21), and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P < 0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower-extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.72 [95% confidence interval 1.56-1.90]). Participants with 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other potential confounders (P < 0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the United States in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function.

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Affecting Factors among Individuals Aged 30 and over in Balçova District of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hatice; Doğanay, Sinem; Günay, Türkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to an increase twice as much in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and four times as much in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence since the second half of the 20th century. Aims: This study aims to determine and discuss the prevalence of the MetS and co- factors among individuals at the age of 30 and over in Balcova district of İzmir province according to the American National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and InternationalDiabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data obtained from the Balcova Heart Project in İzmir were used in the study. The dependent variable of the study is MetS existence. The independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and marital status), self-perceived economic status, physical activity, smoking status, healthy nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of MetS was 36.9% according to the diagnostic criteria of IDF, while it was 27.4% according to ATP III criteria. According to the both criteria, increasing age, low education, poor economic status perception, physical inactivity, and obesity increase the risk of MetS. Apart from the IDF criteria, being female and a current smoker increase the risk of the MetS in the NCEP-ATP III. Conclusion: Compared to educational studies of MetS as of today, which are community and health-oriented studies, it is challenging that the prevalence of MetS was found to be high for both criteria in our study. Therefore, in particular, primary health care doctors must be prompted to protect the public against DM and CVD in particular. PMID:27308078

  6. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Meera N.; Harhay, Michael O.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socioeconomic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. Methods We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5 – 21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95%CI 1.07–1.10, p<0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 meters above sea level of residence, subjects’ odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15–1.38, p<0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30%–50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26–46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. PMID:26466575

  7. Is Greulich and Pyle standards of skeletal maturation applicable for age estimation in South Indian Andhra children?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Goud, Alampur Srinivas; Sailaja, S.; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Now-a-day age determination has gained importance for various forensic and legal reasons. Skeletal age (SA) of a test population can be estimated by comparing with established standards of Greulich and Pyle (G-P). As this atlas has been prepared using data from upper-class children born between 1917 and 1942 in the USA and the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on Andhra children living in India. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the reliability of bone age calculated by G-P atlas in estimation of age in selected population. Materials and Methods: A total of 660 children (330 girls, 330 boys) between ages 9 and 20 years were randomly selected from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine in GITAM Dental College, Andhra Pradesh. Digital hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and assessed for SA using G-P atlas and the difference between estimated SA and chronological age (CA) were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: G-P method underestimated the SA by 0.23 ± 1.53 years for boys and overestimated SA by 0.02 ± 2 years in girls and mild underestimation was noted in the total sample of about 0.1 ± 1.78 years. Spearman rank test showed significant correlation between SA and CA (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that G-P standards were reliable in assessing age in South Indian Andhra children of age 9–20 years with unknown CA. PMID:26229357

  8. The Relationship between Using Electronic Health Records and Meeting Accreditation Standards for Client Safety in Residential Aged Care Homes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the benefits of using electronic health records (EHR) for client safety in residential aged care (RAC) homes. The aged care accreditation reports published between 27 April 2011 and 3 December 2013 were downloaded and analysed. It could be seen from these reports that only 1,031(37.45%) RAC homes in Australia had adopted an EHR system by 2013. 13 RAC homes failed one or more accreditation standards. Only one of these was using an EHR system and this one met the accreditation standards on information systems. Our study provides empirical evidence to suggest that adopting and using EHR can be one of the effective organisational mechanisms to meeting accreditation standards in RAC homes.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied.

  10. Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2008-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are widespread in the population and the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries among school children in different parts of the world varies from about 3% to 45%. Most injuries involve the anterior teeth, which may lead to eating restrictions, changes in physical appearance, speech defects and psychological impacts that affect the child's quality of life. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence, aetiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries. The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisor teeth was 9.3% (13.3% boys and 6.3% girls). Significantly more boys than girls suffered injury. The most common type of injury was enamel fractures and most common cause was falls. Health promotion policies should aim to create an appropriate and safe environment for children. Soft playground surfaces, school-crossing patrols, marked zebra crossings and bicycle lanes would help create a safe environment. Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced. Mouth guards should be used when playing sport, in particular contact sports. Education regarding the epidemiology of dental injuries and their prevention through health promotion may play a major role in reducing the prevalence of dental injury and avoiding the financial costs of treatment, especially in developing countries.

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (<5 years) in Cameroon, based on weight-for-height index, has doubled between 1991 and 2006. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Methods Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13–24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25–36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. Conclusion This study underlines a high prevalence of

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    G/hiwot, Yirgalem; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2%) and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5%) infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1%) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6%) does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana infections are

  14. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  15. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  16. Prevalence of low bone health using quantitative ultrasound in Indian women aged 41-60 years: Its association with nutrition and other related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chawla, Jasmine Kaur; Gupta, Swati; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2017-02-02

    The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of low bone health conditions and assess associated nutritional and other risk factors in Indian women aged 41-60 years. A total of 1,911 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone health was assessed using an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer on two sites (radius and tibia). Crude prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be 30.09% and 19.89%, respectively. The Indian women were deficient in a majority of nutrients. Postmenopause, hysterectomy, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypertension, low physical activity, low sun exposure, high stress levels, and low calcium levels were found to be independent risk factors of low bone health.

  17. Definition and prevalence of anemia in Bolivian women of childbearing age living at high altitudes: the effect of iron-folate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Aguayo, V M; San Miguel, J L; Lujan, C; Tellez, W; Traissac, P

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses the effect that high altitudes have on iron metabolism and summarizes the results of an iron-folate supplementation trial. The two main objectives of the trial were to determine hemoglobin cut-off values for the diagnosis of anemia in Bolivian women of childbearing age living at high altitudes, and to estimate the prevalence of anemia in this population. The study showed that nutritional anemia is an important public health problem in such populations and that many methods of assessing it lead to an underestimation of prevalence. The cut-off values defined through this study, one of the few iron supplementation trials conducted at high altitudes, confirm the need to establish revised hemoglobin values for the diagnosis of anemia in populations living at high altitudes.

  18. Prevalence of Cyclospora species and other enteric pathogens among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, C W; Echeverria, P; Rajah, R; Jacobs, J; Malthouse, S; Chapman, E; Jimenez, L M; Shlim, D R

    1995-01-01

    Stools from 124 Nepalese children aged 6 to 60 months with diarrhea were examined for organisms of the coccidian genus Cyclospora and for other enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Giardia Lamblia, Campylobacter species, Cyclospora species, and Cryptosporidium species were the most common pathogens identified. Cyclospora species were detected in none of 74 children < 18 months of age compared with 6 (12%) of 50 children > or = 18 months of age (P = 0.004). PMID:8576377

  19. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Landi, Francesco; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Zúñiga, Clemente; Arai, Hidenori; Boirie, Yves; Chen, Liang-Kung; Fielding, Roger A.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Sieber, Cornel; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Vellas, Bruno; Woo, Jean; Zamboni, Mauro; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000–October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected. Results: prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1–29% in community-dwelling populations, 14–33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function. Conclusion: prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes. PMID:25241753

  20. When flux standards go wild: white dwarfs in the age of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, JJ

    2017-01-01

    White dwarfs have been used as flux standards for decades, thanks to their staid simplicity. We have tested their photometric stability by analyzing the light curves of several hundred spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs, through K2 Campaign 8. We find that the vast majority (>90%) are <1% stable in the Kepler bandpass on 0.04-d to 10-d timescales, confirming that these stellar remnants are generally excellent flux standards. From the cases that do exhibit significant (several percent) variability, we caution that binarity and magnetism are two extremely important attributes to rule out when establishing a white dwarf as a photometric standard.

  1. Total and Visceral Adiposity Are Associated With Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Women but Not Men at Age 62 Years: The Newcastle Thousand Families Study.

    PubMed

    Hind, Karen; Pearce, Mark; Birrell, Fraser

    2017-03-06

    Low body weight is an established risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture, but the skeletal risks of higher adiposity are unclear and appear sex-specific and site-dependent. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of total fat mass (TFM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with bone mineral density (BMD) and prevalent vertebral fracture (VF) in men and women aged 62 years. A total of 352 men and women aged 62.5 ± 0.5 years from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study cohort received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) evaluations of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD, of the lateral spine for vertebral fracture assessment, and of the whole body for TFM and VAT (GE Lunar CoreScan, Madison, WI, USA). Plasma CRP, FRAX scores, falls in the last 12 months, and occupation at age 50 years were also included in the analysis. Vertebral fractures were less prevalent in women than in men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.33, p < 0.001) and BMD or FRAX scores did not differ between participants with and without VF. Women with VF were heavier and had higher TFM, VAT, and CRP than women without (p < 0.001). In women, greater (+1 SD) TFM and VAT increased the odds of any grade VF (TFM: OR = 1.06, p = 0.001; VAT: OR = 2.50, p = 0.002), and greater VAT mass increased the odds of prevalent mild VF (OR = 2.60, p = 0.002). In contrast, there were no associations in men. In both sexes, after controlling for body weight, neither VAT nor CRP were associated with BMD. In conclusion, irrespective of BMD, total and visceral adiposity were associated with prevalent VF in women but not in men. High fat mass, particularly if visceral, should be considered when assessing VF risk in women. Risk factors for VF in men require further investigation, particularly given their high prevalence. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  4. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes. PMID:27740551

  5. The Compounding Impact of Age on Sex--Another Dimension of the Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Tish

    1974-01-01

    An examination of the multiple problems of discrimination confronting elderly women which argues that aging must be redefined in a way that is more functionally accurate for women and is not based upon male chronology. (EH)

  6. Gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a cross-sectional study from CHARLS 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Fei, Yue; Li, Junqin; Zhang, Lisan; Luo, Qiong; Chen, Guangdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The impact of gender and age on the association between sleep duration and hypertension is not well known in Asians. The objective of this study was to analyse gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Design Secondary analysis of a cohort sample. Setting This study used data from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011–2012), covering 150 counties/districts and 450 villages/resident committees from 28 provinces in China. Participants Community-based subjects were drawn from the CHARLS through multistage probability sampling. Overall, this study included 9086 eligible subjects aged 45 years or above. Outcome measures Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using a structured questionnaire. The mean of three measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was calculated. By gender and age groups (45–60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly), relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent hypertension were examined using logistic regression models to estimate OR and 95% CIs. Results Compared with the reference group (≥7 and <8 hours/night), the group who had less sleep (<6 hours/night) had a higher likelihood of hypertension in the whole sample (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.52). Significant ORs (95% CIs) of hypertension were 1.68 (1.17 to 2.42), 1.69 (1.11 to 2.59) and 2.21 (1.29 to 3.80) for <6, 6–7 (≥6 and <7) and 8–9 (≥8 and <9) hours/night, respectively, in middle-aged men but not women. Interestingly, a significant association was observed between long sleep duration (≥9 hours/night) and hypertension in middle-aged women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.35) but not in men. Conclusions Extremes of sleep duration increased the likelihood of prevalent hypertension in middle-aged Chinese depending on gender, suggesting that appropriate strategies for

  7. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and health-related quality of life in adults aged 18 to 30 years in a Colombian University: an electronic survey

    PubMed Central

    Cañón, Martín; Ruiz, Alvaro J.; Rondón, Martín; Alvarado, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Background We estimated the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its impact on patient-reported health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in a university-based population aged between 18 and 30 years in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods The study had a cross-sectional design. Students, faculty, and staff aged 18-30 years of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia were randomly selected and invited to complete an electronic survey containing the Rome III IBS diagnostic questionnaire and an IBS-specific HR-QOL instrument (IBS-QOL). Results A total of 1082 individuals participated in this study. The prevalence of IBS was 24.0% (95% CI 21.3-26.6%). IBS-constipation was the most common subtype (41.9%; 95% CI 35.5-48.4%). The overall IBS-QOL score indicated HR-QOL impairment (72.1/100). IBS-unsubtyped patients had the highest overall HR-QOL (constipation: 70.6; diarrhea: 67.2; mixed: 67.0; unsubtyped: 77.8; P=0.003). IBS non-consulters had higher IBS-QOL “Food Avoidance” scores than IBS consulters (60.3 vs. 45.5; P=0.002). Conclusion IBS is a prevalent disorder in a university-based population aged 18-30 years and has a significant impact on HR-QOL. IBS-unsubtyped subjects had the highest HR-QOL compared to other subtypes. Food avoidance appears to be a key factor in seeking consultation. PMID:28042240

  8. A 5-year survey of biopsy proven kidney diseases in Lebanon: significant variation in prevalence of primary glomerular diseases by age, population structure and consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Karnib, Hussein H.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Aftimos, Georges; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Saad, Reem; Gemayel, Elias; Masri, Badiaa; Assaad, Shafika; Badr, Kamal F.; Ziyadeh, Fuad N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Differences in epidemiology of kidney disease across the Middle East may arise from variations in indication for biopsy, environmental exposure and socio-economic status. The Lebanese population is composed of different ethnicities, with distinct ancestry and religion, enabling comparison of their effect on the prevalence of kidney disease within a confined geographic setting and uniform practices. Here we report 5 years’ detailed epidemiology of renal diseases, based on histological diagnosis, in a sample from three large pathology centres in Lebanon. Methods. Records of renal biopsies analysed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital and the Institut National de Pathologie from January 2003 till December 2007 were retrospectively examined. We recorded the following data for each patient: age, gender, indication for renal biopsy and histopathological diagnosis. Religious affiliation and parents’ consanguinity were recorded when feasible. Results. The mean age at renal biopsy was 36.76 ± 20 years (range 1–84). The most common diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN; 20%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (13.2%). While there were no differences in age, gender or indications for biopsy among different religious affiliations, mesangioproliferative GN was significantly more frequent among Muslims (P = 0.039) and offspring of consanguineous unions (P = 0.036). On the other hand, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was most prevalent in Christians (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Variation in the distribution of diagnoses between Muslim and Christian groups likely reflects differences in population structure and ancestry. In particular, the increased prevalence of mesangioproliferative GN among offspring of consanguineous unions in Muslims suggests a recessive genetic component to this disease which may be identified via homozygosity mapping. These findings have important

  9. Spine fracture prevalence in a nationally representative sample of US women and men aged ≥40 years: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Cosman, F; Krege, J H; Looker, A C; Schousboe, J T; Fan, B; Sarafrazi Isfahani, N; Shepherd, J A; Krohn, K D; Steiger, P; Wilson, K E; Genant, H K

    2017-02-07

    Spine fracture prevalence is similar in men and women, increasing from <5 % in those <60 to 11 % in those 70-79 and 18 % in those ≥80 years. Prevalence was higher with age, lower bone mineral density (BMD), and in those meeting criteria for spine imaging. Most subjects with spine fractures were unaware of them.

  10. The prevalence of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is common and increases with the age of growing pigs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao-Ting; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2012-07-01

    Infection with the Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is believed to be common yet limited information is available on the epidemiology of TTSuV. The objectives of this study were to develop novel and improve existing diagnostic methods for TTSuV infection and to investigate the prevalence of TTSuV species 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) in the USA. Three hundred and four blood or fetal thoracic fluid samples were collected from pigs on 40 US farms in 12 States. Samples were collected from fetuses and in pre-suckle neonates (n=73), suckling pigs (1-20 days of age; n=27), nursery pigs (21-55 days of age; n=60), finisher pigs (8-25 weeks of age; n=90) and adults (>25 weeks of age; n=54). Samples were tested by a new quantitative differential real-time PCR for TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 DNA and by ELISA for detection of anti-TTSuV2-antibodies. The prevalence of TTSuV1 DNA ranged from 8.2% (fetuses and neonates) to 81% (finisher pigs) and the prevalence of TTSuV2 DNA ranged from 3.7% (suckling pigs) to 67% (finisher pigs). Evidence of fetal TTSuV infection was minimal. Mixed infection of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 was seen in 6.7% of the nursery pigs, 52.2% of the finisher pigs, and 22.2% of the mature pigs. The prevalence of TTSuV1 was higher than that of TTSuV2. Anti-TTSuV2 antibodies were not detected in the fetuses and neonates and the seroprevalence of TTSuV2 was between 3.8% and 100% in growing pigs. The results of this study indicate that vertical transmission may not be a main route of TTSuV transmission in pigs in the USA.

  11. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth.

  12. Cruel Intentions? HIV Prevalence and Criminalization During an Age of Mass Incarceration, U.S. 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Bryan L; Hoppe, Trevor A; Maziarka, Kristen D

    2016-04-01

    A 2014 U.S. Department of Justice Best Practices Report advocates that states eliminate HIV-specific criminal penalties except under 2 conditions: when a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive person intentionally commits a sex crime or transmits the virus by engaging in behavior that poses a significant risk of transmission, regardless of actual transmission. We assess the premise of these exceptions to understand whether these best practices are based on scientific evidence about the population at risk of infection and the risk of sexual violence by HIV-positive individuals. We employ nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the Survey of Inmates in State, Federal, and Local Jails (SISFLJ), and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). Data from the CPS, SISFLJ, and NHANES are weighted and combined to analyze bias in the population at risk of HIV. Linear probability models are employed to estimate the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates are incarcerated for violent or sexual offenses, net of socioeconomic factors. We find significant measurement bias in HIV prevalence rates. The selection of national surveys for population denominators distorts contemporary estimates of HIV prevalence by 7% to 20%. Our findings also illustrate that HIV-positive inmates are 10 percentage-points less likely to be incarcerated for violent offenses than HIV-negative inmates. National best practice guidelines may undermine effective social policy that aims to curtail stigma within HIV-positive communities because scientific evidence neither include inmates into prevalence denominators (as a measure of the population at risk) nor assess the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates commit violent or sexual crimes.

  13. Cruel Intentions? HIV Prevalence and Criminalization During an Age of Mass Incarceration, U.S. 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Bryan L.; Hoppe, Trevor A.; Maziarka, Kristen D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 2014 U.S. Department of Justice Best Practices Report advocates that states eliminate HIV-specific criminal penalties except under 2 conditions: when a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive person intentionally commits a sex crime or transmits the virus by engaging in behavior that poses a significant risk of transmission, regardless of actual transmission. We assess the premise of these exceptions to understand whether these best practices are based on scientific evidence about the population at risk of infection and the risk of sexual violence by HIV-positive individuals. We employ nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the Survey of Inmates in State, Federal, and Local Jails (SISFLJ), and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). Data from the CPS, SISFLJ, and NHANES are weighted and combined to analyze bias in the population at risk of HIV. Linear probability models are employed to estimate the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates are incarcerated for violent or sexual offenses, net of socioeconomic factors. We find significant measurement bias in HIV prevalence rates. The selection of national surveys for population denominators distorts contemporary estimates of HIV prevalence by 7% to 20%. Our findings also illustrate that HIV-positive inmates are 10 percentage-points less likely to be incarcerated for violent offenses than HIV-negative inmates. National best practice guidelines may undermine effective social policy that aims to curtail stigma within HIV-positive communities because scientific evidence neither include inmates into prevalence denominators (as a measure of the population at risk) nor assess the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates commit violent or sexual crimes. PMID:27100418

  14. Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and risk factors among residents less than 6 years of age, Puerto Rico - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dignam, Timothy; García, Brenda Rivera; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; O'Neill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    Context Limited data exist about blood lead levels and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. Objectives We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs [≥ 5 micrograms (μg) of lead per deciliter (dL) of blood], household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children less than 6 years old living in Puerto Rico in 2010. Methods We used a population-based cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children less than 6 years old. We estimate the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLL, and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. Results The analytic dataset included 363 households and 439 children less than 6 years old throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children less than 6 years old was 1.57 μg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.27, 1.88). The weighted prevalence of children less than 6 years old with BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL was 3.18% (95% CI = 0.93, 5.43) and for BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.50% (95% CI = 0, 1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence and maternal education less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. Conclusions The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children less than 6 years old is comparable to the most recent (2007 – 2010) U.S. national estimate [BLLs ≥ 5 μg/dL = 2.6% (95% CI = 1.6, 4.0)]. Our findings suggest targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children less than 6 years old can replace island-wide or insurance specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico. PMID:25822901

  15. Common medical terminology comes of age, Part One: Standard language improves healthcare quality.

    PubMed

    Rose, J S; Fisch, B J; Hogan, W R; Levy, B; Marshal, P; Thomas, D R; Kirkley, D

    2001-01-01

    It has become abundantly clear that standards of recording clinical terms in human-readable, computer-processable format are indispensable. Controlled medical terminology is the missing link in health information standards (in fact, medical terminology can be viewed as the mother of all standards); its absence interferes with the business of healthcare and impedes the core processes of healing and maintaining health. Medicine has lacked the controlled common medical vocabulary that would enable universal sharing of data at the point of care and ensure reliable information for determining health intervention effectiveness. Simple clinical and code content alone has proven insufficient for healthcare enterprises to successfully manage the terminology problem; the "lexical runtime engine," formerly called a vocabulary server (VOSER), which manages the vocabulary ontology and serves up the relevant vocabulary to users of applications in the clinical environment, has recently become a reality.

  16. Metrologically-Calibrated 40Ar Concentrations and Ages of Mineral Standards Used in 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Davidheiser-Kroll, B.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Mark, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    In geochronology, isotopic ages are determined from the ratio of parent and daughter nuclide concentrations in minerals. For dating of geological material using the K-Ar system, the simultaneous determination of 40Ar and 40K concentrations on the same aliquot is not possible. Therefore, a widely used variant, the 40Ar/39Ar technique, involves the production of 39Ar from 39K by neutron bombardment and the reliance on indirect natural calibrators of the neutron flux, referred to as "mineral standards." Many mineral standards still in use rely on decades-old determinations of 40Ar concentrations; resulting uncertainties, both systematic and analytical, impede the determination of higher accuracy ages using the K-Ar decay system. We present results for the 40Ar concentrations and ages of mineral standards determined based on a modern gas delivery system (Morgan et al. 2011), which delivers metrologically-traceable amounts of 40Ar and thus allows for the sensitivity calibration of noble gas mass spectrometers.

  17. Prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of sexual problems in Portugal: a population-based study with women aged 18 to 79 years.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Studies on epidemiology of female sexual problems consistently indicate high prevalence rates worldwide, suggesting that this clinical presentation should be considered as a public health concern. However, there are no published studies on prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal. The present study investigated the prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of female sexual problems in a Portuguese community sample. In addition, the authors assessed the role of sociodemographic predictors of women's sexual difficulties. The authors recruited 500 women using quota methods to resemble the Portuguese population according to its demographic characteristics. Participants answered to the Female Sexual Function Index and to a sociodemographic questionnaire. Findings indicated that 37.9% of the Portuguese women reported symptoms of sexual problems. Symptoms of lack of sexual desire was the most frequent sexual difficulty with 25.4% of the women reporting low desire most times or always, followed by symptoms of orgasmic (16.8%), sexual arousal (15.1%), and lubrication difficulties (12.9%), dyspareunia (9.8%), and vaginismus (6.6%). Results indicated that age was a significant predictor of female sexual problems. Results also indicated that symptoms of female sexual problems are a significant health concern in Portugal, suggesting that public policies should be developed to promote sexual health.

  18. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Brazilian children: follow-up at school age of two Brazilian birth cohorts of the 1990's

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few cohort studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries to investigate non-communicable diseases among school-aged children. This article aims to describe the methodology of two birth cohorts, started in 1994 in Ribeirão Preto (RP), a more developed city, and in 1997/98 in São Luís (SL), a less developed town. Methods Prevalences of some non-communicable diseases during the first follow-up of these cohorts were estimated and compared. Data on singleton live births were obtained at birth (2858 in RP and 2443 in SL). The follow-up at school age was conducted in RP in 2004/05, when the children were 9-11 years old and in SL in 2005/06, when the children were 7-9 years old. Follow-up rates were 68.7% in RP (790 included) and 72.7% in SL (673 participants). The groups of low (<2500 g) and high (≥ 4250 g) birthweight were oversampled and estimates were corrected by weighting. Results In the more developed city there was a higher percentage of non-nutritive sucking habits (69.1% vs 47.9%), lifetime bottle use (89.6% vs 68.3%), higher prevalence of primary headache in the last 15 days (27.9% vs 13.0%), higher positive skin tests for allergens (44.3% vs 25.3%) and higher prevalence of overweight (18.2% vs 3.6%), obesity (9.5% vs 1.8%) and hypertension (10.9% vs 4.6%). In the less developed city there was a larger percentage of children with below average cognitive function (28.9% vs 12.2%), mental health problems (47.4% vs 38.4%), depression (21.6% vs 6.0%) and underweight (5.8% vs 3.6%). There was no difference in the prevalence of bruxism, recurrent abdominal pain, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between cities. Conclusions Some non-communicable diseases were highly prevalent, especially in the more developed city. Some high rates suggest that the burden of non-communicable diseases will be high in the future, especially mental health problems. PMID:21693042

  19. This Is Only a Test: Teaching for Mathematical Understanding in an Age of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litton, Nancy; Wickett, Maryann

    2009-01-01

    "This Is Only a Test" helps teachers plan a year of instruction that takes testing into account while staying focused on a curriculum that encourages students to love and understand mathematics. Transform teachers' and students' feelings toward standardized tests from panic and anxiety to control and confidence. This book's proven strategies help…

  20. Teacher Collaboration in the Age of Teaching Standards: The Study of a Small, Suburban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Adam Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of new teaching standards and evaluation systems introduced in the United States, teacher collaboration has emerged as a common theme. However, despite these recent changes, teaching is still largely a private act, in which teachers are often secluded from their colleagues. This study investigated the range and variation of the…

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese Elderly in an Urban Community: Results from the Shanghai Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. Methods This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. Results The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6–44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9–49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4–40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8–36.4%) in those aged 60–69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9–59.1%) in those aged ≥80 years (p value for trend<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01–1.05], p<0.001), less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.014), living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02–2.58], p = 0.04), anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05–1.12], p<0.001), number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07–1.30], p = 0.14) and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05–2.01], p = 0.025) were risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities

  2. Homes for the Aged: Supervision and Standards. A Report on the Legal Situation in European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noam, Ernst

    The International Center for Social Gerontology (ICSG) is making available this translation of a timely study by Ernst Noam which describes and compares legislation, policies, and procedures for licensing, supervision, and inspection of homes for the aged in various Western and Eastern European nations. This study is presented to help provide a…

  3. Assessing Changes in Attitudes about Aging: Personal Reflections and a Standardized Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Ann M.; Brookover, B. Cecile

    2002-01-01

    Sophomore (n=31) and senior (n=24) gerontology students completed the Aging Semantic Differential at the beginning of the semester and after conducting life-history interviews with older adults. Significant positive attitude changes resulted; the interviews were specifically cited as influencing changes. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  4. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in people with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review of observational study data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbid mental health problems have been shown to have an adverse effect on the quality of life of people with common eye disorders. This study aims to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and/or depression are more prevalent in people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) than in people without this condition. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO) from inception to February 2012 was conducted to identify studies of AMD populations which measured symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. Reference checking of relevant articles was also performed. Data on the study setting, prevalence and how anxiety and depression were measured were extracted from the papers. Critical appraisal was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. Results A total of 16 papers were included in the review, from an original search result of 597. The prevalence estimates, taken from nine cross-sectional and cohort studies, ranged from 15.7%-44% for depressive symptoms and 9.6%-30.1% for anxiety symptoms in people with AMD. The seven case–control studies found that people with AMD were more likely to experience symptoms of depression compared with those without AMD, but not more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety. Conclusions Overall, the evidence suggests that symptoms of depression are more prevalent amongst AMD populations than anxiety symptoms. The heterogeneity of the studies included in this review means that it is difficult to draw strong conclusions as to the true estimates of depression and anxiety symptoms in AMD populations and prevented formal meta-analysis. Further research which specifies clinical anxiety and gives clear definitions as to the type of AMD being investigated is required. PMID:24923726

  5. Prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation in a large French population selected for nonthrombotic history: geographical and age distribution.

    PubMed

    Mazoyer, Elisabeth; Ripoll, Laurent; Gueguen, René; Tiret, Laurence; Collet, Jean-Philippe; dit Sollier, Claire Bal; Roussi, Jacqueline; Drouet, Ludovic

    2009-10-01

    Among inherited risk factors for venous thrombosis, the most common are the FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms. The FV-G1691A polymorphism is preferentially observed in Europe, with differences between European countries. The FII-G20210A polymorphism is observed all over the world. The study was designed to compare the prevalence of the FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms in a large French population of unrelated individuals with no thrombotic disease history and to determine the age and geographical distributions. Over a period of 18 months, 6154 individuals were included throughout France and FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms were determined. The FV-G1691A prevalence was 3.84% (95% confidence interval 3.35-4.33) and the FII-G20210A prevalence was 3.07% (95% CI 2.63-3.51). A north-east/south-west gradient was observed in the FV-G1691A geographical distribution. No difference was observed in the geographical distribution of FII-G20210A polymorphism nor in the age distribution of the two polymorphisms. The prevalence of the two polymorphisms was similar whatever the blood group (O or non-O). Plasma D-dimers were significantly higher in healthy individuals with FV-G1691A but not in individuals with FII-G20210A. Thirty percent of variation in plasma prothrombin level was explained by environmental factors (serum cholesterol, age, oral contraception, hormonal replacement therapy, body mass index, sex) and genetic factors (FII-G20210A). As expected, individuals with FII-G20210A displayed higher plasma prothrombin level compared with individuals with wild type. However, this was not associated with a modification of the fibrin clot elastic modulus. This study shows a differential distribution of the two polymorphisms among the French territory. These polymorphisms confer a very mild hypercoagulable state as shown by the limited increased in basal D-dimers in mutated FV-G1691A populations and only a trend that does not reach statistical significance for FII

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  7. Age Variation in the Prevalence of "DSM-IV" Disorders in Cases of Suicide of Middle-Aged and Older Persons in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Wyder, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning 127 persons aged 35 years or above who died by suicide (as determined in consecutive cases by a Sydney coroner) were analyzed. Psychological autopsy (PA) interviews were conducted in 52 cases, and details were compared with the 75 cases where data were available only from coroner's files (CF). Most characteristics of the two groups…

  8. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180

  9. A study of the prevalence of thalassemia and its correlation with liver function test in different age and sex group in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Sarmi; Bhuiyan, Robiul H.; Aklima, Jannatul; Emran, Talha B.; Dash, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetic, inherited disorders of the blood. More specifically, it is a disorder of the hemoglobin molecule inside the red blood cells. According to World health Organization (WHO), there are about 3% beta-thalassemia carrier and about 4% Hb E/beta-thalassemia carrier in Bangladesh. Our objective is to identify the prevalence of beta-thalassemia in our adolescent populations and to review risk factors that would most easily identify a subset of adolescent patients at greatest risk for the development of beta-thalassemia. We also made a study of clinical profile of 53 thalassemic patients, observing the relationship between the patients with their verity ages and sex. The cases are taken on the basis of their age (2-30 years), beta-thalassemia major, clinical jaundice with history of chronic blood transfusion. The cases excluded those who had jaundice due to viral hepatitis or hepatitis due to heavy metal poisoning (Arsenic) and those with spleenectomy. Liver function test has been evaluated in 53 patients. That were recorded with some relevant demographical data such as age, sex, blood group where median age was of 16 years and mean (±SD) age 15.4151 ± 7.90918. Among them were 21 (39.6%) female and 32 (60.4%) male. With an average 15.1% (8 in no.) beta-thalassemia, 7.5% (4 in no.) beta-thalassemia major and 77.4% (41 in no.) E-beta-thalassemia cases have been found in the study. Mean (±SD) TSB in total 53 subjects with age group 2-10 years and 21-30 years is significant. The study revealed that in thalassemic patients when the age is more, the disease progresses with their complication. Hepatic complication is mainly due to being hepatocellular in nature than that of obstructive one. PMID:24826050

  10. The prevalence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies increases with age in healthy individuals at risk for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Alpizar-Rodriguez, D; Brulhart, Laure; Mueller, Ruediger B; Möller, Burkhard; Dudler, Jean; Ciurea, Adrian; Walker, Ulrich A; Von Mühlenen, Ines; Kyburz, Diego; Zufferey, Pascal; Mahler, Michael; Bas, Sylvette; Gascon, Danielle; Lamacchia, Céline; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Lauper, Kim; Nissen, Michael J; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Gabay, Cem; Finckh, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Transition from genetic risk to the development of systemic autoimmunity associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a key step for the development of RA and often referred to as the immune onset of the disease. The aim of this study is to identify predictors for the presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) as a marker of systemic autoimmunity associated with RA in a high-risk population, an ongoing cohort of first-degree relatives of patients with RA. We assessed the presence of ACPA in individuals without clinical evidence of RA. We examined characteristics associated with ACPA positivity using general estimation equations to account for multiple observations per individual. A total of 1159 serum samples from 1025 subjects were analyzed, 69 samples (6%) were ACPA-positive, and 227 (20%) positive for rheumatoid factor. Participants had a median age of 45 years (interquartile range (IQR): 33-55) at baseline and 76% were women. Overall, ACPA positivity increased with age (p < 0.001). Among women, ACPA positivity was particularly associated with the age group 45 to 55 years (p = 0.003), but not among men (p = 0.7). In multivariable adjusted analyses, age older than 45, female sex and tobacco smoking were independently associated with ACPA positivity. In our cohort, the presence of ACPA was associated with older age and peaked in women around age 45 to 55 years, the perimenopausal period, suggesting that the development of ACPA may be favored by the decline in ovarian function.

  11. Prevalence of airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults aged 18–79 years by longest held occupation group: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Halldin, Cara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults. Methods Data from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for adults 18–79 years with valid spirometry and longest held occupation were analysed. The age-standardised prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction was estimated overall and by smoking status. Results Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was 13.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 15.0%) and was highest in participants aged 60–79 years (17.4%, 95% CI 15.2% to 19.6%), males (14.8%, 95% CI 12.0% to 17.6%), non-Hispanic whites (15.4%, 95% CI 13.8% to 16.7%) and ever smokers (19.1%, 95% CI 16.6% to 21.5%). Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was >20% for installation, maintenance and repair occupations (p=22.1%, 95% CI 16.5% to 27.8%), and for construction and extraction occupations (20.7%, 95% CI 13.5% to 27.9%). Conclusions Prevalence of airflow obstruction varied by demographic characteristics and occupational factors with a higher prevalence among ever smokers for most demographic characteristics and occupational factors. Study findings emphasise the importance of monitoring the lung function of workers in occupations with a high prevalence of airflow obstruction. PMID:27152013

  12. Age-standardized incidence rates of ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shear, M; Singh, S

    1978-07-01

    Although a great deal is known about the incidence of cancer, including oral cancer, no such study has been done on odontogenic tumors and jaw cysts. There are therefore no standardized data which would allow for comparative incidences in different countries and between different groups. In the present study, cases of ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965--1974. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. The annual incidence rates, standardized against the standard world population, for ameloblastomas per million population are 1.96, 1.20, 0.18 and 0.44 for Black males, females and White males, females, respectively. The equivalent four figures for dentigerous cysts are 1.18, 1.22, 9.92 and 7.26. These figures show that ameloblastoma is very much more common in Blacks than Whites in the population at risk. Conversely, dentigerous cysts are much more common in Whites. This makes it unlikely that dentigerous cysts predispose to ameloblastoma formation. These epidemiologic observations give rise to speculation as to whether some component of the South African Black diet or other environmental substance might possibly be an etiologic factor in ameloblastoma.

  13. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  14. Higher prevalence of X-ray selected AGN in intermediate-age galaxies up to z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Aird, James; Ferreras, Ignacio; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolás; Esquej, Pilar; Gallego, Jesús; Nandra, Kirpal; Rodríguez-Zaurín, Javier

    2014-10-01

    We analyse the stellar populations in the host galaxies of 53 X-ray selected optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 0.34 < z < 1.07 with ultradeep (mAB = 26.5, 3σ) optical medium-band (R ˜ 50) photometry from the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS). The spectral resolution of SHARDS allows us to consistently measure the strength of the 4000 Å break, Dn(4000), a reliable age indicator for stellar populations. We confirm that most X-ray selected moderate-luminosity AGN (LX < 1044 erg s-1) are hosted by massive galaxies (typically M* >1010.5 M⊙) and that the observed fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN increases with the stellar mass. A careful selection of random control samples of inactive galaxies allows us to remove the stellar mass and redshift dependences of the AGN fraction to explore trends with several stellar age indicators. We find no significant differences in the distribution of the rest-frame U - V colour for AGN hosts and inactive galaxies, in agreement with previous results. However, we find significantly shallower 4000 Å breaks in AGN hosts, indicative of younger stellar populations. With the help of a model-independent determination of the extinction, we obtain extinction-corrected U - V colours and light-weighted average stellar ages. We find that AGN hosts have younger stellar populations and higher extinction compared to inactive galaxies with the same stellar mass and at the same redshift. We find a highly significant excess of AGN hosts with Dn(4000) ˜ 1.4 and light-weighted average stellar ages of 300-500 Myr, as well as a deficit of AGN in intrinsic red galaxies. We interpret failure in recognizing these trends in previous studies as a consequence of the balancing effect in observed colours of the age-extinction degeneracy.

  15. Sexual Dysfunction among Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors from a Nationally Representative U.S. Probability Sample of Men and Women 57–85 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Waite, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite increasing demand for clinical interventions into sexual problems in an aging population, epidemiological data on the subject are scarce. Aims To examine the prevalence of sexual problems across different sociodemographic groups, and risk factors for these problems in multiple domains of life. Methods Statistical analysis of data from the 2005–2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative U.S. probability sample of 1,550 women and 1,455 men aged 57–85 at the time of interview. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of experiencing sexual dysfunction in the preceding 12 months. Results Sexual problems among the elderly are not an inevitable consequence of aging, but instead are responses to the presence of stressors in multiple life domains. This impact may partly be gender differentiated, with older women's sexual health more sensitive to their physical health than is true for men. The mechanism linking life stress with sexual problems is likely to be poor mental health and relationship dissatisfaction. The NSHAP results demonstrate the consistent impact of poor mental health on women's reports of sexual problems and the less consistent association with men's problems. Conclusions The results point to a need for physicians who are treating older adults experiencing sexual problems to take into account not simply their physical health, but also their psychosocial health and satisfaction with their intimate relationship. PMID:18702640

  16. Response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention by age of onset of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, S. E.; Lang, W.; Jakicic, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self‐reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. Methods Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m−2) engaged in an 18‐month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial. BMI, physical activity, fitness and diet were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Separate adjusted mixed models were constructed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results There was significant weight loss, increased physical activity, improved fitness and reduced caloric intake over time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in these outcome variables by obesity onset group. However, there was a significant group by time interaction for fitness (p = 0.001), with the adult onset making significantly greater gains in fitness from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001); however, this difference was no longer present at 12 or 18 months. Conclusions With the exception of fitness at 6 months, weight loss, physical activity and diet did not differ between juvenile onset and adult onset participants, suggesting that those with juvenile onset obesity are equally responsive to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adulthood. PMID:27708841

  17. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P < 0.001). Over 4.3 years, the prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from

  18. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  19. The BALB/c mouse: Effect of standard vivarium lighting on retinal pathology during aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Bonilha, Vera L.; Rayborn, Mary E.; Shadrach, Karen; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2015-01-01

    BALB/cJ mice housed under normal vivarium lighting conditions can exhibit profound retinal abnormalities, including retinal infoldings, autofluorescent inflammatory cells, and photoreceptor degeneration. To explore the sensitivity of the outer retina to cyclic lighting during aging, a cohort of BALB/cJ mice was evaluated with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and conventional histopathology. Mice were bred and reared in a low-illuminance (extracage/intracage: 13 lx/1 lx) vivarium under cyclic light (14 h light: 10 h dark). Retinal imaging (around postnatal day 70) was performed to screen for any pre-existing abnormalities and to establish a baseline. Mice with normal retinas were separated into groups (A, B, C) and placed on bottom (Groups A & B) or top (Group C) of the cage racks where cage illumination was <10 & 150 lx respectively. Experimental groups B & C were imaged multiple times over a 17 month period. Mice from group A (controls) were imaged only once post-baseline at various times for comparison to groups B & C. Mice were assessed by histology at 8, 15, 20, 36, and 56 weeks and immunohistochemistry at 15 weeks post-baseline. SLO and OCT retinal images were measured and the resulting trends displayed as a function of age and light exposure. Retinal lesions (RL) and autofluorescent foci (AFF) were identified with histology as photoreceptor layer infoldings (IF) and localized microglia/macrophages (MM), respectively. Few RL and AFF were evident at baseline. Retinal infoldings were the earliest changes followed by subjacent punctate autofluorescent MM. The colocalization of IF and MM suggests a causal relationship. The incidence of these pathological features increased in all groups relative to baseline. OCT imaging revealed thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in all groups at 1 year relative to baseline. ONL thinning followed an exponential rate of change but the decay constant varied depending on

  20. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0–6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness. PMID:26346963

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  2. The ageing and myasthenic thymus: a morphometric study validating a standard procedure in the histological workup of thymic specimens.

    PubMed

    Ströbel, Philipp; Moritz, Regina; Leite, Maria Isabel; Willcox, Nick; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Gold, Ralf; Nix, Wilfred; Schalke, Berthold; Kiefer, Reinhard; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Jaretzki Iii, Alfred; Newsom-Davis, John; Marx, Alexander

    2008-09-15

    The thymus is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). The 80% of MG patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies fall into three clinical subgroups: 1) thymoma; 2) early-onset MG (<age of 40; EOMG) and 3) late-onset (LOMG; onset after 40). Thymectomy is widely used in EOMG, but its benefits have not been established in randomized controlled trials. A multicenter international trial (MGTX) currently seeks to determine whether thymectomy reduces corticosteroid requirements, and to look for correlations with thymic histology. We here describe the validated, standardized histological workup and reporting system used in this trial.

  3. Reliability and factorial validity of the standard progressive matrices among Kuwaiti children ages 8 to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2005-10-01

    The Raven Standard Progressive Matrices was administered to a sample of 6,529 children in Kuwait ranging in age from 8 to 15 years. Test-retest reliability (N = 968) ranged between .69 and .85, while Cronbach coefficients alpha ranged from .88 to .93, showing from acceptable to good temporal stability and from good to high internal consistency. The loadings of the five sets of matrices on the only salient factor ranged from .73 to .89 indicating the good factorial validity of the scale. The rtest seems useful in the Kuwaiti context.

  4. Apophyseal Ossification of the Iliac Crest in Forensic Age Estimation: Computed Tomography Standards for Modern Australian Subadults.

    PubMed

    Lottering, Nicolene; Alston-Knox, Clair L; MacGregor, Donna M; Izatt, Maree T; Grant, Caroline A; Adam, Clayton J; Gregory, Laura S

    2017-03-01

    This study contrasts the ontogeny of the iliac crest apophysis using conventional radiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), providing probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian subadults. Retrospective abdominopelvic MSCT data acquired from 524 Australian individuals aged 7-25 and surveillance radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients included in the Paediatric Spine Research Group Progression Study (n = 531) were assessed. Ossification scoring of pseudo-radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered reconstructions using Risser (1958) quantitative descriptors indicate discrepancies in age estimates, stage allocation, and conflicting morphological progression. To mitigate visualization limitations associated with two-dimensional radiographs, we provide and validate a modified 3D-MSCT scoring tier of ossification, demonstrating complete fusion between 17.3-19.2 and 17.1-20.1 years in males and females. Legal demarcation for doli incapax presumption and age of majority (18 years) can be achieved using probability estimates from a fitted cumulative probit model for apophyseal fusion using the recalibrated standards.

  5. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Agent-Based Model Forecasts Aging of the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago and Changing Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infections.

    PubMed

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010-2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(± 2)% to 36(± 5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(± 5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(± 1) to 40(± 2) with a corresponding increase from 59(± 2)% to 80(± 6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our studies highlight the importance of analyzing subpopulations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  7. Age- and Sex-related Prevalence and Drug Utilization Pattern in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Comorbidity with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Haroled Peter, P L; Bhavani, M Lakshmi; Naresh, P; Ramana, M V

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 250 cases of type 2 diabetes management was conducted in a governmental tertiary care hospital of urban south India to determine the comparative prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases in diabetic population, core drug use indicators and drug utilization pattern in the management of diabetics entirely and with cardiovascular diseases. Highest prevalent age group for type 2 diabetes/cardiovascular diseases (greater incidence in female than male) was 51-60 years. The 62.8% prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population ascertained in the study could provide an evidence-based rationale for the World Health Organization guidelines for the management of hypertension in type 2 diabetics. Incidence of polypharmacy (6.06, the mean number of total drug products prescribed); 59.26% of encounters prescribed antibiotics; 17.6 and 18.5 min of average consultation and dispensing time, respectively; 100% of drugs actually dispensed and adequately labeled; 81.26% of patients having knowledge of correct dosage and average drug cost of Indian Rupees 145.54 per prescription were the core drug use indicators found mainly. Moreover, drugs prescribed from the Essential Drug List were more than 90% and thereby indicated the drug use in this set-up quite rational. Around 71.09% of cardiovascular agents prescribed by generic name revealed the cost effective medical care. Among the agents in type 2 diabetes management, Actrapid(®) (35.43%) was the highest. Among the cardiovascular agents prescribed, lasix (19.37%) was the highest. Cardiovascular agents prescribed orally by 76.48% signified the good prescription habit indicating the improved patients' adherence to the treatment. The present study emphasizes the need of early detection of hypertension as a preliminary diagnostic parameter of cardiovascular diseases in diabetics and appropriate management through concomitant therapy of cardiovascular drugs to

  8. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  9. Standardization of the face-hand test in a Brazilian multicultural population: prevalence of sensory extinction and implications for neurological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Fogaroli, Marcelo Ortolani; Theotonio, Rodolfo Mazeto; de Carvalho Nunes, Hélio Rubens; de Lima Resende, Luiz Antônio; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The face-hand test is a simple, practical, and rapid test to detect neurological syndromes. However, it has not previously been assessed in a Brazilian sample; therefore, the objective of the present study was to standardize the face-hand test for use in the multi-cultural population of Brazil and identify the sociodemographic factors affecting the results. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 150 individuals. The sociodemographic variables that were collected included age, gender, race, body mass index and years of education. Standardization of the face-hand test occurred in 2 rounds of 10 sensory stimuli, with the participant seated to support the trunk and their vision obstructed in a sound-controlled environment. The face-hand test was conducted by applying 2 rounds of 10 sensory stimuli that were applied to the face and hand simultaneously. The associations between the face-hand test and sociodemographic variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlations. Binomial models were adjusted for the number of face-hand test variations, and ROC curves evaluated sensitivity and specificity of sensory extinction. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between the sociodemographic variables and the number of stimuli perceived for the face-hand test. There was a high relative frequency of detection, 8 out of 10 stimuli, in this population. Sensory extinction was 25.3%, which increased with increasing age (OR=1.4[1:01–1:07]; p=0.006) and decreased significantly with increasing education (OR=0.82[0.71-0.94]; p=0.005). CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian population, a normal face-hand test score ranges between 8–10 stimuli, and the results indicate that sensory extinction is associated with increased age and lower levels of education. PMID:28076517

  10. High Prevalence of Skin Diseases and Need for Treatment in a Middle-Aged Population. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Auvinen, Juha; Hägg, Päivi M.; Wikström, Erika; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of skin diseases a whole-body skin examination was performed for 1,932 members (46-years of age) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966), which is a comprehensive longitudinal research program (N = 12,058). A high prevalence of all skin diseases needing treatment was found (N = 1,158). Half of the cases of skin findings were evaluated to be serious enough to require diagnostic evaluation, treatment or follow-up either in a general health care, occupational health care or a secondary care setting. The remaining half were thought to be slight and self-treatment was advised. Males (70%) had more skin diseases needing treatment than females (52%) (P<0.001). The most common skin finding was a benign skin tumor, which was found in every cohort member. Skin infections (44%), eczemas (27%) and sebaceous gland diseases (27%) were the most common skin diseases in the cohort. Moreover, skin infections and eczemas were more commonly seen in the group with low education compared to those with high education (P<0.005). The results strengthen the postulate that skin diseases are common in an adult population. PMID:24911008

  11. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: Seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi H; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-11-30

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011-June 2012) in piglets (n = 152), starter pigs (n = 234), fatteners (n = 230) and sows (n = 240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (oo-)Cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium infected pigs were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA and hsp70genes, while 13/67 Giardia subsamples were successfully analysed by amplification and partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA and the gdh genes. Altogether, Cryptosporidium or Giardia infections were observed in 40.9% (350/856) and 14.0% (120/856) of the pigs, respectively, including 8.2% (70/856) infected with both parasites. Prevalence, intensity of infections and presence of Cryptosporidium species varied significantly between age-groups; 53.3% piglets, 72.2% starter pigs, 40.4% fatteners and 2.9% sows were infected with Cryptosporidium, whereas 2.0% piglets, 27.4% starter pigs, 17.8% fatteners and 5.0% sows were infected with Giardia. The overall prevalence was stable throughout the year, except for dual-infections that were more prevalent in September and December (p < 0.05). The infection intensity was age-related for both parasites, and dual-infected pigs tended to excrete lower levels of oocysts compared to pigs harbouring only

  12. Use of analgesics for exercise-associated pain: prevalence and predictors of use in recreationally trained college-aged students.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Christi B; Bentley, John P; Hallam, Jeffrey S; Woodyard, Catherine D; Waddell, Dwight E

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the use of the analgesics for the relief of exercise-associated pain (EAP) and to examine personal and/or exercise characteristics that might potentially predict such use in recreationally trained college-aged individuals. Recreationally trained college-aged students (N = 263) were invited to complete a self-administered 16-item questionnaire concerning personal exercise habits and analgesic use for EAP. The primary dependent variable was analgesic use for EAP, and additional items sought to characterize patterns and behaviors related to the use. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were calculated for all items, and logistic regression was used to evaluate the ability of 4 variables to predict analgesic use for EAP: gender, length of time performing regular exercise, weekly frequency of aerobic exercise, and weekly frequency of resistance exercise. Approximately 36% of respondents reported analgesic use for EAP, with data indicating acute use for what is generally acute pain. With predictors considered individually, gender was a significant predictor, with female respondents being more likely to use analgesics for EAP (p = 0.04). With all predictors considered concurrently, the model did not significantly contribute to the prediction of use in this sample. Potential for misuse was highlighted by a large percentage of users who described themselves as very unlikely to follow label directions and more likely to take a dose exceeding recommendations. In light of research that reports a potential detriment to muscular regeneration when analgesics are consumed with exercise, it is important to be cognizant of the use of these drugs in individuals striving to improve muscular fitness. Coaches and trainers should educate athletes about the associated risks and caution those who may unnecessarily take analgesics.

  13. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  14. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (P<0.05). Age was not retained in the multivariable model, and the impact of sex on the presence of B. procyonis varied with land use and season. For example, from March to June, suburban/urban male raccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment.

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years in Wannan area, China.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; Jin, Yuelong; Pan, Rui; Wei, Ningkai; Qiu, Shenwei; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-10-01

    Antecedentes: El sobrepeso y la obesidad son epidemia en todo el mundo. El propósito de esta investigacion es estimar si la prevalencia de la obesidad entre los niños de la escuela primaria es alto, y a identificar sus posibles factores determinantes para optimizar los métodos de prevención para combatir nuevas subidas en sobrepeso infantil. Métodos: Un estudio transversal fue diseñado para recoger los exámenes de salud de rutina datos para la escuela primaria los niños de 5 a 14 años en Wannan Area, China, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se determinaron utilizando la International Obesity Task Force Standard (IOTF) IMC puntos de corte. Resultados: Un total de 67956 sujetos (36664 macho y 31239 hembra) de 5 a 14 años fueron reclutados en este estudio. Dependiendo de las referencias utilizadas (IOTF), la prevalencia de sobrepeso, incluyendo la obesidad de los sujetos fue 17,85%, la prevalencia de sobrepeso, incluyendo la obesidad fue del 22,9% en sujetos masculinos y el 11,9% en mujeres, respectivamente. La prevalencia global de la obesidad was 3,7%, la prevalencia de obesidad fue de 5,2% en sujetos masculinos y 1,8% de mujeres, respectivamente. Una observación interesante es que la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue alta en sujetos masculinos. Conclusiones: El sobrepeso es la prevalencia entre los niños de la escuela primaria, especialmente en los niños varones. escuela y Departamento de Gobierno debería tomar algo de placer para reducir la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad.

  16. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Japanese patients aged <65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Dogo Study.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, S; Sakai, T; Niiya, T; Miyaoka, H; Miyake, T; Yamamoto, S; Maruyama, K; Ueda, T; Senba, H; Todo, Y; Torisu, M; Minami, H; Onji, M; Tanigawa, T; Matsuura, B; Hiasa, Y; Miyake, Y

    2017-01-01

    Only limited epidemiological evidence exists regarding the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction (ED) among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and ED among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 287 male Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, age (19-65 years). Diabetic neuropathy was diagnosed if the patients showed two or more of the following three characteristics: neuropathic symptoms, decreased or disappeared Achilles tendon reflex and/or abnormal vibration perception. ED, moderate to severe ED, and severe ED were defined as present when a subject had a Sexual Health Inventory for Men score <22, <12 and <8, respectively. The prevalence values of diabetic neuropathy and severe ED were 47.0 and 39.0%, respectively. Diabetic neuropathy was independently positively associated with severe ED, but not ED and moderate ED: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.38). No relationships were found between diabetic retinopathy or diabetic nephropathy and ED. Diabetic neuropathy is positively associated with severe erectile dysfunction among Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged <65 years.

  17. Estimation of the prevalence of low bone density in Canadian women and men using a population-specific DXA reference standard: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).

    PubMed

    Tenenhouse, A; Joseph, L; Kreiger, N; Poliquin, S; Murray, T M; Blondeau, L; Berger, C; Hanley, D A; Prior, J C

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a prospective cohort study which will measure the incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures, and the effect of putative risk factors, in a random sample of 10,061 women and men aged > or = 25 years recruited in approximately equal numbers in nine centers across Canada. In this paper we report the results of studies to establish peak bone mass (PBM) which would be appropriate reference data for use in Canada. These reference data are used to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in Canadian women and men aged > or = 50 years. Participants were recruited via randomly selected household telephone listings. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic QDR 1000 or 2000 or Lunar DPX densitometers. BMD results for lumbar spine and femoral neck were converted to a Hologic base. BMD of the lumbar spine in 578 women and 467 men was constant to age 39 years giving a PBM of 1.042 +/- 0.121 g/cm2 for women and 1.058 +/- 0.127 g/cm2 for men. BMD at the femoral neck declined from age 29 years. The mean femoral neck BMD between 25 and 29 years was taken as PBM and was found to be 0.857 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for women and 0.910 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for men. Prevalence of osteoporosis, as defined by WHO criteria, in Canadian women aged > or = 50 years was 12.1% at the lumbar spine and 7.9% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 15.8%. In men it was 2.9% at the lumbar spine and 4.8% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 6.6%.

  18. [The Russian and international standards of age-related allocation of population for medical statistics, medical demographic analysis and risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Demin, V F; Paltsev, M A

    2013-01-01

    The actual European standard of age-related allocation of population in action is largely implemented in medical demographic studies of international (WHO etc.) and national organizations. The Rosstat also implements this standard in its demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in computing the standardized indicator of population mortality in different countries and territories and also in assessing risk factors. The standard is based on the idea of evaluating mortality with an integrated standard in order to compare between different countries mortality of population, genders and calendar years. The analysis of results of testing calculations of values of standardized indicator of mortality of population of Russia and EU countries applying European standard in action revealed serious shortcomings. For example. unfounded overstating of values of standardized indicator, of mortality for males and its understating for females artificially increases already wide difference in mortality of males and females in the Russian Federation. The calculation on this background of standardized indicator of mortality for particular causes of death results in erroneous values due to neglected concurrence of risks. Because of necessity of improvement of standard a new concept of development of national and international standards is proposed. This concept is based on application of notion of balanced age-related allocation of population and its number values.

  19. [Investigation of the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among female Syrian refugees with the complaints of vaginitis aged between 15-49 years].

    PubMed

    Yentür Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Şimşek, Zeynep; Gürses, Gülcan; Hilali, Neşe Gül; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile; Özek, Behire; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-10-01

    Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T.vaginalis among female married Syrian refugees living outside of the camps in Sanliurfa city center, aged between 15-49 years with complaints of vaginitis. This multi-purpose survey was carried out between February and March of 2015, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and Harran University. This study was approved under the heading of "General Health Status of Female Syrian Refugees" by the Ethics Committee of Harran University Faculty of Medicine. A total of 460 Syrian refugees house were selected using the probability cluster sampling method, with a 95% confidence level and a 5% confidence interval with a design effect. Two women refused to participate in the study, and the response rate was 99.6%. Two Syrian nurses, one laboratory technician, and one interpreter who knew Kurdish and Arabic were hired for the field survey. A structured questionnaire written in Turkish was translated to Arabic and used to collect the sociodemographic data during face to face interviews. According to the questionnaire data, the women with the complaints of vaginal discharge, unusual vaginal bleeding and/or dyspareunia were invited to the Gynecology Department of Harran University Research and Training Hospital for a medical examination. During gynecological examination, swab samples obtained from posterior fornix were evaluated by direct microscopy and Giemsa staining methods for the presence of T.vaginalis trophozoites. Of 458 women who have

  20. Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Andrea M; Gladstone, Beryl P; Verghese, Valsan P; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Jaffar, Shabbar; Kang, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Background Poor growth of children in developing countries is a major public health problem associated with mortality, morbidity and developmental delay. We describe growth up to three years of age and investigate factors related to stunting (low height-for-age) at three years of age in a birth cohort from an urban slum. Methods 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Risk factors for stunting at three years of age were analysed in logistic regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of missing values. Results At age three years, of 186 boys and 187 girls still under follow-up, 109 (66%, 95% Confidence interval 58-73%) boys and 93 (56%, 95% CI 49-64%) girls were stunted, 14 (8%, 95% CI 4-13%) boys and 12 (7%, 95% CI 3-11%) girls were wasted (low weight-for-height) and 72 (43%, 95% CI 36-51) boys and 66 (39%, 95% CI 31-47%) girls were underweight (low weight-for-age). In total 224/331 (68%) children at three years had at least one growth deficiency (were stunted and/or underweight and/or wasted); even as early as one month of age 186/377 (49%) children had at least one growth deficiency. Factors associated with stunting at three years were birth weight less than 2.5 kg (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.70) 'beedi-making' (manual production of cigarettes for a daily wage) in the household (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.86), maternal height less than 150 cm (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.62), being stunted, wasted or underweight at six months of age (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.93) and having at least one older sibling (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.51). Conclusion A high proportion of urban slum dwelling children

  1. Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.

  2. Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 – 17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Atari, Dominic Odwa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Ovarian Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients < 41 Years of Age in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Inge T. A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Liefers, Gerrit Jan; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Hilders, Carina G. J. M.; Trimbos, J. Baptist

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is one of the primary indications for cryopreservation and subsequent autotransplantation of ovarian tissue. The safety of this fertility preservation method remains questionable, as the presence of disseminated breast tumor cells cannot yet be excluded in the ovarian autografts. We explored the prevalence of ovarian metastases among young breast cancer patients and determined risk factors for the development of ovarian metastases. Methods Using the nationwide database of the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA), we identified a cohort of 2648 women with primary invasive breast cancer at age < 41 years in the period 2000–2010 in the Netherlands who subsequently underwent an oophorectomy. From this source population, all cases who had histologically confirmed ovarian metastases were included. For each case of whom clinical data were available, one control without ovarian metastases who matched the time interval between breast cancer diagnosis and oophorectomy was selected. Data were collected on patient characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Results Ovarian metastases were found in 63 out of 2648 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The risk of developing ovarian metastases increased with time passed since breast cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant association between tumor stage and the development of ovarian metastases (p = 0.024). Conclusions The prevalence of ovarian metastases was 2.4% among young breast cancer patients. Early ovary removal may reduce the risk of developing ovarian metastases. In breast cancer patients with tumors > 5 cm and/or inflammatory carcinoma, we recommend a cautious approach to ovarian tissue autotransplantation. PMID:28125710

  4. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  5. Standardization and Digital Enclosure: The Privatization of Standards, Knowledge, and Policy in the Age of Global Information Technology. Part of the Advances in IT Standards and Standardization Research (AISSR) Book Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoechle, Timothy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends have shown increasing privatization of standardization activities under various corporations, trade associations, and consortia, raising significant public policy issues about how the public interest may be represented. This book establishes a framework of analysis for public policy discussion and debate. Discussing topics such as…

  6. Exploring Pre-K Age 4 Learning Standards and Their Role in Early Childhood Education: Research and Policy Implications. Research Report. ETS RR-16-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin-Parecki, Andrea; Slutzky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    Currently in the United States, 50 states, 5 territories, and the District of Columbia have established prekindergarten (pre-K) age 4 learning standards that are intended to outline skills and knowledge that set children on a path to success in kindergarten and upcoming grades. These standards are emphasized as a centralizing force in early…

  7. Agent-based model forecasts aging of the population of people who inject drugs in metropolitan Chicago and changing prevalence of hepatitis C infections

    DOE PAGES

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; ...

    2015-09-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID tomore » build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our research highlight the importance of analyzing sub-populations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.« less

  8. Agent-based model forecasts aging of the population of people who inject drugs in metropolitan Chicago and changing prevalence of hepatitis C infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E.; Kaderali, Lars

    2015-09-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our research highlight the importance of analyzing sub-populations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  9. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    PubMed Central

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  10. Prevalence of pneumococcal bacteremia among children <36 months of age presenting with moderate fever to pediatric emergency rooms of the Metropolitan Region (Santiago), Chile.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Rosanna M; Muñoz, Alma E; Levine, Myron M

    2006-01-01

    Blood culture collection from outpatients < age 36 months with high fever (>40 degrees C, rectal) became a standard of ambulatory care in Emergency Rooms (ERs) of the government Children's Hospitals in Chile's Metropolitan Region (MR) in 1999; thereafter, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence doubled over preceding years' estimates limited to hospitalizations. We studied IPD among children with moderate (>39 degrees C but <40 degrees C, rectal) rather than high fever visiting Pediatric ERs. Recruitment ensued Monday to Friday, 1-5 PM, September 1, 2002 through August 31, 2003. Age <36 months; rectal temperature >39 degrees but <40 degrees C; outpatient management; parental consent for hemoculture were inclusion criteria. Thirteen-thousand five hundred seventy-seven children < age 36 months with moderate and 3,214 children with high fever sought ER care. Of 1,134 moderate fever children seen in ERs during the enrollment, parents of 837 consented (73.8%). During these days and hours, 714 children < age 36 months presented with high fever and 651 (91.2%) had a "routine" blood culture. Pneumococcemia was detected among 0.7% with moderate and 1.2% with high fever (6/837 vs 8/651, p > 0.05). Extrapolating these rates to all ER outpatients < age 36 months with moderate and high fever, we estimate the true burden as 95 and 39 cases, respectively. The burden of pediatric IPD in the MR is currently underestimated because bacteremias among ER outpatients with moderate fever are not detected. If blood cultures were systematically collected from outpatients with moderate fever, recorded pediatric IPD burden would rise >2-fold. However, economic and logistical constraints preclude such a practice.

  11. The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults - 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anne W.; Shi, Zumin; Montgomerie, Alicia; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Campostrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with ‘‘apcfit’’ in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes. Conclusion The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions. PMID:25923664

  12. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China.

  13. Tooth wear in aging people: an investigation of the prevalence and the influential factors of incisal/occlusal tooth wear in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tooth wear in the aging population of northwest China and to investigate the factors associated with such tooth wear. Methods Cross-sectional analytic clinical and questionnaire study was performed in 704 participants who had a mean age of 46.5 ± 0.2 SD and of which 367(52.13%) were males and 337(47.87%) female. These participants were invited when they attended the hospital which located in northwest China for routine oral examination. Results In the maxilla of the examined patients, the rate of tooth wear varied from 85.51% for molar group, 89.77% for premolar group, 100.0% for canine group to 87.22% for incisor group. In the mandible, the rates were 86.36%, 88.92%, 100.0% and 91.19% for the four groups respectively. Moreover, both the incisor and canine groups of these patients showed median scores of 3, the premolar group showed a median score of 1, and the molar group had a median score of 2. Additionally, multiple factors were considered to contribute to these patterns of tooth wear, especially the habitual consumption of a hard or sour diet (P < 0.05,odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.49). Conclusions Tooth wear is a common disease in which the anterior teeth exhibit greater wear than posterior teeth. The data support an association between tooth wear and dietary patterns. PMID:24902953

  14. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  15. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in children in Cyprus during three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013): age distribution, seasonality and association between prevalent genotypes and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, C; Richter, J; Koliou, M; Kalogirou, N; Georgiou, E; Christodoulou, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children in Cyprus over three successive seasons (2010-2013) and the association between prevalent genotypes and disease severity. RSV infections had a circulation pattern from December to March. Most RSV-positive children (83%) were aged <2 years. Genotyping of RSV isolates showed that during the first winter season of the study (2010-2011), the only RSV genotype circulating was GA2 (RSV-A), followed by genotype BA (RSV-B) in the next winter season with only few sporadic cases of GA2. During the last winter season of the study (2012-2013) the newly emerged RSV genotype ON1 (RSV-A) was virtually the only circulating genotype. Children infected with genotype ON1 suffered a significantly milder illness compared to infections with genotypes GA2 and BA with a higher percentage of BA-infected children requiring oxygen. Our findings are in contrast to the majority of published reports that suggest RSV-A causes more severe illness than RSV-B. Therefore, further investigation of the association between RSV genotypes and disease severity is required, as it might affect treatment strategies in the future.

  16. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  17. Introducing Computed Tomography Standards for Age Estimation of Modern Australian Subadults Using Postnatal Ossification Timings of Select Cranial and Cervical Sites(.).

    PubMed

    Lottering, Nicolene; MacGregor, Donna M; Alston, Clair L; Watson, Debbie; Gregory, Laura S

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary, population-specific ossification timings of the cranium are lacking in current literature due to challenges in obtaining large repositories of documented subadult material, forcing Australian practitioners to rely on North American, arguably antiquated reference standards for age estimation. This study assessed the temporal pattern of ossification of the cranium and provides recalibrated probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian children. Fusion status of the occipital and frontal bones, atlas, and axis was scored using a modified two- to four-tier system from cranial/cervical DICOM datasets of 585 children aged birth to 10 years. Transition analysis was applied to elucidate maximum-likelihood estimates between consecutive fusion stages, in conjunction with Bayesian statistics to calculate credible intervals for age estimation. Results demonstrate significant sex differences in skeletal maturation (p < 0.05) and earlier timings in comparison with major literary sources, underscoring the requisite of updated standards for age estimation of modern individuals.

  18. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  19. Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    ARAB, Maliheh; NOGHABAEI, Giti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Female cancer, especially breast and gynecologic cancers are considered multistage disease, highly influenced by risk and protective factors and/or screening preventive modalities. Consequences of all these factors result in the trend of change over time. Methods In this comparative study, based on data of national cancer registry of Iran 2004 published by Iranian Ministry of Health, agestandard incidence rate (ASR) according to the world population was calculated in all reported gynecologic and breast cancers. Source of all subjects are pathologic based. In the next step, the calculated ASR of Iran and those of the other countries in 2004 were compared to GLOBOCAN ASR reports of 2008. Results In Iran ASR of breast cancer 2004 (24.93) changed to 18.4 in 2008. Ovarian cancer ASR of 2004, 3.07 was 3.1 in 2008. Endometrial cancer ASR in 2004 (2.29) was 1.7 in 2008. Cervical cancer ASR of 1.71 in 2004 was 2.2 in 2008. Conclusions In Iran incidence trend of breast and endometrium are decreasing in the same direction of USA and Australia. Increasing trend of ovary and cervix ASR in Iran is in the inverse direction of USA and Australia which are decreasing. Future studies to find out the same trend or any changes, might develop these findings and improve consequent practical decisions based on results of this study and complementary future studies. PMID:26060699

  20. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  1. Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

  2. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  3. Precise K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, Rb-Sr and U/Pb mineral ages from the 27.5 Ma fish canyon tuff reference standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Baadsgaard, H.

    2001-01-01

    The accuracy of ages measured using the 40Ar/39Ar technique is affected by uncertainties in the age of radiation fluence-monitor minerals. At present, there is lack of agreement about the ages of certain minerals used as fluence monitors. The accuracy of the age of a standard may be improved if the age can be measured using different decay schemes. This has been done by measuring ages on minerals from the Oligocene Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) using the K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar. Rb-Sr and U/Pb methods. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages of sanidine, biotite and hornblende yielded a mean age of 27.57 ?? 0.36 Ma. The weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of sanidine and biotite is 27.57 ?? 0.18 Ma. A biotite-feldspar Rb-Sr isochron yielded an age of 27.44 ?? 0.16 Ma. The U-Pb data for zircon are complex because of the presence of Precambrian zircons and inheritance of radiogenic Pb. Zircons with 207Pb/235U < 0.4 yielded a discordia line with a lower concordia intercept of 27.52 ?? 0.09 Ma. Evaluation of the combined data suggests that the best age for FCT is 27.51 Ma. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Black and White Elders: Results of the Cardiovascular Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sheila R.; Kuller, Lewis; Talbott, Evelyn O.; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen; Buhari, Alhaji M.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of age, gender, and race on the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in elder adults, aged 72-96 years, after accounting for income, education, smoking, and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Air-conduction thresholds for standard and extended high-frequency…

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and enamel defects in the primary dentition of Antiguan pre-school children aged 3-4 years including an assessment of their habits.

    PubMed

    Vignarajah, S; Williams, G A

    1992-12-01

    In 1989 a national survey was carried out on children aged 3 to 4 years attending nursery schools, to investigate the prevalence of caries experience, nursing bottle caries and enamel defects in the primary dentition, and these children's dentally related habits. In the first part of the study, examination of 482 Antiguan children showed that the dmft and dmfs values were 0.80 and 1.26 respectively, and that 77 per cent of the children were caries free; 4.6 per cent of children had nursing bottle caries; and enamel defects occurred in 24 per cent of children. No significant difference was found in oral health between urban and rural samples. In the second part, which was an interview survey, habits such as thumb sucking (13 per cent), not brushing their teeth (3 per cent), and swallowing fluoride toothpaste (13 per cent) were found among 369 children. In the third (a questionnaire) survey, a response rate of 63 per cent was obtained. Significantly more of the children with nursing bottle caries (78.6 per cent) had the habit of sleeping with a feeding bottle than occurred in caries free children (25.6 per cent), but there was no difference in the infant feeding pattern. The children with enamel defects were breast fed for a shorter period and had an earlier introduction to bottle feeding, compared with children without enamel defects. In the final part of the survey, an assessment of snack eating habits at school, a 58 per cent response rate was achieved. The majority of children often brought healthier snacks, together with daily sugar-rich drinks. Significantly more caries free children brought sugary snacks less frequently than children with caries experience.

  6. Ultra-high precision 40Ar/39Ar ages for Fish Canyon Tuff and Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine: New dating standards required?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D.; Matchan, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar dating technique is a high precision (<0.1%) method with wide application to geological samples. However, the method is predicated on the availability of natural mineral standards of known age. Widely used 40Ar/39Ar standards include sanidine from the (ca. 28 Ma) Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) and the (ca. 1.2 Ma) Alder Creek Rhyolite (ACR). Despite common usage, the ages of FCT and ACR sanidine have proven contentious, with reported values varying by >2%; well outside the ±0.1% aspiration of EARTHTIME (http://www.earth-time.org).

  7. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Assessing EL Students in the Age of Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Durán, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Subject-area standards such as Common Core State Standards for Language Arts and Mathematics and Next Generation Science Standards offer deeper, richer views of subject-area proficiency. In science, they underscore doing things with facts and concepts, such as explaining, planning, and investigating--activities that are intertwined with language,…

  8. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Methods Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. Results The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26–39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. Conclusion This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010. PMID:25592123

  9. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  10. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  11. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be interchangeable…

  12. Prevalence of IgG Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 11, 16, and 18 Virus-Like Particles in Women of Childbearing Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Ofoedu, V

    2015-01-01

    Most HPV prevalence studies have been carried out in high-resource countries with few studies focused on low-resource regions where highest HPV prevalence in the world occurs. This study reports on prevalence of IgG antibodies against HPVs among women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty-two consented women (age-range 19-45 years) were consecutively recruited. Demographic/behavioral data and 5 mL blood samples were collected from each woman. Plasma of each sample was assayed for HPV-6/11/16/18 virus-like particles using a HPV IgG ELISA kit. The overall anti-HPV prevalence was 4.9% while 7.7% with itching/wound in the private part tested positive. Most (88.9%) of the seropositive women were sexually active. Group-specific seropositivity was low (0.0-10.0%). It also showed that all the 9(100.0%) who tested positive to the HPV responded "yes" to no information on the source of HPV information. Being younger, married, high educational level, religion, and lack of information on HPV were the main correlates of HPV positivity among these women. None was vaccinated and would have been naturally exposed to at least one of HPV-6/11/16/18. With 4.9% seropositivity and lack of information regarding HPV among these women, this study recommends a statewide enlightenment campaign and vaccination.

  13. Prevalence and Trends of Urinary Incontinence in Adults in the United States, 2001 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Markland, Alayne D.; Richter, Holly E.; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Eggers, Paul; Kusek, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We estimate trends in the prevalence of urinary incontinence in the adult population of the United States from 2001 through 2008 before and after adjusting for other potential associated factors. Materials and Methods We analyzed data on 17,850 adults 20 years old or older who participated in the 2001 to 2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Any urinary incontinence was defined as a positive response to questions on urine leakage during physical activity, before reaching the toilet and during nonphysical activity. During this period changes in demographic and clinical factors associated with urinary incontinence included age, race/ethnicity, obesity, diabetes and chronic medical conditions (prostate disease in men). Age standardized prevalence estimates and prevalence ORs of urinary incontinence trends were determined using adjusted multivariate models with appropriate sampling weights. Results The age standardized prevalence of urinary incontinence in the combined surveys was 51.1% in women and 13.9% in men. Prevalence in women increased from 49.5% in 2001 to 2002, to 53.4% in 2007 to 2008 (Ptrend = 0.01) and in men from 11.5% to 15.1%, respectively (Ptrend = 0.01). In women increased prevalence was partially explained by differences in age, race/ethnicity, obesity, diabetes and select chronic diseases across the survey periods. After adjustment the prevalence OR for 2007 to 2008 vs 2001 to 2002 decreased from 1.22 (95% CI 1.03–1.45) to 1.16 (95% CI 0.99–1.37). in men adjustment for potentially associated factors did not explain the increasing prevalence of urinary incontinence. Conclusions The age standardized prevalence of urinary incontinence increased in men and women from 2001 through 2008. Decreasing obesity and diabetes may lessen the burden of urinary incontinence, especially in women. PMID:21684555

  14. Regional epidemiologic assessment of prevalent periodontitis using an electronic health record system.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Amit; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Waring, Stephen C; Miller, Aaron W; Fuehrer, Jay T; Nycz, Gregory R

    2013-04-01

    An oral health surveillance platform that queries a clinical/administrative data warehouse was applied to estimate regional prevalence of periodontitis. Cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data collected between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, was undertaken in a population sample residing in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Eligibility criteria included: 1) residence in defined zip codes, 2) age 25-64 years, and 3) ≥1 Marshfield dental clinic comprehensive examination. Prevalence was established using 2 independent methods: 1) via an algorithm that considered clinical attachment loss and probe depth and 2) via standardized Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes related to periodontal treatment. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized to 2000 US Census estimates. Inclusion criteria were met by 2,056 persons. On the basis of the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method, the age-standardized prevalence of moderate or severe periodontitis (combined) was 407 per 1,000 males and 308 per 1,000 females (348/1,000 males and 269/1,000 females using the CDT code method). Increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis was noted with increasing age. Local prevalence of periodontitis was consistent with national estimates. The need to address potential sample selection bias in future electronic health record-based periodontitis research was identified by this approach. Methods outlined herein may be applied to refine oral health surveillance systems, inform dental epidemiologic methods, and evaluate interventional outcomes.

  15. Age- and time-dependent prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in drug users in France, 2004-2011: model-based estimation from two national cross-sectional serosurveys.

    PubMed

    Leon, L; Kasereka, S; Barin, F; Larsen, C; Weill-Barillet, L; Pascal, X; Chevaliez, S; Pillonel, J; Jauffret-Roustide, M; LE Strat, Y

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health issue worldwide. Injecting drug use remains the major mode of transmission in developed countries. Monitoring the HCV transmission dynamic over time is crucial, especially to assess the effect of harm reduction measures in drug users (DU). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection in DU in France using data from a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 and 2011. Age- and time-dependent HCV prevalence was estimated through logistic regression models adjusted for HIV serostatus or injecting practices. HCV incidence was estimated from a mathematical model linking prevalence and incidence. HCV prevalence decreased from 58·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49·7-66·8] in 2004 to 43·2% (95% CI 38·8-47·7) in 2011. HCV incidence decreased from 7·9/100 person-years (95% CI 6·4-9·4) in 2004 to 4·4/100 person-years (95% CI 3·3-5·9) in 2011. HCV prevalence and incidence were significantly associated with age, calendar time, HIV serostatus and injecting practices. In 2011, the highest estimated incidence was in active injecting DU (11·2/100 person-years). Given the forthcoming objective of generalizing access to new direct antiviral agents for HCV infection, our results contribute to decision-making and policy development regarding treatment scale-up and disease prevention in the DU population.

  16. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Aruhuri, Bernadette; Tarivonda, Len; Tenet, Vanessa; Sinha, Rohit; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary; Pang, James; McAdam, Margaret; Meijer, Chris J L M; Frazer, Ian H; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    To provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the distribution of individual HPV types in Pacific Islands, we conducted a population-based survey in Vanuatu, South Pacific. Nine hundred and eighty-seven women between 18 and 64 years of age were included. GP5(+)/6(+)-mediated PCR assay was used for HPV testing. The prevalence of 44 HPV types was 28.4% corresponding to an age (world)-standardized prevalence of 25.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9%-28.0%]. The prevalence of high-risk (HR) HPV types was 21.7% (age-standardized prevalence of 19.2%; 95% CI, 16.4%-22.0%). Among 840 women with adequate cytologic results, 13.6% showed cervical abnormalities, including 3.6% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 0.8% with invasive cervical carcinoma. HPV prevalence declined from 46.1% in women aged ≤21 to 15.3% in those ≥45 years. Being single was significantly associated with HPV positivity. HR HPV findings by PCR assay and hybrid capture 2 (HC2; conducted in Vanuatu) were moderately correlated (κ test = 0.59). The positive predictive values of HR HPV positivity for HSIL or worse were 27.6% for PCR and 35.2% for HC2 among women aged ≥30. Nearly half of screening-positive women could not be reevaluated mainly on account of the difficulty to trace back women. The availability of a rapid HPV testing method that allows see-and-treat approaches at the same visit would be, therefore, essential. On account of their high cumulative burden of cervical lesions, also women older than 40 years should be included in at least the first screening round in unscreened populations.

  17. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. Methods We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture–recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. Results The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. Discussion By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected. PMID:27936086

  18. NH3-SCR performance of fresh and hydrothermally aged Fe-ZSM-5 in standard and fast selective catalytic reduction reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Fudong; Xie, Lijuan; Shan, Wenpo; He, Hong

    2013-04-02

    Hydrothermal stability is one of the challenges for the practical application of Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 (NH(3)-SCR) for diesel engines. The presence of NO(3) in the exhaust gases can enhance the deNOx activity because of the fast SCR reaction. In this work, a Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst was prepared by a solid-state ion-exchange method and was hydrothermally deactivated at 800 °C in the presence of 10% H(2)O. The activity of fresh and hydrothermal aged Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts was investigated in standard SCR (NO(2)/NOx = 0) and in fast SCR with NO(2)/NOx = 0.3 and 0.5. In standard SCR, hydrothermal aging of Fe-ZSM-5 resulted in a significant decrease of low-temperature activity and a slight increase in high-temperature activity. In fast SCR, NOx conversion over aged Fe-ZSM-5 was significantly increased but was still lower than that over fresh catalyst. Additionally, production of N(2)O in fast SCR was much more apparent over aged Fe-ZSM-5 than over fresh catalyst. We propose that, in fast SCR, the rate of key reactions related to NO is slower over aged Fe-ZSM-5 than over fresh catalyst, thus increasing the probabilities of side reactions involving the formation of N(2)O.

  19. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  20. Using Different Measures, Informants, and Clinical Cut-Off Points to Estimate Prevalence of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders in Preschoolers: Effects on Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Edward G.; Small, Jason W.; Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta R.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Hancock, Terry B.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Bryant, Donna; Kuperschmidt, Janis; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Boyce, Cheryl A.; Lopez, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The early identification and remediation of emotional or behavior disorders are high priorities for early-childhood researchers and are based on the assumption that problems such as school failure can be averted with early screening, prevention, and intervention. Presently, prevalence, severity, and topography of mental health needs among…

  1. Prevalence and monthly distribution of head lice using two diagnostic procedures in several age groups in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel; Silva, Juliana J; Rodrigues, Rosângela M; Mendes, Júlio

    2007-01-01

    Some epidemiological characteristics of head lice, Pediculus capitis, were studied using two procedures: cut hair analysis and head inspection. Higher prevalence rates were observed in the middle and at the end of the school terms. Both procedures indicated that children were the main reservoir for this type of pediculosis in Uberlândia.

  2. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  3. Prescription Errors in Older Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Rianne J.; van der Kaaij, Annemieke D. M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing pharmacotherapy for older individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a complex process, possibly leading to an increased risk of prescription errors. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of older individuals with an intellectual disability with at least one prescription error and (2) to identify…

  4. HIV Prevalence and ART Use Among Men in Partnerships with 15-29 Year Old Women in South Africa: HIV Risk Implications for Young Women in Age-Disparate Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Evans, Meredith; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Zungu, Nompumelelo; George, Gavin

    2017-03-07

    This study assesses whether men's ART use mitigates HIV-risk within age-disparate partnerships. Using data from the 2012 South African National HIV survey, we analyzed differences in HIV prevalence and ART use between men in age-disparate and age-similar partnerships with young women aged 15-29 using multiple logistic regression analyses. Within partnerships involving women 15-24 years old, men in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be HIV-positive (5-9 year age-gap: aOR 2.8, 95%CI 1.4-5.2; p < 0.01; 10+ year age-gap: aOR 2.2, 95%CI 1.0-4.6; p < 0.05). Men in age-disparate partnerships who were 5-9 years older were significantly more likely to be HIV-positive and ART-naïve (aOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.2-4.8; p < 0.05), while this was not the case for men 10+ years older (aOR 1.5, 95%CI 0.7-3.6; p = 0.32). No evidence was found that 25-29 year old women were at greater HIV-risk in age-disparate partnerships. Our results indicate that young women aged 15-24 have a greater likelihood of exposure to HIV through age-disparate partnerships, but ART use among men 10+ years older could mitigate risk.

  5. Construction of standardized surveillance indicators for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another.

  6. Radial fast-neutron fluence gradients during rotating 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation recorded with metallic fluence monitors and geological age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Koleška, Michal; Jonckheere, Raymond; Unterricker, Sepp

    2015-01-01

    the neutron-irradiation parameter J is one of the major uncertainties in 40Ar/39Ar dating. The associated uncertainty of the individual J-value for a sample of unknown age depends on the accuracy of the age of the geological standards, the fast-neutron fluence distribution in the reactor, and the distances between standards and samples during irradiation. While it is generally assumed that rotating irradiation evens out radial neutron fluence gradients, we observed axial and radial variations of the J-values in sample irradiations in the rotating channels of two reactors. To quantify them, we included three-dimensionally distributed metallic fast (Ni) and thermal- (Co) neutron fluence monitors in three irradiations and geological age standards in three more. Two irradiations were carried out under Cd shielding in the FRG1 reactor in Geesthacht, Germany, and four without Cd shielding in the LVR-15 reactor in Řež, Czech Republic. The 58Ni(nf,p)58Co activation reaction and γ-spectrometry of the 811 keV peak associated with the subsequent decay of 58Co to 58Fe allow one to calculate the fast-neutron fluence. The fast-neutron fluences at known positions in the irradiation container correlate with the J-values determined by mass-spectrometric 40Ar/39Ar measurements of the geological age standards. Radial neutron fluence gradients are up to 1.8 %/cm in FRG1 and up to 2.2 %/cm in LVR-15; the corresponding axial gradients are up to 5.9 and 2.1 %/cm. We conclude that sample rotation might not always suffice to meet the needs of high-precision dating and gradient monitoring can be crucial.

  7. Development of modern human subadult age and sex estimation standards using multi-slice computed tomography images from medical examiner's offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michala K.; Stull, Kyra E.; Garvin, Heather M.; Klales, Alexandra R.

    2016-10-01

    Forensic anthropologists are routinely asked to estimate a biological profile (i.e., age, sex, ancestry and stature) from a set of unidentified remains. In contrast to the abundance of collections and techniques associated with adult skeletons, there is a paucity of modern, documented subadult skeletal material, which limits the creation and validation of appropriate forensic standards. Many are forced to use antiquated methods derived from small sample sizes, which given documented secular changes in the growth and development of children, are not appropriate for application in the medico-legal setting. Therefore, the aim of this project is to use multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data from a large, diverse sample of modern subadults to develop new methods to estimate subadult age and sex for practical forensic applications. The research sample will consist of over 1,500 full-body MSCT scans of modern subadult individuals (aged birth to 20 years) obtained from two U.S. medical examiner's offices. Statistical analysis of epiphyseal union scores, long bone osteometrics, and os coxae landmark data will be used to develop modern subadult age and sex estimation standards. This project will result in a database of information gathered from the MSCT scans, as well as the creation of modern, statistically rigorous standards for skeletal age and sex estimation in subadults. Furthermore, the research and methods developed in this project will be applicable to dry bone specimens, MSCT scans, and radiographic images, thus providing both tools and continued access to data for forensic practitioners in a variety of settings.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education.

  9. Organizational strategy use in children aged 5-7: standardization and validity of the Rey Complex Figure Organizational Strategy Score (RCF-OSS).

    PubMed

    Martens, R; Hurks, P P M; Jolles, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated psychometric properties (standardization and validity) of the Rey Complex Figure Organizational Strategy Score (RCF-OSS) in a sample of 217 healthy children aged 5-7 years. Our results showed that RCF-OSS performance changes significantly between 5 and 7 years of age. While most 5-year-olds used a local approach when copying the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), 7-year-olds increasingly adopted a global approach. RCF-OSS performance correlated significantly, but moderately with measures of ROCF accuracy, executive functioning (fluency, working memory, reasoning), and non-executive functioning (visual-motor integration, visual attention, processing speed, numeracy). These findings seem to indicate that RCF-OSS performance reflects a range of cognitive skills at 5 to 7 years of age, including aspects of executive and non-executive functioning.

  10. Analysis of Production Errors in the Phonetic Performance of School-Age Standard-English-Speaking Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick, Ed.; And Others

    This study is concerned with misarticulated speech sounds of children and the phonetic realization of these sounds. The articulation errors of 384 standard-English-speaking school children were analyzed in speech samples obtained by the National Speech and Hearing Survey and were samples of both free speech and of performance on the…

  11. Pulling PreK into a K-12 Orbit: The Evolution of PreK in the Age of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Ryan, Sharon; Nocera, Amato; Northey, Kaitlin; Wilinski, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    We might call this decade the era of early childhood. In the US, federal and state governments invest in the creation of public pre-kindergarten (preK) programs and create standards that articulate goals for practice and benchmarks that can be used to evaluate success. How have these trends provided a context for the evolution of preK curriculum?…

  12. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal…

  13. A New Age Dawning? Australia's New Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Moves towards "Third Stage" Internationalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Minister for Education, Employment and Workplace Relations recently launched a new agency whose primary focus is the protection of the country's tertiary education system. The government is developing the new AUD$57 million (approximately US$51 million) agency, the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA), in response to…

  14. Who Works beyond the "Standard" Retirement Age and Why? A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    With life expectancy increasing, and changes to public policy aimed at encouraging older workers to stay in the workforce, the conditions under which people decide to retire have changed in recent years. This report describes the characteristics of those who continue to work beyond the age of 65. The findings show that two groups of workers, in…

  15. Validity of Footprint Analysis to Determine Flatfoot Using Clinical Diagnosis as the Gold Standard in a Random Sample Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Martín, Cristina; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to determine the prevalence and variables associated with the diagnosis of flatfoot, and to evaluate the validity of three footprint analysis methods for diagnosing flatfoot, using clinical diagnosis as a benchmark. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of a population-based random sample ≥40 years old (n = 1002) in A Coruña, Spain. Anthropometric variables, Charlson’s comorbidity score, and podiatric examination (including measurement of Clarke’s angle, the Chippaux-Smirak index, and the Staheli index) were used for comparison with a clinical diagnosis method using a podoscope. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Results Prevalence of flatfoot in the left and right footprint, measured using the podoscope, was 19.0% and 18.9%, respectively. Variables independently associated with flatfoot diagnosis were age (OR 1.07), female gender (OR 3.55) and BMI (OR 1.39). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) showed that Clarke’s angle is highly accurate in predicting flatfoot (AUC 0.94), followed by the Chippaux-Smirak (AUC 0.83) and Staheli (AUC 0.80) indices. Sensitivity values were 89.8% for Clarke’s angle, 94.2% for the Chippaux-Smirak index, and 81.8% for the Staheli index, with respective positive likelihood ratios or 9.7, 2.1, and 2.0. Conclusions Age, gender, and BMI were associated with a flatfoot diagnosis. The indices studied are suitable for diagnosing flatfoot in adults, especially Clarke’s angle, which is highly accurate for flatfoot diagnosis in this population. PMID:25382154

  16. Prevalence of anemia and deficiency of iron, folic acid, and zinc in children younger than 2 years of age who use the health services provided by the Mexican Social Security Institute

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Ximena; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Muñoz, Sergio; Turnbull, Bernardo; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Ramos, Rosa I; González-Unzaga, Marco; Mendoza, María E; Martínez, Homero

    2007-01-01

    Background In Mexico, as in other developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common in infants between 6 and 24 months of age and are an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and of iron, folic acid, and zinc deficiencies in Mexican children under 2 years of age who use the health care services provided by the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS). Methods A nationwide survey was conducted with a representative sample of children younger than 2 years of age, beneficiaries, and users of health care services provided by IMSS through its regular regimen (located in urban populations) and its Oportunidades program (services offered in rural areas). A subsample of 4,955 clinically healthy children was studied to determine their micronutrient status. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent of transferrin saturation, zinc, and folic acid. Descriptive statistics include point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the sample and projections for the larger population from which the sample was drawn. Results Twenty percent of children younger than 2 years of age had anemia, and 27.8% (rural) to 32.6% (urban) had iron deficiency; more than 50% of anemia was not associated with low ferritin concentrations. Iron stores were more depleted as age increased. Low serum zinc and folic acid deficiencies were 28% and 10%, respectively, in the urban areas, and 13% and 8%, respectively, in rural areas. The prevalence of simultaneous iron and zinc deficiencies was 9.2% and 2.7% in urban and rural areas. Children with anemia have higher percentages of folic acid deficiency than children with normal iron status. Conclusion Iron and zinc deficiencies constitute the principal micronutrient deficiencies in Mexican children younger than 2 years old who use the health care services provided by IMSS. Anemia not associated with low ferritin values was more prevalent than

  17. The prevalence of skin eruptions and mycoses of the buttocks and feet in aged care facility residents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Miura, Yuka; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of skin mycoses in the elderly remains unclear. The proportion of people with skin eruptions who are positive for mycoses using direct microscopy is not known. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of skin eruptions and skin mycoses (e.g. candidiasis and tinea) in the buttocks and feet, which are common sites of skin mycoses in residents of long-term care facilities. This multi-site cross-sectional study used visual inspection and direct microscopy to diagnose the type of skin eruption. Subjects were residents of facilities covered by long-term care insurance schemes in Japan. Of the 171 residents enrolled in this study, 72.5% had a skin eruption. Only 4.8% of participants had tinea in the buttocks; 2.4% had buttock candidiasis. In those with a nail abnormality, 58.3% of residents had tinea unguium. For tinea pedis, residents who had any form of interdigital or plantar region skin eruption, 22.5% and 31.4% of residents were positive, respectively. The prevalence of observed skin mycoses was: buttock candidiasis 1.8%; buttock tinea 3.5%; tinea unguium 56.2%; interdigital tinea pedis 20.5%; and plantar tinea pedis 22.5%. The very low proportion of residents with mycoses in the buttocks suggests that anti-inflammatory agents, such as steroids, should be used as first choice. Our observation that not all residents with skin eruptions on the feet had tinea, should remind clinicians to perform direct microscopy before initiating antifungal treatments.

  18. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  19. [Prevalence of anti-rubella and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies in pregnant women in the city of Córdoba, and in women of fertile age in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis].

    PubMed

    Pedranti, M S; Adamo, M P; Macedo, R; Zapata, M T

    2007-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in 100 serum samples from pregnant women who attended routine examination at a private institution in the city of Córdoba, and in 100 serum samples from women of gestational age, 42 of whom were pregnant, attending health centres in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis. IgG antibodies against parvovirus 819 were also determined in the serum samples from Córdoba. Using the hemmagglutination inhibition test, we found a 98% prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Córdoba and of 96% among the women in Villa Mercedes, whereas the prevalence of anti-parvovirus 819 was 66% in the serum samples from Cordoba. These results coincide with those reported for other cities in the world, and establish an interest in continuing similar studies in order to monitor the immunization plan, which in Argentina has been going on since 1997. They also suggest the importance of the determination of IgM anti-parvovirus B19 in pregnant women who are symptomatic but with a negative result for rubella.

  20. Toward reliable biomarker signatures in the age of liquid biopsies - how to standardize the small RNA-Seq workflow

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Dominik; Haberberger, Anna; Kirchner, Benedikt; Spornraft, Melanie; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Schelling, Gustav; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful tool in transcriptomics, gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery. Sequencing cell-free nucleic acids, particularly microRNA (miRNA), from liquid biopsies additionally provides exciting possibilities for molecular diagnostics, and might help establish disease-specific biomarker signatures. The complexity of the small RNA-Seq workflow, however, bears challenges and biases that researchers need to be aware of in order to generate high-quality data. Rigorous standardization and extensive validation are required to guarantee reliability, reproducibility and comparability of research findings. Hypotheses based on flawed experimental conditions can be inconsistent and even misleading. Comparable to the well-established MIQE guidelines for qPCR experiments, this work aims at establishing guidelines for experimental design and pre-analytical sample processing, standardization of library preparation and sequencing reactions, as well as facilitating data analysis. We highlight bottlenecks in small RNA-Seq experiments, point out the importance of stringent quality control and validation, and provide a primer for differential expression analysis and biomarker discovery. Following our recommendations will encourage better sequencing practice, increase experimental transparency and lead to more reproducible small RNA-Seq results. This will ultimately enhance the validity of biomarker signatures, and allow reliable and robust clinical predictions. PMID:27317696

  1. Behavioral testing-related changes in the expression of Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptors in standard and enriched aged Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the changes in the Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression induced by behavioral testing in the dorsal and ventral hippocampi of standard and enriched aged Wistar rats. The environmental enrichment (EE) was carried out 3h/day over a period of two months and then, the rats were tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) and radial-arm water maze (RAWM). Behavioral results showed that, even at an advanced age, EE was able to reduce anxiety-related behaviors and improve the performance in the RAWM. Regarding the neurobiological data, Synapsin I expression in the dorsal CA3, but not in the ventral, was enhanced both in enriched and standard rats when they performed the behavioral testing. Interestingly, the EE exposure was enough to increase Synapsin I in the ventral CA3. The analysis of GR in the dorsal hippocampus showed an increase of this receptor in the dDG both in enriched and standard rats when they performed the behavioral testing, whereas in the dCA1 and dCA3, the effect of the testing depended on the previous housing condition. In the ventral region, we found that the effects of EE were higher because on the one hand, the GR expression induced by the behavioral testing was enhanced in the dSUB, vCA1 and vCA3 when the rats were previously enriched and on the other hand, EE, regardless of the behavioral testing, increased the GR expression in the vDG and vSUB. Therefore, our results suggest that the effect of the behavioral testing on the neurobiological mechanisms studied is different depending on the previous housing condition of aged rats.

  2. Radiation exposure, young age, and female gender are associated with high prevalence of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in papillary thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuan; Li, Zhaoqu; He, Caiyun; Chen, Weichao; Fu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ankui

    2016-01-01

    Background RET/PTC rearrangements have been identified as a specific genetic event in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We conducted this meta-analysis to identify an enriched population who were more likely to occur RET/PTC fusion genes. Methods All relevant studies in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched up to June 2015. The studies found were screened according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All analyses were performed using STATA software. Results Eventually, 38 eligible studies comprising 2395 participants were included. Overall analysis indicated that radiation exposure contributed to increased RET/PTC risk (OR = 2.82; 95%CI: 1.38–5.78, P = 0.005). Stratified analysis according to RET/PTC subtype and geographical area showed that this association was restricted to the RET/PTC3 subtype (OR = 8.30, 95%CI: 4.32–15.96, P < 0.001) in the Western population. In addition, age < 18 years, i.e., young age, was associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC3 (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.14–3.62, P = 0.017), especially in the radiation-exposure subpopulation (OR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.01–5.49, P = 0.048). The association between female gender and RET/PTC1 risk was more significant in the PTC patients without radiation exposure (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.04–2.74, P = 0.034). Conclusion Both radiation exposure and young age are associated with increased risk of RET/PTC3 and that female gender is associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC1 in the subpopulation without radiation exposure. The RET/PTC status in combination with radiation exposure, age, and sex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspicious PTC. PMID:26918339

  3. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Estonia: an estimate based on rheumatology patients' database.

    PubMed

    Otsa, K; Tammaru, M; Vorobjov, S; Esko, M; Pärsik, E; Lang, K

    2013-04-01

    Sound epidemiological data are a basic requirement for decision making on the allocation of health care resources. Unfortunately, this is not the case in Estonia, where the paucity of epidemiological data has impeded health care planning for rheumatic conditions. The current paper presents the first effort to explore the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Estonia. Electronic databases of all rheumatology units of Harju County, three national and one private, were searched for the records of RA (ICD-10 diagnoses M05 and M06.0) patients who had visited a rheumatologist during 2006 or 2007. Prevalence of RA was calculated for the age 20 years and older and for subsets according to age and gender, using the numbers from the patients' database in the numerator and the corresponding population numbers in the denominator. The total number of prevalent RA cases was 1,897, of which 85 % (n = 1,605) were women. The overall crude period prevalence 2006-2007 of RA in Harju County for the age group 20 years and older was 0.46 %. RA prevalence for both sexes increased with age until the age of 70-79 years and decreased subsequently. Prevalence of RA was significantly higher for women compared with men in all age groups. The prevalence of RA among women and men 20 years and older was 0.70 % (6.68-7.37) and 0.16 % (1.42, 1.79), respectively. Age-standardized (European population) prevalence rate was 0.44 %. The results are concordant with epidemiological data on RA prevalence derived recently in other European countries.

  4. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Antony; Jagannath, Pushpa; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC) score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD) of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001) for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]). Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. PMID:26139742

  5. Age patterns of marriage.

    PubMed

    Coale, A J

    1971-07-01

    Abstract In different populations there is a common curve describing first-marriage frequency (first marriages per woman) as a function of age for each cohort. To fit the variety of patterns of human nuptiality it suffices to choose the age that serves as origin for a standard curve of first-marriage frequency, and to choose appropriate horizontal and vertical scales for the curve. The prevalence of a standard form for first-marriage frequency implies that the proportion ever-married in any cohort also rises along a standard curve, subject to choice of origin (the earliest age of first marriage), vertical scale (the proportion ever-marrying by the end of life), and horizontal scale (the pace at which the proportion ever-married increases with age). A mathematical expression (a double exponential) is found to fit the risk offirst marriage (among those who ever marry), and some of the implications of uniform features of nuptiality in different populations are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  7. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Sanbagawa Belt in western Shikoku: Additional evidence for the prevalence of Late Cretaceous protoliths of the Sanbagawa Metamorphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, U.; Suzuki, S.; Nishizaka, N.; Kimura, K.; Tsai, W.-L.; Lu, H.-Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2014-12-01

    The Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in Japan is one of the best studied high-pressure, low temperature metamorphic belts. Recent work applying new dating techniques has challenged the previously accepted temporal framework for the evolution of the belt, as it was shown that large parts of the belt contain detrital zircons of Late Cretaceous age (younger than 100 Ma), i.e. they have protolith ages younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism at ca. 110 Ma. A 2000 m bore hole from north-western Shikoku provided an excellent opportunity to further evaluate the areal extent of Late Cretaceous protoliths as the drill hole was drilled in an area considered to be part of the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous part of the Sanbagawa Belt. Dating of single zircon grains using the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating method shows that all but one sample contain zircons younger than 100 Ma and thus the protoliths are younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism of the Sanbagawa Belt. The single sample that contains only zircons dated at 136 ± 3 Ma, apparently is of volcanic origin and could be a clast representing the source of 130-140 Ma zircons of the sample taken about 120 above this sample. In addition, three surface samples were analysed. Two of these also contain zircons younger than 100 Ma, whereas the third sample contains only zircons older than 159 Ma. The zircons from this sample also exhibit an age spectrum different from that exhibited by the other samples. The exact significance of this sample is not clear as yet.

  8. Stroke prevalence among the Spanish elderly: an analysis based on screening surveys

    PubMed Central

    Boix, Raquel; del Barrio, José Luis; Saz, Pedro; Reñé, Ramón; Manubens, José María; Lobo, Antonio; Gascón, Jordi; de Arce, Ana; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Bergareche, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background This study sought to describe stroke prevalence in Spanish elderly populations and compare it against that of other European countries. Methods We identified screening surveys -both published and unpublished- in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality requirements and targeted prevalence of stroke in populations aged 70 years and over. Surveys covering seven geographically different populations with prevalence years in the period 1991–2002 were selected, and the respective authors were then asked to provide descriptions of the methodology and raw age-specific data by completing a questionnaire. In addition, five reported screening surveys in European populations furnished useful data for comparison purposes. Prevalence data were combined, using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The overall study population, resident in central and north-eastern Spain, totalled 10,647 persons and yielded 715 cases. Age-adjusted prevalences, using the European standard population, were 7.3% for men, 5.6% for women, and 6.4% for both sexes. Prevalence was significantly lower in women, OR 0.79 95% CI 0.68–0.93, increased with age, particularly among women, and displayed a threefold spatial variation with statistically significant differences. Prevalences were highest, 8.7%, in suburban, and lowest, 3.8%, in rural populations. Compared to pooled Spanish populations, statistically significant differences were seen in eight Italian populations, OR 1.39 95%CI (1.18–1.64), and in Kungsholmen, Sweden, OR 0.40 95%CI (0.27–0.58). Conclusion Prevalence in central and north-eastern Spain is higher in males and in suburban areas, and displays a threefold geographic variation, with women constituting the majority of elderly stroke sufferers. Compared to reported European data, stroke prevalence in Spain can be said to be medium and presents similar age- and sex-specific traits. PMID:17042941

  9. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world.

  10. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  12. Age matters in the prevalence and clinical significance of ultra-high-risk for psychosis symptoms and criteria in the general population: Findings from the BEAR and BEARS-kid studies

    PubMed Central

    Schimmelmann, Benno G; Michel, Chantal; Martz-Irngartinger, Alexandra; Linder, Caroline; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important topic in psychiatry. Yet, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical significance of high-risk symptoms in children and adolescents as compared to adults. We examined ultra-high-risk (UHR) symptoms and criteria in a sample of individuals aged 8-40 years from the general population of Canton Bern, Switzerland, enrolled from June 2011 to May 2014. The current presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) and the fulfillment of onset/worsening and frequency requirements for these symptoms in UHR criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes. Additionally, perceptive and non-perceptive APS were differentiated. Psychosocial functioning and current non-psychotic DSM-IV axis I disorders were also surveyed. Well-trained psychologists performed assessments. Altogether, 9.9% of subjects reported APS and none BLIPS, and 1.3% met all the UHR requirements for APS. APS were related to more current axis I disorders and impaired psychosocial functioning, indicating some clinical significance. A strong age effect was detected around age 16: compared to older individuals, 8-15-year olds reported more perceptive APS, that is, unusual perceptual experiences and attenuated hallucinations. Perceptive APS were generally less related to functional impairment, regardless of age. Conversely, non-perceptive APS were related to low functioning, although this relationship was weaker in those below age 16. Future studies should address the differential effects of perceptive and non-perceptive APS, and their interaction with age, also in terms of conversion to psychosis. PMID:26043337

  13. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility.

  14. Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–20091

    PubMed Central

    Walaza, Sibongile; Viboud, Cecile; Cohen, Adam L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Venter, Marietjie; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M.; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998–2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza–associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09–associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa. PMID:25811455

  15. Deaths associated with respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses among persons ≥5 years of age in HIV-prevalent area, South Africa, 1998-2009(1).

    PubMed

    Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Viboud, Cecile; Cohen, Adam L; Madhi, Shabir A; Venter, Marietjie; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-04-01

    We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998-2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza-associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa.

  16. The Need for Standardized Assessment of Muscle Quality in Skeletal Muscle Function Deficit and Other Aging-Related Muscle Dysfunctions: A Symposium Report.

    PubMed

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Harris-Love, Michael O; Miljkovic, Iva; Fragala, Maren S; Anthony, Brian W; Manini, Todd M

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions. The present article provides an expanded introduction concerning the emerging definitions of muscle quality and a potential framework for scientific inquiry within the field. Changes in muscle tissue composition, based on excessive levels of inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids, have been found to adversely impact metabolism and peak force generation. However, methods to easily and rapidly assess muscle tissue composition in multiple clinical settings and with minimal patient burden are needed. Diagnostic ultrasound and other assessment methods continue to be developed for characterizing muscle pathology, and enhanced sonography using sensors to provide user feedback and improve reliability is currently the subject of ongoing investigation and development. In addition, measures of relative muscle force such as specific force or grip strength adjusted for body size have been proposed as methods to assess changes in muscle quality. Furthermore, performance-based assessments of muscle power via timed tests of function and body size estimates, are associated with lower extremity muscle strength may be responsive to age-related changes in muscle quality. Future aims include reaching consensus on the definition and standardized assessments of muscle quality, and

  17. The Need for Standardized Assessment of Muscle Quality in Skeletal Muscle Function Deficit and Other Aging-Related Muscle Dysfunctions: A Symposium Report

    PubMed Central

    Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly; Harris-Love, Michael O.; Miljkovic, Iva; Fragala, Maren S.; Anthony, Brian W.; Manini, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions. The present article provides an expanded introduction concerning the emerging definitions of muscle quality and a potential framework for scientific inquiry within the field. Changes in muscle tissue composition, based on excessive levels of inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipids, have been found to adversely impact metabolism and peak force generation. However, methods to easily and rapidly assess muscle tissue composition in multiple clinical settings and with minimal patient burden are needed. Diagnostic ultrasound and other assessment methods continue to be developed for characterizing muscle pathology, and enhanced sonography using sensors to provide user feedback and improve reliability is currently the subject of ongoing investigation and development. In addition, measures of relative muscle force such as specific force or grip strength adjusted for body size have been proposed as methods to assess changes in muscle quality. Furthermore, performance-based assessments of muscle power via timed tests of function and body size estimates, are associated with lower extremity muscle strength may be responsive to age-related changes in muscle quality. Future aims include reaching consensus on the definition and standardized assessments of muscle quality, and

  18. Estimating population prevalence of potential airflow obstruction using different spirometric criteria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis of persons aged 40–95 years in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Moody, Alison; Mindell, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Consistent estimation of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been hindered by differences in methods, including different spirometric cut-offs for impaired lung function. The impact of different definitions on the prevalence of potential airflow obstruction, and its associations with key risk factors, is evaluated using cross-sectional data from two nationally representative population surveys. Design Pooled cross-sectional analysis of Wave 2 of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey and the Health Survey for England 2010, including 7879 participants, aged 40–95 years, who lived in England and Wales, without diagnosed asthma and with good-quality spirometry data. Potential airflow obstruction was defined using self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD; a fixed threshold (FT) forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio <0.7 and an age-specific, sex-specific, height-specific and ethnic-specific lower limit of normal (LLN). Standardised questions elicited self-reported information on demography, smoking history, ethnicity, occupation, respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disease. Results Consistent across definitions, participants classed with obstructed airflow were more likely to be older, currently smoke, have higher pack-years of smoking and be engaged in routine occupations. The prevalence of airflow obstruction was 2.8% (95% CI 2.3% to 3.2%), 22.2% (21.2% to 23.2%) and 13.1% (12.2% to 13.9%) according to diagnosed COPD, FT and LLN, respectively. The gap in prevalence between FT and LLN increased in older age groups. Sex differences in the risk of obstruction, after adjustment for key risk factors, was sensitive to the choice of spirometric cut-off, being significantly higher in men when using FT, compared with no significant difference using LLN. Conclusions Applying FT or LLN spirometric cut-offs gives a different picture of the size and distribution of the disease burden. Longitudinal studies

  19. A door-to-door survey to estimate the prevalence of Parkinsonism in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) occurs in all races and cultures, and population-related differences in frequency may provide etiological clues. The present study was designed to explore the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, for which no published prevalence data are available. Methods We conducted a three-phase door-to-door survey in two districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, to assess the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in a sample of 4,000 individuals aged 50 years and above. Results We identified 14 cases of Parkinsonism, eleven with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD. The overall prevalence estimates were 1.7/100 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–2.46) for Parkinsonism and 1.28/100 (95% CI: 0.6–1.94) for PD in persons aged 65 years and above. The age-standardized prevalence of PD (aged 65 years and above), normalized to the USA population in 2000, was 1.33/100, which is similar to that observed in other human populations. Of the total 14 cases, five were newly diagnosed and four had a family history of PD. Conclusion The estimated prevalence rates in Pakistan are similar to those observed in other human populations. The frequency of familial Parkinsonism is also equivalent to previous estimates. PMID:27382292

  20. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  1. Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, αCaMKII, p-αCaMKII, and PSD-95.

  2. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting. PMID:26473908

  4. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning.

  5. Prevalence of CKD in Northeastern Italy: Results of the INCIPE Study and Comparison with NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Yabarek, Tewoldemedhn; Graziani, Maria Stella; Gemelli, Alessandro; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Marchionna, Nicola; Citron, Lorenzo; Bonfante, Luciana; Grigoletto, Francesco; Tata, Salvatore; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Legnaro, Angelo; Meneghel, Gina; Conz, Piero; Rizzotti, Paolo; D'Angelo, Angela; Lupo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Sufficiently powered studies to investigate the CKD prevalence are few and do not cover southern Europe. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: For the INCIPE study, 6200 Caucasian patients ≥40 years old were randomly selected in northeastern Italy in 2006. Laboratory determinations were centralized. The albumin to creatinine ratio in urine and estimated GFR from calibrated creatinine (SCr) were determined. A comparison with 2001 through 2006 NHANES surveys was performed. Results: Prevalence of CKD was 13.2% in northeastern (NE) Italy (age and gender standardized to the U.S. 2007 Caucasian population). Prevalence of CKD in U.S. Caucasians is higher (20.3%), the major difference being in CKD 3. Risk factors for CKD are more prevalent in the United States than in Italy. With use of CKD 3a and 3b stages, CKD prevalence decreased in NE Italy (8.5%) and in the United States (12.8%). Conclusions: The prevalence of CKD is high in NE Italy, but lower than that in the United States. A large part of the difference in CKD prevalence in NE Italy versus that in the United States is due to the different prevalence of CKD 3. The higher prevalence of a number of renal risk factors in persons from the United States explains in part the different dimensions of the CKD problem in the two populations. PMID:20813860

  6. Prevalence, characteristics, and survival of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Katrina M.; Patterson, Karalyn; Vázquez Rodríquez, Patricia; Wehmann, Eileen; Wilcox, Alicia; Lansdall, Claire J.; Dawson, Kate E.; Wiggins, Julie; Mead, Simon; Brayne, Carol; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in 2 UK counties (population 1.69 million). Diagnostic confirmation used current consensus diagnostic criteria after interview and reexamination. Results were adjusted to the 2013 European standard population. Results: The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS was 10.8/100,000. The incidence and mortality were very similar, at 1.61/100,000 and 1.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk is 1 in 742. Survival following diagnosis varied widely: from PSP 2.9 years to semantic variant FTD 9.1 years. Age-adjusted prevalence peaked between 65 and 69 years at 42.6/100,000: the age-adjusted prevalence for persons older than 65 years is double the prevalence for those between 40 and 64 years. Fifteen percent of those screened had a relevant genetic mutation. Conclusions: Key features of this study include the revised diagnostic criteria with improved specificity and sensitivity, an unrestricted age range, and simultaneous assessment of multiple FTLD syndromes. The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS increases beyond 65 years, with frequent genetic causes. The time from onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to death varies widely among syndromes, emphasizing the challenge and importance of accurate and timely diagnosis. A high index of suspicion for FTLD syndromes is required by clinicians, even for older patients. PMID:27037234

  7. [Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence in sex workers].

    PubMed

    Salomón, María Cristina; Martínez, Norma; Delgado, Delia; González Arra, Carolina; Bittar, Víctor; González, Nieves

    2011-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) usually associated to vaginitis, urethritis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause infertility. The aim of this retrospective longitudinal study was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence in a population of male and female sex workers in Mendoza, Argentina. A cohort of 720 people who attended the STI Program in this province was retrospectively analyzed. From February 2007 up to June 2009, 1692 samples were processed using a reposition sampling method. The age and sex distribution of the population was: 687 women/33 men, from 15 to 65 years old. Trichomoniasis prevalence determined for this population at risk was 7.6% in women only, men did not present infection. The high prevalence shown for this risk group suggests a great vulnerability of this population to contract other more serious STIs. In another sense, it also shows a remarkable lack in the use of mechanical barriers to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The present research justifies the elaboration of standardized procedures guide to diagnose T. vaginalis within the framework of the Reproductive Health Program (PROSAR).

  8. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  9. [Prevalence of disability among leprosy patients and effectiveness of leprosy reaction services with standard prednisolone treatment at field level in an endemic country--some data from joint leprosy research collaboration in Myanmar].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yutaka

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of disability among leprosy patients and effectiveness of standard predonisolone treatment for leprosy reaction at field level in some place of Myanmar are shown in this paper as results of joint leprosy research collaboration. WHO disability grading was measured for all newly registered leprosy patients through 2007 in 5 selected townships of Ayeyarwaddy Division, with the results of G0 = 66.3%, GI = 18.9%, GII = 14.7% (N = 95). The cross-sectional disability survey at selected 9 townships in Mandalay, Sagaing and Magway Division for all registered patients who had completed WHO/MDT done by JICA project in 2003/4 showed G0 = 62.5%, GI = 2.4%, GII = 35.1% (N = 10,528). From these two data, it is supposed that considerable number of patients with G1 at registered time developed worsening of disability from G1 to G2. Proportion of G0 also reduced a little bit in patients who completed WHO/MDT. Early detection and proper treatment of leprosy reaction are one of the main issues of prevention of disability. Effectiveness of leprosy reaction services were evaluated at Mandalay Special Skin Clinic, where WHO fixed regimen of prednisolone were given as routine service. 100 cases were evaluated who developed leprosy reactions from 1st December 2007 to 31st December 2008 and identified severe reaction who needed oral prednisolone treatment. Evaluation criteria of "effective" was defined as "no more signs and symptoms of reactions were present after treatment. And "less effective" was defined as "more than one of signs and symptoms were still remained after treatment". Over all "effective" was 36 (36%) and "less effective" was 64 (64%). It was also found that rates of improvement of nerve functions, either in sensory or in motor, were little after the standard treatment.

  10. Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Hu, Yichun; Mao, Deqian; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jing; Li, Weidong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our methodology included data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010–2012, where samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size. The study objects were from 150 sites in provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities in China. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the anemia standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), combined with elevation correction standard. The level of blood hemoglobin, the prevalence of anemia, and the 95% CI (Confidence interval) value were analyzed using complex sampling weighted processing, combined with the population figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. Our results indicate that the level of blood hemoglobin of the Chinese rural area population was 145.92 ± 0.83 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population at 9.7% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.0%). The prevalence of anemia in children 6–11 years old was 5.5% (95% CI: 5.0%–6.0%), 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–8.7%) for 12–17-year-old teenagers, 10.0% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.6%) for 18–44-year-old adults, 9.6% (95% CI: 9.0%–10.1%) for 45–59-year-old adults, and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.9%–13.3%) for the elderly above 60 years old. Our conclusion shows that the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population in 2010–2012 had obviously decreased compared to the last decade; however, women of reproductive age and the elderly still had a high prevalence of anemia. PMID:28245576

  11. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age.

  12. Young to Middle-Aged Dogs with High Amyloid-β Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid are Impaired on Learning in Standard Cognition tests

    PubMed Central

    Borghys, Herman; Van Broeck, Bianca; Dhuyvetter, Deborah; Jacobs, Tom; de Waepenaert, Katja; Erkens, Tim; Brooks, Melissa; Thevarkunnel, Sandy; Araujo, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding differences in Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers before the pathology becomes evident can contribute to an improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. A decrease in amyloid-β (Aβ)42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to be a biomarker for Aβ deposition in brain. However, the relevance of CSF Aβ levels prior to deposition is not entirely known. Dogs are similar to man with respect to amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP)-processing, age-related amyloid plaque deposition, and cognitive dysfunction. In the current study, we evaluated the relation between CSF Aβ42 levels and cognitive performance in young to middle-aged dogs (1.5–7 years old). Additionally, CSF sAβPPα and sAβPPβ were measured to evaluate AβPP processing, and CSF cytokines were measured to determine the immune status of the brain. We identified two groups of dogs showing consistently low or high CSF Aβ42 levels. Based on prior studies, it was assumed that at this age no cerebral amyloid plaques were likely to be present. The cognitive performance was evaluated in standard cognition tests. Low or high Aβ concentrations coincided with low or high sAβPPα, sAβPPβ, and CXCL-1 levels, respectively. Dogs with high Aβ concentrations showed significant learning impairments on delayed non-match to position (DNMP), object discrimination, and reversal learning compared to dogs with low Aβ concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that high levels of CSF Aβ in dogs coincide with lower cognitive performance prior to amyloid deposition. Further experiments are needed to investigate this link, as well as the relevance with respect to Alzheimer’s disease pathology progression. PMID:28035921

  13. Young to Middle-Aged Dogs with High Amyloid-β Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid are Impaired on Learning in Standard Cognition tests.

    PubMed

    Borghys, Herman; Van Broeck, Bianca; Dhuyvetter, Deborah; Jacobs, Tom; de Waepenaert, Katja; Erkens, Tim; Brooks, Melissa; Thevarkunnel, Sandy; Araujo, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding differences in Alzheimer's disease biomarkers before the pathology becomes evident can contribute to an improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. A decrease in amyloid-β (Aβ)42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to be a biomarker for Aβ deposition in brain. However, the relevance of CSF Aβ levels prior to deposition is not entirely known. Dogs are similar to man with respect to amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP)-processing, age-related amyloid plaque deposition, and cognitive dysfunction. In the current study, we evaluated the relation between CSF Aβ42 levels and cognitive performance in young to middle-aged dogs (1.5-7 years old). Additionally, CSF sAβPPα and sAβPPβ were measured to evaluate AβPP processing, and CSF cytokines were measured to determine the immune status of the brain. We identified two groups of dogs showing consistently low or high CSF Aβ42 levels. Based on prior studies, it was assumed that at this age no cerebral amyloid plaques were likely to be present. The cognitive performance was evaluated in standard cognition tests. Low or high Aβ concentrations coincided with low or high sAβPPα, sAβPPβ, and CXCL-1 levels, respectively. Dogs with high Aβ concentrations showed significant learning impairments on delayed non-match to position (DNMP), object discrimination, and reversal learning compared to dogs with low Aβ concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that high levels of CSF Aβ in dogs coincide with lower cognitive performance prior to amyloid deposition. Further experiments are needed to investigate this link, as well as the relevance with respect to Alzheimer's disease pathology progression.

  14. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Tian, Yongfeng; Yan, Wenhua; Kong, Yue; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Anping; Dou, Jingtao; Liang, Ping; Mu, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules (TNs) have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years) from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001). The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001), and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007). There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015) and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001). The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.039 (1.034–1.044), p < 0.001), the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097)), Body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034)), and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483)) were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and BMI

  15. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  16. Prevalence of obesity in Malta

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, J.; Calleja, N.; Camilleri, R.; Borg, A.; Bonnici, G.; Zhang, Y.; Pace, N.; Mamo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted (2014–2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight‐obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. Results The study identified 69.75% (95% CI: 68.32–71.18) of the Maltese population to be either overweight or obese. The men overweight/obese prevalence (76.28% 95% CI: 74.41–78.14) was statistically higher than that for women (63.06% 95% CI: 60.92–65.20) (p = 0.0001). Age stratification revealed that both genders had the highest overweight prevalence rates between 55 and 64 years (Men = 23.25% 95% CI: 20.43–26.33; Women = 24.68% 95% CI: 21.44–28.22). Men obesity prevalence rates were highest in the 35 to 44 years group (22.52% 95% CI: 19.65–25.68) while for women it was highest in the 55 to 64 years group (28.90%, 95% CI: 25.44–30.63). Conclusion Over a 35‐year period, an overall decrease in the normal and overweight BMI categories occurred with an increase in the prevalence of obesity. An exception was observed in the women, where the prevalence of normal BMI increased over this time period. Also, it appears that while the total population obesity prevalence increased (for 2016), a percentage of the women have shifted from an obese to an overweight status. PMID:28090352

  17. Global prevalence of childhood cataract: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheeladevi, S; Lawrenson, J G; Fielder, A R; Suttle, C M

    2016-09-01

    Childhood cataract is an avoidable cause of visual disability worldwide and is a priority for VISION 2020: The Right to Sight. There is a paucity of information about the burden of cataract in children and the aim of this review is to assess the global prevalence of childhood cataract. The methodology for the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We performed a literature search for studies reporting estimates of prevalence or incidence of cataract among children (aged<18 years) at any global location using the Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase up to January 2015. No restrictions were imposed based on language or year of publication. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal tool designed for systematic reviews of prevalence. Twenty prevalence and four incidence studies of childhood cataract from five different geographical regions were included. The overall prevalence of childhood cataract and congenital cataract was in the range from 0.32 to 22.9/10000 children (median=1.03) and 0.63 to 9.74/10000 (median=1.71), respectively. The incidence ranged from 1.8 to 3.6/10000 per year. The prevalence of childhood cataract in low-income economies was found to be 0.42 to 2.05 compared with 0.63 to 13.6/10000 in high-income economies. There was no difference in the prevalence based on laterality or gender. This review highlights substantial gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of childhood cataract worldwide, particularly from low and lower middle-income economies. More studies are needed using standard definitions and case ascertainment methods with large enough sample sizes.

  18. High prevalence of diabetes among immigrants from non-European countries in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per E; Gåfvels, Catharina

    2007-02-01