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Sample records for age symptom duration

  1. Conditioned blocking and schizophrenia: a replication and study of the role of symptoms, age, onset-age of psychosis and illness-duration.

    PubMed

    Bender, S; Müller, B; Oades, R D; Sartory, G

    2001-04-15

    Measures of selective attention processing like latent inhibition (LI) and conditioned blocking (CB) are disturbed in some patients with schizophrenia. [LI is the delay in learning about the associations of a stimulus that has been associated with no event (versus de novo learning); CB is the delay in learning the associations of a stimulus-component when the other component has already started to acquire these associations.] We proposed: (1) to replicate the reported decreases of CB in patients without paranoid-hallucinatory symptoms; (2) to see if CB depends on the age of illness-onset and its duration, as reported for LI. We studied 101 young and old, acute and chronically ill patients with schizophrenia, of whom 62 learned a modified 'mouse-in-house' CB task, and compared them with 62 healthy controls matched for age, education and socio-economic background. CB was more evident in patients with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia than other subtypes. An unusual persistence of high CB scores through testing was associated with productive symptoms (including positive thought disorder). Reduced CB related to the expression of (a) Schneider's first rank symptoms of ideas-of-reference and (b) to negative symptoms like poor rapport and poor attention. CB was less evident in the older patients and those with an earlier illness-onset. In contrast to the similar LI test of selective attention, CB is found in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and its expression is not related closely to illness duration. This implies that the two tests reflect the activity of different underlying processes. We suggest that reduced CB on initial test-trials in nonparanoid schizophrenia reflects the unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies that would normally become automatic during conditioning. In contrast, continued CB during testing reflects an unusual persistence of automatic processing strategies.

  2. Initial symptom burden predicts duration of symptoms after concussion★

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Geminiani, Ellen; Mannix, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine which variables predict prolonged (>28 days) duration of symptoms after a concussion. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult (>18yo) patients cared for in a specialty concussion clinic. Methods Symptoms were assessed using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) developed at the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sports. Possible predictors including age, sex, loss of consciousness, amnesia, history of prior concussion, prior treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussions, were measured by self-report. We recorded a PCSS score at each clinical visit and defined time to symptom resolution as the number of days between the date of injury and date of last symptoms. Results Of 64 adult patients included in the study, 53.3% were male; 20.3% reported experiencing a loss of consciousness at the time of injury while 23.4% reported amnesia. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 27 years (mean 21 ± 2 years). Most concussions (92.2%) occurred during sports. The mean initial PCSS score for those suffering symptoms for longer than 28 days was significantly higher than those who symptoms resolved within 28 days (42.5 vs. 19.2, p < 0.01). Of all potential predictor variables, only the initial PCSS score was independently associated with the odds of symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (aOR 1.037; 95% CI 1.011, 1.063). Conclusions Among adult patients with concussions, those with a higher symptom burden after injury have an increased odds of suffering from prolonged symptoms. Other potential predictor variables are not associated with the risk of prolonged recovery. PMID:26718812

  3. Does oseltamivir shorten flu symptom duration?

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Richard; Mounsey, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of influenza virus infection with oral oseltamivir reduces time to alleviation of symptoms in adults and children by approximately one day compared with placebo. It reduces symptom duration even when initiated more than 2 days after symptom onset. PMID:27660842

  4. Duration of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over the Menopause Transition

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Nancy E.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Greendale, Gail; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Gold, Ellen B.; Hess, Rachel; Joffe, Hadine; Kravitz, Howard M.; Tepper, Ping G.; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The expected duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) is important to women making decisions about possible treatments. OBJECTIVES To determine total duration of frequent VMS (≥6 days in the previous 2 weeks) (hereafter total VMS duration) during the menopausal transition, to quantify how long frequent VMS persist after the final menstrual period (FMP) (hereafter post-FMP persistence), and to identify risk factors for longer total VMS duration and longer post-FMP persistence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiracial/multiethnic observational study of the menopausal transition among 3302 women enrolled at 7 US sites. From February 1996 through April 2013, women completed a median of 13 visits. Analyses included 1449 women with frequent VMS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total VMS duration (in years) (hot flashes or night sweats) and post-FMP persistence (in years) into postmenopause. RESULTS The median total VMS duration was 7.4 years. Among 881 women who experienced an observable FMP, the median post-FMP persistence was 4.5 years. Women who were premenopausal or early perimenopausal when they first reported frequent VMS had the longest total VMS duration (median, >11.8 years) and post-FMP persistence (median, 9.4 years). Women who were postmenopausal at the onset of VMS had the shortest total VMS duration (median, 3.4 years). Compared with women of other racial/ethnic groups, African American women reported the longest total VMS duration (median, 10.1 years). Additional factors related to longer duration of VMS (total VMS duration or post-FMP persistence) were younger age, lower educational level, greater perceived stress and symptom sensitivity, and higher depressive symptoms and anxiety at first report of VMS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Frequent VMS lasted more than 7 years during the menopausal transition for more than half of the women and persisted for 4.5 years after the FMP

  5. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (≥ 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  6. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  7. Manifestation of arsenicosis patients and factors determining the duration of arsenic symptoms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M K; Khan, M M H; Alam, M A; Chowdhury, A K; Delwar Hossain, M; Feroze Ahmed, M; Kobayashi, Kota; Sakauchi, Fumio; Mori, Mitsuru

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzed a total of 1482 arsenicosis patients living in 6 of 496 upzilas (sub-districts) of Bangladesh, who were identified through household screening and then confirmed by a trained medical team headed by medical officer. Melanosis was common (97%) among them but about two-thirds (68.7%) of the patients were suffering from keratosis. Average age was 36 years and average duration of arsenic symptoms was 3 (median) years. About 50% of the patients had been drinking tubewell water more than 24 years. Melanosis was significantly associated with younger patients (P=0.031), shallower tubewell (P=0.005), and complication of conjunctivitis (P<0.001). Keratosis was also significantly associated with older age (P=0.022), shallower tubewell (P<0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P<0.001), bronchitis (P<0.001), loss of appetite (P<0.001), and wasting (P<0.001). Duration of arsenic symptoms was significantly associated with older age (P<0.001), male (P=0.002), married (P<0.001), smoking (P=0.002), longer duration of consuming tubewell water (P<0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P=0.002), loss of appetite (P<0.001), wasting (P=0.006), and social problem faced having arsenicosis (P=0.040). Multivariate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) indicated that keratosis (OR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.56-2.56) was significantly associated with longer duration of arsenic symptoms; loss of appetite (OR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.12-1.74) was a significant complication for longer duration. Similarly smoking (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.68) was positively associated with longer duration of arsenic symptom. These findings will help the policy makers of Bangladesh to understand about the factors that may affect the severity condition of the patients through prolongation of arsenic symptoms.

  8. Sleep Duration and Insomnia Symptoms as Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Siu, H.Y. Katy; Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Brown, Gregory K.; Findley, James C.; Perlis, Michael L.; Grandner, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion) has been increasingly linked with difficulty initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, and early morning awakenings. However, the relationship between suicidal behavior and sleep duration abnormalities is unclear, especially at the population level. The present study used a nationally representative sample to examine the association of suicidal ideation with extreme sleep durations and insomnia symptoms. Method: Cross-sectional data from adult respondents (≥ 18 years of age, N = 6,228) were extracted from the 2007–2008 wave of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship of suicidal ideation with sleep duration, global insomnia, and individual insomnia symptoms in models adjusted for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health-related covariates. Results: Suicidal ideation was associated with abnormalities of sleep duration. This relationship ceased to exist once the model was adjusted for depressive symptoms. As expected, an increased level of suicidal ideation was consistently associated with insomnia. Of the insomnia symptoms, difficulty maintaining sleep was found to be the most predictive of suicidal ideation, followed by difficulty initiating sleep (P< .05). Conclusions: Abnormalities of sleep duration and continuity should prompt a clinical assessment for suicide risk. PMID:27057399

  9. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jinya; Sahni, Shivani; Liao, Susu; Tucker, Katherine L.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Gao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d) and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep) were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates. Results Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women. Conclusions Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached. PMID:26147647

  10. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Elizabeth; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Jason, Leonard A.; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55) and illness duration (more or less than 10 years). The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients. PMID:27110826

  11. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Elizabeth; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Jason, Leonard A; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2016-04-22

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55) and illness duration (more or less than 10 years). The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients.

  12. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  13. Insomnia Symptoms, Nightmares, and Suicide Risk: Duration of Sleep Disturbance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadorff, Michael R.; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Duration of insomnia symptoms or nightmares was investigated to see if it was related to suicide risk independent of current insomnia symptoms, nightmares, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic symptoms. The cross-sectional study involved analyses of survey responses from undergraduate students who endorsed either insomnia…

  14. An open-label, single-center, phase IV clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) in reducing the duration and symptoms of the common cold in school-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Betty Howell; Miller, Shelley Porter

    2003-01-01

    Each year, more than 62 million cases of the common cold in the United States require medical attention and more than 80% affect school-aged children. The objective of this prospective, intent-to-treat, phase IV study was to determine the therapeutic and prophylactic effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) for the common cold. Zinc lozenges were administered once daily during the cold season for prophylaxis. For therapeutic purposes, lozenges were given 4 times per day. The primary objective of the study was the treatment effect on cold duration, and the secondary objective was the effect on the number of common colds. A putative control from our previous study was used for comparison. A total of 178 children, ages 12 to 18 years, was enrolled, of which 134 met criteria for efficacy analysis. The average cold duration with therapeutic lozenge use was 6.9 +/- 3.1 days, significantly shorter than the 9.0 +/- 3.5 days found in the control group (P < 0.001). The mean number of colds was 1.28 +/- 1.03 with zinc lozenge prophylaxis versus 1.7 +/- 1.91 without prophylaxis (P < 0.05), a 25% reduction. With prophylaxis, 25% of the subjects did not experience a cold and two-thirds never had a cold or only had 1 cold. There was no antibiotic use for any cold, and there were no adverse events reported. Results of this study are consistent with those from our previous retrospective study showing significantly shorter cold duration and fewer colds with the use of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges. The zinc gluconate glycine lozenges are well tolerated and are an easy-to-administer therapy that has the potential to substantially reduce cold-related school absences and antibiotic use and misuse as well as to provide a cost saving. PMID:12975716

  15. The Association of Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms in Rural Communities of Missouri, Tennessee, and Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Salas, Joanne; Habicht, Katherine; Pien, Grace W.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between sleep duration and depressive symptoms in a rural setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Wave 3 of the Walk the Ozarks to Wellness Project including 12 rural communities in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee (N = 1,204). Sleep duration was defined based on average…

  16. Pre-operative function, motivation and duration of symptoms predict sporting participation after total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, M; Frey, S; Parratte, S; Flecher, X; Argenson, J N

    2014-08-01

    There is little in the literature on the level of participation in sports which patients undertake after total hip replacement (THR). Our aims in this study were to determine first, the level of sporting activity, second, the predictive factors for returning to sporting activity, and third, the correlation between participation in sports and satisfaction after THR. We retrospectively identified 815 patients who had undergone THR between 1995 and 2005. All were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their sporting activity. A total of 571 patients (71%) met the inclusion criteria and completed the evaluation. At a mean follow-up of 9.8 years (sd 2.9), 366 patients (64%) returned to sporting activity as defined by a University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score of > 5. The main reasons that patients had for refraining from sports were fear of dislocation (65; 31.6%), avoiding wear (52; 25.4%), and the recommendation of the surgeon (34; 16.6%). There was a significant relationship between higher post-operative participation in sport in those patients with a higher pre-operative Harris hip score (HHS) (p = 0.0074), motivation to participate in sporting activities (p = 0.00022) and a shorter duration of symptoms (p = 0.0034). Finally, there was a correlation between age (p = 0.00013), UCLA score (p = 0.012) and pre-operative HHS (p = 0.00091) and satisfaction. In conclusion, we found that most patients participate in sporting activity after THR, regardless of the advice of their surgeon, and that there is a correlation between the level of participation and pre-operative function, motivation, duration of symptoms and post-operative satisfaction.

  17. Differences in duration of Huntington's disease based on age at onset

    PubMed Central

    Foroud, T.; Gray, J.; Ivashina, J.; Conneally, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Data from a sample of 2494 patients affected with Huntington's disease (HD), collected as part of the National Research Roster for Huntington Disease Patients and Families, were examined to determine if there was a relation between age at onset and duration of illness.
METHODS—Sufficient data for inclusion in analysis was available from 2068 patients, of whom 828 were deceased and 1240 were living. The median duration of disease was 21.4 years with a range of 1.2 to 40.8 years. Patients were categorised into one of four groups based on their age at onset.
RESULTS—Significant differences in duration based on the age at onset were found (p<0.025), with juvenile and late onset patients with HD having shorter duration of illness compared with those with an onset between 20-49 years.
CONCLUSIONS—Duration of disease is influenced by the age at symptom onset with juvenile and late onset patients having the shortest duration.

 PMID:9886451

  18. Fluency in Parkinson's disease: disease duration, cognitive status and age.

    PubMed

    Brabo, Natalia Casagrande; Minett, Thais Soares C; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination). A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies. PMID:24863510

  19. Duration of symptoms: Impact on outcome of radiotherapy in glottic cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Olfred . E-mail: olfred@dadlnet.dk; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars; Godballe, Christian; Jorgensen, Karsten Ejsing

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. Methods and materials: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy. A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42 fractions, and the median dose per fraction was 2.00 Gy (range, 1.56-2.29 Gy). All patients had 5 years of follow-up, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was used as the primary endpoint. Results: The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 74%. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, duration of symptoms was a significant factor (p < 0.0001) with a hazard ratio of 1.045 (95% CI 1.023, 1.069). Other significant factors included tumor stage and radiation dose, whereas duration of treatment time was borderline significant (p = 0.06). Conclusions: The duration of symptoms was statistically significantly related to a decrease in recurrence-free survival. One-month delay from onset of symptoms to start of radiotherapy was equivalent to a 4.5% decrease in recurrence-free survival.

  20. [Differential diagnostic significance of the duration of postseizure transient falling symptoms].

    PubMed

    Telegina, A A

    1980-01-01

    Development of post-seizure transient symptoms of lapse was studied in patients suffering from cerebral tumours with epileptic syndrome and from epilepsy of traumatic or infectious etiology. It has been found that in patients with cerebral tumours those symptoms are more frequent, more lasting and appear later (after the disease onset) than in patients with epilepsy of traumatic or infectious etiology. The principal difference, however, consists in the fact that the duration of the transient symptoms of lapse in the patients with cerebral tumours becomes longer from seizure to seizure: this is not the case in the patients with epilepsy. This dynamic symptom makes it possible to differentiate epilepsy of traumatic or infectious etiology from the epileptic syndrome caused by brain tumour before the development of intracranial hypertension. This feature is especially valuable, since it can be observed at the very beginning of the seizure period.

  1. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  2. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  3. Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

  4. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  5. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    PubMed

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Concussions in Aging Retired NFL Players

    PubMed Central

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C.; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673

  7. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  8. California Divorce Rates by Age at First Marriage and Duration of First Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert

    1975-01-01

    The proposition that age at first marriage is inversely related to the risk of divorce was examined by means of detailed age-duration-specific divorce rates for California 1969. A strong inverse relationship was found for male ages at marriage 18 through 25 and female ages at marriage 16 through 24. (Author)

  9. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in old age: Integrating age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes.

    PubMed

    Chui, Helena; Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Luszcz, Mary A

    2015-12-01

    Late life involves a variety of different challenges to well-being. This study extends and qualifies propositions drawn from the paradox of well-being in aging using 15-year longitudinal data on depressive symptoms from old and very old participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Baseline N = 2,087; Mage = 78.69 years; range: 65-103 years; 49.40% women). We first examined age-related trajectories in depressive symptoms from young-old to oldest-old, taking into account (changes in) relevant correlates, pathology, and mortality; and, second, we investigated gender differences in these trajectories. Results revealed that age-related trajectories of depressive symptoms were predictive of mortality hazards. The unique predictive effects of both level of, and change in, depressive symptoms were independent of one another and held after taking into account education as well as changes in marital status, living arrangements, cognitive function, and illness burden. In addition, results indicated that depressive symptoms were elevated among participants suffering from arthritis, and increased with age more markedly in men than in women. In particular, the significant Age × Gender interaction indicated that the gender gap in depressive symptoms reduced from young-old to old-old and reversed in very old age when men showed more depressive symptoms than women. Qualifying the paradox of well-being in aging, findings demonstrated that depressive symptoms increased from young-old to oldest-old and suggest that age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes should be examined in concert to advance our understanding of individual differences in depressive symptom trajectories in late life.

  10. Nocturnal emergency department visits, duration of symptoms and risk of hospitalisation among adults with asthma exacerbations: a multicentre observational study

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hideto; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Watase, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to compare the characteristics of patients with asthma presenting to the emergency department (ED) during the night-time with those of patients presenting at other times of the day, and to determine whether the time of ED presentation is associated with the risk of hospitalisation. Design and setting A multicentre chart review study of 23 EDs across Japan. Participants Patients aged 18–54 years with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma, presented to the ED between January 2009 and December 2011 Outcome measures The outcome of interest was hospitalisation, including admissions to an observation unit, inpatient unit and intensive care unit. Results Among the 1354 patients (30.1% in the night-time group vs 69.9% in the other time group) included in this study, the median age was 34 years and ∼40% were male. Overall 145 patients (10.7%) were hospitalised. Patients in the night-time group were more likely to have a shorter duration of symptoms (≤3 hours) before ED presentation than those in the other time group (25.9% in night-time vs 13.4% in other times; p<0.001). In contrast, there were no significant differences in respiratory rate, initial peak expiratory flow or ED asthma treatment between the two groups (p>0.05). Similarly, the risk of hospitalisation did not differ between the two groups (11.3% in night-time vs 10.5% in other times; p=0.65). In a multivariable model adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of hospitalisation in the night-time group was not statistically different from the other time group (OR, 1.10; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.61; p=0.63). Conclusions This multicentre study in Japan demonstrated no significant difference in the risk of hospitalisations according to the time of ED presentation. PMID:27519919

  11. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  12. Misconceptions and Miscommunication among Aging Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ariana L.; Nissim, Helen A.; Le, Thuy X.; Khan, Aqsa; Maliski, Sally L.; Litwin, Mark S.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Raz, Shlomo; Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives With the ultimate goal of improving the quality of care provided to aging women with overactive bladder, we sought to better understand aging women’s experience with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and the care they receive. Methods Women seen in outpatient female urology clinics were identified by ICD-9 codes for OAB and recruited. Patients with painful bladder syndrome, mixed stress and urge incontinence, prolapse, or recent pelvic surgery were excluded. Patient focus groups were conducted by trained non-clinician moderators incorporating topics related to patients’ perceptions of OAB physiology, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, treatments, and outcomes. Qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology. Results Five focus groups totaling 33 women with OAB were conducted. Average patient age was 67 years (range 39–91). Older women with OAB lacked knowledge about the physiology of their disease and had poor understanding regarding the rationale for many diagnostic tests, including urodynamics and cystoscopy. The results of diagnostic studies often were not understood by older patients. Many women were dissatisfied with the care they had received. This lack of knowledge and understanding was more apparent among the elderly women in the group. Conclusions Findings demonstrated a poor understanding of the physiology of overactive bladder and the rationale for various diagnostic modalities and treatments. This was associated with dissatisfaction with care. There is a need for better communication with older women experiencing OAB symptoms about the physiology of the condition. PMID:20970839

  13. Duration of attenuated positive and negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk: Associations with risk of conversion to psychosis and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Ricardo E; Demmin, Docia; Auther, Andrea M; McLaughlin, Danielle; Olsen, Ruth; Lencz, Todd; Correll, Christoph U; Cornblatt, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Research in individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis has focused on subjects with no more than 12 months of present or worsened attenuated positive symptoms. However, the impact of long duration attenuated positive and/or negative prodromal symptoms on outcomes is unclear. Seventy-six CHR subjects with attenuated positive symptoms and at least moderate severity level negative symptoms rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) were prospectively followed for a mean of 3.0 ± 1.6 years. Social and Role functioning was assessed with the Global Functioning: Social and Role scales. Correlations between attenuated positive and negative symptom duration and severity and conversion to psychosis and functional outcomes were analyzed. The average onset of SOPS rated negative symptoms (M = 53.24 months, SD = 48.90, median = 37.27) was approximately twelve months prior to the emergence of attenuated positive symptom (M = 40.15 months, SD = 40.33, median = 24.77, P < 0.05). More severe positive symptoms (P = 0.004), but not longer duration of positive (P = 0.412) or negative (P = 0.754) symptoms, predicted conversion to psychosis. Neither positive symptom duration (P = 0.181) nor severity (P = 0.469) predicted role or social functioning at study endpoint. Conversely, longer negative symptom duration predicted poor social functioning (P = 0.004). Overall, our findings suggest that the severity of attenuated positive symptoms at baseline may be more important than symptom duration for determining individuals at increased risk of developing psychosis. In contrast, long-standing negative symptoms may be associated with persistent social difficulties and therefore have an important position in the treatment of disability.

  14. The Relationship between Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index Depends on Age

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Schopfer, Elizabeth A.; Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Jackson, Nicholas; Malhotra, Atul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sleep duration is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disease. It is unclear, though, how these relationship differs across age groups. METHODS Data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used, including respondents aged 16+ with complete data (N=5,607). Sleep duration and age were evaluated by self-report and body mass index (BMI) was assessed objectively. Sleep duration was evaluated continuously and categorically [very short (≤4h), short (5–6h), and long (≥9h) versus average (7–8h)]. Age was also evaluated continuously and categorically [adolescent (16–17yrs), young adult (18–29yrs), early middle age (30–49 yrs), late middle age (50–6 4yrs), and older adult (≥65 yrs)]. RESULTS There was a significant interaction with age for both continuous (Pinteraction=0.014) and categorical (Pinteraction=0.035) sleep duration. A pseudo-linear relationship is seen among the youngest respondents, with the highest BMI associated with the shortest sleepers and the lowest BMI associated with the longest sleepers. This relationship becomes U-shaped in middle-age, and less of a relationship is seen among the oldest respondents. CONCLUSIONS These findings may provide insights for clinical recommendations and could help to guide mechanistic research regarding the sleep-obesity relationship. PMID:26727118

  15. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  16. Duration of sedimentation of Creede Formation from 40Ar/39Ar ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, Marvin A.

    2000-01-01

    The Oligocene Creede Formation was deposited in the moat of the Creede caldera, which formed as a result of eruption of ythe Snowshoe Mountains Tuff. The Creede Formation in the two moat drill holes contains ash layers that are considered fallout tuffs derived from Fisher Dacite volcanoes that were erupting during accumulation of the Creede Formation. The duration of sedimentation of the Creede Formation could hnot be determinted directly by measuring the ages of the ash layers because 40Ar/39Ar ages of biotite from the asj layers do not stack in the correct stratigraphic order, indicating that the ash layers have been contaminated by biotite from older units. The duration of sedimentation is constrained by the ages of volcanic unites that stratigraphically bracket the Creede Formation. Pooling all ages for the underlyinh Snowshoe Mountain Tuff yields an age of 26.92 ± 0.07 Ma for the unit. The age of the stratigraphically highest lavas of Fisher Dacite, which overlie the Creede Formation, is 26.26 ± 0.04 Ma. The two limits give a maximum duration for sedimentation of the Creede Formation of 0.66 m.y. Using the ages of older Fisher Dacite lavas, on which some beds of the Creede Formation were deposited, a more realistic maximum duration of 0.34 m.y. for sedimentation of the Creede Formation can be determined.

  17. Factors contributing to the duration of untreated prodromal positive symptoms in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Chon, Myong-Wuk; Lee, Tae Young; Kim, Sung Nyun; Huh, Min Jung; Park, Hye Youn; Lee, Cho Rong; Shin, Na Young; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2015-03-01

    Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis experience a considerable delay before appropriate clinical attention is provided. Therefore, we investigated the correlates of this delay by examining clinical, socio-demographic and neuropsychological contributors to the duration of untreated prodromal positive symptoms (DUPP) in them (n=73). The slowly progressive mode of functional decline, defined as a small percentage drop in the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score within the past year, and male gender, explained a considerable portion of the DUPP in the multivariate regression model (F=9.269, p<0.001). Slower functional decline may be correlated with delayed care during the UHR period.

  18. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ≤0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ≥4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  19. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A; Gladen, Beth C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-04-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was < or =0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having > or =4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breastfeeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall.

  20. Psychic and somatic symptoms of depression among young adults, institutionalized aged and noninstitutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    Zemore, R; Eames, N

    1979-09-01

    Beck Depression Inventory scores were obtained from 48 elderly who had been residing in homes for the aged for more than one year, 31 elderly residing in the community and waiting to enter an old-age home, and 424 young adults enrolled in a fist-year psychology course. The residents of old-age homes reported no more symptoms of depression than the waiting-list controls, a finding that provides no support for the hypothesis that the institional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Both the institutionalized and noninstitutionalized aged reported more somatic symptoms of depression than the young adults, but no greater cognitive or affective symptoms of depression. These results were interpreted as providing no support for the widely belief that the aged are more depressed than any other age group. Finally, it was argued that somatic complaints can be valid indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account.

  1. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  2. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. Methods We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Results Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = −0.18; P < .001). Using the caregiver-reported models, both television and computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Conclusions Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens. PMID:27540566

  3. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both.

  4. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  5. Electrophysiological Indicators of the Age-Related Deterioration in the Sensitivity to Auditory Duration Deviance

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Kamila; Oron, Anna; Szymaszek, Aneta; Leminen, Miika; Näätänen, Risto; Szelag, Elzbieta

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates age-related changes in duration discrimination in millisecond time domain. We tested young (N = 20, mean age = 24.5, SD = 2.97) and elderly (N = 20, mean age = 65.2, SD = 2.94) subjects using the mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. White-noise bursts of two different durations (50 and 10 ms) were presented in two oddball blocks. In one block (Increment Condition), the repetitive sequence of 10 ms standards was interspersed by occasional 50 ms deviants. In the Decrement Condition, the roles of the two stimuli were reversed. We analyzed the P1-N1 complex, MMN and P3a and found the effect of age for all these components. Moreover, the impact of stimulus presentation condition (increment/decrement) was observed for MMN and P3a. Our results confirmed the previous evidence for deteriorated duration discrimination in elderly people. Additionally, we found that this effect may be influenced by procedural factors. PMID:26834628

  6. Duration of syphilis symptoms at presentations in men who have sex with men in Australia: are current public health campaigns effective?

    PubMed

    Chow, E P F; Dutt, K; Fehler, G; Denham, I; Chen, M Y; Batrouney, C; Peel, J; Read, T R H; Bradshaw, C S; Fairley, C K

    2016-01-01

    The rapid rise in syphilis cases has prompted a number of public health campaigns to assist men who have sex with men (MSM) recognize and present early with symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of the duration of self-report symptoms and titre of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in MSM with infectious syphilis. Seven hundred and sixty-one syphilis cases in MSM diagnosed at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) from 2007-2013 were reviewed. Median duration of symptoms and RPR titres in each year were calculated. The median durations of symptoms with primary and secondary syphilis were 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 6-14] days and 14 (IQR 7-30) days, respectively. The overall median titre of RPR in secondary syphilis (median 128, IQR 64-256) was higher than in primary syphilis (median 4, IQR 1-32) and in early latent syphilis (median 32, IQR 4-64). The median duration of symptoms for primary syphilis, secondary syphilis and titre of RPR level did not change over time. Public health campaigns were not associated with a significant shorter time from onset of symptoms to treatment. Alternative strategies such as more frequent testing of MSM should be promoted to control the syphilis epidemic in Australia.

  7. Mothers' intention, age, education and the duration and management of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Quarles, A; Williams, P D; Hoyle, D A; Brimeyer, M; Williams, A R

    1994-01-01

    The authors examined the breastfeeding duration and management of two groups of mothers with different exposures to services of a Certified Lactation Consultant (CLC). One group of mothers, at hospital H1 (n = 46), had access to a CLC, while mothers at hospital H2 (n = 115) did not. Results showed that: (a) mothers at H1 had significantly (t = 2.33, p < .02) longer durations of breastfeeding (M = 3.1 months, SD = 1.2) than peers at H2 (M = 2.4 months, SD = 1.2); (b) a significantly greater proportion of mothers at H1 attained their intended duration of breastfeeding compared to mothers at H2 (Mann-Whitney U, one-tailed test, Z = 1.94, p < .05); and (c) in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, intended length of breastfeeding accounted for 18% of the variance in duration of breastfeeding, mothers' age 9%, and mothers' education 3%. The results support the theory of reasoned action and the theory of patient education.

  8. Is it necessary to assess fluent symptoms, duration of dysfluent events, and physical concomitants when identifying children who have speech difficulties?

    PubMed

    Mirawdeli, Avin; Howell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Riley's (1994) Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) has three components: a symptom frequency measure (%SS), average duration of the three longest stutters, and a physical concomitant (PC) score. An assessment of whether it was necessary to use all of these when using SSI-3 to identify which children are at risk of speech difficulties was performed. Participants were 879 reception class children aged 4-6 years from UK schools. The distributions of the separate components of SSI-3 were examined. Departures from normality were noted for each component. The features seen in the distribution of the individual components were also apparent in the distribution of the overall scores (this was not normal and had multiple modes). These findings undermine the usefulness of the overall measure for identifying children at risk of speech difficulties. Prior work used a fixed SSI-3 threshold to identify at risk children. Classification of children as fluent or at risk based on this threshold was compared with classifications based on thresholds applied to the individual components. Classifications were comparable for %SS, but less satisfactory for duration and PC. These findings suggest that %SS performs similarly to the overall SSI-3 scores when used to identify at risk children. Procedures for identifying at risk children in schools need to be short and easy to administer. Thus, since there is no justification for including all components of SSI-3 and duration and physical concomitants are not sensitive measures of fluency, a procedure based on the frequency measure alone is appropriate for use in schools. PMID:27315282

  9. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  10. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution.

  11. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  12. Age and residency duration of loggerhead turtles at a North Pacific bycatch hotspot using skeletochronology

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewicz, Calandra N. Turner; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Avens, Larisa; Goshe, Lisa R.; Peckham, S. Hoyt; Rguez-Baron, Juan M.; Bickerman, Kalyn; Kurle, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    For migratory marine animals, like sea turtles, effective conservation can be challenging because key demographic information such as duration of life stages and exposure to spatially explicit threats in different habitats are often unknown. In the eastern Pacific near the Baja California Peninsula (BCP), Mexico, tens of thousands of endangered North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) concentrate at a foraging area known to have high rates of fishery bycatch. Because stage survivorship of loggerheads in the BCP will vary significantly depending on the number of years spent in this region, we applied skeletochronology to empirically estimate residency duration in this loggerhead hotspot. The observed age distribution obtained from skeletochronology analysis of 146 dead-stranded loggerheads ranged from three to 24 years old, suggesting a BCP residency of >20 years. Given the maximum estimated age and a one-year migration to western Pacific nesting beaches, we infer age-at-maturation for BCP loggerheads at ~25 years old. We also examine survivorship at varying BCP residency durations by applying our findings to current annual mortality estimates. Predicted survivorship of loggerheads spending over 20 years in this BCP foraging habitat is less than 10%, and given that ~43,000 loggerhead turtles forage here, a significant number of turtles are at extreme risk in this region. This is the first empirical evidence supporting estimated age-at-maturation for BCP North Pacific loggerheads, and the first estimates of BCP stage survivorship. Our findings emphasize the urgent need for continued and effective international conservation efforts to minimize bycatch of this endangered species. PMID:25848136

  13. Qualitative Study Exploring the Meaning of Knee Symptoms to Adults Ages 35–65 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Joanna; Badley, Elizabeth M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Davis, Aileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective While osteoarthritis (OA) has mainly been viewed as a disease affecting older people, its prevalence in younger adults is substantial. However, there is limited research on how younger adults understand knee symptoms. This article explores the meaning of knee symptoms to adults ages 35–65 years. Methods This qualitative study comprised 6 focus groups and 10 one‐on‐one interviews with 51 participants (median age 49, 61% female), who self‐reported knee OA or reported knee symptoms (i.e., pain, aching, or stiffness) on most days of the past month. Constructivist grounded theory guided the sampling, data collection, and analysis. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results Central to participants’ understanding of knee symptoms was the perception that symptoms were preventable, meaning that there was the potential to prevent the onset of symptoms and to alter the course of symptoms. This understanding was demonstrated in participants’ explanation of symptoms. Participants commented on the cause, prevention, and course of symptoms. Moreover, participants reflected on their experience with symptoms, indicating that symptoms made them feel older than their current age. However, they did not perceive their symptoms as normal or acceptable. Conclusion Participants interpreted knee symptoms as potentially preventable, suggesting that they may be open to primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:26238409

  14. Posttraumatic Symptoms and Thought Control Strategies among Aging Hidden Jewish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fohn, Adeline; Grynberg, Delphine; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the coping strategies of 51 aging hidden children (28 women and 23 men) 65 years after the Holocaust. Results indicated a positive relation between age and PTSD symptoms that was fully mediated by sense of danger and education. Regression analyses showed that…

  15. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  16. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  17. Contour integration and aging: the effects of element spacing, orientation alignment and stimulus duration.

    PubMed

    Roudaia, Eugenie; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract contours in cluttered visual scenes, which is a crucial step in visual processing, declines with healthy aging, but the reasons for this decline are not well understood. In three experiments, we examined how the effect of aging on contour discrimination varies as a function of contour and distracter inter-element spacing, collinearity, and stimulus duration. Spiral-shaped contours composed of Gabors were embedded within a field of distracter Gabors of uniform density. In a four alternative forced-choice task, younger and older subjects were required to report the global orientation of the contour. In Experiment 1, the absolute contour element spacing varied from two to eight times the Gabor wavelength and contour element collinearity was disrupted with five levels of orientation jitter. Contour discrimination accuracy was lower in older subjects, but the effect of aging did not vary with contour spacing or orientation jitter. Experiment 2 found that decreasing stimulus durations from 0.8 to 0.04 s had a greater effect on older subjects' performance, but only for less salient contours. Experiment 3 examined the effect of the background on contour discrimination by varying the spacing and orientation of the distracter elements for contours with small and large absolute spacing. As in Experiment, the effect of aging did not vary with absolute contour spacing. Decreasing the distracter spacing, however, had a greater detrimental effect on accuracy in older subjects compared to younger subjects. Finally, both groups showed equally high accuracy when all distracters were iso-oriented. In sum, these findings suggest that aging does not affect the sensitivity of contour integration to proximity or collinearity. However, contour integration in older adults is slower and is especially vulnerable when distracters are denser than contour elements.

  18. New U-Pb zircon ages and the duration and division of Devonian time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, R.D.; Bradley, D.C.; Ver Straeten, C.A.; Harris, A.G.; Ebert, J.R.; McCutcheon, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Newly determined U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic ashes closely tied to biostratigraphic zones are used to revise the Devonian time-scale. They are: 1) 417.6 ?? 1.0 Ma for an ash within the conodont zone of Icriodus woschmidti/I. w. hesperius Lochkovian); 2) 408.3 ?? 1.9 Ma for an ash of early Emsian age correlated with the conodont zones of Po. dehiscens--Lower Po. inversus; 3) 391.4 ?? 1.8 Ma for an ash within the Po. c. costatus Zone and probably within the upper half of the zone (Eifelian); and 4) 381.1 ?? 1.3 Ma for an ash within the range of the Frasnian conodont Palmatolepis punctata (Pa. punctata Zone to Upper Pa. hassi Zone). U-Pb zircon ages for two rhyolites bracketing a palyniferous bed of the pusillites-lepidophyta spore zone, are dated at 363.8 ?? 2.2 Ma and 363 ?? 2.2 Ma and 363.4 ?? 1.8 Ma, respectively, suggesting an age of ~363 Ma for a level within the late Famennian Pa. g. expansa Zone. These data, together with other published zircon ages, suggest that the base and top of the Devonian lie close to 418 Ma and 362 Ma, respectively, thus lengthening the period of ~20% over current estimates. We suggest that the duration of the Middle Devonian (Eifelian and Givitian) is rather brief, perhaps no longer than 11.5 Myr (394 Ma-382.5 Ma), and that the Emsian and Famennian are the longest stages in the period with estimated durations of ~15.5 Myr and 14.5 Myr, respectively.

  19. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  20. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac

  1. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4–6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h−1and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = −0.56 and −0.53, respectively; p < 0.05). At rest and during exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest

  2. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies found that the athlete’s age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete’s age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. Methods We investigated the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete’s age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. Results The athlete’s ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete’s ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. Conclusion The athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete’s age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete’s age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete’s age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further

  3. Cortisol Awakening Response and Internalizing Symptoms across Childhood: Exploring the Role of Age and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Ellen W.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Abelson, James L.; Muzik, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to identify biological correlates of internalizing symptoms in childhood have involved examinations of HPA-axis functioning, namely Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). However, research has not assessed the relationship between CAR and internalizing problems among children younger than 8 years. Findings with older samples have been somewhat…

  4. Can Age at Sexual Maturity act as a Predictive Biomarker for prodromal negative symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Miewald, Jean; Montrose, Debra; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-01-01

    Background Puberty and reproductive hormones have been identified as having a potential role in schizophrenia. Earlier reports have suggested associations between later age at puberty and schizophrenia in males. Similarly, associations have been reported between testosterone levels and psychotic symptoms. In this report, we examined the association between age at puberty and prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Methods 58 child or adolescent family members of individuals with schizophrenia were interviewed using the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms and the Tanner Maturational Scale. Age at tanner pubertal stage was determined and regression analyses were used to explore associations between prodromal symptoms and age at puberty. Results Among males, delayed age at puberty was associated with greater severity of prodromal symptoms; the association between negative prodromal symptoms and delayed age was significant (p=0.001). In females, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that delayed age at puberty may be associated with negative prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia in males. Our findings suggest that delayed age at puberty could potentially be a predictive biomarker for psychopathology in males at risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25778616

  5. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  6. Duration of disease, neuropathic symptoms, and plantar sensitivity in patients with diabetes with and without previous plantar ulceration.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Bacarin, Tatiana; Akashi, Paula M H; de C N Sacco, Prof Isabel

    2008-02-01

     This study compared the duration of disease, the prevalence of neuropathy symptoms, and plantar insensitivity among subjects with diabetic neuropathy, with and without previous history of plantar ulcers, to a nondiabetic group of subjects. Correlations were made between the neuropathic symptoms observed and the results of sensory tests. Thermal and tactile sensitivities and sensitive chronaxie were measured in the control group (CG, n = 19), a diabetic neuropathic group (DG, n = 16), and a diabetic neuropathic group with previous history of plantar ulceration (UDG, n = 9). Plantar sensitivity was investigated in 5 areas of the plantar surface of both feet: heel, midfoot, lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, and hallux. The neuropathy symptoms were investigated using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). The neuropathic groups did not differ in duration of diabetes onset (DG = 13 years ± 8; UDG = 14 years ± 5; P = 0.243) and they presented similar mean for symptoms according to MNSI score (DG = 6.94 ± 1.81; UDG = 6.78 ± 2.44; P = 0.352). The frequency of subjects with abnormal sensitivity was higher in UDG. The MNSI showed moderate correlation with tactile sensitivity (r <-0.42, P <0.05). Patients with diabetic neuropathy and an ulcer had decreased sensitivity in their feet. The symptoms may indicate loss of sensation, but symptoms alone are not able to differentiate between neuropathic subjects with different progressions of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Duration of diabetes and symptoms did not explain the severity of neuropathy in people with a diabetic ulcer.

  7. Duration of Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Incident Diabetes Through Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Hankinson, Arlene L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Wei, Gina S.; Liu, Kiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of abdominal obesity determined prospectively using measured waist circumference (WC) is associated with the development of new-onset diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study is a multicenter, community-based, longitudinal cohort study of 5,115 white and black adults aged 18–30 years in 1985 to 1986. Years spent abdominally obese were calculated for participants without abdominal obesity (WC >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or diabetes at baseline (n = 4,092) and was based upon repeat measurements conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years later. RESULTS Over 25 years, 392 participants developed incident diabetes. Overall, following adjustment for demographics, family history of diabetes, study center, and time varying WC, energy intake, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, each additional year of abdominal obesity was associated with a 4% higher risk of developing diabetes [hazard ratio (HR) 1.04 (95% CI 1.02–1.07)]. However, a quadratic model best represented the data. HRs for 0, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, and >20 years of abdominal obesity were 1.00 (referent), 2.06 (1.43–2.98), 3.45 (2.28–5.22), 3.43 (2.28–5.22), 2.80 (1.73–4.54), and 2.91 (1.60–5.29), respectively; P-quadratic < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Longer duration of abdominal obesity was associated with substantially higher risk for diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity. Preventing or at least delaying the onset of abdominal obesity in young adulthood may lower the risk of developing diabetes through middle age. PMID:23248193

  8. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  9. Age and Duration of the Paraná-Etendeka Flood Basalts and Related Plumbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province (PEIP) comprises a large volume sequence of continental flood basalts presently distributed assymetrically between South America (mainly southern Brazil but also parts of Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina) and southwestern Africa (Namibia, Angola), following opening of the South Atlantic ocean. The PEIP is dominated by tholeiitic basalts to basaltic andesites, with subordinate silicic rocks spanning the dacite-trachyte-rhyolite fields, which occur as lava flows, sills and dike swarms as well as intrusive complexes closely related to the eruptive rocks. The PEIP has long been subject of 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic and paleomagnetic studies which led to conclude its rapid formation near the Hauterivian stage (~133 Ma) with onward progression to Barremian from the intrusive equivalents exposed northwards. Two decades after publication of the first 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Paraná flood basalts (Renne et al., 1992) we report here an updated study of the age and duration of this magmatic event. We calibrated a set of sixty published and new results to the calibration of Renne et al. (2011), which indicates an inception age of the volcanism now estimated at 135 ± 1 Ma, before the initiation of sea floor spreading. Lava extrusion progressed over ~2 Ma from south to north. A protracted duration of ~10 Ma inferred by Stewart et al. (1996) for PEIP volcanism is clearly incorrect, as also concluded by Thiede and Vasconcelos (2010). Low-Ti mafic magmas prevailed during the earlier stages followed over time by enhanced dominance of their silicic equivalents. Eruption of the high-Ti (mafic and silicic) magmas initiated simultaneously ~0.5 m.y. later, continuing up to ~133 Ma with injection of the Ponta Grossa dyke swarm. Despite several paleomagnetic polarity intervals recorded by the lava piles in the southern (> 27°S) and central (latitudes of ~24-27°S) domains of the Brazilian PEIP, the paleomagnetic data show small dispersion in agreement

  10. Maternal Age and Depressive Symptoms in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, depressive symptoms of 2,011 European-American, African-American, and Latina low-income mothers at approximately 14 months after birth of the child were examined. Maternal age was used as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Overall, 31.9% of mothers were classified as depressed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression…

  11. Urinary symptoms: prevalence and severity in British men aged 55 and over.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, D J; McKee, C M; Black, N A; Sanderson, C F

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence and severity of urinary symptoms among men aged 55 and over in the British population. DESIGN--Cross sectional population survey using a postal questionnaire. SETTING--North West Thames health region. SUBJECTS--1480 men aged 55 years and over randomly selected from 8 general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Self reported frequency and severity of urinary symptoms, their bothersomeness and previous prostate surgery. RESULTS--The response rate among eligible subjects was 78%. The prevalence of moderate and severe symptoms was 204 per 1000, rising from 160 per 1000 in the 55-59 age group to 259 per 1000 in the 70-74 age group and declining after the age of 80 to 119 per thousand in the 85+ age group. Twelve per cent of men reported previous prostate surgery, and the probability of having had surgery increases steadily with age. About a third of those undergoing surgery have recurrence or persistence of symptoms after surgery. Of men with moderate and severe symptoms, 27.9% reported that their symptoms were a medium or big problem, 36.9% reported that their symptoms interfered with their daily activities at least some of the time, and 43.1% were unhappy or 'felt terrible' about the prospect of a future with their current symptoms. CONCLUSION--The prevalence of urinary symptoms in men is lower than previously reported, although there is a substantial number of men who are bothered by, or who find their lives adversely effected by them. PMID:7830011

  12. Impact of patient's age and disease duration on cardiac performance in acromegaly: a radionuclide angiography study.

    PubMed

    Colao, A; Cuocolo, A; Marzullo, P; Nicolai, E; Ferone, D; Della Morte, A M; Petretta, M; Salvatore, M; Lombardi, G

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of age and disease duration on cardiac performance in acromegaly. To address these issues, the left ventricular function at rest and during physical exercise was assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography in 40 rigorously selected patients with active acromegaly but without evidence of other complications able to affect heart function and in 32 healthy controls. Patients and controls were divided in two groups, on the basis of age below and above 40 yr. Circulating GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were significantly increased in patients, compared with controls, but were similar in the two groups of patients. At peak exercise, the systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in elderly patients (P < 0.001), whereas diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in young patients than in age-matched controls (P < 0.01). Heart rate at peak exercise was significantly higher in young than in elderly patients and controls (P < 0.01), without any evidence of arrhythmia in both groups. The left ventricular ejection fraction at rest was normal (>50%) in all but 2 patients and in all controls. The left ventricular ejection fraction at peak exercise was significantly decreased in elderly, compared with young, patients (P < 0.01) and in age-matched controls (P < 0.001). A normal response of the left ventricular ejection fraction to exercise was found in 12 of 40 patients (30%) and in 28 of 32 controls (87.5%) (chi2, 5.764; P < 0.01). Exercise-induced changes in left ventricular ejection fraction were significantly decreased in young (+5.2 +/- 4.4% vs. +21.3 +/- 3.4%, P < 0.005) and elderly patients (-10.2 +/- 2.8% vs. +13.7 +/- 2.7%, P < 0.0001), as compared with age-matched controls. The peak rate of left ventricular filling was significantly higher in young, than in elderly, patients whether peak filling rate was normalized to end-diastolic volume (P < 0.001), or stroke volume (P < 0.0001), or expressed

  13. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  14. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  15. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be “slower than normal”, as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time. PMID:26029098

  16. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night. PMID:25204836

  17. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night.

  18. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S.; Lea, Rodney A.

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry’s physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  19. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry's physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  20. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    PubMed Central

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A.; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  1. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study.

    PubMed

    Supartini, Atin; Honda, Takanori; Basri, Nadzirah A; Haeuchi, Yuka; Chen, Sanmei; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. PMID:27042358

  2. Modeling the Phenotypic Architecture of Autism Symptoms from Time of Diagnosis to Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Stelios; Boyle, Michael; Szatmari, Peter; Hanna, Steven; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Waddell, Charlotte; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Thompson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The latent class structure of autism symptoms from the time of diagnosis to age 6 years was examined in a sample of 280 children with autism spectrum disorder. Factor mixture modeling was performed on 26 algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised at diagnosis (Time 1) and again at age 6 (Time 2). At Time 1, a…

  3. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  4. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  5. Urinary symptoms and incontinence in women: relationships between occurrence, age, and perceived impact.

    PubMed Central

    Swithinbank, L V; Donovan, J L; du Heaume, J C; Rogers, C A; James, M C; Yang, Q; Abrams, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of urinary symptoms that impact on quality-of-life will be important in determining resource allocation in primary care groups. AIM: To determine the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their perceived impact in a community population of women. METHOD: A postal survey using a validated self-completed questionnaire among all women aged over 18 years and registered with one general practice in a major British city. The prevalence rates and perceived impact of a wide range of urinary symptoms and their relationship with age was determined. Data were analysed using the chi-squared test and the chi-squared test for trend. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between symptom severity and perceived impact. RESULTS: The number of completed questionnaires returned was 2075, giving an 80% response rate. Of these, the number of women who reported some degree of incontinence in the previous month was 1414 (69%), although only 578 (30%) indicated that it had social or hygienic impact. Other lower urinary tract symptoms reported included nocturia (19%), poor stream (19%), urgency (61%), and dysuria (23%). The most troublesome symptoms were incontinence for no obvious reason, nocturnal incontinence, and nocturia, with 73%, 69%, and 63% of sufferers, respectively, finding these symptoms troublesome. CONCLUSIONS: Incontinence and other urinary symptoms are more common than previously thought. These symptoms are not always perceived as bothersome or as having a social or hygienic impact, and therefore many women who report urinary leakage do not require treatment. Nocturnal symptoms in women are commoner than might have been supposed and are extremely troublesome to sufferers. PMID:10818656

  6. Effects of age and recovery duration on performance during multiple treadmill sprints.

    PubMed

    Ratel, S; Williams, C A; Oliver, J; Armstrong, N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age and recovery duration on performance during multiple treadmill sprints. Twelve boys (11.7 +/- 0.5 y) and thirteen men (22.1 +/- 2.9 y) performed ten consecutive 10-s sprints on a non-motorised treadmill separated by 15-s (R15) and 180-s (R180) passive recovery intervals. Mean power output (MPO), mean force output (MFO), running velocity, step length, and step rate were calculated for each sprint. Capillary blood samples were drawn from the fingertip at rest and 3 min after the tenth sprint to measure the lactate accumulation (Delta [La]). With R15, all mechanical parameters decreased significantly less in the boys than in the men over the ten sprints (MPO: - 28.9 vs. - 47.0 %, MFO: - 13.1 vs. - 25.6 %, running velocity: - 18.8 vs. - 29.4 %, p < 0.001, respectively). With R180, all mechanical values remained unchanged in the boys. In the men, MPO and MFO significantly decreased over the ten sprints (- 7.8 % and - 4.6 %, p < 0.05, respectively). The running velocity, however, did not decrease because the decrease in step rate (p < 0.001) was compensated by an increase in step length. For either recovery interval, Delta [La] values were higher in the men compared to the boys (R15: 12.7 vs. 7.7 mmol . L (-1), p < 0.001, R180: 10.7 vs. 7.7 mmol . L (-1), p < 0.05). To conclude, the boys maintained more easily their running performance than the men during repeated treadmill sprints with R15. Three-minute recovery periods were sufficient in the boys to repeat short running sprints without substantial fatigue. Despite the decrease in power and force outputs with R180, the young men were able to maintain their running velocity during the test. PMID:16388435

  7. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  8. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  9. Effects of creating a non-specific, virus-hostile environment in the nasopharynx on symptoms and duration of Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Hull, D; Rennie, P; Noronha, A; Poore, C; Harrington, N; Fearnley, V; Passàli, D

    2007-01-01

    Summary The Common Cold remains the most frequent symptomatic viral infection in man. Current best therapies are all symptomatic. New pharmacological therapies are likely to be prescription-bound, and as most Common Cold infections are successfully treated without the intervention of a Physician, there is a need for effective non-prescription therapy options. Aim of this study is to propose a new type of approach, based on the concept of making a hostile biological environment for virus survival and spreading at the point of infection, the nasopharynx. The hypothesis was advanced that infections could be controlled using a physical biological approach to create an environment at the point of infection, that is inhibitory to the survival, and persistence of infecting virus, and of viruses newly released from infected mucosal epithelial cells. A nasal irrigation spray, designed to deliver a low pH gel to the nasal cavity, was developed and tested in this study. The study was a randomised, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of three formulations of irrigation nasal spray in 441 subjects. The objective was to test whether the formulations reduced Cold severity and Cold duration compared to a placebo nasal spray. Subjects were recruited, and supplied with the product when healthy, and were instructed to begin treating and recording symptom severity once they experienced the “first signs” of a Common Cold. To qualify, subjects had to volunteer that they had at least one of the symptoms: sore/scratchy throat, runny nose or congested nose. The product was used 4 times daily, with at least 4 hours separating each dose, for a maximum of 7 days. Efficacy was assessed by an Interactive Voice Recall System whereby subjects were required to contact the investigation site, by telephone, twice daily when they were asked to assess the severity of their symptoms using a four point ordinal scale where 0 = “absent”, and 3 = “severe”. The symptoms

  10. Effects of age and recovery duration on peak power output during repeated cycling sprints.

    PubMed

    Ratel, S; Bedu, M; Hennegrave, A; Doré, E; Duché, P

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and recovery duration on the time course of cycling peak power and blood lactate concentration ([La]) during repeated bouts of short-term high-intensity exercise. Eleven prepubescent boys (9.6 +/- 0.7 yr), nine pubescent boys (15.0 +/- 0.7 yr) and ten men (20.4 +/- 0.8 yr) performed ten consecutive 10 s cycling sprints separated by either 30 s (R30), 1 min (R1), or 5 min (R5) passive recovery intervals against a friction load corresponding to 50 % of their optimal force (50 % Ffopt). Peak power produced at 50 % Ffopt (PP50) was calculated at each sprint including the flywheel inertia of the bicycle. Arterialized capillary blood samples were collected at rest and during the sprint exercises to measure the time course of [La]. In the prepubescent boys, whatever recovery intervals, PP50 remained unchanged during the ten 10 s sprint exercises. In the pubescent boys, PP50 decreased significantly by 18.5 % (p < 0.001) with R30 and by 15.3 % (p < 0.01) with R1 from the first to the tenth sprint but remained unchanged with R5. In the men, PP50 decreased respectively by 28.5 % (p < 0.001) and 11.3 % (p < 0.01) with R30 and R1 and slightly diminished with R5. For each recovery interval, the increase in blood [La] over the ten sprints was significantly lower in the prepubescent boys compared with the pubescent boys and the men. To conclude, the prepubescent boys sustained their PP50 during the ten 10 s sprint exercises with only 30 s recovery intervals. In contrast, the pubescent boys and the men needed 5 min recovery intervals. It was suggested that the faster recovery of PP50 in the prepubescent boys was due to their lower muscle glycolytic activity and their higher muscle oxidative capacity allowing a faster resynthesis in phosphocreatine. PMID:12215957

  11. Effects of age and recovery duration on peak power output during repeated cycling sprints.

    PubMed

    Ratel, S; Bedu, M; Hennegrave, A; Doré, E; Duché, P

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and recovery duration on the time course of cycling peak power and blood lactate concentration ([La]) during repeated bouts of short-term high-intensity exercise. Eleven prepubescent boys (9.6 +/- 0.7 yr), nine pubescent boys (15.0 +/- 0.7 yr) and ten men (20.4 +/- 0.8 yr) performed ten consecutive 10 s cycling sprints separated by either 30 s (R30), 1 min (R1), or 5 min (R5) passive recovery intervals against a friction load corresponding to 50 % of their optimal force (50 % Ffopt). Peak power produced at 50 % Ffopt (PP50) was calculated at each sprint including the flywheel inertia of the bicycle. Arterialized capillary blood samples were collected at rest and during the sprint exercises to measure the time course of [La]. In the prepubescent boys, whatever recovery intervals, PP50 remained unchanged during the ten 10 s sprint exercises. In the pubescent boys, PP50 decreased significantly by 18.5 % (p < 0.001) with R30 and by 15.3 % (p < 0.01) with R1 from the first to the tenth sprint but remained unchanged with R5. In the men, PP50 decreased respectively by 28.5 % (p < 0.001) and 11.3 % (p < 0.01) with R30 and R1 and slightly diminished with R5. For each recovery interval, the increase in blood [La] over the ten sprints was significantly lower in the prepubescent boys compared with the pubescent boys and the men. To conclude, the prepubescent boys sustained their PP50 during the ten 10 s sprint exercises with only 30 s recovery intervals. In contrast, the pubescent boys and the men needed 5 min recovery intervals. It was suggested that the faster recovery of PP50 in the prepubescent boys was due to their lower muscle glycolytic activity and their higher muscle oxidative capacity allowing a faster resynthesis in phosphocreatine.

  12. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27138834

  13. An Event Related Potentials Study of the Effects of Age, Load and Maintenance Duration on Working Memory Recognition.

    PubMed

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Age-related decline in cognitive capacities has been attributed to a generalized slowing of processing speed and a reduction in working memory (WM) capacity. Nevertheless, it is unclear how age affects visuospatial WM recognition and its underlying brain electrical activity. Whether age modulates the effects of memory load or information maintenance duration, which determine the limits of WM, remains also elusive. In this exploratory study, performance in a delayed match to sample task declined with age, particularly in conditions with high memory load. Event related potentials analysis revealed longer N2 and P300 latencies in old than in young adults during WM recognition, which may reflect slowing of stimulus evaluation and classification processes, respectively. Although there were no differences between groups in N2 or P300 amplitudes, the latter was more homogeneously distributed in old than in young adults, which may indicate an age-related increased reliance in frontal vs parietal resources during WM recognition. This was further supported by an age-related reduced posterior cingulate activation and increased superior frontal gyrus activation revealed through standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Memory load and maintenance duration effects on brain activity were similar in both age groups. These behavioral and electrophysiological results add evidence in support of age-related decline in WM recognition theories, with a slowing of processing speed that may be limited to stimulus evaluation and categorization processes--with no effects on perceptual processes--and a posterior to anterior shift in the recruitment of neural resources. PMID:26569113

  14. Thorium-230 ages of corals and duration of the last interglacial sea-level high stand on Aohu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Thorium-230 ages of emergent marine deposits on Oahu, Hawaii, have a uniform distribution of ages from ~114,000 to ~131,000 years, indicating a duration for the last interglacial sea-level high stand of ~17,000 years, in contrast to a duration of ~8000 years inferred from the orbitally tuned marine oxygen isotope record. Sea level on Oahu rose to ??? 1 to 2 meters higher than present by 131,000 years ago or ~6000 years earlier than inferred from the marine record. Although the latter record suggests a shift back to glacial conditions beginning at ~119,000 years ago, the Oahu coral ages indicate a near present sea level until ~114,000 years ago.

  15. Serum S100B Is Related to Illness Duration and Clinical Symptoms in Schizophrenia-A Meta-Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schümberg, Katharina; Polyakova, Maryna; Steiner, Johann; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2016-01-01

    S100B has been linked to glial pathology in several psychiatric disorders. Previous studies found higher S100B serum levels in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls, and a number of covariates influencing the size of this effect have been proposed in the literature. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis on alterations of serum S100B in schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. The meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement to guarantee a high quality and reproducibility. With strict inclusion criteria 19 original studies could be included in the quantitative meta-analysis, comprising a total of 766 patients and 607 healthy control subjects. The meta-analysis confirmed higher values of the glial serum marker S100B in schizophrenia if compared with control subjects. Meta-regression analyses revealed significant effects of illness duration and clinical symptomatology, in particular the total score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), on serum S100B levels in schizophrenia. In sum, results confirm glial pathology in schizophrenia that is modulated by illness duration and related to clinical symptomatology. Further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms and mediating factors related to these findings.

  16. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  17. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  18. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  19. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  20. Expression of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) in Aged Skeletal Muscles Depends on the Frequency and Duration of Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Young-Hee; Choi, Do-Yourl; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2015-06-01

    The skeletal muscle in aged rats adapts rapidly following a period of exercise. This adaptation includes structural remodeling and biochemical changes such as an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, content of stress and heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, the associated molecular mechanisms mediating different types of exercise training-induced adaptations are not yet completely understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of duration and frequency exercise on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) in the skeletal muscles of aged rats. Young (3-month-old) and aged (20-month-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups and extensor digitorum longus (EDL; fast twitch muscle fiber) and soleus (SOL; slow twitch muscle fiber) skeletal muscles were collected immediately. The expression pattern of HSPs in skeletal muscles was decreased in old groups compared with young groups. Especially, HSPs showed lower expression in SOL than EDL muscle. Interestingly, HSPs in aged rats was increased significantly after S1 (single long-duration; 1×30 min, 5 days/week for 6 weeks) and M1 types (multiple short-duration; 3×10 min·day(-1), 5 days·week(-1) for 6 weeks) than S2 (single long-duration; 1×30 min, 3 days/week for 6 weeks) and M2 (multiple short-duration; 3×10 min·day(-1), 3 days·week(-1) for 6 weeks) types of exercise training. Also, superoxide dismutase (SODs) showed similar expression as HSP did. On the contrary, the p-ERK and p-JNK were down regulated. In addition, p-p38 level in the SOL muscle was activated markedly in all exercise groups. These results demonstrate that increasing of HSP expression through duration and frequency exercise can lead to protection and training-induced adaptation against aging-induced structural weakness in skeletal muscles. Key pointsThe expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in aged rats was increased significantly after single

  1. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  2. Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723

  3. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  4. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  5. Substance use disorder symptoms: evidence of differential item functioning by age.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Dennis, Michael L; Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Funk, Rodney R; Riley, Barth B

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of substance abuse diagnostic criteria for adolescents, young adults, and adults using the Global Appraisal of Individual Need's Substance Problems Scale (SPS) from 7,408 clients. Rasch analysis was used to: 1) evaluate whether the SPS operationalized a single reliable dimension, and 2) examine the extent to which the severity of each symptom and the overall test functioned the same or differently by age. Rasch analysis indicated that the SPS was unidimensional with a person reliability of .84. Eight symptoms were significantly different between adolescents and adults. Young adult calibrations tended to fall between adolescents and adults. Differential test functioning was clinically negligible for adolescents but resulted in about 7% more adults being classified as high need. These findings have theoretical implications for screening and treatment of adolescents vs. adults. SPS can be used across age groups though age-specific calibrations enable greater precision of measurement.

  6. Psychic and Somatic Symptoms of Depression among Young Adults, Institutionalized Aged and Noninstitutionalized Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; Eames, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that the institutional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Results provided no support that the aged are more depressed. Somatic complaints can be indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account. (Author)

  7. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. The current study aimed to 1) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD symptomology, 2) examine sex differences in these predictors, and 3) describe the developmental trajectories of comorbid symptoms in school aged children. Methods 1,106 children and at least one parent enrolled in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were followed from 1 month of age through 6th grade. Effect size calculations, discriminant function analysis, and growth curve analyses were conducted to address the three aims. Results Children with high- versus low-ADHD symptomology at 3rd grade could be distinguished using cognitive and behavioral measures as early as 15 months (females) and 24 months (males). Sensitivity and specificity were modest at 15, 24 and 26 months. Growth curves revealed significant differences between high- and low-ADHD groups in comorbid symptoms at Kindergarten, and significantly different slopes for externalizing, social skills and academic skills ratings across elementary school. There were few gender differences on cognitive and behavioral variables within the high-ADHD group. Conclusions Cognitive and behavioral markers of ADHD symptoms are present in children prior to entry into formal schooling, but current behavioral screeners are not developmentally sensitive to these differences in infancy and toddlerhood. PMID:23848372

  8. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion (FC) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  9. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  10. Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Casey E; Poitras, Veronica J; Carson, Valerie; Gruber, Reut; Olds, Timothy; Weiss, Shelly K; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Belanger, Kevin; Eryuzlu, Sheniz; Callender, Laura; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sleep duration and various health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases were searched in January 2015 with no date or study design limits. Included studies were peer-reviewed and met the a priori-determined population (apparently healthy children and youth aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (various sleep durations), and outcome (adiposity, emotional regulation, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms/injuries, and cardiometabolic biomarkers) criteria. Because of high levels of heterogeneity across studies, narrative syntheses were employed. A total of 141 articles (110 unique samples), including 592 215 unique participants from 40 different countries, met inclusion criteria. Overall, longer sleep duration was associated with lower adiposity indicators, better emotional regulation, better academic achievement, and better quality of life/well-being. The evidence was mixed and/or limited for the association between sleep duration and cognition, harms/injuries, and cardiometabolic biomarkers. The quality of evidence ranged from very low to high across study designs and health indicators. In conclusion, we confirmed previous investigations showing that shorter sleep duration is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. However, the available evidence relies heavily on cross-sectional studies using self-reported sleep. To better inform contemporary sleep recommendations, there is a need for sleep restriction/extension interventions that examine the changes in different outcome measures against various amounts of objectively measured sleep to have a better sense of dose-response relationships. PMID:27306433

  11. Age of onset, symptom threshold, and expansion of the nosology of conduct disorder for girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Wroblewski, Kristen; Hipwell, Alison; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The study of conduct disorder (CD) in girls is characterized by several nosologic controversies that center on the most common age of onset, the most valid symptom threshold, and potentially including other manifestations of antisocial behavior and dimensions of personality as part of the definition of CD. Data from a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 2,451 racially diverse girls were used to empirically inform these issues. Results revealed that adolescent-onset CD is rare in girls. There was mixed support for the threshold at which symptoms are associated with impairment: parent-reported impairment provided the clearest evidence of maintaining the current DSM-IV threshold of 3 symptoms. The impact of callousness and relational aggression on impairment varied by informant, with small effects for parent-and youth-reported impairment, and larger effects for teacher-rated impairment relative to the effects for CD. These results support arguments for revising the typical age of onset of CD for girls, but for maintaining the current symptom threshold. The results also suggest the need to consider sub-typing according to the presence or absence of callousness. Given its content validity relational aggression requires further study in the context of ODD and CD. PMID:20853913

  12. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Trenesha L.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; Kamps, Jodi L.; Enrique Varela, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive…

  13. The Aging Males' Symptoms rating scale: cultural and linguistic validation into Thai.

    PubMed

    Leungwattanakij, Somboon; Lersithichai, Panuwat; Ratana-Olarn, Krisda

    2003-12-01

    The interest in clinically investigating the health-related quality of life and symptoms of aging males has increased in recent years. Recently, a couple of validated questionnaires have been proposed for either screening, diagnosing and assessing response to therapy. Among these, the Aging Males' Symptom (AMS) questionnaire has been one of the most accepted questionnaires used in aging male clinics worldwide. The AMS questionnaire was originally developed and standardized in Germany in accordance with psychometric tests, and translated into English. The objective of this study was to develop the Thai AMS questionnaire, which is culturally and linguistically validated, and to present the translation process from English to Thai. The translation for the Thai speaking culture was planned specifically for use in Thailand. The forward translation into Thai was performed independently by two Thai-English translators with clinical experience in the aging male field. Another two Thai-English translators performed the back translation into English. Reconciliation of problematic items or explanations with the investigators was performed point by point to get the final version. The test and retest of Thai AMS questionnaire were performed within the time interval of 14 days by 20 Thai men aged 41-62 who came from different social classes and had various levels of education. The correlation between the first and the second questionnaires was statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The results of the linguistic and cultural adaptation of the English AMS scale led to a Thai AMS questionnaire. The results of the test and retest reliability demonstrated good correlation and were promising (r = 0.87). Therefore, this scale can be used as a valuable tool for assessing symptoms in the aging males in Thailand.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Chronological Age and Sentence Duration on Degree of Perceived Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Ian R. A.; Flege, James E.; Imai, Satomi

    2006-01-01

    Immigrants' age of arrival (AOA) in a country where a second language (L2) must be learned has consistently been shown to affect the degree of perceived L2 foreign accent. Although the effect of AOA appears strong, AOA is typically correlated with other variables that might influence degree of foreign accent. This study examined the pronunciation…

  15. Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, R; Wasserman, G A; Fisher, P W; Kline, J; Geller, P A; Miller, L S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. RESULTS: Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with child reports of PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in a sample of children with frequent exposure to community violence. PMID:10224991

  16. Histopathological lesions in the pancreas of the BB Wistar rat as a function of age and duration of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Yates, A; Sharma, H; Thibert, P

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic histopathology was studied in 121 BBWd, 43 BBWnd, and 33 Wistar rats. Insulitis was the most common inflammatory lesion in both BBW and BBWnd rats. The incidence was inversely associated with age and with duration of diabetes in BBWd rats, but there was no age-related pattern in BBWnd rats. Small end-stage islets were typical of BBWd rats but were not seen in BBWnd rats. Several BBWd rats showed hyperplastic islets months after the onset of diabetes, a pattern that is also seen in a small percentage of human JOD patients. Several non-specific exocrine inflammatory lesions occurred in both BBWd and BBWnd rats: acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, eosinophilic infiltrates, granulomatous lesions and acute and/or chronic interstitial inflammation. Only chronic interstitial inflammation was seen in outbred Wistar rats. PMID:3882779

  17. Histopathological lesions in the pancreas of the BB Wistar rat as a function of age and duration of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Yates, A; Sharma, H; Thibert, P

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic histopathology was studied in 121 BBWd, 43 BBWnd, and 33 Wistar rats. Insulitis was the most common inflammatory lesion in both BBW and BBWnd rats. The incidence was inversely associated with age and with duration of diabetes in BBWd rats, but there was no age-related pattern in BBWnd rats. Small end-stage islets were typical of BBWd rats but were not seen in BBWnd rats. Several BBWd rats showed hyperplastic islets months after the onset of diabetes, a pattern that is also seen in a small percentage of human JOD patients. Several non-specific exocrine inflammatory lesions occurred in both BBWd and BBWnd rats: acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, eosinophilic infiltrates, granulomatous lesions and acute and/or chronic interstitial inflammation. Only chronic interstitial inflammation was seen in outbred Wistar rats.

  18. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Trenesha L; Gray, Sarah A O; Kamps, Jodi L; Enrique Varela, R

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive functioning. For younger children with lower intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Similarly, for older children with higher intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Analyses by subscales suggest that this pattern is driven by the Conceptual subscale. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  19. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Trenesha L; Gray, Sarah A O; Kamps, Jodi L; Enrique Varela, R

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive functioning. For younger children with lower intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Similarly, for older children with higher intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Analyses by subscales suggest that this pattern is driven by the Conceptual subscale. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:26174048

  20. Relationship between imaging biomarkers, age, progression and symptom severity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dukart, Juergen; Mueller, Karsten; Villringer, Arno; Kherif, Ferath; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2013-01-01

    The early diagnostic value of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively explored using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vast majority of previous imaging studies neglected the effects of single factors, such as age, symptom severity or time to conversion in MCI thus limiting generalisability of results across studies. Here, we investigated the impact of these factors on metabolic and structural differences. FDG-PET and MRI data from AD patients (n = 80), MCI converters (n = 65) and MCI non-converters (n = 64) were compared to data of healthy subjects (n = 79). All patient groups were split into subgroups by age, time to conversion (for MCI), or symptom severity and compared to the control group. AD patients showed a strongly age-dependent pattern, with younger patients showing significantly more extensive reductions in gray matter volume and glucose utilisation. In the MCI converter group, the amount of glucose utilisation reduction was linked to the time to conversion but not to atrophy. Our findings indicate that FDG-PET might be more closely linked to future cognitive decline whilst MRI being more closely related to the current cognitive state reflects potentially irreversible damage.

  1. Inflammation and interleukin-1 signaling network contribute to depressive symptoms but not cognitive decline in old age.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J M; Frölich, Marijke; Stek, Max L; van der Mast, Roos C; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2007-07-01

    The association between inflammation and neuropsychiatric symptoms in old age is generally accepted but poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether inflammation precedes depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in old age, and to identify specific inflammatory pathways herein. We measured serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipopolysaccharide-induced production of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra), and IL-10 levels in 85-year-old participants free from neuropsychiatric symptoms at baseline (n=267). Participants were prospectively followed for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) and cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination) from 85 to 90 years. Higher baseline CRP levels preceded accelerated increase in depressive symptoms (p<0.001). A higher production capacity of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta preceded a greater increase of depressive symptoms (p=0.06), whereas that of its natural antagonist IL-1ra preceded a smaller increase of depressive symptoms (p=0.003). There was no relation of CRP, IL-1beta, and IL-1ra with cognitive decline. Our findings show that in old age inflammatory processes contribute to the development of depressive symptoms but not cognitive decline. A high innate IL-1ra to IL-1beta production capacity reflects a better ability to neutralize inflammation and may therefore protect against depressive symptoms. PMID:17350781

  2. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: age and duration of the olduvai normal polarity event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gromme, C.S.; Hay, R.L.

    1971-01-01

    New data show that the Olduvai normal geomagnetic polarity event is represented in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, by rocks covering a time span of roughly from 0.1 to 0.2 my and is no older than 2.0 my. Hence the long normal polarity event of this age that is seen in deep-sea sediment cores and in magnetic profiles over oceanic ridges should be called the Olduvai event. The lava from which the Gilsa?? event was defined may have been erupted during the Olduvai event and, if so, the term Gilsa?? should now be abandoned. Many dated lavas that were originally assigned to the Olduvai event represent one or two much shorter normal polarity events that preceded the Olduvai event; these are herein named the Re??union normal polarity events. This revision brings the geomagnetic reversal time scale into conformity with the one implied by assumptions of uniform sedimentation rates on the ocean floor and uniform rates of sea-floor spreading. ?? 1971.

  3. Acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and age predict outcome in military blast concussion.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L

    2015-05-01

    High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown.

  4. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard. PMID:27450908

  5. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard.

  6. The influence of worm age, duration of exposure and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity for Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Farrar, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    The influence of worm age, duration of exposure, and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity were evaluated for Neanthes arenaceodentata. Worms were exposed to contaminated sediment collected from Black Rock Harbor (BRH) near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. This sediment was diluted with clean control sediment to result in five experimental treatments: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH. Three exposure scenarios were employed: (1) a 4-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-4w), (2) a 7-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-7w), and (3) a 4-week exposure beginning with 3-week-old juveniles (3WO-4w). Six measures of worm size were recorded at the conclusion of each exposure to evaluate differences among measurement endpoints. Survival was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level for the EJ-7w scenario and at the 100% BRH level for the EJ-4w and 3WO-4w scenarios. Growth was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level in each exposure scenario. Estimates based on the calculated minimum detectable difference indicated that considerably lower concentrations of BRH (6--10%) should be distinguishable by measuring effects on Neanthes growth. Worm size measured in terms of projected area, dry weight, and ash-free dry weight provided the most sensitive measures of effects. Increasing the length of exposure from 4 to 7 weeks and initiating exposures with emergent juveniles rather than 3-week-old worms increased the sensitivity of the bioassay. The results of this study demonstrate that N. arenacedentata is sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated contaminants and that test animal age, duration of exposure, and choice of endpoint can have a large effect on the magnitude of the toxic response observed.

  7. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0–20 years, 21–40 years, 41–60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0–20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  8. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration.

    PubMed

    Kong, Po-Lian; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lau, Tze-Pheng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0-20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  9. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Kon; Choo, Min Soo; Ko, Kyung Tae; Shin, Tae Young; Lee, Won Ki; Batsaikhan, Tsolmon; Quan, ShanAi; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Korean men. This was a longitudinal study that used data collected from 328 men aged 50–89 years who were randomly selected among 1,520 participants in 2004. We collected information from 224 (68.3%) men among the original responders on the biological, medical, psychological, social, lifestyle, and economic factors in 2007. The prevalence of the MS was 187/328 (57.0%) in 2004 and 125/224 (55.8%) in 2007 among men, respectively. There was no significantly greater increase in the IPSS in men with the MS than in men without the MS over a 3-year period of time (2.0 ± 9.37 versus 3.0 ± 8.44, p = 0.402, resp.). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis with control for age and life style factors, the risk factors for moderate/severe LUTS were age and erectile dysfunction (p < 0.05). However, the presence of the MS did not increase the risk of moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.63–1.89, p = 0.748). Our cross-sectional and longitudinal risk factor analyses do not support the hypothesis that the MS is linked to LUTS in Korean men. PMID:26199934

  10. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Kon; Choo, Min Soo; Ko, Kyung Tae; Shin, Tae Young; Lee, Won Ki; Batsaikhan, Tsolmon; Quan, ShanAi; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Korean men. This was a longitudinal study that used data collected from 328 men aged 50-89 years who were randomly selected among 1,520 participants in 2004. We collected information from 224 (68.3%) men among the original responders on the biological, medical, psychological, social, lifestyle, and economic factors in 2007. The prevalence of the MS was 187/328 (57.0%) in 2004 and 125/224 (55.8%) in 2007 among men, respectively. There was no significantly greater increase in the IPSS in men with the MS than in men without the MS over a 3-year period of time (2.0 ± 9.37 versus 3.0 ± 8.44, p = 0.402, resp.). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis with control for age and life style factors, the risk factors for moderate/severe LUTS were age and erectile dysfunction (p < 0.05). However, the presence of the MS did not increase the risk of moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.89, p = 0.748). Our cross-sectional and longitudinal risk factor analyses do not support the hypothesis that the MS is linked to LUTS in Korean men. PMID:26199934

  11. Towards the Burden of Human Leptospirosis: Duration of Acute Illness and Occurrence of Post-Leptospirosis Symptoms of Patients in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Straetemans, Masja; Alba, Sandra; Goeijenbier, Marco; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Boer, Kimberly R.; Wagenaar, Jiri F. P.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease. Although important for the assessment of the burden of leptospirosis, data on the duration of the illness and the occurrence of post-leptospirosis complaints are not well documented. Hence the main objective of this study was to estimate the occurrence of persistent complaints and duration of hospital stay in laboratory confirmed leptospirosis patients in the Netherlands during 1985 to 2010. Additionally, several risk factors potentially impacting on the occurrence of post-leptospirosis complaints were investigated. Methods/Principal Findings The duration of the acute phase of leptospirosis was 16 days (IQR 12–23); 10 days (IQR 7–16) were spent hospitalized. Eighteen fatal cases were excluded from this analysis. Complaints of leptospirosis patients by passive case investigations (CPC) derived from files on ambulant consultations occurring one month after hospital discharge, revealed persistent complaints in 108 of 236 (45.8%) laboratory confirmed cases. Data on persistent complaints after acute leptospirosis (PCAC), assessed in 225 laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases collected through questionnaires during 1985-1993, indicated 68 (30.2%) PCAC cases. Frequently reported complaints included (extreme) fatigue, myalgia, malaise, headache, and a weak physical condition. These complaints prolonged in 21.1% of the cases beyond 24 months after onset of disease. There was no association between post-leptospirosis complaints and hospitalization. However, individuals admitted at the intensive care unit (ICU) were twice as likely to have continuing complaints after discharge adjusting for age and dialysis (OR 2.0 95% CI 0.8-4.8). No significant association could be found between prolongation of complaints and infecting serogroup, although subgroup analysis suggest that infection with serogroups Sejroe (OR 4.8, 95%CI 0.9-27.0) and icterohaemorrhagiae (OR 2.0, 95%CI 0.9-4.3 CI) are more likely to result in CPC than

  12. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms and usage of computers and mobile phones among working-age Finns.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms among working-age Finns using logistical regression models. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) revealed that 101 (1.7%) Finnish working-age persons suffered depression very often and 77 (1.3%) suffered anxiety very often during the last 12 months. Symptoms uncovered in the comparative analysis of respondents who had quite often or more often depression to respondents who had less depression showed differentiation. The same result was obtained in the analysis of self-reported anxiety symptoms. With the logistical regression models (from depression and anxiety), we found associations between physical symptoms (in shoulder) and depression and between different mental symptoms and anxiety or depression. In the future, it is important to take into accout that persons with physical symptoms can also have mental symptoms (depression or anxiety).

  13. Sorption Characteristic of Phenanthrene on Biochar-Amended Soils: Effect of feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and aging duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high sorption capacity of biochar is widely known in environmental studies. Especially, biochar is effective for removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) due to high surface area and porosity. In this study, the sorption characteristic of biochar-amended soil was evaluated by sorption kinetic experiment of phenanthrene (PHE). For PHE sorption test, the effect of biochar feedstock (sludge waste char (SWC), municipal waste char (MWC) and wood char (WC), Giant Miscanthus (GM)), pyrolysis temperature (400°C, 500°C and 700°C,), and duration of amending period (0, 3, 6, and 12 months) was assessed. Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were used to detect pore structure and the surface functional group of biochar amended soils. For all kinetic tests, apparent sorption equilibrium was attained in 24 hr. The result showed that sorption capacity of biochar amended soils was greatly influenced by biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. For all samples, the sorption capacity of PHE by biochar amended soils decreased with aging period. This observation is due to the fact that the aromatic characters of biochar are different by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and the amount of O-containing hydrophilic functional groups increased surfaces of biochar by natural oxidation (e.g. carboxyl groups) as confirmed by the result of FT-IR and FE-SEM. In addition, biochar pore blockage by inorganic minerals, which tended to increase with aging period, might attenuate the sorption capacity of samples. In conclusion, biochar derived from various feed stocks are all effective for PHE sorption. But the sorption capacity of biochar amended soils decreased with increasing aging duration most likely due to increasing hydrophilic functional groups of biochar surfaces and pore blockage by inorganic minerals in the weathering processes. Therefore, for the design of biochar amendment to attenuate

  14. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  15. Different gastoroesophageal reflux symptoms of middle-aged to elderly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Kusano, Motoyasu; Mori, Masatomo

    2012-03-01

    Symptomatic differences and the impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have not been clarified in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to assess the differences of GERD symptoms among asthma, COPD, and disease control patients, and determine the impact of GERD symptoms on exacerbation of asthma or COPD by using a new questionnaire for GERD. A total of 120 subjects underwent assessment with the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG) questionnaire, including 40 age-matched patients in each of the asthma, COPD, and disease control groups. Asthma and control patients had more regurgitation-related symptoms than COPD patients (p<0.05), while COPD patients had more dysmotility-related symptoms than asthma patients (p<0.01) or disease control patients (p<0.01). The most distinctive symptom of asthma patients with GERD was an unusual sensation in the throat, while bloated stomach was the chief symptom of COPD patients with GERD, and these symptoms were associated with disease exacerbations. The presence of GERD diagnosed by the total score of FSSG influences the exacerbation of COPD. GERD symptoms differed between asthma and COPD patients, and the presence of GERD diagnosed by the FSSG influences the exacerbation of COPD. PMID:22448100

  16. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  17. Association between a longer duration of illness, age and lower frontal lobe grey matter volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Fannon, Dominic; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Cooke, Michael A; Simmons, Andrew; Kumari, Veena

    2008-11-01

    The frontal lobe has an extended maturation period and may be vulnerable to the long-term effects of schizophrenia. We tested this hypothesis by studying the relationship between duration of illness (DoI), grey matter (GM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) volume across the whole brain. Sixty-four patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls underwent structural MRI scanning and neuropsychological assessment. We performed regression analyses in patients to examine the relationship between DoI and GM and CSF volumes across the whole brain, and correlations in controls between age and GM or CSF volume of the regions where GM or CSF volumes were associated with DoI in patients. Correlations were also performed between GM volume in the regions associated with DoI and neuropsychological performance. A longer DoI was associated with lower GM volume in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), right middle frontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus (FG) and left cerebellum (lobule III). Additionally, age was inversely associated with GM volume in the left dorsomedial PFC in patients, and in the left FG and CSF excess near the left cerebellum in healthy controls. Greater GM volume in the left dorsomedial PFC was associated with better working memory, attention and psychomotor speed in patients. Our findings suggest that the right middle frontal cortex is particularly vulnerable to the long-term effect of schizophrenia illness whereas the dorsomedial PFC, FG and cerebellum are affected by both a long DoI and aging. The effect of illness chronicity on GM volume in the left dorsomedial PFC may be extended to brain structure-neuropsychological function relationships. PMID:18586335

  18. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  19. Feeling good when sleeping in? Day-to-day associations between sleep duration and affective well-being differ from youth to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated how night-to-night variations in sleep duration relate to affective well-being the next morning as well as how the relationship varies for people of different ages. Using an Experience Sampling approach, 397 participants aged 12 to 88 years reported their sleep duration and their momentary affect on 9 mornings, on average. Associations between sleep duration during the previous night and morning affect differed depending on the participants' age. For adolescents, for example, affective well-being in the morning was worse the shorter participants had slept the previous night. For adults aged over 20 years, however, affective well-being was worse following nights with shorter or longer than average sleep duration. This effect was more pronounced the older the participants were. The findings demonstrate that the importance of sleep duration for daily affective well-being is better understood when considering the age of the sleeper. In adults, but not adolescents, not only sleeping less but also sleeping more than one's average can be associated with lower affective well-being.

  20. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  1. Visceral Fat Accumulation, Insulin Resistance, and Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Matsushita, Yumi; Nakagawa, Toru; Honda, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate visceral fat accumulation and markers of insulin resistance in relation to elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Methods Participants were 4,333 male employees (mean age, 49.3 years) who underwent abdominal computed tomography scanning, measured fasting insulin, and did not self-report diabetes and mental disorders under treatment and history of cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of EDS with abdominal fat deposition and markers of insulin resistance. Results Visceral fat area (VFA) and fasting insulin were significantly, positively associated with EDS. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of high VFA for the lowest through highest quartile of depression score were 1 (reference), 1.18 (0.97–1.42), 1.25 (1.02–1.54), 1.23 (1.01–1.51), respectively, and corresponding figures for high fasting insulin were 1 (reference), 0.98 (0.80–1.19), 1.12 (0.91–1.38), and 1.29 (1.06–1.57), respectively. Subcutaneous fat area was not associated with EDS. Conclusions Results suggest that EDS is related to visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:26891344

  2. Grand-paternal age and the development of autism-like symptoms in mice progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sampino, S; Juszczak, G R; Zacchini, F; Swiergiel, A H; Modlinski, J A; Loi, P; Ptak, G E

    2014-01-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) contributes to the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of APA on behavioral features related to autistic syndromes (that is, social deficits, communication impairments and stereotypic/repetitive behaviors). We also examined whether such effects are transmitted across generations. To do this, males aged 15 months (APA) and 4 months (control) were bred with 4-month-old females, and the resulting offspring (F1) and their progeny (F2; conceived by 4-month-old parents) were tested for the presence and severity of ASD-like behaviors. Our results indicate that APA resulted in offspring that displayed distinctive symptoms of ASD. We found that both F1 conceived from old fathers and F2 derived from old grandfathers displayed increased ultrasound vocalization (USV) activity, decreased sociability, increased grooming activity and increased anxiety-like responses. Moreover, such abnormalities were partially transmitted to the second generation of mice, having APA grandfathers. In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of ASD could develop over generations, consistent with heritable mutations and/or epigenetic alterations associated with APA. PMID:24780920

  3. Severity and correlates of depressive symptoms among recipients of meals on wheels: age, gender, and racial/ethnic difference.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Teeters, Mary; Perez, Linda; Farar, Bart; Thompson, David

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we briefly described a large urban Meals on Wheels program's adoption of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as its depression-screening tool. Then we reported the assessment outcomes with respect to the rates, severity, and correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 736 MOW clients. Bivariate analysis, with chi(2) statistics, was performed to examine differences in the rates and severity of depressive symptoms by age group, gender, race/ethnicity, and cognitive status. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the correlates of depression symptom severity. Of the sample, 17.5% had clinically significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 > or = 10), and 8.8% had probable major depressive disorder (MDD). A significantly higher proportion of those under age 60 years was found to have clinically significant depressive symptoms and probable MDD. The multivariate regression results show that age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, cognitive impairment, number of chronic medical conditions, and the nutritional risk score were significant predictors of the severity of depression symptoms. Implications of and recommendations for incorporating a valid depression-screening tool into social service agencies' existing assessment process are discussed.

  4. Middle-Aged and Mobility-Limited: Prevalence of Disability and Symptom Attributions in a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Elizabeth A; Huppert, Felicia A; Guralnik, Jack M; Melzer, David

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb mobility disabilities are well understood in older people, but the causes in middle age have attracted little attention. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of mobility disabilities among noninstitutionalized adults in England and to compare the disabling symptoms reported by middle-aged and older people. DESIGN Cross-sectional data from the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Mobility disability was identified by level of reported difficulty walking a quarter mile. PARTICIPANTS Eleven thousand two hundred sixteen respondents aged 50 years and older living in private households in 2002. RESULTS The prevalence of difficulty walking a quarter mile increases sharply with age, but even in the middle-aged (50 to 64 years age-group) 18% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16% to 19%) of men and 19% (95% CI: 17% to 20%) of women reported some degree of difficulty. Of the 16 main symptoms reported as causing mobility disability in middle age, 2 dominated: pain in the leg or the foot (43%; 95% CI: 40% to 46%) and shortness of breath/dyspnea (21%; 95% CI: 18% to 23%). Fatigue or tiredness, and stability problems were cited by only 5% and 6%, respectively. These proportions were slightly different from those in the 65 to 79-year age group: 40%, 23%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mobility (walking) disabilities in the middle-aged are relatively common. The symptoms reported as causes in this age group differ little from those reported by older groups, and are dominated by lower limb pain and shortness of breath. More clinical attention paid to disabling symptoms may lead to disability reductions in later life. PMID:16970558

  5. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  6. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  7. First episodes of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease patients at age 90 and over, and early-onset Alzheimer's disease: comparison with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koji; Oda, Tatsuro; Asaoka, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shoichi; Oyamada, Reiko; Tominaga, Itaru; Inada, Toshiya

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated dementia symptoms to clarify the character of dementia with Alzheimer's disease (AD) observed in the oldest old patients and that of dementia with early-onset AD. Subjects were consecutive AD inpatients admitted for the first time at age of 90 years and over because of behavioral symptoms (demented nonagenarian group: D90G; n=18) and those with 24 consecutive inpatients with AD with early-onset (EOG). The Gottfries, Brane and Steen's scale and the Dementia Behavior Disturbance scale were used to evaluate the symptoms and troublesome behaviors. The scores of these scales in D90G and in EOG were compared with those of 26 sex distribution-, severity of dementia-, and disease duration-matched inpatients with AD with late-onset (LOG). Compared with LOG, wakefulness was more impaired and waking up at night was more frequent in D90G, while memory, orientation and inappropriate behaviors were more severe in EOG. These results suggest that the clinical features of dementia in EOG were quantitatively different from those of LOG. In contrast, the clinical feature of dementia of D90G were sleep-wake pattern disturbance and were qualitatively different from those of LOG. PMID:16401251

  8. Higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt correlate with younger age but not orthostatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ives, Colleen T; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2013-08-15

    Reports have shown that younger individuals present with higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt (HUT). However, a correlation between the degree of heart rate increment and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance has not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher postural heart rate increments during HUT correlate with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in healthy subjects. Postural heart rate increment on HUT did not differ between men and women (P = 0.48) but did show a significant decrease by age group (P < 0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between heart rate increment on HUT and age [r = -0.63 (-0.73, -0.51), r(2) = 0.400; P < 0.0001]. There was a significant difference with respect to symptoms of orthostatic intolerance by sex (P = 0.03) but not age (P = 0.58). There was no significant correlation between either symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and age [r = -0.13 (-0.31, 0.06), r(2) = 0.017; P = 0.17] or heart rate increment on HUT and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance [r = 0.15 (-0.04, 0.33), r(2) = 0.022; P = 0.13]. The results demonstrate that higher postural heart rate increments in younger individuals do not result in an increase in orthostatic intolerance. This highlights the potential need for a reevaluation of the diagnostic criteria for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in younger individuals.

  9. Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate for influenza treatment; comparison among the four Japanese influenza seasons from 2011-2012 to 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2016-09-01

    The duration of fever and other symptoms as markers of the clinical effectiveness of laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) were investigated in the Japanese 2014-2015 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the previous three seasons, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. From these four seasons, the data of 636 influenza A(H3N2) and 128 influenza B patients was available for analysis. No significant difference was found in their baseline characteristics. The median duration of fever for all A(H3N2) patients ranged from 32.0 to 41.0 h. The duration of fever in the 2014-2015 season was significantly shorter than that in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons (p = 0.0204 and 0.0391, respectively), but the differences were within nine hours. The median duration of symptoms for A(H3N2) ranged from 80.0 to 89.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons (p = 0.2222). The median duration of fever for B patients ranged from 43.0 to 50.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons. The duration of the symptoms for B varied by season, but no significant difference was found among the four seasons. Over the four seasons, 44 adverse events were reported from among 921 patients, with all resolving without treatment. These results indicate the continuing effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A(H3N2) and B, with no safety issues. It is unlikely that the clinical use of laninamivir has caused viral resistance in the currently epidemic viruses.

  10. Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate for influenza treatment; comparison among the four Japanese influenza seasons from 2011-2012 to 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2016-09-01

    The duration of fever and other symptoms as markers of the clinical effectiveness of laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) were investigated in the Japanese 2014-2015 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the previous three seasons, 2011-2012 to 2013-2014. From these four seasons, the data of 636 influenza A(H3N2) and 128 influenza B patients was available for analysis. No significant difference was found in their baseline characteristics. The median duration of fever for all A(H3N2) patients ranged from 32.0 to 41.0 h. The duration of fever in the 2014-2015 season was significantly shorter than that in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons (p = 0.0204 and 0.0391, respectively), but the differences were within nine hours. The median duration of symptoms for A(H3N2) ranged from 80.0 to 89.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons (p = 0.2222). The median duration of fever for B patients ranged from 43.0 to 50.0 h, with no significant difference among the four seasons. The duration of the symptoms for B varied by season, but no significant difference was found among the four seasons. Over the four seasons, 44 adverse events were reported from among 921 patients, with all resolving without treatment. These results indicate the continuing effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A(H3N2) and B, with no safety issues. It is unlikely that the clinical use of laninamivir has caused viral resistance in the currently epidemic viruses. PMID:27493024

  11. Testing the Critical Window Hypothesis of Timing and Duration of Estradiol Treatment on Hypothalamic Gene Networks in Reproductively Mature and Aging Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weiling; Maguire, Sean M.; Pham, Brian; Garcia, Alexandra N.; Dang, Nguyen-Vy; Liang, Jingya; Wolfe, Andrew; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2015-01-01

    At menopause, the dramatic loss of ovarian estradiol (E2) necessitates the adaptation of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus to an estrogen-depleted environment. We developed a rat model to test the “critical window” hypothesis of the effects of timing and duration of E2 treatment after deprivation on the hypothalamic neuronal gene network in the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area. Rats at 2 ages (reproductively mature or aging) were ovariectomized and given E2 or vehicle replacement regimes of differing timing and duration. Using a 48-gene quantitative low-density PCR array and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we identified gene modules differentially regulated by age, timing, and duration of E2 treatment. Of particular interest, E2 status differentially affected suites of genes in the hypothalamus involved in energy balance, circadian rhythms, and reproduction. In fact, E2 status was the dominant factor in determining gene modules and hormone levels; age, timing, and duration had more subtle effects. Our results highlight the plasticity of hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems during reproductive aging and its surprising ability to adapt to diverse E2 replacement regimes. PMID:26018250

  12. Obstetric complications and mother’s age at delivery are predictors of eating disorder symptoms among Health Science college students

    PubMed Central

    Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; de Souza, Sandra Lopes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To identify the association between perinatal/neonatal factors and symptoms of eating disorders among college students. Methods Four hundred and eight college students (283 women), aged 18 to 23 years old, enrolled in the first semester of a Bachelor of Health Science degree program were included in the sample. Eating disorder symptoms and body image dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test and Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh. Information regarding birth weight, breastfeeding, obstetric complications, mother’s age at delivery, type of delivery, and birth order were self-reported by the volunteers after consulting their parents. Association between perinatal and neonatal factors and symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were assessed by binary logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index. Results The likelihood of presenting with symptoms of anorexia nervosa was 0.5 time lower for those students born from the oldest mothers (odds ratio – OR=0.37; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.17-0.83). Relative to bulimia nervosa, the risk was higher among students who reported obstetric complications (OR=2.62; 95%CI: 1.03-6.67). Conclusion We observed the association between perinatal and neonatal factors with symptoms of eating disorders in college students. PMID:26676267

  13. Neighbourhood environment and the incidence of depressive symptoms among middle‐aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schootman, Mario; Andresen, Elena M; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, J Philip; Miller, Douglas K

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between attributes of subject location and incidence of clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms (CRLDS), and to investigate whether an association remained after adjusting for individual‐level factors using data from the population‐based African American Health Study. Methods An 11‐item depression scale (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) was obtained at baseline and 3 years later through in‐home evaluations. Census tract and block group deprivation indices were obtained from the 2000 census. The external appearance of the block where the subject lived was rated during sample enumeration, and the interior and exterior of the subject's dwelling were observed during the initial in‐home interview. Results Of 998 subjects at baseline, 21.1% had CRLDS. Although 12.7% of the 672 people without CRLDS at baseline developed them by the 3‐year follow‐up, univariate and propensity‐adjusted analyses revealed no association between the subject's location and the incidence of CRLDS. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. Conclusion Despite other studies showing independent effects of neighbourhood characteristics on the prevalence of CRLDS, attributes of subject location are not independent contributors to the incidence of CRLDS in middle‐aged urban African Americans. PMID:17496262

  14. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression.

  15. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  16. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  17. Gender ratio in a clinical population sample, age of diagnosis and duration of assessment in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish children and adults recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The study reports key findings that the gender ratio in this consecutively referred cohort is lower than anticipated in some age groups and reduces with increasing age. The gender ratio in children, together with the significant difference in the mean age of referral and diagnosis for girls compared to boys, adds evidence of delayed recognition of autism spectrum disorder in younger girls. There was no significant difference in duration of assessment for males and females suggesting that delays in diagnosis of females occur prior to referral for assessment. Implications for practice and research are considered.

  18. Impact of age, comorbidity and symptoms on physical function in long-term breast cancer survivors (CALGB 70803)

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Harvey Jay; Lan, Lan; Archer, Laura; Kornblith, Alice B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of aging, comorbidities and symptoms on physical function in patients surviving 20 years since adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Patients & Methods Patients were originally treated on CALGB 7581 (from 1975–1980), a randomized trial of three adjuvant therapies and reassessed (153 of 193 eligible survivors) 20 years from the onset of therapy for physical function and symptoms by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and comorbidities by the OARS questionnaire. Results The average age at reassessment was 64.5 years. 66% of patients had at least two comorbidities and 22% had four or more, but relatively little interference with activities. Older patients had greater multimorbidity. Physical function was generally high and comparable to matched population norms. Older patients had greater difficulty with strenuous activities. For every increase in number of comorbidities, physical function score decreased by 5.1 (p<.001). Symptoms were also frequent (80%) and correlated strongly with decreases in function (0–100u scale) (p <.001), to an even greater degree than comorbidities. Conclusion Very long-term cancer survivors have changes in physical function and symptoms largely consistent with their aging suggesting that the impact of cancer and its treatment is attenuated over time and largely replaced by the impact of age-related comorbidities and functional decline. PMID:22707996

  19. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  20. A Population-Based Study of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Easteal, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male). Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS) we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01) with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life. PMID

  1. Effect of Duration of Breastfeeding on Neuropsychological Development at 10 to 12 Years of Age in a Cohort of Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Tarantino, Vincenza; Chiarotti, Flavia; D'elia, Lidia; De Mei, Barbara; Romano, Mariateresa; Gesualdo, Francesco; Salmaso, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to explore the effect of duration of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development. Method: The long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopment was examined through a battery of neuropsychological tests in 1403 children (693 females, 710 males; mean age 11y 9mo [SD 6mo], range: 10y 3mo-12y 8mo) who were…

  2. Gender Ratio in a Clinical Population Sample, Age of Diagnosis and Duration of Assessment in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish…

  3. Short Sleep Duration in the First Years of Life and Obesity/Overweight at Age 4 Years: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Halal, Camila S.E.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D.; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Fernando C.; Nunes, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether short sleep duration from the first year of life influenced weight at an early age. Study design During 2004, children born in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled in a cohort study. Sleeping habits during the previous 2 weeks were assessed, and the children were weighed and measured at 1-, 2-, and 4-year follow-ups. Overweight and obesity at 4 years were defined according to World Health Organization z-scores for body mass index for age. Short sleep duration was defined as fewer than 10 hours of sleep per night at any follow-up. Results Out of the 4263 live births, 4231 were recruited. The prevalence of short sleep duration at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age was 10.1%. At 4 years of age, 201 children were obese (5.3%), and 302 (8%) were overweight. Among short sleepers, the prevalence ratio for overweight/obesity after adjusting for maternal and children's characteristics was 1.32 (1.03; 1.70). Conclusions Children who slept for fewer than 10 hours per night at any follow-up from 1-4 years of age were more likely to be overweight or obese at 4 years of age, despite their sociodemographic and sleep characteristics. PMID:26541426

  4. Influence of photoperiod duration and phloem disruption through scoring on growth, disease symptoms and bacterial titer in citrus graft-inoculated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants inoculated with the huanglongbing (HLB)-associated bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) are typically monitored for 8-10 months to identify differences in susceptibility between genotypes. A previous report indicated that continuous light accelerated development of HLB symptoms...

  5. The role of musical aptitude and language skills in preattentive duration processing in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Milovanov, Riia; Huotilainen, Minna; Esquef, Paulo A A; Alku, Paavo; Välimäki, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2009-08-28

    We examined 10-12-year old elementary school children's ability to preattentively process sound durations in music and speech stimuli. In total, 40 children had either advanced foreign language production skills and higher musical aptitude or less advanced results in both musicality and linguistic tests. Event-related potential (ERP) recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN) show that the duration changes in musical sounds are more prominently and accurately processed than changes in speech sounds. Moreover, children with advanced pronunciation and musicality skills displayed enhanced MMNs to duration changes in both speech and musical sounds. Thus, our study provides further evidence for the claim that musical aptitude and linguistic skills are interconnected and the musical features of the stimuli could have a preponderant role in preattentive duration processing.

  6. Systematic review of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus shedding: duration is affected by severity, but not age.

    PubMed

    Fielding, James E; Kelly, Heath A; Mercer, Geoffry N; Glass, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Duration of viral shedding following infection is an important determinant of disease transmission, informing both control policies and disease modelling. We undertook a systematic literature review of the duration of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus shedding to examine the effects of age, severity of illness and receipt of antiviral treatment. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database using the keywords 'H1N1', 'pandemic', 'pandemics', 'shed' and 'shedding'. Any study of humans with an outcome measure of viral shedding was eligible for inclusion in the review. Comparisons by age, degree of severity and antiviral treatment were made with forest plots. The search returned 214 articles of which 22 were eligible for the review. Significant statistical heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. The mean duration of viral shedding generally increased with severity of clinical presentation, but we found no evidence of longer shedding duration of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among children compared with adults. Shorter viral shedding duration was observed when oseltamivir treatment was administered within 48 hours of illness onset. Considerable differences in the design and analysis of viral shedding studies limit their comparison and highlight the need for a standardised approach. These insights have implications not only for pandemic planning, but also for informing responses and study of seasonal influenza now that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has become established as the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus.

  7. Symptom Clusters in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome Differ by Sex, Age, and Discharge Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Anne G.; Knight, Elizabeth P.; Steffen, Alana; Burke, Larisa; Daya, Mohamud; DeVon, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify classes of individuals presenting to the ED for suspected ACS who shared similar symptoms and clinical characteristics. Background Describing symptom clusters in undiagnosed patients with suspected ACS is a novel and clinically relevant approach, reflecting real-world emergency department evaluation procedures Methods Symptoms were measured using a validated 13-item symptom checklist. Latent class analysis was used to describe symptom clusters. Results The sample of 874 was 37% female with a mean age of 59.9 years. Four symptom classes were identified: Heavy Symptom Burden (Class 1), Chest Symptoms and Shortness of Breath (Class 2), Chest Symptoms Only (Class 3), and Weary (Class 4). Patients with ACS were more likely to cluster in Classes 2 and 3. Women and younger patients were more likely to group in Class 1. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the value of symptom clusters in the ED triage and management of suspected ACS. PMID:26118542

  8. Improvement of symptoms of aging in males by a preparation LEOPIN ROYAL containing aged garlic extract and other five of natural medicines - comparison with traditional herbal medicines (Kampo).

    PubMed

    Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Nomiya, Akira; Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Enomoto, Yutaka; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    "LEOPIN ROYAL®" (LER), a non-prescription health-promoting medication in Japan, is a preparation containing six natural medicines, namely, aged garlic extract, ginseng, oriental bezoar, velvet antler, cuscuta seed and epimedium herb. To determine the effect of LER on symptoms of aging in males, we conducted an open-labeled, randomized clinical trial using Kampo (mainly kamishoyosan) as a control. Forty-nine male patients (age, 62.7 (SD 11.8) years) with mild or more pronounced symptoms of aging were enrolled and randomly assigned to the LER (n = 24) or Kampo group (n = 25) for 6 months. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale and the International Index of Erectile Function with 5 questions (IIEF-5) were tested at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of administration of the medications. In the AMS scale, the somatic and psychological sub-scores and total score decreased depending on the time course in both groups. However, the decrease in the slope of the LER group was greater than that of the Kampo group. There was a significant difference between the groups and the group and month interaction (G × M), as revealed by a linear mixed model analysis (p < 0.05). The IIEF-5 score increased in the LER group (p = 0.02 with regard to G × M). In conclusion, the present results indicate that LER is possibly superior to mainly kamishoyosan on the rate of improvement of symptoms of aging, including erectile dysfunction, in males. PMID:24844765

  9. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Adams, Christopher W.

    2005-01-01

    As long duration space exploration and habitation becomes more commonplace, a number of Human Engineering factors (Gravitational Adaptation, 2-D to 3-D Movement Adaptation, Design Form/Function, and Space Ergonomics to name a few) will become more pronounced. More research and development is needed in these areas or the explorers may find themselves in painful or dangerous situations.

  10. The Shift in Infant Preferences for Vowel Duration and Pitch Contour between 6 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Christine; Notley, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the acoustic properties of vowels on 6- and 10-month-old infants' speech preferences. The shape of the contour (bell or monotonic) and the duration (normal or stretched) of vowels were manipulated in words containing the vowels /i/ and /u/, and presented to infants using a two-choice preference procedure.…

  11. Relationships among emotion regulation and symptoms during trauma-focused CBT for school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Thornback, Kristin; Muller, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    This study examined improvement in emotion regulation throughout Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and the degree to which improvement in emotion regulation predicted improvement in symptoms. Traumatized children, 7-12 years (69.9% female), received TF-CBT. Data from 4 time periods were used: pre-assessment (n=107), pre-treatment (n=78), post-treatment (n=58), and 6-month follow-up (n=44). Questionnaires measured emotion regulation in the form of inhibition and dysregulation (Children's Emotion Management Scales) and lability/negativity and emotion regulation skill (Emotion Regulation Checklist), as well as child-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) and parent-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children) posttraumatic stress, and internalizing and externalizing problems (Child Behaviuor Checklist). To the extent that children's dysregulation and lability/negativity improved, their parents reported fewer symptoms following therapy. Improvements in inhibition best predicted improvements in child-reported posttraumatic stress (PTS) during clinical services, but change in dysregulation and lability/negativity best predicted improvement in child-reported PTS symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Moreover, statistically significant improvements of small effect size were found following therapy, for inhibition, dysregulation, and lability/negativity, but not emotion regulation skill. These findings suggest that emotion regulation is a worthy target of intervention and that improvements in emotion regulation can be made. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26470906

  12. Social Support Buffers the Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Tangeria R.; Rabin, Laura A.; Da Silva, Valdiva G.; Katz, Mindy J.; Fogel, Joshua; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Life satisfaction is an important component of overall well-being. Decline in life satisfaction is related to many adverse health outcomes including mortality. Methods We investigate the association of various psychosocial and health-related factors to life satisfaction in 237 non-demented community-dwelling older adults. Results Lower levels of depressive symptoms, less perceived stress, higher levels of social support, and better self-perceived general health were significantly associated with higher life satisfaction. Social support buffered the adverse impact of depressive symptoms on life satisfaction where more depressive symptoms were associated with much lower life satisfaction at low levels of social support than at high levels of social support. Discussion We discuss study implications, future research directions, and possible interventions that involve boosting social support in at-risk older adults. PMID:27418714

  13. Stress buffering effects of social support on depressive symptoms in middle age: reciprocity and community mental health.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Sakihara, Seizou; Ariizumi, Makoto; Watanabe, Naoki; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the association between depression and the buffering effects of social support in mid-life crisis. The aim of this study is to determine the buffering effects of social support on depression concerning middle-aged individuals, while also taking reciprocity and gender differences into careful consideration. A cross-sectional survey of all middle-aged individuals (40-69 years of age) using a large sample (n = 4558) from a community-living population, who resided in Rokunohe town, Aomori prefecture in northern Japan (response rate = 69.8%), was undertaken. This town recently had a lot of suicides. Two-way anova was used to analyze the effects of stressor and social support on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. The authors found a stress buffering effect of social support on the depressive symptoms occurring in middle age, however, a significant difference in the stress buffer effect was only observed in male subjects. Moreover, when the authors take reciprocity into account, the effect of the buffer on depression was found not only in males receiving support but in males providing support as well. In conclusion, pertaining to males, social support reduces depressive symptoms under stressful circumstances in middle age, not only when they receive such support but also when they provide it. Therefore, these findings suggest that reciprocal social support is important for males in relation to community mental health.

  14. Cannabis dependence in the San Francisco Family Study: age of onset of use, DSM-IV symptoms, withdrawal, and heritability.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Vieten, Cassandra; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Lau, Philip; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-02-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, yet the role of genetics in individual symptoms associated with cannabis use disorders has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present set of analyses was to describe the symptomatology and estimate the heritability of DSM-IV criteria/symptoms of cannabis dependence in a large sample of families. Participants were 2524 adults, participating in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Family Study of alcoholism. Seventy percent of the sample had ever used cannabis and 13.9% met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Younger age at first cannabis use was found to be significantly associated with a shortened survival to becoming cannabis dependent. Although a greater percentage of men met criteria for cannabis dependence, women were found to demonstrate "telescoping" as indexed by a shorter survival time from initial use to dependence as compared to men. A cannabis withdrawal syndrome was identified in users, the primary symptoms of which were nervousness, appetite change, and sleep disturbance. Cannabis use (h(2)=0.31) and dependence (h(2)=0.20), age at first use, individual DSM-IV criteria for dependence, and cannabis-use associated symptoms of depression, trouble concentrating and paranoia were all found to be heritable. These findings suggest that within this population that cannabis use and dependence, as well as individual cannabis dependence symptoms have a significant heritable component, that cannabis dependence is more likely to occur when use begins during adolescence, and that the cannabis dependence syndrome includes a number of heritable untoward psychiatric side effects including withdrawal.

  15. Childlessness, Parenthood, and Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Regina M.; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Loree, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has examined whether parenthood is associated with higher levels of well-being among older adults, but definitions of parental status have varied. The authors examine links between parental status and depressive symptoms among older adults, comparing biological and social definitions of parenthood. The study finds few differences…

  16. Predictors and Correlates of High Levels of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among Children at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Sharon L.; Larkby, Cynthia A.; Day, Richard; Day, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predict or are correlated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in 10-year-olds. Method: Women and their offspring were followed from the fourth prenatal month through 10 years. There were 636 mother-child pairs at 10 years, a follow-up rate of 83% of the birth cohort. Cognitive, psychological,…

  17. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  18. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  19. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle.

  20. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  1. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration and postmortem aging on Warner-Bratzler shear force of three muscles from beef steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J C; Claus, H C; Dikeman, M E; Shook, J; Hilton, G G; Lawrence, T E; Mehaffey, J M; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 6.8 g/t on 90% DM basis) feeding duration (0, 20, 30, and 40 d) on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) muscles, beef from feeding trials was collected and shipped to participating universities. Animals were slaughtered at commercial processing facilities across the United States. Strip loin, shoulder clod, and top sirloin butt subprimals (IMPS 180, 114, and 184, respectively) were obtained from a portion of USDA Choice and Select grade carcasses for WBSF using standardized procedures and equipment. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.001) LL WBSF values of USDA Choice and Select steaks. A significant linear contrast existed for both quality grades, indicating increased WBSF values were associated with longer feeding durations. Increased postmortem aging decreased LL WBSF of control and treated steaks. Postmortem aging from 7 to 21 d decreased LL WBSF values by 17.6 and 16.4% for USDA Choice and Select steaks, respectively. The percentage of LL steaks from ZH-supplemented cattle with a WBSF value <4.5 kg was significantly less than control steaks for both quality grades. Postmortem aging from 7 to 21 d postmortem increased (P < 0.001) the percentage of LL Choice and Select steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg for all ZH feeding durations. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, or 40 d increased (P < 0.01) WBSF of USDA Choice TB and GM steaks compared with 0-d controls. Feeding ZH for 0, 20, and 40 d had a similar effect on WBSF of USDA Select GM steaks, and produced lesser values than steaks from cattle fed ZH for 30 d. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, and 40 d had no effect on WBSF values of USDA Select TB steaks. However, the 20-, 30-, and 40-d duration produced WBSF values greater (P < 0.05) than control (0 d) TB steaks. Postmortem aging decreased (P < 0.05) WBSF of USDA Choice and Select TB and GM steaks, but the percentage improvement in WBSF attributed to aging was less than

  2. Anxiety Sensitivity, Experiential Avoidance, and Mindfulness Among Younger and Older Adults: Age Differences in Risk Factors for Anxiety Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Colin T; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2015-10-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we examined age-related differences in anxiety sensitivity (AS), experiential avoidance (EA), and mindfulness among younger adult students (N=426; M age=20.1 years) and community-dwelling older adults (N=85; M age=71.8 years). Participants anonymously completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Anxiety Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Independent t tests indicated that younger adults reported significantly higher levels of AS and EA, whereas older adults reported significantly higher levels of trait mindfulness. Correlational analyses demonstrated that AS and EA were significantly associated with each other and with anxiety-related symptoms. However, trait mindfulness was significantly inversely related to AS, EA, and to trait and state anxiety. To date, these three factors have yet to be examined simultaneously within the context of age differences, and the present study illuminates these differences as well as their relationships. AS, EA, and low mindfulness appear to be significant correlates for anxiety-related symptoms in younger and older adults.

  3. Gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a cross-sectional study from CHARLS 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Fei, Yue; Li, Junqin; Zhang, Lisan; Luo, Qiong; Chen, Guangdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The impact of gender and age on the association between sleep duration and hypertension is not well known in Asians. The objective of this study was to analyse gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Design Secondary analysis of a cohort sample. Setting This study used data from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011–2012), covering 150 counties/districts and 450 villages/resident committees from 28 provinces in China. Participants Community-based subjects were drawn from the CHARLS through multistage probability sampling. Overall, this study included 9086 eligible subjects aged 45 years or above. Outcome measures Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using a structured questionnaire. The mean of three measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was calculated. By gender and age groups (45–60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly), relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent hypertension were examined using logistic regression models to estimate OR and 95% CIs. Results Compared with the reference group (≥7 and <8 hours/night), the group who had less sleep (<6 hours/night) had a higher likelihood of hypertension in the whole sample (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.52). Significant ORs (95% CIs) of hypertension were 1.68 (1.17 to 2.42), 1.69 (1.11 to 2.59) and 2.21 (1.29 to 3.80) for <6, 6–7 (≥6 and <7) and 8–9 (≥8 and <9) hours/night, respectively, in middle-aged men but not women. Interestingly, a significant association was observed between long sleep duration (≥9 hours/night) and hypertension in middle-aged women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.35) but not in men. Conclusions Extremes of sleep duration increased the likelihood of prevalent hypertension in middle-aged Chinese depending on gender, suggesting that appropriate strategies for

  4. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed. PMID:26098006

  5. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  6. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  7. The Impact of Aging, Cognition, and Symptoms on Functional Competence in Individuals With Schizophrenia Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kalache, Sawsan M.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Davies, Simon J. C.; Liu, Angela Y.; Voineskos, Aristotle N.; Butters, Meryl A.; Miranda, Dielle; Menon, Mahesh; Kern, Robert S.; Rajji, Tarek K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Life expectancy in individuals with schizophrenia continues to increase. It is not clear whether cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia remain as strong predictors of function in older and younger individuals. Thus, we assessed the relationship between cognition and functional competence in individuals with schizophrenia across 7 decades of life. Methods: We analyzed data obtained in 232 community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia (age range: 19–79 years). Cognition was assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery. Functional competence was assessed using the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, which includes measures of Comprehension and Planning of Recreational Activities Skills, Financial Skills, Communication Skills, Transportation Skills, and Household Management Skills. To assess the effects of Global Cognition on functional competence, we performed hierarchical multivariate linear or logistic regression analyses controlling for age, education, gender, and negative symptoms. Results: Participants’ mean age was 49.1 (SD = 13.2, range = 19–79 years), 161 (69%) were male, and 55 (24%) were aged ≥60. Global Cognition was a predictor of Comprehension and Planning Skills (Exp(β) = 1.048), Financial Skills (Exp(β) = 1.104), Communication Skills (ΔR 2 = .31) and Transportation Skills (Exp(β) = 1.066), but not Household Management Skills after adjusting for age, education, gender, and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Conclusion: Cognition remains a strong predictor of functional competence across the lifespan. These findings suggest that treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia could improve individuals’ function independent of their age. PMID:25103208

  8. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  9. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Kaushik, Sonia; Benke, Geza P; Borg, Brigitte M; Smith, Catherine L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time. Results In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females) participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze). The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation) FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1) and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2) mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted steeper decline in females than males. Conclusion Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD. PMID:27307725

  10. Insomnia symptoms and subsequent cardiovascular medication: a register-linked follow-up study among middle-aged employees.

    PubMed

    Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Hublin, Christer; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea

    2014-06-01

    Sleep disturbances have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes. The associations of insomnia with hypertension and dyslipidaemia, the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, are less studied. We especially lack understanding on the longitudinal effects of insomnia on dyslipidaemia. We aimed to examine the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent prescribed medication for hypertension and dyslipidaemia using objective register-based follow-up data. Baseline questionnaire surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, were conducted in 2000-2002 (n = 6477, response rate 67%, 78% women) and linked to a national register on prescribed reimbursed medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline. Associations between the frequency of insomnia symptoms (difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, non-restorative sleep) and hypertension and dyslipidaemia medication during the follow-up were analysed using logistic regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals). Analyses were adjusted for pre-baseline medication, sociodemographic and work-related factors, health behaviours, mental health, and diabetes. Frequent insomnia symptoms were reported by 20%. During the 5-year follow-up, 32% had hypertension medication and 15% dyslipidaemia medication. Adjusting for age, gender and pre-baseline medication, frequent insomnia symptoms were associated with hypertension medication (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.00) and dyslipidaemia medication (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.12). Occasional insomnia symptoms were also associated with cardiovascular medication, though less strongly. Further adjustments had negligible effects. To conclude, insomnia should be taken into account in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. PMID:24313664

  11. The effect of age on pressure flow parameters in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Basu, M; Postlethwaite, C; Cheema, K; Duckett, J

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in voiding with age in women with different urodynamic diagnoses. Correlation was used to analyse the association between age and voiding parameters (maximum flow rate, voided volume, flow rate centile and maximum detrusor pressure - PdetMax) in 896 datasets. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data further by age group and diagnosis - urodynamic stress incontinence (USI); detrusor overactivity (DO); mixed USI and DO; no urodynamic abnormality. Results showed that diagnosis accounts for a significant amount of variation in all four of the dependent variables Age group shows a significant effect on voiding volume but does not show significant effects on any other variable studied. There is no significant interaction term in any of the analyses, meaning that age and diagnosis do not appear to function together, e.g. age does not relate to flow rate centile, maximum flow rate or PdetQMax. It was concluded that the data suggest that there is no significant change in voiding function related to age. In the elderly, the main alteration in voiding is due to a higher prevalence of DO. PMID:24219733

  12. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  13. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Classon, Elisabet; Fällman, Katarina; Wressle, Ewa; Marcusson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  14. Life satisfaction (LS) and symptoms among the oldest-old: results from the longitudinal population study called Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS).

    PubMed

    Enkvist, Asa; Ekström, Henrik; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence of symptoms in the general population and its' relation to LS in the oldest-old are to our knowledge non-existent. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and experienced severity of elderly subjects' reported symptoms and how symptoms are related to LS. The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78-93 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study, GÅS, part of a national survey (SNAC). Scores on the life satisfaction index were related to scores on a modified version of the Göteborg Quality of Life (GQoL) instrument, covering 32 common symptoms. Musculo-skeletal symptoms like pain were reported by 74%, 80% had depressive symptoms and 68% general fatigue. Less than 6% of men and women reported no metabolic symptoms or symptoms related to the head. In a multiple regression model it was shown that four groups of symptoms could significantly predict LS 3 years later: depression, tension, GI-symptoms and musculo-skeletal symptoms. The clinical implication of this study is that careful attention should be paid to the elderly patients' complaints concerning symptoms in the above areas since this has the potential to significantly increase the patients' satisfaction with life.

  15. Relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness and age, sexual maturity status, and sex in Japanese quail selected for long or short duration of tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Hazard, D; Couty, M; Faure, J M; Guémené, D

    2005-12-01

    The influences of age (4 to 12 wk), sexual maturity status, and sex on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness were investigated by measuring changes in peripheral basal levels of corticosterone (B) and responses to 10 min of physical restraint in a crush cage or injection of 1-24 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in 2 genotypes of Japanese quail divergently selected for long (LTI) or short (STI) duration of tonic immobility (TI). Although gonad development was more advanced in male STI quail, most birds were still immature at 4 wk of age, but sexual maturity was fully acquired by 6 wk of age in both sexes and genotypes. This change was associated with increases in basal B levels in both genotypes and sexes. On the other hand, HPA axis responsiveness to restraint and adrenal responsiveness to 1-24 ACTH injection remained stable in STI quail, whatever the age. Conversely, significant responses to restraint compared with basal B levels were only observed at 4 and 6 wk of age, and adrenal responsiveness increased with age in LTI quail. Moreover, higher B levels were measured in response to restraint in STI than in LTI quail, whereas similar adrenal responses were measured at 9 and 12 wk of age. We concluded that an increase in basal B levels is associated with the stage of sexual maturity acquired, but it did not affect HPA axis responsiveness or adrenal B response capacity. On the other hand, age affected HPA axis responsiveness and adrenal B response capacity in LTI quail of both sexes but not in STI quail. It is hypothesized that functional HPA axis maturity occurs after 6 wk of age in the LTI genotype, but it is reached by 4 wk of age in the STI genotype. In conclusion, the divergent selection program for TI conducted on quail resulted in changes in HPA responsiveness that probably resulted from differences in development rate and function of the adrenal glands or other upstream structures of the HPA axis.

  16. Sex and Age Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Diagnoses: Implications for DSM-V and ICD-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender and age differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom endorsement in a large community-based sample. Method: Families with four or more full siblings ascertained from Missouri birth records completed telephone interviews regarding lifetime DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and the Strengths and Weaknesses…

  17. Duration of symptom relief after intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid combined with sorbitol (anti-ox-vs) in symptomatic hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Massafra, U; Bizzi, E; Tormenta, S; Cassol, M; Granata, M

    2014-01-01

    The intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) in hip osteoarthritis (OA) has been recently increased following the use of ultrasound guidance to perform an accurate delivery of the injected product. Viscosupplementation in hip OA seems to show similar results to those obtained by viscosupplementation in knee OA. However, an unmet need is the duration of symptomatic relief, therefore several new products are proposed to prolong and increase symptomatic effects. Among these, an innovative viscosupplement has been produced from high a concentration of HA combined with a high concentration of sorbitol as a free radical scavenger. The aim of this study is to evaluate the mid-term pain-relief effect of an ultrasound-guided injection of SynolisV-A (ANTI-OX-VS) in patients suffering from symptomatic hip osteoarthritis. Lequesne index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain reduction, Global Patient Assessment (GPA), Global Medical Assessment (GMA) and reduction in monthly analgesic consumption were assessed during the 12-month follow-up after the injection. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study and received one IA US-guided injection of two syringes of ANTI-OX-VS into the target hip. Eleven drop-out patients were registered, of whom 2 were for loss of efficacy at 6 months, 1 for loss of efficacy at 9 months and 8 patients for severe comorbilities. Mean scores of all clinical parameters evaluated at each control visit were significantly different when compared with baseline mean value. No systemic adverse events were observed. Even though the sample size of this study is limited, the results suggest a durable good efficacy of a 4-ml single injection of ANTI-OX-VS in hip OA, at least for the patients who completed the study. A larger number of patients and an RCT are needed to confirm these data, investigating also the predictive factors of clinical response to ANTI-OX-VS.

  18. Endogenous testosterone and brachial artery endothelial function in middle-aged men with symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Juuso I; Perheentupa, Antti; Irjala, Kerttu; Pöllänen, Pasi; Mäkinen, Juha; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Raitakari, Olli T

    2011-12-01

    In aging men, serum endogenous testosterone is inversely associated with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and directly with beneficial plasma lipid levels; however, the relationship to endothelial function is poorly characterized. We examined the association between serum testosterone and endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in middle-aged to elderly men. A group of 83 men aged 40?69 years (mean 55.9 ± 7.5 [SD]) with andropausal symptoms were studied. We measured their serum lipids, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, mean carotid IMT and brachial artery FMD by high resolution B-mode ultrasound. Brachial FMD correlated inversely with vessel diameter (r = -0.38, p = 0.0004), alcohol consumption (r = -0.22, p = 0.047) and serum testosterone (r = -0.27, p = 0.01), but not with luteinizing hormone. In multivariate analysis, FMD was explained by testosterone (β = -0.17, p = 0.0226), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 4.17, p = 0.0312) and vessel diameter (β = -4.37, p < 0.0001) when adjusted for age, body mass index, triglycerides, blood pressure, carotid IMT, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular diseases and use of lipid lowering medication (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors). In middle-aged to elderly men, there is an inverse correlation between serum testosterone and brachial FMD. These data suggest that testosterone may have an adverse effect on systemic endothelial function.

  19. Symptoms and signs of cancer in the school-age child.

    PubMed

    Starling, K A; Shepherd, D A

    1977-03-01

    The American Cancer Society's seven warning signs of cancer are: 1. Unusual bleeding or discharge. 2. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere. 3. A sore that does not heal. 4. Change in bowel or bladder habits. 5. Hoarseness or cough. 6. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing. 7. Change in size or color of a wart or mole. These signs apply to children as well as to adults. Cancer in children, however, is often more insidious than in adults and may well mimic many other diseases, developmental processess, or childhood psychologic problems. The knowledge that cancer kills more children than any other disease and the awareness of the presenting symptoms and signs may well save a child's life. Early detection with prompt, aggressive therapy is of paramount importance in achieving cures in childhood cancer.

  20. Exploring the effect of depressive symptoms and ageing on metamemory in an Italian adult sample.

    PubMed

    Fastame, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of depression and age-related factors on metamemory measures in an Italian adult sample. Fifty-eight healthy participants were recruited in Northern Italy and were, respectively, assigned to the following groups: Young (20-30 years old), old (60-70 years old), and Very Old (71-84 years old). Participants were administered a battery of tests, including a word recall task, self-referent mnestic efficiency scales, general beliefs about memory, and depression measures. General beliefs about memory, self-efficacy, and beliefs about the control of personal memory were predicted by age, education, depression, and mnestic and cognitive efficiency. Finally, age-related differences were found in metamemory measures: the accuracy of mnestic control processes is thought to be lower by very old adults than by old and young individuals. PMID:23731341

  1. Depressive Symptoms on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Suicide Deaths in Older Middle-aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001) than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001). The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies. PMID:27255076

  2. Comparing Changes in Late-Life Depressive Symptoms across Aging, Disablement, and Mortality Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauth, Elizabeth B.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Malmberg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are inherently time-related, with various time metrics and transition points being used to proxy how change is organized with respect to the theoretically underlying mechanisms. Using data from 4 Swedish studies of individuals aged 70-100+ (N = 453) who were measured every 2 years for up to 5 waves, we tested whether…

  3. The Effect of Gestational Age on Symptom Severity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movsas, Tammy Z.; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, two research-validated instruments, Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were filled out online by 4,188 mothers of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children, aged 4-21, as part of voluntary parental participation in a large web-based registry. Univariate and multivariate linear…

  4. The Role of Age, Family Support, and Negative Cognitions in the Prediction of Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Rick; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Nay, W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Study examines developmental changes in the relationship between negative cognitions and stressful family characteristics in the prediction of depression in young people. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrates significant 3-way interaction between age, negative cognitions, and family unsupportiveness. Discusses results as they relate to…

  5. Development of a short version of the Aging Males' Symptoms scale: Mokken scaling analysis and Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound short version of the 17-item Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale using Mokken scale analysis (MSA) and Rasch analysis. We recruited a convenient sample of 1787 men (age: mean (SD) = 43.8 (11.5) years) who visited a men's health polyclinic in Taiwan and completed the AMS scale. The scale was first assessed using MSA. The remaining items were assessed using Rasch analysis. We used a stepwise approach to remove items with χ(2) item statistics and mean square values while monitoring unidimensionality. The item reduction process resulted in a 6-item version of the AMS scale (AMS-6). The AMS-6 scale included a 5-item psychosomatic subscale (original items 1, 4, 5, 8, and 9) and a 1-item sexual subscale (original item 16). Analyses confirmed that the 5-item psychosomatic subscale was a Rasch scale. The AMS-6 correlated well with the AMS scales: the 5-item psychosomatic subscale correlated with the AMS scale (r between 0.50 and 0.92); the 1-item sexual subscale correlated with the sexual subscale of the AMS scale (r = 0.81). A 6-item short form of the AMS scale had satisfactory measurement properties. This version may be useful for estimating psychosomatic and sexual symptoms as well as health-related quality of life with a minimal burden on respondents.

  6. The impact of intimate partner violence and additional traumatic events on trauma symptoms and PTSD in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Castor, Lana E; Miller, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H

    2012-08-01

    Children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for developing traumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Unfortunately, children who witness IPV are often exposed to additional traumatic events. Previous research has indicated that approximately one third of children experience 2 or more direct victimizations each year, and that exposure to one type of victimization places children at risk for exposure to additional types of victimization. Yet little is known about the impact of these additional traumas on children's functioning. For a sample of 120 preschool children (age 4-6 years) exposed to IPV in the past 2 years, 38% were exposed to additional traumatic events, including sexual assaults by family members, physical assaults, serious accidents, and/or life-threatening illnesses. Those exposed to both IPV and additional traumatic events had higher rates of PTSD diagnoses, traumatic stress symptoms (d = 0.96), and internalizing (d = 0.86) and externalizing behavior (d = 0.47) problems, than those exposed to IPV alone. We also compared DSM-IV diagnostic criteria to proposed criteria for evaluating traumatic stress in preschool-aged children. Results revealed the importance of conducting a complete assessment of traumatic events prior to treating children exposed to IPV.

  7. Development of a short version of the Aging Males' Symptoms scale: Mokken scaling analysis and Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound short version of the 17-item Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale using Mokken scale analysis (MSA) and Rasch analysis. We recruited a convenient sample of 1787 men (age: mean (SD) = 43.8 (11.5) years) who visited a men's health polyclinic in Taiwan and completed the AMS scale. The scale was first assessed using MSA. The remaining items were assessed using Rasch analysis. We used a stepwise approach to remove items with χ(2) item statistics and mean square values while monitoring unidimensionality. The item reduction process resulted in a 6-item version of the AMS scale (AMS-6). The AMS-6 scale included a 5-item psychosomatic subscale (original items 1, 4, 5, 8, and 9) and a 1-item sexual subscale (original item 16). Analyses confirmed that the 5-item psychosomatic subscale was a Rasch scale. The AMS-6 correlated well with the AMS scales: the 5-item psychosomatic subscale correlated with the AMS scale (r between 0.50 and 0.92); the 1-item sexual subscale correlated with the sexual subscale of the AMS scale (r = 0.81). A 6-item short form of the AMS scale had satisfactory measurement properties. This version may be useful for estimating psychosomatic and sexual symptoms as well as health-related quality of life with a minimal burden on respondents. PMID:26984738

  8. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  9. Gender differences in the association between depressive symptoms and carotid atherosclerosis among middle-aged and older Koreans: the Namwon study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kweon, Sun-Seog

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the association of depressive symptoms with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques in the general Korean population. A total of 7,554 Korean males and females aged 45-74 yr who were free from cardiovascular diseases were included in the analyses. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Subjects with a score of ≥16 were classified as having clinically significant depressive symptoms. Carotid ultrasonography was used to measure mean carotid IMT (C-IMT) and to determine the presence of plaques. A significant association between depressive symptoms and C-IMT was observed only in females. After adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, females with depressive symptoms had significantly greater C-IMT than females without depressive symptoms (mean difference 0.011±0.004 mm; 95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.019 mm). Compared with controls, the fully adjusted risk of females with depressive symptoms for abnormal C-IMT (≥1.0 mm) was significant (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.30). No significant association between depressive symptoms and carotid plaques was observed in either gender. This study shows a significant association between depressive symptoms and C-IMT in middle-aged and older females.

  10. Age and duration of the Mississippi Valley-type mineralizing fluid flow event in the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri, USA, determined from palaeomagnetism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symons, David T. A.; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Leach, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'Dating and duration of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction', edited by J. Parnell. The Viburnum Trend is a world-class Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc ore deposit in platform carbonates of the Upper Cambrian Bonneterre Dolomite in the midcontinent of the USA. Palaeomagnetic methods have been used to analyse 233 specimens from early octahedral (nine sites) and late-stage cubic (13 sites) galena ore from four mines along the c. 70 km north-south length of the Trend. The characteristic remanence is carried by single to pseudo-single domain pyrrhotite and magnetite. This is the first MVT deposit in which pyrrhotite is shown to be a remanence carrier and present in galena crystals. The remanence directions define an Early Permian mean age of 273 ?? 10 Ma for the ore-stage mineralization, a maximum duration for the mineralization event of 12 Ma, and a time difference of 5 Ma between the early octahedral and late cubic galena ore stages. The Early Permian age for the ore is consistent with models of ore genesis that invoke fluid flow from the Ouachita orogen during Ouachitan orogenesis.

  11. Factors Affecting 14C Ages of Lacustrine Carbonates: Timing and Duration of the Last Highstand Lake in the Lahontan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.

    1993-01-01

    Two processes contribute to inaccurate 14C age estimates of carbonates precipitated within the Lahontan basin, NevadaCalifornia: low initial 14C/C ratios in lake water (reservoir effect) and addition of modern carbon to calcium carbonate after its precipitation. The mast reliable set of 14C ages on carbonates from elevations > 1310 m in the Pyramid and Walker Lake subbasins indicate that lakes in all seven Lahontan subbasins coalesced ???14,200 14C yr B.P. forming Lake Lahontan. Lake Lahontan achieved its 1330-m highstand elevation by ???13,800 14 C yr B.P. and receded to 1310 m by ???13,700 14C yr B.P. Calculations, based on measured carbonate-accumulation rates, of the amount of time Lake Lahontan exceeded 1310 and 1330 m (500 and 50 yr) are consistent with this chronology. The timing of the Lake Lahontan highstand is of interest because of the linkage of highstand climates with proximity to the polar jet stream. The brevity of the Lahontan highstand is interpreted to indicate that the core of the southern branch of the polar jet stream remained only briefly over the Lahontan basin.

  12. Age, duration of formation, and geotectonic position of the Zavitaya lithium granite-pegmatite system, Eastern Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorsky, V. Ye.; Shokalsky, S. P.; Sergeev, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Zavitaya granite-pegmatite system with a lithium deposit is localized in the northern marginal part of the Onon terrane (Aginskii massif) and ajoins to the Ingoda-Shilka branch of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture in the south. This paper presents the first U-Pb (SHRIMP) age of granites and barren and spodumene pegmatites of the Zavitaya field. The Zavitaya polychronous granite-pegmatite system evolved through 40 million years: porphyritic biotite granites (169.0 ± 3 Ma), two mica granites-leucogranites (147.5 ± 3.1 Ma), muscovite leucogranites (140.0 ± 3.0 Ma), barren pegmatites (139.6 ± 3.1 Ma), and lithium spodumem pegmatites (129.6 ± 2.7 Ma). The formation of the system coincides with the change in geodynamic regimes of the region at the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous boundary: the age of the early granites of the system and spodumene pegmatites corresponds to the termination of collision and to the beginning of the Early Cretaceous rifting, respectively.

  13. Associations of various perceived-stress situations with depressive symptoms in ≥50-year old Taiwanese men and women: Results from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Jen; Chang, Fu-Kuei

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between various perceived-stress and depressive symptoms in old Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Data were derived from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Stress for health, finance, and family members' related issues were all cross-sectionally associated with concurrent depressive symptoms for men and women (all P<0.05). Increased/constant-high health stress was positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in both genders (all P<0.05). Constantly high job stress and increased stress over family members' problems were associated with higher likelihood of subsequent depressive symptoms in men (P<0.05). Constantly high/increased financial stress and relationship strain with family members were positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in women (all P<0.05). The results suggest that stress for health, job, finance, and family members-related issues are unequally associated with depressive symptoms among Taiwanese men and women aged 50 years and over. Changes of health stress even reduced are significantly associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Long-term job stress and increased stress over family members' problems increase occurrences of men's depressive symptoms, while increased/long-term financial stress and relationship-strain with family members increase occurrences of women's depressive symptoms. Long-term high health stress has more impacts on men's depressive symptoms than women's, while long-term high relationship strain with family members has more impacts on women's depressive symptoms than men's. PMID:27490720

  14. FDG-PET and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms among Cognitively Normal Elderly Persons: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Krell-Roesch, Janina; Ruider, Hanna; Lowe, Val J; Stokin, Gorazd B; Pink, Anna; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Knopman, David S; Christianson, Teresa J; Machulda, Mary M; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Geda, Yonas E

    2016-07-14

    One of the key research agenda of the field of aging is investigation of presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism (as measured by FDG-PET) have been reported among cognitively normal elderly persons. However, little is known about the association of FDG-PET abnormalities with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in a population-based setting. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the ongoing population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in order to examine the association between brain glucose metabolism and NPS among cognitively normal (CN) persons aged > 70 years. Participants underwent FDG-PET and completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive classification was made by an expert consensus panel. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, sex, and education. For continuous variables, we used linear regression and Spearman rank-order correlations. Of 668 CN participants (median 78.1 years, 55.4% males), 205 had an abnormal FDG-PET (i.e., standardized uptake value ratio < 1.32 in AD-related regions). Abnormal FDG-PET was associated with depression as measured by NPI-Q (OR = 2.12; 1.23-3.64); the point estimate was further elevated for APOE ɛ4 carriers (OR = 2.59; 1.00-6.69), though marginally significant. Additionally, we observed a significant association between abnormal FDG-PET and depressive and anxiety symptoms when treated as continuous measures. These findings indicate that NPS, even in community-based samples, can be an important additional tool to the biomarker-based investigation of presymptomatic AD. PMID:27447426

  15. FDG-PET and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms among Cognitively Normal Elderly Persons: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Krell-Roesch, Janina; Ruider, Hanna; Lowe, Val J.; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Pink, Anna; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Machulda, Mary M.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key research agenda of the field of aging is investigation of presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism (as measured by FDG-PET) have been reported among cognitively normal elderly persons. However, little is known about the association of FDG-PET abnormalities with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in a population-based setting. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the ongoing population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in order to examine the association between brain glucose metabolism and NPS among cognitively normal (CN) persons aged > 70 years. Participants underwent FDG-PET and completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive classification was made by an expert consensus panel. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, sex, and education. For continuous variables, we used linear regression and Spearman rank-order correlations. Of 668 CN participants (median 78.1 years, 55.4% males), 205 had an abnormal FDG-PET (i.e., standardized uptake value ratio < 1.32 in AD-related regions). Abnormal FDG-PET was associated with depression as measured by NPI-Q (OR = 2.12; 1.23–3.64); the point estimate was further elevated for APOE ɛ4 carriers (OR = 2.59; 1.00–6.69), though marginally significant. Additionally, we observed a significant association between abnormal FDG-PET and depressive and anxiety symptoms when treated as continuous measures. These findings indicate that NPS, even in community-based samples, can be an important additional tool to the biomarker-based investigation of presymptomatic AD. PMID:27447426

  16. Age-related cortical thickness trajectories in first episode psychosis patients presenting with early persistent negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Carolina; Bodnar, Michael; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has clearly established that early persistent negative symptoms (ePNS) can be observed following a first episode of psychosis (FEP), and can negatively affect functional outcome. There is also evidence for cortical changes associated with ePNS. Given that a FEP often occurs during a period of ongoing complex brain development and maturation, neuroanatomical changes may have a specific age-related component. The current study examines cortical thickness (CT) and trajectories with age using longitudinal structural imaging. Structural T1 volumes were acquired at three time points for ePNS (N=21), PNS due to secondary factors (N=31), non-PNS (N=45) patients, and controls (N=48). Images were processed using the CIVET pipeline. Linear mixed models were applied to test for the main effects of (a) group, (b) time, and interactions between (c) time and group membership, and (d) age and group membership. Compared with the non-PNS and secondary PNS patient groups, the ePNS group showed cortical thinning over time in temporal regions and a thickening with age primarily in prefrontal areas. Early PNS patients also had significantly different linear and quadratic age relationships with CT compared with other groups within cingulate, prefrontal, and temporal cortices. The current study demonstrates that FEP patients with ePNS show significantly different CT trajectories with age. Increased CT may be indicative of disruptions in cortical maturation processes within higher-order brain regions. Individuals with ePNS underline a unique subgroup of FEP patients that are differentiated at the clinical level and who exhibit distinct neurobiological patterns compared with their non-PNS peers. PMID:27602388

  17. Age-related cortical thickness trajectories in first episode psychosis patients presenting with early persistent negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Carolina; Bodnar, Michael; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has clearly established that early persistent negative symptoms (ePNS) can be observed following a first episode of psychosis (FEP), and can negatively affect functional outcome. There is also evidence for cortical changes associated with ePNS. Given that a FEP often occurs during a period of ongoing complex brain development and maturation, neuroanatomical changes may have a specific age-related component. The current study examines cortical thickness (CT) and trajectories with age using longitudinal structural imaging. Structural T1 volumes were acquired at three time points for ePNS (N=21), PNS due to secondary factors (N=31), non-PNS (N=45) patients, and controls (N=48). Images were processed using the CIVET pipeline. Linear mixed models were applied to test for the main effects of (a) group, (b) time, and interactions between (c) time and group membership, and (d) age and group membership. Compared with the non-PNS and secondary PNS patient groups, the ePNS group showed cortical thinning over time in temporal regions and a thickening with age primarily in prefrontal areas. Early PNS patients also had significantly different linear and quadratic age relationships with CT compared with other groups within cingulate, prefrontal, and temporal cortices. The current study demonstrates that FEP patients with ePNS show significantly different CT trajectories with age. Increased CT may be indicative of disruptions in cortical maturation processes within higher-order brain regions. Individuals with ePNS underline a unique subgroup of FEP patients that are differentiated at the clinical level and who exhibit distinct neurobiological patterns compared with their non-PNS peers.

  18. Age-related cortical thickness trajectories in first episode psychosis patients presenting with early persistent negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Carolina; Bodnar, Michael; Malla, Ashok K; Joober, Ridha; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has clearly established that early persistent negative symptoms (ePNS) can be observed following a first episode of psychosis (FEP), and can negatively affect functional outcome. There is also evidence for cortical changes associated with ePNS. Given that a FEP often occurs during a period of ongoing complex brain development and maturation, neuroanatomical changes may have a specific age-related component. The current study examines cortical thickness (CT) and trajectories with age using longitudinal structural imaging. Structural T1 volumes were acquired at three time points for ePNS (N=21), PNS due to secondary factors (N=31), non-PNS (N=45) patients, and controls (N=48). Images were processed using the CIVET pipeline. Linear mixed models were applied to test for the main effects of (a) group, (b) time, and interactions between (c) time and group membership, and (d) age and group membership. Compared with the non-PNS and secondary PNS patient groups, the ePNS group showed cortical thinning over time in temporal regions and a thickening with age primarily in prefrontal areas. Early PNS patients also had significantly different linear and quadratic age relationships with CT compared with other groups within cingulate, prefrontal, and temporal cortices. The current study demonstrates that FEP patients with ePNS show significantly different CT trajectories with age. Increased CT may be indicative of disruptions in cortical maturation processes within higher-order brain regions. Individuals with ePNS underline a unique subgroup of FEP patients that are differentiated at the clinical level and who exhibit distinct neurobiological patterns compared with their non-PNS peers. PMID:27602388

  19. Radiocarbon ages of terrestrial gastropods extend duration of ice-free conditions at the Two Creeks forest bed, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of terrestrial gastropods that underlie the late Pleistocene Two Creeks forest bed (~ 13,800–13,500 cal yr BP) in eastern Wisconsin, USA provides evidence for a mixed tundra-taiga environment prior to formation of the taiga forest bed. Ten new AMS 14C analyses on terrestrial gastropod shells indicate the mixed tundra-taiga environment persisted from ~ 14,500 to 13,900 cal yr BP. The Twocreekan climatic substage, representing ice-free conditions on the shore of Lake Michigan, therefore began near the onset of peak warming conditions during the Bølling–Allerød interstadial and lasted ~ 1000 yr, nearly 600 yr longer than previously thought. These results provide important data for understanding the response of continental ice sheets to global climate forcing and demonstrate the potential of using terrestrial gastropod fossils for both environmental reconstruction and age control in late Quaternary sediments.

  20. Age Differences in Prenatal Testosterone's Protective Effects on Disordered Eating Symptoms: Developmental Windows of Expression?

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, Kristen M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present series of studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: 1) lower finger-length ratios [index (2D)/ring (4D) finger] (Study 1), and 2) lower disordered eating in females from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  1. Age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: developmental windows of expression?

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Breedlove, S Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L; Keel, Pamela K; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven M; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: (a) lower finger-length ratios (Study 1: index [2D]/ring [4D] finger [2D:4D]) and (b) lower disordered eating in female s from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  2. Age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating symptoms: developmental windows of expression?

    PubMed

    Culbert, Kristen M; Breedlove, S Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L; Keel, Pamela K; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven M; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: (a) lower finger-length ratios (Study 1: index [2D]/ring [4D] finger [2D:4D]) and (b) lower disordered eating in female s from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples.

  3. The allocation of pancreas allografts on donor age and duration of intensive care unit stay: the experience of the North Italy Transplant program.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, Massimo; Nano, Rita; de Fazio, Nicola; Melzi, Raffaella; Drago, Francesca; Mercalli, Alessia; Dell'Acqua, Antonio; Scavini, Marina; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2014-04-01

    Starting in 2011, the North Italy Transplant program (NITp) has based on the allocation of pancreas allografts on donor age and duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, but not on donor weight or BMI. We analyzed the detailed allocation protocols of all NITp pancreas donors (2011-2012; n = 433). Outcome measures included donor characteristics and pancreas loss reasons during the allocation process. Twenty-three percent of the 433 pancreases offered for allocation were transplanted. Younger age, shorter ICU stay, traumatic brain death, and higher eGFR were predictors of pancreas transplant, either as vascularized organ or as islets. Among pancreas allografts offered to vascularized organ programs, 35% were indeed transplanted, and younger donor age was the only predictor of transplant. The most common reasons for pancreas withdrawal from the allocation process were donor-related factors. Among pancreas offered to islet programs, 48% were processed, but only 14.2% were indeed transplanted, with unsuccessful isolation being the most common reason for pancreas loss. Younger donor age and higher BMI were predictors of islet allograft transplant. The current allocation strategy has allowed an equal distribution of pancreas allografts between programs for either vascularized organ or islet transplant. The high rate of discarded organs remained an unresolved issue.

  4. Childhood Symptoms of ADHD Overrule Comorbidity in Relation to Psychosocial Outcome at Age 15: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Norén Selinus, Eva; Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larson, Tomas; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) may influence the transition from childhood to adolescence. Our aim was to study long-term psychosocial outcomes of NDPs, focusing on ADHD. Method Data was collected through a telephone interview with parents of twins at ages 9 or 12 years. NDP screen-positive children were clinically assessed at age 15; N = 450. Psychosocial outcome concerning peers, school, internalizing problems, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and impaired daily functioning was examined. Results Even after controlling for other NDP comorbidity, screen-positivity for ADHD doubled or tripled the odds of later psychosocial problems. When controlling for parental education level, the significant effect of ADHD remained only for antisocial behavior and impaired daily functioning. Conclusions Signs of NDPs as well as other psychiatric diagnoses at ages 9 or 12 years are associated with a more problematic adolescence. However, despite the presence of comorbidity, early ADHD symptoms stand out as the most important risk factor for later antisocial development and impaired daily functioning. PMID:26360378

  5. Does pain mediate or moderate the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older people? Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, C.; Hickey, A.; Conroy, R.; Doyle, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Depression is an increasing problem in older adults, which is exacerbated by under diagnosis and ineffective treatment options. Broadly speaking, as people age, their levels of regular physical activity (PA) decrease, while their experience of chronic pain increases. PA has been shown to be an effective, yet under-utilised, treatment for depression in this age-cohort although the influence of pain on the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms has not been considered. Methods. Secondary analysis of national data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA, 2011) (n = 8163 participants aged 50 years and older) examined the mediating or moderating role of pain in the relationship between depressive symptoms and PA, and the impact of PA, pain and depressive symptoms on health-care utilisation. Results. Approximately 8.5% TILDA older adults were depressed. No mediating or moderating effects of pain were found in the association between PA and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of PA were found to be independently associated with lower depressive symptoms, while higher levels of pain significantly increased the likelihood of depressive symptoms supporting previous findings. Depressive symptoms and higher levels of pain were also found to significantly increase health-care utilisation. Conclusions. Consistent with previous findings in this field, both PA and pain were found to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in Irish older adults. Furthermore, pain does not play a mediating or moderating role in the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. Continued support for ongoing initiatives in this area aimed at increasing PA in older adults as a means to improve both physical and mental well-being is advised. The absence of any synergistic effect between PA and pain suggests that clinicians and health service providers should continue to promote PA as a treatment for depression, irrespective of the pain levels of their

  6. Children's Internal Attributions of Anxiety-Related Physical Symptoms: Age-Related Patterns and the Role of Cognitive Development and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Freher, Nancy Kramer; Duncan, Sylvana; van den Hout, Annemiek

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined age-related patterns in children's anxiety-related interpretations and internal attributions of physical symptoms. A large sample of 388 children aged between 4 and 13 years completed a vignette paradigm during which they had to explain the emotional response of the main character who experienced anxiety-related physical…

  7. A National Study of Autistic Symptoms in the General Population of School-Age Children and Those Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam; Naglieri, Jack A.; Rzepa, Sara; Williams, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interrelationships among symptoms related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a large representative sample and clinical groups of children aged 6 to 11 and youth aged 12 to 18 years rated by parents (N = 1,881) or teachers (N = 2,171). The samples included individuals from the United States and Canada from the standardization…

  8. Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. PMID:20503112

  9. Acute coronary ischemia identified by EMS providers in a standing middle-aged male with atypical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ross, David W; Cooperrider, Chris; Homan, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction have been described to present with atypical symptoms in certain subsets of patients. However, these subsets commonly do not include middle-aged males with a paucity of underlying medical conditions. We present a very unique case of acute coronary syndrome in a 53-year-old male, with no previously identified medical conditions other than chronic back pain. The patient was encountered by rural emergency medical service providers presenting with syncope followed by intermittent episodes of lightheadedness. Further, electrocardiographic changes consistent with acute ischemia could only be demonstrated with the patient in a standing position, prior to the development of an occurrence of ventricular tachycardia, which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is a very rare case of electrocardiographic changes consistent with occult, acute cardiac ischemia with a proven coronary artery lesion seen initially only with the patient in a standing position.

  10. Severity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Middle Aged and Elderly Nigerian Men: Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Philip Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the severity of LUTS among middle aged and elderly Nigerian men and determine the influence of LUTS severity on QoL. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among new patients presenting with LUTS attending Urology clinic between 2011 and 2015. Assessment of symptoms was based on IPSS and bother score completed by the eligible subjects on the same day of their clinic visits. Results. Four hundred patients were studied comprising 229 middle aged and 171 elderly men. Interquartile range (IQR) of IPSS scores for men <65 years and those ≥65 years was 14.0 (16.0) and 19 (15.0), respectively (p < 0.001). Mild LUTS was significantly associated with best, good, and poor quality of life while moderate LUTS was associated with poor QoL. Severe LUTS was significantly associated with all the categories of QoL (Best-Worst). Among the cohort of subjects with poor QoL, elderly patients had a significantly higher median IPSS score (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There is no level of severity of LUTS in which patients' QoL is not impaired although mild symptomatology may be associated with better QoL and severe symptomatology with poor QoL. Careful attention to QoL may help identify patients who require early and prompt treatment irrespective of the IPSS. PMID:27413368

  11. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  12. Children’s Internal Attributions of Anxiety-Related Physical Symptoms: Age-Related Patterns and the Role of Cognitive Development and Anxiety Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Birgit; Freher, Nancy Kramer; Duncan, Sylvana; van den Hout, Annemiek

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined age-related patterns in children’s anxiety-related interpretations and internal attributions of physical symptoms. A large sample of 388 children aged between 4 and 13 years completed a vignette paradigm during which they had to explain the emotional response of the main character who experienced anxiety-related physical symptoms in a variety of daily situations. In addition, children completed measures of cognitive development and anxiety sensitivity. Results demonstrated that age, cognitive development, and anxiety sensitivity were all positively related to children’s ability to perceive physical symptoms as a signal of anxiety and making internal attributions. Further, while a substantial proportion of the younger children (i.e., <7 years) were able to make a valid anxiety-related interpretation of a physical symptom, very few were capable of making an internal attribution, which means that children of this age lack the developmental prerequisites for applying physical symptoms-based theories of childhood anxiety. PMID:20440551

  13. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with HT tended to be small, especially in younger women. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality rates. Given the lower rates of adverse events on HT among women close to menopause onset and at lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease, risk stratification and personalized risk assessment appears to represent a sound strategy for optimizing the benefit: risk profile and safety of hormone therapy. Systemic HT should not be arbitrarily stopped at age 65; instead treatment duration should be individualized based on patients’ risk profiles and personal preferences. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause represents a common condition that adversely impacts the quality of life of many menopausal women. Without treatment, symptoms worsen over time. Low-dose vaginal estrogen represents highly effective treatment for this condition. Because custom-compounded hormones have not been tested for efficacy or safety, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HT is preferred. A low dose formulation of paroxetine mesylate currently represents the only nonhormonal medication FDA-approved to treat vasomotor symptoms. Gynecologists and other clinicians who remain abreast of data addressing the benefit: risk profile of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments can help menopausal women make sound choices regarding management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26348174

  14. Age-related changes in the distributions of depressive symptom items in the general population: a cross-sectional study using the exponential distribution model.

    PubMed

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Ono, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous research has reported inconsistent evidence of the trajectory of depressive symptoms across the adult lifespan. We investigated how the distributions of each item score change with age and determined whether the trajectory of depressive symptoms varied with the scoring methods of the questionnaire. Methods. We analyzed data collected from 21,040 subjects who participated in the national survey in Japan. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The CES-D has 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades of "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." We used the exponential distribution model which fits the distributions of 16 negative symptom items of CES-D, with the probabilities of "some," "much," "most," and "rarely" expressed as P, Pr, Pr (2), and 1 - P × (r (2) + r + 1). Results. The distributions of the responses to 16 negative symptom items followed the common exponential model across all age groups. The mean of the estimated parameter r of 16 negative items showed a U-shape pattern, being high during 12-29 years, remaining low during 30-50 years, and then increasing again over 60 years. The trajectory of depressive symptom scores simulating the binary method was different from that of the empirical scores using the Likert method. Conclusions. Our findings show that the increase in the depressive symptoms score during older age is based on the increase of the parameter r. The differences in the scoring method may contribute to the different age-related patterns across the adult lifespan. PMID:26788427

  15. A study of menopausal symptoms in relation to habits of smoking and make-up using in Japanese women aged 35-59.

    PubMed

    Oi, N; Ohi, K

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a survey to elucidate the influence with menopause symptoms and the impact of not only smoking but also using make-up among for Japanese women, included ages above and below the menopausal generation. The subjects of this study were 335 Japanese women from 35 to 59 years of age who were examined for the first time in the specialized women's outpatient clinic of our institution from July 2010 to June 2011 for 1 year period. We used the items of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Similarly, we analysed the scores in relation to menopausal symptoms and whether the subject smoked, whether the subject used make-up depend on women (including foundation, lip rouge, brush one's eyebrows), how frequently she used make-up. The JMP version 9.0 software program was used to statistically analyse the score data. Significant associations were observed in psychosocial (P = 0.0196), tended to be more severe in women before menopause and after climacteric. Furthermore, the frequency of using make-up were negative relations with menopause symptoms (P = 0.0251) after climacteric. Smoking had made worse for physical symptoms (P < 0.001). Menopause symptoms are already experienced by younger women, especially, psychological symptoms. Also, physical conditions were influenced by smoking. Using make-up frequently was often seen after climacteric because of appearance changes by oestrogen dynamic decline.

  16. Depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants are decreased at 4 months corrected age with Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  17. Obstetric complications and mother’s age at delivery are predictors of eating disorder symptoms among Health Science college students

    PubMed Central

    Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; de Souza, Sandra Lopes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To identify the association between perinatal/neonatal factors and symptoms of eating disorders among college students. Methods Four hundred and eight college students (283 women), aged 18 to 23 years old, enrolled in the first semester of a Bachelor of Health Science degree program were included in the sample. Eating disorder symptoms and body image dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test and Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh. Information regarding birth weight, breastfeeding, obstetric complications, mother’s age at delivery, type of delivery, and birth order were self-reported by the volunteers after consulting their parents. Association between perinatal and neonatal factors and symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were assessed by binary logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index. Results The likelihood of presenting with symptoms of anorexia nervosa was 0.5 time lower for those students born from the oldest mothers (odds ratio – OR=0.37; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.17-0.83). Relative to bulimia nervosa, the risk was higher among students who reported obstetric complications (OR=2.62; 95%CI: 1.03-6.67). Conclusion We observed the association between perinatal and neonatal factors with symptoms of eating disorders in college students. PMID:26676267

  18. Cancer-related PTSD symptoms in a veteran sample: association with age, combat PTSD, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Patidar, Seema M.; Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Naik, Aanand D.; Moye, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is a potentially traumatic experience that may evoke posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among survivors. This paper describes the rates of endorsement of cancer-related PTSS along with the relationship of demographic, cancer, and combat variables on PTSS and quality of life. Methods Veterans (N = 166) with head and neck, esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers were recruited through tumor registries at two regional Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Standardized scales were used to assess self-report of PTSS, combat, and quality of life. Results Most participants (86%) reported experiencing at least some cancer-related PTSS; 10% scored above a clinical cutoff for probable PTSD. In linear regressions, younger age and current combat PTSS were associated with cancer-related PTSS, whereas disease and treatment characteristics were not; in turn, cancer-related PTSS were negatively associated with physical and social quality of life. Conclusions Individual characteristics and psychosocial factors may play a larger role than disease-related variables in determining how an individual responds to the stress of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Given the rates of reported cancer-related PTSS in this sample, and other non-veteran samples, clinicians should consider screening these following diagnosis and treatment, particularly in younger adults and those with previous trauma histories. PMID:24519893

  19. The Association Between Higher Social Support and Lower Depressive Symptoms Among Aging Services Clients is Attenuated at Higher Levels of Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Yan, Li; Podgorski, Carol A.; Conwell, Yeates

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adults seeking services from the Aging Services Provider Network (ASPN) are at risk for depression. ASPN clients also have high prevalence of both functional impairments and social morbidities. Study of the relationships between these factors may inform the development of interventions for depression in this service setting. Methods We interviewed 373 older adults accessing ASPN services and assessed depression symptom severity, functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living and activities of daily living), and social support. Results Lower social support and greater functional impairment were associated with greater depressive symptoms. At a high level of functional impairment, the inverse associations between indices of social support and depressive symptoms were attenuated. Conclusions Results suggest that older adults with more severe functional impairment may benefit somewhat less from increased social support with respect to depression symptom severity. PMID:25663607

  20. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS AND ASSOCIATION WITH LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-induced respiratory symptoms are known to be functions of concentration, minute ventilation, and duration of exposure. The purposes of this study were to identify an exposure-response model for symptoms, to determine whether response was related to age, and to assess the re...

  1. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  2. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  3. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  4. Does Autism Diagnosis Age or Symptom Severity Differ among Children According to Whether Assisted Reproductive Technology Was Used to Achieve Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieve, Laura A.; Fountain, Christine; Boulet, Sheree L.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Rice, Catherine; Bearman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report associations between conception with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and autism. Whether these associations reflect an ascertainment or biologic effect is undetermined. We assessed diagnosis age and initial autism symptom severity among >30,000 children with autism from a linkage study of California Department of…

  5. Association between Types of Involvement in School Bullying and Different Dimensions of Anxiety Symptoms and the Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in Taiwanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Mei-Feng; Kim, Young Shin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent…

  6. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cassandra; Deschênes, Sonya; Au, Bonnie; Smith, Kimberley; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity). Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1) no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717); 2) high depressive symptoms only (n = 338); 3) cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180); and 4) high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219). Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64) for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44) for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94) for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  7. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men. PMID:26791805

  8. Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Brazil (EpiGastro): A population-based study according to sex and age group

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Medeiros da Silva, Aline; Chinzon, Décio; Eisig, Jaime N; Dias-Bastos, Telma RP

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of symptoms consistent with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and dyspepsia in South America. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted among adult owners of land-based telephones in São Paulo, Brazil, using previously validated computer-assisted sampling and survey protocols. The Portuguese-language survey included (1) sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., weight, height, smoking) and comorbidities; (2) dietary habits; (3) presence of symptoms consistent with GERD or dyspepsia within the prior 3 mo; and (4) use of medications and other therapies to manage symptoms. Data were stratified post-hoc into three homogeneous geographical regions of São Paulo according to the Social Exclusion Indices of the districts and postal codes. Survey response data from each respondent were weighted by the numbers of adults and landline telephones in each household. The analyses were weighted to account for sampling design and to be representative of the São Paulo population according to city census data. RESULTS: Among 4570 households contacted, an adult from 3050 (66.7%) agreed to participate. The nonresponse rate was 33.3%. The mean (SE) respondent age was 42.6 (16.0) years. More than half of all respondents were women (53.1%), aged 18 through 49 years (66.7%), married or cohabitating (52.5%), and/or above normal-weight standards (i.e., 35.3% overweight and 16.3% obese). A total of 26.5% of women were perimenopausal. More than 20% of respondents reported highly frequent symptoms consistent with GERD (e.g., gastric burning sensation = 20.8%) or dyspepsia (e.g., abdominal swelling/distension = 20.9%) at least once per month. Prevalences of these symptoms were significantly (approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold) higher among women than men but did not vary significantly as a function of advancing age. For instance, 14.1% of women reported that they experienced stomach burning (symptom of GERD) at least twice per week, compared to 8.4% of men (P

  9. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  10. The impact of the core transformation process on spirituality, symptom experience, and psychological maturity in a mixed age sample in India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Braganza, Dinesh; Piedmont, Ralph L

    2015-06-01

    Research indicates that spiritual and religious constructs have the potential to influence a broad range of outcomes such as health, well-being, and meaning, both positively and negatively. This study looked at the effect of an under studied psycho-spiritual approach, Core Transformation (CT), in reducing symptoms and promoting well-being. This study also examined whether the impact of CT would be moderated by age, with older participants evidencing better outcomes. Participants from an Indian convenience sample (N = 189) ranging in age from 18 to 65 (M = 34) received group training in CT and completed a battery of measures pretest and 4 weeks post-training, which included personality, spirituality, and psychosocial outcomes scales. Repeated-measures MANOVAs indicated significant improvements over time for both spirituality and symptom experience. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for the predictive effects of personality, reaffirmed the incremental validity of Spiritual Transcendence and religious variables in predicting symptom change and outcome ratings. CT did not appear to effect participants levels of psychological maturity. Age was not found to mediate any of these relationships, indicating the age universality of CT's therapeutic effects.

  11. The impact of the core transformation process on spirituality, symptom experience, and psychological maturity in a mixed age sample in India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Braganza, Dinesh; Piedmont, Ralph L

    2015-06-01

    Research indicates that spiritual and religious constructs have the potential to influence a broad range of outcomes such as health, well-being, and meaning, both positively and negatively. This study looked at the effect of an under studied psycho-spiritual approach, Core Transformation (CT), in reducing symptoms and promoting well-being. This study also examined whether the impact of CT would be moderated by age, with older participants evidencing better outcomes. Participants from an Indian convenience sample (N = 189) ranging in age from 18 to 65 (M = 34) received group training in CT and completed a battery of measures pretest and 4 weeks post-training, which included personality, spirituality, and psychosocial outcomes scales. Repeated-measures MANOVAs indicated significant improvements over time for both spirituality and symptom experience. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for the predictive effects of personality, reaffirmed the incremental validity of Spiritual Transcendence and religious variables in predicting symptom change and outcome ratings. CT did not appear to effect participants levels of psychological maturity. Age was not found to mediate any of these relationships, indicating the age universality of CT's therapeutic effects. PMID:25862342

  12. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  13. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  14. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men. PMID:26157634

  15. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  16. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study national baseline.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Strauss, John; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-11-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors.

  17. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  18. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  19. The Relationship Between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J H; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J

    2016-07-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent and later ASD and anxiety symptoms. Greater response amplitude to fearful faces corresponded to greater social communication difficulties at age 3, and less improvement by age 14. Faster ERPs to neutral faces predicted greater ASD symptom improvement over time, lower ASD severity in adolescence, and lower anxiety in adolescence. Early individual differences in processing of emotional stimuli likely reflect a unique predictive contribution from social brain circuitry early in life. PMID:27055415

  20. Self-reported symptoms of chronic cough and breathlessness in working-age men in the city of Izhevsk, Russia: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Sarah; Quint, Jennifer K; Vasiljev, Maxim; Leon, David A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms or their associations with other health conditions in Russia. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, a sample of 983 men resident in Izhevsk, Russia, took part in a cross-sectional survey. Presence of respiratory symptoms was determined from self-report of chronic productive cough and breathlessness assessed using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale. Self-reported physical and mental health were measured using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Hypertension was assessed from mean blood pressure measured at the health check and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Other comorbidities were assessed from self-report. Logistic regression models were fitted assessing the association between respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and self-reported health scores. All models were adjusted for age, education and smoking status. Results The age-standardised prevalence of cough and breathlessness was 20.9% (prevalence with breathlessness MRC grade 3 or above 3.7%). The majority of men with respiratory symptoms (87.3%) were current smokers. Cough and breathlessness were associated with substantially worse self-reported physical and mental health (test for trend with severity of breathlessness p<0.001). Those with chronic cough and grade 3 or above breathlessness had higher odds of having hypertension (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.36 to 6.74), diabetes (OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.69 to 41.37), angina pectoris (OR 7.54; 95% CI 3.61 to 15.73), previous myocardial infarction (OR 7.61; 95% CI 2.10 to 27.4) and previous stroke (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.75 to 23.34) compared with those without respiratory symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high. Strong associations were found between respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular comorbidities. These are of

  1. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  2. Parental Reports of Global Physical Health at Ages 3 and 6 Predict Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms 17 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raikkonen, Katri; Schubert, Carla; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    Research studies testing longitudinal relations between childhood physical health measures and adulthood sub-clinical depressive symptoms are rare. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, longitudinal relations of parental reports of the global physical health of the child (1 = good, 2 = moderately good, 3 = average/not good) and of…

  3. Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Borderline Personality Symptoms at 11-Years of Age: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; Schreier, Andrea; Zanarini, Mary C.; Winsper, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abuse by adults has been reported as a potent predictor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unclear is whether victimisation by peers increases the risk of borderline personality symptoms. Method: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective, longitudinal observation study of 6050 mothers and their…

  4. Associations between Family Relationships and Symptoms/Strengths at Kindergarten Age: What Is the Role of Children's Parental Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Agnes; von Klitzing, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Background: The quality of the family relationships plays an important role in the development of children's psychopathology and in their socio-emotional development. This longitudinal study aims to investigate whether family relationships are related to children's symptoms/strengths at kindergarten, and whether family relationships are predictors…

  5. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding. PMID:26787123

  6. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.

  7. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  8. Effects of gender, age, and diabetes duration on dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Austin, Stéphanie; Senécal, Caroline; Guay, Frédéric; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-09-01

    This study tests a model derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 2000) to explain the mechanisms by which non-modifiable factors influence dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 289). SEM analyses adjusted for HbA1c levels revealed that longer diabetes duration and female gender were indicative of poorer dietary self-care. This effect was mediated by contextual and motivational factors as posited by SDT. Poorer autonomy support from practitioners was predominant in girls with longer diabetes duration. Perceived autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were indicative of greater autonomy support, and led to better dietary self-care.

  9. We Have the Spaceship; But Where's the Start Button: Human Engineering Issues in the Age of Long Duration Space Exploration - Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George; Adams, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the following considerations for human factors engineering during long duration human space flight: gravitational adaptation, 2-D to 3-D adaptation, handles, exercise posture, and space ergonomics. The presentation argues that there is an urgent need to advance research is these areas in preparation for future manned missions.

  10. Association between environmental factors and current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province – Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 2340 children attending the fifth grade in 36 randomly selected elementary schools in Oropeza province. The prevalence of symptoms was determined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Environmental factors were assessed by the ISAAC environmental questionnaire including questions related to exposure to pets, farm animals, indoor and outdoor pollution, presence of disease vectors at home and precarious household conditions. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex and place of living. Results Thirty seven percent of children reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. Wood or coal was used as cooking fuel in 19% of the homes and 29% reported intense truck traffic on the street where they lived. With respect to hygiene conditions, 86% reported exposure to dogs, 59% exposure to cats and 36% regular contact to farm animals. More than one precarious household condition was reported by 8% of children. In the adjusted model exposure to dog (adjusted OR 1.4; CI 95% 1.0-1.9), cat (1.2; 1.0-1.5), farm animals (1.5; 1.2-1.8); intense truck traffic (1.3; 1.0-1.6), parents smoking at home (1.2; 1.0-1.5), presence of disease vectors at home (fourth quartile vs. first quartile: 1.6; 1.2-2.3) and two or more precarious household conditions (1.5; 1.0-2.2) were significantly associated with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. The associations were similar for asthma and eczema symptoms; however it did not reach

  11. The effects of age, gender, hopelessness, and exposure to violence on sleep disorder symptoms and daytime sleepiness among adolescents in impoverished neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, Anneliese C; Bolland, Kathleen A; Tomek, Sara; Bolland, John M

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep problems are associated with negative outcomes among adolescents, studies have not focused on sleep disorder symptoms among adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods and how sleep problems may be related to two factors common in those environments: hopelessness and exposure to violence. This study used data from the longitudinal Mobile Youth Survey (MYS; N = 11,838, 49% female, 93% African-American) to examine trajectories of sleep problems by age (10-18 years) among impoverished adolescents as a function of gender, feelings of hopelessness, and exposure to violence. The results indicate that sleep problems associated with traumatic stress decline with age, with four notable distinctions. First, the steepest decline occurs during the early adolescent years. Second, the rate of decline is steeper for males than for females. Third, exposure to violence impedes the rate of decline for all adolescents, but more dramatically for females than for males. Fourth, the rate of decline is smallest for adolescents with feelings of hopelessness who also had been exposed to violence. To explore the generalizability of these results to other types of sleep disorders, we analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a subsample of 14- and 15-year-old MYS participants (N = 263, 49% female, 100% African-American) who completed a sleep symptoms questionnaire. Four results from the cross-sectional analysis extend the findings of the longitudinal analysis. First, the cross-sectional results showed that symptoms of apnea, insomnia, nightmares, and restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder (RLS/PLMD), as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as a function of hopelessness. Second, symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and nightmares, as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as function of exposure to violence. Third, symptoms of insomnia and RLS/PLMD are greater under conditions of combined hopelessness and exposure to violence than for either condition alone

  12. Gender, age, and place of residence as moderators of the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation among Australian gay men and lesbians.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.

  13. Are different measures of depressive symptoms in old age comparable? An analysis of the CES-D and Euro-D scales in 13 countries.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Emilie; Knapp, Martin; Grundy, Emily; Avendano-Pabon, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) and the Euro-D are commonly used depressive symptom scales but their comparability has not been assessed to date. This article aims to contribute to the literature comparing the drivers of depression in old age across countries by examining whether CES-D (in its eight-item short version) and Euro-D are comparable. Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, N = 15,487) covering 13 countries was used to examine the scales' distributional properties, systematic differences between population subgroups, sensitivity and specificity, and associations with established risk factors for depression in old age. CES-D and Euro-D were strongly correlated (r = 0.6819, p < 0.000). However, agreement between the two scales was moderate. There were systematic discrepancies in scores by demographic characteristics. CES-D captures a more extreme pool of depressed individuals than Euro-D. Although associations with risk factors are always in the same direction, they are often stronger for CES-D than Euro-D. Findings highlight the need to be cautious when comparing depression levels and associations with risk factors between surveys using different measures of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [How traumatized are the children of World War II? The relationship of age during flight and forced displacement and current posttraumatic stress symptoms].

    PubMed

    Wendt, Carolin; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic events experienced in childhood can be reactivated in older age. The present study investigates the relation of age during flight and forced displacement within World War II (WWII; 2-7 years, 8-13 years, 14-20 years) and the current occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events and current posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Impact of Event Scale-revised. Mean age of participants (N=169) was 73.76 years (SD=4.18). The eldest group reported most war-related traumatic events. In each age group a one-week-prevalence for a full PTSD of 10-11% was found. The prevalence for both full and subthreshold PTSD was higher for the age group 14-20 years (60.5%) compared to the younger age groups (33-35%). People, who experienced WWII as adolescents, show a dose-response-effect indicated by a higher prevalence for subthreshold PTSD.

  15. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  16. U-Pb garnet, sphene, monazite, and rutile ages: Implications for the duration of high-grade metamorphism and cooling histories, Adirondack Mts. , New York

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, K.; Rawnsley, C.M.; Hanson, G.N. ); Bohlen, S.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Garnet ages for the Lowlands range from 1,168-1,127 Ma, those from the central and southern Highlands from 1,154-1,013 Ma. Metamorphism in the Highlands may not have occurred as a single event but rather in several discrete thermal pulses. An age of 1,153 {plus minus} 3 Ma was determined for garnets in the syn-regional metamorphic contact aureole of the Diana syenite, consistent with that of the syenite intrusion, 1 155 {plus minus} 4 Ma. Garnets just outside the contact aureole give an age of 1,168 {plus minus} 6 Ma. In the Lowlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,161 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 1,005 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 953 {plus minus} 4 Ma, and sphene ages range from 1,156 to 1,103 Ma. In the Highlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,033 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 911 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 885 {plus minus} 2 and sphenes from 1,033 Ma to 991 Ma. The rutile and monazite ages indicate that both terranes cooled at time-integrated rates of ca. 1.5C/Ma for at least 150 Ma following the last phase of high-grade metamorphism. The Lowlands cooled to ca. 400C by ca. 1,000 Ma and the Highlands by ca. 900 Ma. The mineral ages indicate that metamorphic pressures and temperatures recorded by thermobarometry correspond to conditions attained polychronically over 150 Ma or more. Mineral ages combined with temperature estimates for peak metamorphism indicate that the closure temperature for the U-Pb system is >800C in garnet, 640-730C in monazite, and 500-670C in sphene.

  17. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  18. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  19. Changes in activity and interest in the third and fourth age: associations with health, functioning and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kathryn Betts; Roberts, Amy Restorick; Cole, Marilyn B

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the changes in activity investment among older adults and the role of these changes in the relationship between health limitations and depression. Residents of six senior living facilities (N = 178) completed questionnaires including the Geriatric Depression Scale, health and functioning measures and the Revised Change in Activity and Interest Index (CAII-R) which measures self-perceived changes in the level of investment in social and leisure activities among older adults. Respondents indicated more disengagement from CAII-R subscales Active Instrumental (AI) and Active Social (AS) and increased engagement in Passive Social Spiritual. Fourth Age adults (age 80+) reported greater reductions in AI than Third Age adults (age 64-79). Reduced AS investment had the strongest association with depression and mediated the relationship between poor health or functioning and depression. These categories of activity may guide occupational therapy practitioners and other health providers in selecting the focus of intervention for older clients according to their identified life stage. The study provides evidence of distinct differences in interests within the parameters of normal aging and a baseline from which to assess the impact of illness and disability on the activity choices for clients in different life stages. PMID:20931622

  20. Ergotism in Norway. Part 1: The symptoms and their interpretation from the late Iron Age to the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Alm, Torbjørn; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-03-01

    Ergotism is a horrendous disease with grotesque symptoms caused by ingesting specific ergot alkaloids. Mass poisoning episodes are attributable to consumption of grain - usually rye - infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. By focusing on possible cases of ergotism, we re-examine Norwegian history from the sagas through to the end of the seventeenth century. Our review - not intended to be exhaustive, or ex post facto to assign medical or psychiatric labels - draws attention to the very real possibility that many remarkable medical cases may have been the result of the ingestion of highly poisonous and psychoactive food substances. Where possible we highlight explanations given at the time - often rooted in religion or demonology - to explain the disease. PMID:24572795

  1. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of <13 had resolution of their symptoms within 28 days of injury. Conclusions: The only independent predictor of prolonged symptoms after sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  2. Development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30 month follow up data from the DANDY study

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, J; Savageau, J; Rigotti, N; Fletcher, K; Ockene, J; McNeill, A; Coleman, M; Wood, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there is a minimum duration, frequency or quantity of tobacco use required to develop symptoms of dependence. Design and setting: A retrospective/prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of tobacco dependence employing individual interviews conducted three times annually in two urban school systems over 30 months. Detailed histories of tobacco use were obtained including dates, duration, frequency, quantity, patterns of use, types of tobacco, and symptoms of dependence. Participants: A cohort of 679 seventh grade students (age 12–13 years). Main outcome measures: The report of any of 11 symptoms of dependence. Results: Among 332 subjects who had used tobacco, 40% reported symptoms, with a median latency from the onset of monthly smoking of 21 days for girls and 183 days for boys. The median frequency of use at the onset of symptoms was two cigarettes, one day per week. The report of one or more symptoms predicted continued smoking through the end of follow up (odds ratio (OR) 44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17 to 114, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Symptoms of tobacco dependence commonly develop rapidly after the onset of intermittent smoking, although individuals differ widely in this regard. Girls tend to develop symptoms faster. There does not appear to be a minimum nicotine dose or duration of use as a prerequisite for symptoms to appear. The development of a single symptom strongly predicted continued use, supporting the theory that the loss of autonomy over tobacco use begins with the first symptom of dependence. PMID:12198274

  3. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  4. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. PMID:24784325

  5. Premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  6. Screening of Tanzanian women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis: validity of urine reagent strip readings and self-reported symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, G.; Krantz, I.; Kiwelu, I.; Feldmeier, H.

    2000-01-01

    The screening of women of childbearing age for haematuria, leukocyturia and proteinuria to detect urinary schistosomiasis can be confounded by several factors such as menstruation, pregnancy and genitourinary infections. We therefore undertook a study in an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium in the United Republic of Tanzania to carry out the following: assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values--in women of childbearing age--of indirect indicators of urinary schistosomiasis, as measured by urine reagent strip readings; assess the predictive values of self-reported symptoms; and finally to estimate the morbidity attributable to S. haematobium. A total of 303 women (128 and 175, respectively, living in high- and low-risk sites) participated in the study. Haematuria was more frequent among women excreting S. haematobium eggs than among those who did not (65% versus 32%). The predictive potential of all indirect disease markers was poor in the highly endemic site, while in the sites with low endemicity the negative predictive values were high. Among infected women, 54% of haematuria could be attributed to S. haematobium, but for patients with more than 10 eggs/10 ml the attributable fraction rose to 70%. Symptoms of "bloody urine" and "pain while urinating" were recalled significantly more often by women living in the highly endemic site. On a population level, one-third of the self-reported cases with bloody urine could be attributed to urinary schistosomiasis. Screening of women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis using urine reagent strips can be biased in two directions. The prevalence of S. haematobium will be overestimated if other causes of haematuria, such as reproductive tract infections, are highly endemic. On the other hand, women with light or very light infections will be missed and will not be treated. This is of concern because genital schistosomiasis, a possible risk factor for the transmission of HIV, occurs among

  7. A general practice based survey of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and its relation to symptoms, sex, age, atopy, and smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, C J; Bennett, J B; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; D'Souza, M F; Davies, R J

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence and associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated in a general practice population. The sample was obtained by using every 12th patient on the practice age-sex register, replacing non-responders with corresponding age and sex matched individuals from up to two further 1 in 12 samples. The response rate was 43%; 366 patients were studied. Doubling concentrations of methacholine were given to a maximum of 32 mg/ml or until a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred (provocation concentration, PC20FEV1). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was defined arbitrarily as a PC20FEV1 of 2 mg/ml or less (or 11 mumol cumulative dose, PD20FEV1). The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was 23%. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not associated with age but was more prevalent in women than men (31%:13%). It was also more common in those who had ever wheezed (39%) and in those who had had an attack of rhinitis in the preceding month (45%, p less than 0.1), in atopic individuals (30%), and in smokers (32%), but it was not associated with cough or dyspnoea. There was a positive correlation between PC20FEV1 and resting FEV1 (r = 0.288) and a negative correlation between PC20FEV1 and mean daily peak flow variability (r = -0.356). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed significant independent effects on PC20FEV1 for mean daily peak flow variability, gender, number of positive skin test responses, resting FEV1, and mean histamine skin weal area, but no relation with smoking or mean allergen weal area. The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was much higher than the prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the practice in 1984 (4.9%). Analysis of case notes of 169 individuals showed that those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness had not attended the practice more frequently for respiratory complaints during the previous five years. Images PMID:2256016

  8. Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years

    PubMed Central

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6%) and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate directions of associations

  9. The importance of illness duration, age at diagnosis and the year of diagnosis for labour participation chances of people with chronic illness: results of a nationwide panel-study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to participation rates among general populations, participation of people with chronic illness in the labour market lags behind. This is undesirable, both from the perspective of individuals’ well-being as from a macro-economic perspective for western countries where concerns exist about labour supply and sustainability of social security in the near future. To help develop successful policy measures to prevent early drop-out and support reintegration, we aimed to gain insight into the role of three age related characteristics that may relate to labour participation chances of people with chronic illness: the duration of their illness, how old they were when the chronic disease was diagnosed and the historical year in which the diagnosis was established. Methods We analyzed data of one (first) measurement of several cohorts of people diagnosed with a somatic chronic disease, who (had) participated in the Dutch ‘National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability’ since 1998 (N = 4634 in total). Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate random effects of the age at diagnosis and the year of diagnosis and fixed effects of illness duration on labour participation, while correcting for the effects of socio-demographic and disease characteristics and socio-economic indicators. Results A significant part of the variation in labour participation among people with chronic illness relates to the age they had when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, a longer illness duration is significantly associated with a lower chance of being economically active. This is more the case for men than for women. Labour participation of cancer survivors depends on the phase of the illness they find themselves in. No evidence was found that the year in which the diagnosis was established matters for employment chances later in life. Conclusion Age at diagnosis and illness duration relate to chronically ill people’s chances to

  10. Stroke symptoms with absence of recognized stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in older adults with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Jesse S.; Clay, Olivio J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported stroke symptoms may represent unrecognized cerebrovascular events leading to poorer cognitive and mental health. We examined relationships between stroke symptoms, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in a high-risk sample: 247 adults age ≥65 with diabetes. Stroke symptoms were assessed using the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-free Status, cognitive impairment was measured with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and depressive symptoms were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. In 206 participants without history of stroke/TIA, 27.7% reported stroke symptoms, with sudden loss of comprehension most frequently reported (11.7%). Having >1 vs. 0 stroke symptoms was associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment (OR=3.04, 95% CI, 1.15–8.05) and more depressive symptoms (b =2.60, p<.001) while controlling for age, race, gender, education, diabetes duration, diabetes severity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Better recognition and treatment of cerebrovascular problems in older adults with diabetes may lead to improved cognition and mental health. PMID:26801916

  11. Stroke Symptoms With Absence of Recognized Stroke Are Associated With Cognitive Impairment and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Passler, Jesse S; Clay, Olivio J; Wadley, Virginia G; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Self-reported stroke symptoms may represent unrecognized cerebrovascular events leading to poorer cognitive and mental health. We examined relationships between stroke symptoms, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in a high-risk sample: 247 adults aged ≥65 with diabetes. Stroke symptoms were assessed using the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-free Status, cognitive impairment was measured with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and depressive symptoms were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. In 206 participants without history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, 27.7% reported stroke symptoms, with sudden loss of comprehension most frequently reported (11.7%). Having >1 versus 0 stroke symptoms was associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.15-8.05) and more depressive symptoms (b= 2.60,P< .001) while controlling for age, race, gender, education, diabetes duration, diabetes severity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Better recognition and treatment of cerebrovascular problems in older adults with diabetes may lead to improved cognition and mental health.

  12. Patient perspectives associated with intended duration of buprenorphine maintenance therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Barth, Kelly S.; Back, Sudie E.; Aronson, Garrett; Book, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with opioid use disorders frequently discontinue opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) prematurely, reducing retention and possibly limiting the efficacy of OMT. The current study is a cross-sectional survey of patients (N = 69) enrolled in buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT). We examined patient demographics, BMT characteristics (e.g., dose, time in BMT), and patient perspectives regarding intended duration of BMT. In addition, patients’ reasons for continuing or discontinuing BMT were investigated. Results revealed that the majority (82%) of participants reported wanting to continue BMT for at least 12 months. Age at first drug use, time in BMT, concern about pain, and concern about relapse were all positively associated with intended duration of BMT. The following were negatively associated with intended duration of BMT: recent discussion with a treatment provider about BMT discontinuation, prior attempt to discontinue BMT, concern about withdrawal symptoms, experiencing pleasurable effects from taking buprenorphine, and perceived conflicts of BMT with life, work, or school obligations. The most common reasons for wanting to continue BMT included concerns about withdrawal symptoms, relapse, and pain. Although preliminary, the findings highlight key issues with regard to patients’ perspectives of BMT. The results of this study provide information that may be useful in improving OMT programs and treatment outcomes. PMID:25899872

  13. Patient Perspectives Associated with Intended Duration of Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bentzley, Brandon S; Barth, Kelly S; Back, Sudie E; Aronson, Garrett; Book, Sarah W

    2015-09-01

    Patients with opioid use disorders frequently discontinue opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) prematurely, reducing retention and possibly limiting the efficacy of OMT. The current study is a cross-sectional survey of patients (N=69) enrolled in buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT). We examined patient demographics, BMT characteristics (e.g., dose, time in BMT), and patient perspectives regarding intended duration of BMT. In addition, patients' reasons for continuing or discontinuing BMT were investigated. Results revealed that the majority (82%) of participants reported wanting to continue BMT for at least 12months. Age at first drug use, time in BMT, concern about pain, and concern about relapse were all positively associated with intended duration of BMT. The following were negatively associated with intended duration of BMT: recent discussion with a treatment provider about BMT discontinuation, prior attempt to discontinue BMT, concern about withdrawal symptoms, experiencing pleasurable effects from taking buprenorphine, and perceived conflicts of BMT with life, work, or school obligations. The most common reasons for wanting to continue BMT included concerns about withdrawal symptoms, relapse, and pain. Although preliminary, the findings highlight key issues with regard to patients' perspectives of BMT. The results of this study provide information that may be useful in improving OMT programs and treatment outcomes.

  14. Predicting prolonged duration of fever in children: a cohort study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Elshout, Gijs; Kool, Marijke; Bohnen, Arthur M; Koes, Bart W; Moll, Henriëtte A; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Fever in children in primary care is commonly caused by benign infections, but often worries parents. Information about the duration of fever and its predictors may help in reassuring parents, leading to diminished consultation of health care. Aim To determine which signs and symptoms predict a prolonged duration of fever in febrile children in primary care and evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement has an additive predictive value for these symptoms. Design and setting A prospective cohort study at a GPs’ cooperative (GPC) out-of-hours service. Method Children (aged 3 months to 6 years) presenting with fever as stated by the parents were included. Exclusion criteria were no communication in Dutch possible, previous enrolment in the study within 2 weeks, referral to the hospital directly after visiting the GPC, or no informed consent. The main outcome measure was prolonged duration of fever (>3 days) after initial contact. Results Four-hundred and eighty children were analysed, and the overall risk of prolonged duration was 13% (63/480). Multivariate analysis combined model of patient history and physical examination showed that ‘sore throat’ (OR 2.8; 95% CI = 1.30 to 6.01) and ‘lymph nodes palpable’ (OR 1.87; 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.49) are predictive for prolonged duration of fever. The discriminative value of the model was low (AUC 0.64). CRP had no additive value in the prediction of prolonged duration of fever (OR 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.01). Conclusion The derived prediction model indicates that only a few signs and symptoms are related to prolonged duration of fever. CRP has no additional value in this model. Overall, because the discriminative value of the model was low, the duration of fever cannot be accurately predicted. PMID:26324494

  15. The association of gynecological symptoms with psychological distress in women of reproductive age: a survey from gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M. M.; Bogner, H. R.; Gallo, J. J.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    To date there has been no previous research into a possible association between psychological distress and gynecologic symptoms in the Arab world. We hypothesized that psychological distress would be associated with specific gynecologic complaints as well as with psychosocial factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon. The study sample consisted of 355 women aged 18 to 49 years who were seeking healthcare from gynecologists affiliated with two general teaching hospitals in Beirut. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Gynecologic complaints were assessed by asking women about presenting gynecologic symptoms. Women who visited the gynecologists for specific complaints, for post-surgical follow-up, or for insertion of coils or other services were more likely to be distressed than women who were attending for a general checkup (χ2= 9.466, p = 0.024). About 50% of women who reported abdominal pain or breast pain also reported significant psychological distress. Only bleeding and infertility were not significantly associated with psychological distress. It is concluded that a high proportion of women who attend gynecology clinics with specific complaints report psychological distress. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the psychological component of gynecological morbidity. PMID:14584304

  16. Normative Data on Anxiety Symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents: Differences in Sex, Age, and Residence and Comparison with an American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yen, Ju-Yu; Hsu, Fan-Ching; Yang, Pinchen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the differences in the levels of anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) between Taiwanese children and adolescents and the original American standardization sample across gender and age, and to examine differences in sex, age, and residential…

  17. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J

    2010-06-01

    Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed.

  19. Practitioner Empathy and the Duration of the Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Rakel, David P.; Hoeft, Theresa J.; Barrett, Bruce P.; Chewning, Betty A.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Niu, Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of empathy in medical consultations to subsequent cold outcomes. Methods 350 subjects, ≥12 years of age received either a standard or enhanced physician visit as part of a randomized controlled trial. The patient-scored Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) questionnaire assessed practitioner-patient interaction, especially empathy. Cold severity and duration were assessed from twice daily symptom reports. Nasal wash was performed to measure the immune cytokine IL-8. Results 84 individuals reported perfect (score of 50) CARE scores. They tended to be older with less education, but reported similar health status, quality of life, and levels of optimism. In those with perfect CARE scores, cold duration was shorter (mean 7.10 days vs. 8.01 days, p=0.032), and there was a trend towards reduced severity (mean AUC 240.40 vs. 284.49, p=0.118). After accounting for possible confounding variables, cold severity and duration were significantly lower in those reporting perfect CARE scores (p=0.037 and p=0.017 respectively). In these models, a perfect score also correlates with a larger increase in IL-8 levels (p=0.015). Conclusions Clinician empathy, as perceived by patients with the common cold, significantly predicts subsequent duration and severity of illness and is associated with immune system changes. PMID:19582635

  20. Hey Mr. Sandman: dyadic effects of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep among married couples.

    PubMed

    Revenson, Tracey A; Marín-Chollom, Amanda M; Rundle, Andrew G; Wisnivesky, Juan; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-04-01

    This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women. PMID:26546242

  1. Age and Duration of Weathering by 40K-40Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Analysis of Potassium-Manganese Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, P M; Becker, T A; Renne, P R; Brimhall, G H

    1992-10-16

    Supergene cryptomelane [K(1-2)(Mn(3+)Mn(4+))(8)O(16). chiH(2)O] samples from deeply weathered pegmatites in southeastern Brazil subjected to (40)K-(40)Ar and (40)Ar/(39)Ar analysis yielded (40)K-(40)Ar dates ranging from 10.1 +/- 0.5 to 5.6 +/- 0.2 Ma (million years ago). Laser-probe (40)Ar/(39)Ar step-heating of the two most disparate samples yielded plateau dates of 9.94 +/- 0.05 and 5.59 +/- 0.10 Ma, corresponding, within 2 sigma, to the (40)K-(40)Ar dates. The results imply that deep weathering profiles along the eastern Brazilian margin do not reflect present climatic conditions but are the result of a long-term process that was already advanced by the late Miocene. Weathering ages predate pulses of continental sedimentation along the eastern Brazilian margin and suggest that there was a time lag between weathering and erosion processes and sedimentation processes.

  2. Anthrax: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands Inhalation anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Chest Discomfort Shortness of breath Confusion or dizziness ... aches Gastrointestinal anthrax symptoms can include: Fever and chills Swelling of neck or neck glands Sore throat ...

  3. On the Age, Duration and Eruptive History of the Karoo Flood Basalt: new results from the Oxbow-Moteng Pass Sections (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.; Marsh, J.; Delpech, G.; Quidelleur, X.; Gerard, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Karoo traps in southern Africa have been linked to the (relatively small) Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinctions. In an attempt to understand why the extinction was far less severe than the one at the KT boundary (related to the Deccan traps and Chicxulub impact), we have undertaken a large sampling program for mainly paleomagnetism and geochronology. A first 800 m thick section of the traps at Naude's Nek (NN), near the southern border of Lesotho, has been published (Moulin et al, 2011). We have next investigated the Moteng Pass and Oxbow sections some 200 km to the North, where lava thickness reaches almost 1500 m. Our age determinations (40K-40Ar Cassignol-Gillot and 40Ar/39Ar techniques) show that the whole lava pile was emplaced in a relatively short time around the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary. Detailed flow-by-flow magnetostratigraphy shows that the eruptive sequences can be divided into several volcanic pulses and interbedded individual lava flows. Based on archeomagnetic estimates of the velocity of secular variation, we estimate that total eruption time may have been as short as a few thousand years. However, we cannot determine the amount of time elapsed between successive volcanic pulses, which is of course required to fully reconstruct the eruptive sequence. Combined with previously published sections covering much of Lesotho (NN, Bushmen's Pass - Prévot et al, 2003 -, Mafika Lisiu and Sani Pass - Kosterov and Perrin, 1996), these new results allow the correlation of numerous directional groups and allow one to partly reconstruct and constrain the eruptive history of the Drakensberg group of the Karoo LIP.

  4. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function changes among carpet weavers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Karimiani, Ehsagh Ghayoor; Vostacolaei, Hossein Ahmadzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory and allergic symptoms were evaluated in 66 Iranian carpet weavers and 66 controls with similar age and gender characteristics using a questionnaire including questions on work-related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergies, smoking habits, and work exposure duration. A total of 28 carpet weavers (42%) reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Incidences of allrespiratory symptoms and most allergic symptoms were significantly higher in carpet weavers than in controls (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Moreover, most respiratory and allergic symptoms in carpet weavers were significantly more prominent during working hours (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Pulmonary function test results of the carpet weavers showed significant impairment compared with controls (p<0.05 - p<0.001).

  5. Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities. PMID:24970987

  6. Impact of exposure to community violence, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Gustav on posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms among school age children.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Carter, Paulette; Burch, Berre; Garfinkel, Abbe; Overstreet, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Gustav and distress among 122 children (ages 7-12) to determine whether that relationship was moderated by prior experiences with Hurricane Katrina and exposure to community violence (ECV). Measures of hurricane experiences, ECV, posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and depression were administered. Assessments occurred after the third anniversary of Katrina, which coincided with the landfall of Gustav. Results indicated that the relation between exposure to Gustav and PTS was moderated by prior experiences. There was a positive association between Gustav exposure and PTS for children who experienced high Katrina exposure and low ECV, with a similar trend for children with high ECV and low Katrina exposure. There was no relationship between Gustav exposure and PTS for children with low Katrina and low ECV or for children with high Katrina and high ECV. The relationship between exposure to Gustav and depression was not moderated by children's prior experience. However, there was a relationship between Katrina exposure and depression for children with high ECV. Results suggest that prior trauma may amplify the relationship between hurricane exposure and distress, but children with high cumulative trauma may remain highly symptomatic regardless of disaster exposure.

  7. Longitudinal modelling of respiratory symptoms in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Fritz, Gisela; Herbarth, Olf; Richter, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapour pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modelling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979). This approach (1) comprises an extension using environmental parameters at different time scales, (2) addresses the suitability of using the daily fraction of symptomatic individuals to account for inter-individual interactions and (3) enables the most significant weather effects to be identified. The resulting model consisted of (1) an individual specific intercept that takes account of the population's heterogeneity, (2) the individual's health status the day before, (3) a long-term meteorological effect, which may be either the squared temperature or global radiation in interaction with temperature, (4) the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide, and (5) the short-term effect of an 8-h ozone concentration above 60 µg/m3. Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates. Individuals suffering from allergy have been identified as a group of a particular susceptibility to ozone. The duration of respiratory symptoms appears to be free of scale and follows an exponential distribution function, which confirms that the symptom record of each individual follows a Poisson point-process. This supports the assumption that not only respiratory diseases, but also respiratory symptoms can be considered an independent measure for the health status of a population sample. Since a point process is described by only one parameter (namely the intensity of the

  8. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing 20 and 40 mg of pantoprazole for symptom relief in adolescents (12 to 16 years of age) with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An age-appropriate questionnaire (GASP-Q) was used to assess the frequency and severity of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms: abdominal/belly pain, chest pain/heartburn, pain after eating, nausea, burping/belching, vomiting/regurgitation, choking when eating, and difficulty swallow...

  9. Psychological Symptoms Among 2032 Youth Living with HIV: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Laura; Harper, Gary W.; Nichols, Sharon; Nieves, Amethys

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study determined the prevalence and patterns of psychological symptoms in adolescents and young adults living with HIV (YLWH) in medical care and relationships between psychological symptoms, route and duration of infection, and antiretroviral treatment (ART). A clinic-based sample of 2032 YLWH (mean age 20.3 years), recruited from 20 adolescent medicine HIV clinics, completed a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors and psychological symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Overall, 17.5% of youth reported psychological symptoms greater than the normative threshold on the Global Severity Index. A wide variety of symptoms were reported. The prevalence of clinical symptoms was significantly greater in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV compared to those with perinatally acquired infection (20.6% vs. 10.8%, OR=2.06 in Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR)), and in those not taking ART that had been prescribed (29. 2% vs. 18.8%, OR=1.68 in MLR). Knowing one's HIV status for more than one year and disclosure of HIV status were not associated with fewer symptoms. A large proportion of YLWH have psychological symptoms and the prevalence is greatest among those with behaviorally acquired infection. The high rate of psychological symptoms for youth not taking ART that is prescribed is a cause for concern. Symptoms do not appear to be a transient reaction to diagnosis of HIV. PMID:25585049

  10. Psychological symptoms among 2032 youth living with HIV: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Larry K; Whiteley, Laura; Harper, Gary W; Nichols, Sharon; Nieves, Amethys

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and patterns of psychological symptoms in adolescents and young adults living with HIV (YLWH) in medical care and relationships between psychological symptoms, route and duration of infection, and antiretroviral treatment (ART). A clinic-based sample of 2032 YLWH (mean age 20.3 years), recruited from 20 adolescent medicine HIV clinics, completed a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors and psychological symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Overall, 17.5% of youth reported psychological symptoms greater than the normative threshold on the Global Severity Index. A wide variety of symptoms were reported. The prevalence of clinical symptoms was significantly greater in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV compared to those with perinatally acquired infection (20.6% vs. 10.8%, OR=2.06 in Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR)), and in those not taking ART that had been prescribed (29. 2% vs. 18.8%, OR=1.68 in MLR). Knowing one's HIV status for more than one year and disclosure of HIV status were not associated with fewer symptoms. A large proportion of YLWH have psychological symptoms and the prevalence is greatest among those with behaviorally acquired infection. The high rate of psychological symptoms for youth not taking ART that is prescribed is a cause for concern. Symptoms do not appear to be a transient reaction to diagnosis of HIV.

  11. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  12. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study. PMID:26603959

  13. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Self-Report Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Dutch Adolescents at Ages 12, 14, and 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Grootheest, Daniel S.; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Cath, Danielle C.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of genetic and environmental factors to the development of obsessive compulsion symptoms during the adolescent period is examined. Study revealed that individual differences in OC symptoms are heritable during puberty and shared environmental influences played a role only in the beginning of adolescence but no sex differences in…

  14. The Effect of Social Isolation on Depressive Symptoms Varies by Neighborhood Characteristics: A Study of an Urban Sample of Women with Pre-School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; O'Campo, Patricia; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Muntaner, Carles

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how individual characteristics, social isolation, and neighborhood context affect depressive symptoms in a socio-economically diverse population of women with young children. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 261 mothers from 68 neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1998 and 2000. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the Greek general population: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Spantideas, Nikolaos; Drosou, Eirini; Bougea, Anastasia; Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Population-based data regarding the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Greece are very poor. This study estimated the prevalence of GERD symptoms and their risk factors in the Greek adult population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by a randomly selected population of 340 subjects. The question regarding “heartburn, chest pain, indigestion, or stomach acid coming up” as included in the Reflux Symptom Index was used for prevalence assessment. Results The monthly prevalence of GERD symptoms was found to be 52.0% in the Greek general population, with no statistically significant difference between the two sexes (P>0.05). The age group of 65–79 years showed a higher prevalence rate of GERD. Symptom severity was found to be mild (59.3%) or moderate (27.1%). The number of cigarettes smoked daily (but not smoking duration) as well as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed daily (but not the duration of alcohol drinking) were found to be related to GERD symptoms. No reported concomitant disease or medication was found to be related with GERD symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the Greek general population was found to be 52.0%. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but not concomitant disease or medications were found to be related with GERD symptoms. PMID:27382324

  16. Higher HEI-2005 scores associated with reduced symptoms of depression in an urban population: Findings from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Cremer, Alexandra; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression affects over 15 million Americans in a given year. Compared to physical health, less is known about the affect of diet quality on symptoms of depression. Objective This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and reported symptoms of depression in a low-income urban population. Subjects/setting Subjects included 1,118 African American and white adults, aged 30–64 years, living in Baltimore, MD and represented a sub-sample of the initial examination and recruitment phase of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Methods Nutrition data were based on two 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained interviewers using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a trained interviewer using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Statistical analysis Both linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether or not diet quality was associated with depressive symptoms. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms and independent variables included HEI-2005, race, sex, age, education, income, and food assistance program participation. Results Mean HEI-2005 score (± SEM) was 52.17 ± 0.40 (out of 100). Mean CES-D score was 11.64 ± 0.25 (out of 40). Diet quality was significantly associated with reported symptoms of depression. However, income was a significantly stronger predictor of depression compared to diet quality, education and sex. Conclusion Registered dietitians should be aware of relationship between psychological status and nutritional health when assisting clients to better manage their food choices to improve their overall health and quality of life. PMID:20184988

  17. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  18. Plague Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  19. Symptoms of Generalised Anxiety disorder but not Panic Disorder at age 15 increase the risk of depression at 18 in the ALSPAC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Simon J C; Pearson, Rebecca; Stapinski, Lexine; Bould, Helen; Christmas, David M; Button, Katherine S; Skapinakis, Petros; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Panic Disorder (PD) differ in their biology and co-morbidities. We hypothesised that GAD but not PD symptoms at 15 are associated with depression diagnosis at 18. Methods Using longitudinal data from the ALSPAC birth cohort we examined relations of GAD and PD symptoms (measured by DAWBA) at 15 to depression at 18 (by CIS-R) using logistic regression. We excluded adolescents already depressed at 15 and adjusted for social class, maternal education, birth order, gender, alcohol intake and smoking. We repeated these analyses following multiple imputation for missing data. Results In the sample with complete data (n=2835), high and moderate GAD symptoms in adolescents not depressed at 15, were associated with increased risk of depression at 18 both in unadjusted analyses and adjusting for PD symptoms at 15 and the above potential confounders. The adjusted OR for depression at 18 in adolescents with high relative to low GAD scores was 5.2 [95% C.I. 3.0 - 9.1; overall p<0.0001]. There were no associations between PD symptoms and depression at 18 in any model (high relative to low PD scores, adjusted OR= 1.3 [95% C.I. 0.3 - 4.8], overall p=0.737). Missing data imputation strengthened the relations of GAD symptoms with depression (high relative to low GAD scores, OR= 6.2, [95% C.I. 3.9 - 9.9]) but those for PD became weaker. Conclusion Symptoms of GAD but not PD at 15 are associated with depression at 18. Clinicians should be aware that adolescents with GAD symptoms may develop depression. PMID:26315278

  20. Correlates of urinary symptom scores in men.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Lee, K E; Bruskewitz, R C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their relationship to characteristics of a cohort of men in Beaver Dam, Wis, from 1993 to 1995. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire concerning urinary symptoms (the American Urological Association Urinary Symptom Questionnaire) was administered. RESULTS: All outcomes were associated with age and history of enlarged prostate. Urinary frequency (57%) and nocturia (65%) were the most common individual symptoms. Diuretic usage, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, and smoking were related to specific symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While urinary symptoms are associated with age and history of enlarged prostate, symptoms may also be attributable to other diseases and exposures. PMID:10553401

  1. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: SÃntomas Prevent Dehydration Drink plenty of liquids to replace fluids that ...

  2. Rotavirus Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  3. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and…

  4. Phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in female patients with goiter.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Dowli, Alexander; Jabbour, Jad; Sabri, Alain; Azar, Sami T

    2016-07-01

    Our objective is to report on the prevalence of phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in a group of female patients with goiter who had not been selected for surgery or who had not presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress. A total of 40 patients with goiter and 14 controls were enrolled in this study. Demographic data included age, sex, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, allergy, smoking, duration of disease, presence or absence of compressive symptoms, presence or absence of thyroid gland nodules, vascular status, presence or absence of calcifications, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Phonatory symptoms included hoarseness, vocal fatigue, vocal straining, lump sensation, and aphonia. The Voice Handicap Index 10 was used to assess the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life. The most common phonatory symptom in the patients with goiter was vocal fatigue followed by lump sensation. The only phonatory symptom that was significantly more present in patients with goiter was vocal straining. As for the impact of phonatory symptoms on quality of life, 15.8% of goiter patients had a Voice Handicap Index score >7 compared with 7.7% of controls. Phonatory symptoms are common in patients with goiter, with vocal straining occurring significantly more frequently than in controls. In 1 of 6 patients, the presence of phonatory symptoms had an impact on quality of life. PMID:27434485

  5. [Taking into account both chronology and duration of events is crucial in the medical interview].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2016-03-01

    Medical history taking represents a key step in the diagnostic approach. A structured interview with a special attention to the chronology of events is mandatory. The medical student often fails to use the information on time in an optimal way. The aim of this article is to draw the attention on a few key elements, especially the age of the patient, the duration of symptoms, the time of occurrence of complaints within the 24h period and, finally, how to interpret the simultaneous or sequential occurrence of two (or more) events.

  6. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    PubMed

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  7. Menstruation: symptoms, management and attitude of female nursing students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Moronkola, O A; Uzuegbu, V U

    2006-12-01

    This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and mean of menstrual cycle was 28 days. Out of the 120 study participants, 93% were having menstruation regularly. More participants experienced symptoms during premenstrual periods than menstrual periods. Majority (70%) used sanitary pad to manage their menstruation, 93% had positive attitude towards menstruation while only 20% consulted medical doctors whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for many of the participants whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms It was recommended that authorities in schools of nursing should not overlook reproductive health needs of students. Also teaching of reproductive health education early in primary and secondary schools should be encouraged.

  8. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  9. Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira; Barros, José Cerqueira; Oliveira, Fabrício Borges; Brunherotti, Marisa Andrade; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results.

  10. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  11. Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.

    PubMed Central

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Estryn-Behar, M; Maillard, M F; Mugnier, N; Masson, A; Monod, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched by hospital, sex, occupation, age, and duration of service. SUBJECTS--557 exposed workers and 566 unexposed workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The groups were compared according to the crude rates of regular symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risks associated with exposure to anaesthetic gas. Liver transaminase activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (s-ASAT, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were measured and compared between groups of exposure. RESULTS--After controlling for working conditions and matching factors, neuropsychological symptoms and tiredness were reported more by workers in less often scavenged theatres than by controls. No difference was found between workers of the well scavenged theatres and controls. Among the exposed workers, the members of paediatric surgical staffs reported a higher rate of neurological complaints (tingling, numbness, cramps) and tiredness than the members of the other surgical staffs. They had a high value of s-ASAT more frequently than the other exposed workers. CONCLUSION--These results strengthen the hypothesis of a causal relation between exposure to anaesthetics and neuropsychological symptoms, and show a dose-response effect. They suggest that the use of ventilating systems in operating rooms is an effective means of prevention. PMID:1571297

  12. The impact of sleep duration on adolescent development: a genetically informed analysis of identical twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J C; Meldrum, Ryan C

    2015-02-01

    Recent work provides evidence that reduced sleep duration has detrimental effects on a range of developmentally related outcomes during adolescence. Yet, the potential confounding influence of genetic and shared environmental effects has not been sufficiently addressed. This study addresses this issue by analyzing cross-sectional data from the twin sub-sample of the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health [N ≈ 287 MZ (monozygotic) twin pairs; 50% male; 22% Black; mean age = 15.75]. Associations between sleep duration (measured through two different strategies, one tapping number of hours slept at night and the other measuring weeknight bedtimes) and seven outcomes (self-control, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, body mass index, violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use) were estimated. Consistent with prior research, associations between sleep duration and several outcomes were statistically significant when using standard social science analytic methods. Yet, when employing a methodology that accounts for genetic and shared environmental influences, some of these associations were reduced to non-significance. Still, two consistent associations remained in that participants who reported sleeping fewer hours at night (or who reported later bedtimes) exhibited lower levels of self-control and more depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. The impact of sleep duration on adolescent development: a genetically informed analysis of identical twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J C; Meldrum, Ryan C

    2015-02-01

    Recent work provides evidence that reduced sleep duration has detrimental effects on a range of developmentally related outcomes during adolescence. Yet, the potential confounding influence of genetic and shared environmental effects has not been sufficiently addressed. This study addresses this issue by analyzing cross-sectional data from the twin sub-sample of the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health [N ≈ 287 MZ (monozygotic) twin pairs; 50% male; 22% Black; mean age = 15.75]. Associations between sleep duration (measured through two different strategies, one tapping number of hours slept at night and the other measuring weeknight bedtimes) and seven outcomes (self-control, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, body mass index, violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use) were estimated. Consistent with prior research, associations between sleep duration and several outcomes were statistically significant when using standard social science analytic methods. Yet, when employing a methodology that accounts for genetic and shared environmental influences, some of these associations were reduced to non-significance. Still, two consistent associations remained in that participants who reported sleeping fewer hours at night (or who reported later bedtimes) exhibited lower levels of self-control and more depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24915970

  14. Prospective associations between sedentary time, sleep duration and adiposity in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collings, Paul J.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Bamber, Diane; Goodyer, Ian; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether objectively measured sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with changes in adiposity from mid- to late adolescence. Methods Students (n = 504, 42% boys) were recruited from schools in Cambridgeshire, UK. At baseline (mean age 15.0 ± 0.3 years), sedentary time was objectively measured by ≥3 days of combined heart rate and movement sensing. Concurrently, sleep duration was measured by combined sensing in conjunction with self-reported bed times. Fat mass index (FMI; kg/m2) was estimated at baseline and follow-up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. FMI change (ΔFMI) was calculated by subtracting the baseline from follow-up values. Linear regression models adjusted for basic demographics, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and depressive symptoms were used to investigate associations of sedentary time and sleep duration (mutually adjusted for one another) with ΔFMI. Results FMI increased by 0.5 and 0.6 kg/m2 in boys and girls, respectively, but there was no association between sedentary time and ΔFMI in either gender (p ≥ 0.087), and no association between sleep duration and ΔFMI in girls (p ≥ 0.61). In boys, each additional hour of baseline sleep significantly reduced the ΔFMI by 0.13 kg/m2 (p = 0.049), but there was little evidence for this association after adjusting for MVPA and depressive symptoms (p = 0.15). Conclusions Sedentary time may not determine changes in adiposity from mid- to late adolescence, nor may sleep duration in girls. However, sleep length may be inversely associated with adiposity gain in boys, depending on whether the relationship is confounded or mediated by MVPA and depression. PMID:25959093

  15. Menopausal status, moderate-intensity walking, and symptoms in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, JoEllen; Miller, Arlene Michaels; McDevitt, Judith; Wang, Edward; Miller, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical trial study was to determine the effectiveness of a 24-week, home-based, moderate-intensity, walking intervention in improving symptoms (vasomotor, uro-genital/sexual, sleep, psychological, cognitive, physical) experienced by midlife women. One hundred and seventy-three Caucasian and African American women aged 45 to 65 who were not on hormone therapy, had no major signs or symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and were sedentary in their leisure activity were randomly assigned to the moderate-intensity walking group or the nonexercise control group. The exercise prescription was walking at a frequency of 4 times a week for a duration of 20 to 30 minutes. The symptom impact inventory included the frequency, intensity, and bothersomeness of 33 symptoms collected at baseline and 24 weeks. Adherence was measured with a heart rate monitor and exercise log. Average adherence to frequency of walking was 71.6% of the expected walks. After 24 weeks, there were no differences between the walking and control group on change in symptoms. However, multiple regression revealed that frequency of adherence to walking along with change in physical symptoms and menopausal status were significant predictors of change in sleep symptoms. While walking did not improve most symptoms experienced by midlife women, frequency of walking may improve sleep. PMID:16025696

  16. Symptoms: Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra D

    2015-01-01

    Lymphedema is one of the main late effects from breast cancer treatment affecting 3-60% of breast cancer survivors. Primarily occurring in the hand, arm, and/or affected breast, symptoms of lymphedema include swelling, pain, redness, restriction of arm/hand movement, tightness and feelings of fullness. These symptoms not only may limit physical functioning but also negatively affect quality of life, body image, social functioning, and financial status of breast cancer survivors with lymphedema. Unfortunately, there are no standardized methods for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema. Despite its prevalence and lack of clinical guidelines, lymphedema is one of the most poorly understood, relatively underestimated, and least researched complications of cancer treatment. This chapter reviews the current problem of breast cancer-related lymphedema by investigating prevention and risk reduction strategies, diagnosis, and treatment. In addition, this chapter identifies future research opportunities focusing on prevention and risk reduction strategies, quality of life and physical function, surveillance, patient education, cost, diagnosis, and treatment. Challenges and recommendations for future research in these areas, particularly among underserved populations, are discussed. PMID:26059932

  17. Association Between Sleep Problems and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence: Results From a Large Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Lundervold, Astri J; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems and symptoms of ADHD are common in adolescence, but detailed epidemiological assessment of their association is lacking. Using data from a recent population-based study, 9,846 adolescents aged 16 to 19 provided detailed information on sleep and symptoms of ADHD. Results confirmed a large overlap between self-reported symptoms of ADHD and all sleep variables studied. Symptoms of ADHD were linked to shorter sleep duration, longer sleep latency, and nocturnal wake time, as well as larger sleep deficiency. ADHD symptoms also increased the odds of insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. The associations were only partially explained by confounders (mainly depression). The findings suggest that sleep problems should be included as a treatment target in efforts to reduce symptoms of ADHD in adolescence. PMID:26503122

  18. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates symptoms of premature aging associated with the deficiency of the circadian protein BMAL1

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Kondratova, Anna A.; Antoch, Marina P.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the circadian clock protein BMAL1 leads to premature aging and increased levels of reactivate oxygen species in several tissues of mice. In order to investigate the role of oxidative stress in accelerated aging and development of age-related pathologies, we continuously administered the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine toBmal1-deficient mice through their entire lifespan by supplementing drinking water. We found that the life long treatment with antioxidant significantly increased average and maximal lifespan and reduced the rate of age-dependent weight loss and development of cataracts. At the same time, it had no effect on time of onset and severity of other age-related pathologies characteristic of Bmal1-/- mice, such as joint ossification, reduced hair regrowth and sarcopenia. We conclude that chronic oxidative stress affects longevity and contributes to the development of at least some age-associated pathology, although ROS-independent mechanisms may also play a role. Our bioinformatics analysis identified the presence of a conservative E box element in the promoter regions of several genes encoding major antioxidant enzymes. We speculate that BMAL1 controls antioxidant defense by regulating the expression of major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20157581

  19. Long Duration Sorbent Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Knox, James C.; Long, David A.; Miller, Lee; Cmaric, Gregory; Thomas, John

    2016-01-01

    The Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST) is a flight experiment demonstration designed to expose current and future candidate carbon dioxide removal system sorbents to an actual crewed space cabin environment to assess and compare sorption working capacity degradation resulting from long term operation. An analysis of sorbent materials returned to Earth after approximately one year of operation in the International Space Station's (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) indicated as much as a 70% loss of working capacity of the silica gel desiccant material at the extreme system inlet location, with a gradient of capacity loss down the bed. The primary science objective is to assess the degradation of potential sorbents for exploration class missions and ISS upgrades when operated in a true crewed space cabin environment. A secondary objective is to compare degradation of flight test to a ground test unit with contaminant dosing to determine applicability of ground testing.

  20. Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Drivers of All-Terrain Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    REHN, B.; BERGDAHL, I. A.; AHLGREN, C.; FROM, C.; JÄRVHOLM, B.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; NILSSON, T.; SUNDELIN, G.

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize the risk of experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms in the region of the neck, shoulders and upper and lower back for professional drivers of various categories of all-terrain vehicles and to assess the association between symptoms and duration of exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock from driving all-terrain vehicles. The study group consisted of 215 drivers of forest machines, 137 drivers of snowmobiles and 79 drivers of snowgroomers and a control group of 167 men randomly selected from the general population. The subjects were all from one of the four most northern counties in Sweden and they were all men. Musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed by use of a standardized questionnaire. In addition, the questionnaire held items about the driving time with all-terrain vehicles and a subjective estimation of exposure to unpleasant movements (shock, jolt, irregular sway). The job strain was measured according to Karasek's demands/control model. The prevalence ratios were adjusted for age, smoking and job strain. Among drivers, significantly increased prevalence ratios within the range of 1∂5-2·9 were revealed for symptoms from the neck-shoulder and thoracic regions during the previous year. None of the driver categories had a statistically significantly increased risk of low back pain. Forest vehicles were those most reported to cause unpleasant movements. In conclusion, drivers of all-terrain vehicles exhibit an increased risk of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck-shoulder and thoracic regions. The increased risk is suggested to be related to physical factors such as exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock, static overload or extreme body postures. However, since symptoms of low back pain were not significantly increased, it appears that factors other than WBV would explain the occurrence of symptoms in the group of all-terrain drivers.

  1. Impact of Major Depression and Subsyndromal Symptoms on Quality of Life and Attitudes toward Aging in an International Sample of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Fleck, Marcelo; Laidlaw, Ken; Power, Mick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of major depression on quality of life (QOL) and aging experiences in older adults has been reported. Studies have demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis of major depression is the strongest predictor for QOL. We postulate that some findings are biased because of the use of inadequate instruments. Although subsyndromal…

  2. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  3. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  4. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11386.001 PMID:26641377

  5. The effectiveness of massage therapy in the treatment of infantile colic symptoms: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sheidaei, Ali; Abadi, Alireza; Zayeri, Farid; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Gazerani, Nafiseh; Mansouri, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infantile colic, cry-fuss and sleep problems are transient in the initial months of life, but they contribute to maternal depression, parenting stress and family mental health problems. In this randomized clinical trial, we aimed to explore the efficacy of massage therapy compared to rocking in reducing infantile colic symptoms including duration and number of cries, sleep duration and severity of infant colic. Methods: This was a single blind RCT study with a one-week follow-up. One hundred colicky infants aged younger than 12 weeks old were randomly assigned into massage and rocking groups. Infants in the massage group received a massage for 15-20 minutes once during a day and once at night before sleeping for a week. In the control group, mothers rocked their infants gently for 5-25 minutes when the symptoms of colic appeared. Parents recorded the details of the colic symptoms in a diary every day. A GEE approach was applied to explore the effect of the intervention. Results: Efficiency of massage therapy was significantly higher than rocking. At the end of the study, the mean number of daily cries was 4.26±1.40 in the massage and 6.9±2.14 the rocking groups (p<0.01). The mean of the severity score was 1.39±0.19 less in the massage group (p<0.01). Moreover, the mean differences of massage and rocking groups were -0.82±0.20 hour (p<0.01) and 0.72±0.35 (p= 0.04) in the duration of cries and duration of sleep, respectively. Conclusion: Massaging significantly improved colic symptoms during a one-week intervention for all outcomes. In addition, significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups in favor of massaging. Therefore, massage therapy is more effective than rocking for treating infant colic symptoms. PMID:27453882

  6. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  7. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  8. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  9. Frailty Characteristics in Chronic HIV Patients are Markers of White Matter Atrophy Independently of Age and Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Sakoda, Marissa; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Umaki, Tracie; Chow, Dominic; Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic HIV disease is associated with neurocognitive impairment and age-related conditions such as frailty. Objective To determine whether regional brain volumetric changes correlate with frailty parameters in older (≥ 40 years) HIV+ patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. Method Thirty-five HIV-infected participants in the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort - Cardiovascular Disease study underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging, frailty assessment and neuropsychological testing. Five physical frailty traits were assessed: low physical activity; exhaustion; unintentional weight loss; weak hand grip strength; slow walking speed. Linear regression quantified cross-sectional relationships of 12 brain regions to walking times and hand grip strength. Results Participants were 50.6 ± 6.8 years old and 77% had undetectable plasma viral load. One subject was frail (possessing ≥ 3 frailty traits); 23% were pre-frail (1–2 frailty traits) and had worse composite learning and memory z-scores than did non-frail individuals (p=0.06). Pre-frail or frail subjects had reduced hand grip strength relative to the non-frail group (p=0.001). Longer walking times (slower gait) related independently to lower volumes of cerebellar white matter (p<0.001, β=−0.6) and subcortical gray matter (p<0.05, β=−0.30). Reduced thalamus volume was linked to weaker grip strength (p < 0.05, β=0.4). Caudate volume was negatively associated with grip strength (p<0.01, β=−0.5). Conclusion Volumetric changes in cerebellar white matter and subcortical gray matter, brain regions involved in motor control and cognition, may be connected to frailty development in well-controlled HIV. Gait speed is particularly sensitive to white matter alterations and should be investigated as a predictor of frailty and brain atrophy in chronically infected patients. PMID:27721908

  10. Recalled Initiation and Duration of Maternal Breastfeeding Among Children with and Without ADHD in a Well Characterized Case-Control Sample.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Diane D; Musser, Erica D; Holton, Kathleen F; Shannon, Jackilen; Nigg, Joel T

    2016-02-01

    Early environmental influences are increasingly of interest in understanding ADHD as a neurodevelopmental condition, particularly in light of recognition that gene by environment interplay are likely involved in this condition. Breastfeeding duration predicts cognitive development, as well as development of brain white matter connectivity, in areas similar to those seen in ADHD. Prior studies show an association between breastfeeding and ADHD but without adequate evaluation of ADHD. A case control cohort of 474 children aged 7-13 years was examined, 291 with well characterized ADHD (71.5 % male) and the rest typically developing controls (51.9 % male). Mothers retrospectively reported on breast feeding initiation and duration. Initiation of breastfeeding was not associated with child ADHD, but shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with child ADHD with a medium effect size (d = 0.40, p < 0.05); this effect held after covarying a broad set of potential confounders, including child oppositional defiant and conduct problems and including maternal and paternal ADHD symptoms. Effects were replicated across both parent and teacher ratings of child ADHD symptoms. Shorter duration of breastfeeding is among several risk factors in early life associated with future ADHD, or else longer duration is protective. The direction of this effect is unknown, however. It may be that some children are more difficult to breastfeed or that breastfeeding provides nutrients or other benefits that reduce future chance of ADHD. PMID:25749651

  11. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a study in a large clinical sample of patients using a novel automated method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Foskett, Nadia; Gorrell, Genevieve; Hayes, Richard D; Jackson, Richard; Johnston, Caroline; Shetty, Hitesh; Roberts, Angus; McGuire, Philip; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 7678 patients with schizophrenia receiving care during 2011. Main outcome measures Hospital admission, readmission and duration of admission. Results 10 different negative symptoms were ascertained with precision statistics above 0.80. 41% of patients had 2 or more negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were associated with younger age, male gender and single marital status, and with increased likelihood of hospital admission (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.39), longer duration of admission (β-coefficient 20.5 days, 7.6–33.5), and increased likelihood of readmission following discharge (OR 1.58, 1.28 to 1.95). Conclusions Negative symptoms were common and associated with adverse clinical outcomes, consistent with evidence that these symptoms account for much of the disability associated with schizophrenia. Natural language processing provides a means of conducting research in large representative samples of patients, using data recorded during routine clinical practice. PMID:26346872

  12. NASA's extended duration orbiter medical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee; Sawin, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The physiological issues involved in safely extending Shuttle flights from 10 to 16 days have been viewed by some as academic. After all, they reasoned, humans already have lived and worked in space for periods exceeding even 28 days in the United States Skylab Program and onboard the Russian space stations. The difference in the Shuttle program is in the physical position of the astronauts as they reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Crewmembers in the earlier Apollo, Skylab, and Russian programs were returned to Earth in the supine position. Space Shuttle crewmembers, in contrast, are seated upright during reentry and landing; reexperiencing the Earth's g forces in this position has far more pronounced effects on the crewmember's physiological functions. The goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Medical Project (EDOMP) has been to ensure that crewmembers maintain physiological reserves sufficient to perform entry, landing, and egress safely. Early in the Shuttle Program, it became clear that physiological deconditioning during space flight could produce significant symptoms upon return to Earth. The signs and symptoms observed during the entry, landing, and egress after Shuttle missions have included very high heart rates and low blood pressures upon standing. Dizziness, 'graying out,' and fainting have occurred on ambulation or shortly thereafter. Other symptoms at landing have included headache, light-headedness, nausea and vomitting, leg cramping, inability to stand for several minutes after wheel-stop, and unsteadiness of gait.

  13. Pseudomigraine with temporary neurological symptoms and lymphocytic pleocytosis. A report of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aranda, F; Cañadillas, F; Martí-Massó, J F; Díez-Tejedor, E; Serrano, P J; Leira, R; Gracia, M; Pascual, J

    1997-07-01

    This is the first large series, comprising 50 patients who suffered a total of 164 episodes, of pseudomigraine with temporary neurological symptoms and lymphocytic pleocytosis (PMP syndrome). Onset of PMP was between the ages of 14 and 39 years and was most frequent in males (68%). Eight males (24%) and five females (31%) had a personal history of migraine. One-quarter had had a viral-like illness up to 3 weeks prior to the onset of the syndrome. The clinical picture consisted of one to 12 episodes of changing variable neurological deficits accompanied by moderate-to-severe headache and occasionally fever. The headaches were described as predominantly throbbing and bilateral with variable duration (mean, 19 h). The mean duration of the transient neurological deficits was 5 h. Sensory symptoms were most common (78% of episodes), followed by aphasic (66%) and motor (56%) symptoms. Visual symptoms appeared in only 12% of episodes. The most frequent combinations were motor aphasia plus sensory and motor right hemibody symptoms (19% of episodes), motor aphasia plus right sensory symptoms (10%) and isolated right (9%) or left (9%) sensory symptoms. All patients were asymptomatic between episodes and following the symptomatic period (maximum duration 49 days). Lymphocytic pleocytosis ranged from 10 to 760 lymphocytic cells/mm3 CSF (mean, 199). In CSF, protein was increased in 96% of patients, IgG was normal in 80% of cases and oligoclonal bands were not found. Adensoine deaminase values were slightly above normal in two out of 16 patients tested. Extensive microbiological determinations, including viral HIV and borrelia serologies, were negative. Brain CT and MRI were always within normal limits, while EEG frequently showed focal slowing. Conventional cranial angiography was performed on 12 patients. In only one were there abnormalities suggestive of localized vascular inflammation, coincident with the focal neurological symptoms. Two patients developed PMP symptoms

  14. Age at menarche and digit ratio (2D:4D): relationships with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Oinonen, Kirsten A; Bird, Jessica L

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that lower prenatal androgen exposure and earlier puberty are associated with more dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Relationships between both age at menarche (AAM) and 2D:4D (a marker of prenatal androgen exposure), and EDI-2-Body Dissatisfaction, EDI-2-Drive for Thinness, and EDI-2-Bulimia scores, were examined in women using correlations and regressions. Earlier menarche was associated with higher drive for thinness after controlling for BMI and negative affect, but only in women who were not exclusively heterosexual. Higher 2D:4D was associated with higher Bulimia and Body Dissatisfaction scores, but only in exclusively heterosexual women, and relationships disappeared when covariates were controlled. Later AAM and higher 2D:4D were unique predictors of higher Bulimia scores for exclusive heterosexuals when BMI was controlled. These findings suggest future research should examine sexual orientation as a mediator or moderator of prenatal and postnatal organizational hormonal effects on women's disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.

  15. Factors that Influence Weekday Sleep Duration in European Children

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Sabrina; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare nocturnal sleep duration in children from 8 European countries and identify its determinants. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary schools and preschools participating in the IDEFICS study. Participants: 8,542 children aged 2 to 9 years from 8 European countries with complete information on nocturnal sleep duration. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements: Nocturnal sleep duration was assessed by means of a computer based parental 24-h recall. Data on personal, social, environmental, and behavioral factors were collected by means of standardized parental questionnaire. Physical activity was surveyed with accelerometers. Results: Nocturnal sleep duration in the participating countries ranged from 9.5 h (SD 0.8) in Estonia to 11.2 h (SD 0.7) in Belgium and differed significantly between countries (P < 0.001) in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses, with children from northern countries sleeping the longest. Sleep duration decreased by about 6 min with each year of age over all countries. No effect of season, daylight duration, overweight, parental education level, or lifestyle factors could be seen. Conclusion: Sleep duration differs significantly between countries. Our findings allow for the conclusion that regional affiliation, including culture and environmental characteristics, seems to overlay individual determinants of sleep duration. Citation: Hense S; Barba G; Pohlabeln H; De Henauw S; Marild S; Molnar D; Moreno LA; Hadjigeorgiou C; Veidebaum T; Ahrens W. Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. SLEEP 2011;34(5):633-639. PMID:21532957

  16. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: determination of the optimal medical treatment duration].

    PubMed

    Zavadenko, N N; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 23 boys and 9 girls, aged 6-12 years, were examined in two months intervals during the long-term treatment (up to 6-8 months) with pantogam (homopantothenic acid) in daily dosages of 500-1000 mg. The treatment results were evaluated by the ADHD Rating Scale-DSM-IV and The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale - Parent Report (WFIRS-P). While the core symptoms of ADHD were according ADHD-DSM-IV diminished after 2 months, the improvement of WFIRS-P parameters required the longer duration of medical treatment. Only after 4 months of treatment, the improvement was achieved in selfesteem and social activities, and after 6 months in learning and behavior at school as well as in the level of life skills along with the decrease of risky activities. Thus, getting over psychosocial adaptation problems needs the longer treatment duration than the decrease of ADHD core symptoms. PMID:22500309

  17. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young. PMID:25991931

  18. Factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Filipin, Douglas; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Meyer, Carolina; Louzada, Fernando Mazilli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents from Maravilha – Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 516 adolescents aged 10–19 years of both genders. Issues associated with short sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status were investigated. Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (<8h on school days) was 53.6%. Adolescents aged 17–19 years showed a 2.05-fold (95%CI: 1.20–3.50) greater prevalence of short sleep duration than those aged 10–12 years. The ones studying in morning and evening shifts had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration compared to those in the afternoon shift. Older age and school shift were the main factors associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescents from Maravilha showed high prevalence of short sleep duration, and older adolescents that studied in the morning and evening shifts showed reduced sleep. PMID:26559604

  19. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Ribeiro, L. Christine; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Martin, David S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a spaceflight-associated medical condition consisting of a constellation of symptoms affecting approximately 70 percent of American astronauts who have flown long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS). VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures and has been hypothesized to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance and have significant consequences during and post spaceflight. Purpose: The primary objective is to determine whether alterations in vascular compliance are related to the incidence of VIIP. Ocular structural and functional measures and vascular ultrasound of the head and neck were acquired in bed rest subjects completing 10-14 days in 6deg head-down tilt. Specific Aims: To evaluate the effect of age and simulated spaceflight (6 degrees head-down bed rest and sodium ingestion similar to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts) on vascular compliance and on the development of VIIP.

  20. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Ali; Rao, Santosh; Li, Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P = 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P = 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P = 0.052), but it remained statistically significant (P = 0.049) among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings. PMID:24319459

  1. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirstie N.; Denton, Sarah J.; Oliver, James; Catt, Michael; Abell, Jessica G.; Kivimäki, Mika; Trenell, Michael I.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012–2013) participants aged 60–83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal) sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings) agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34) and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42). This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a “count” based, device specific method. PMID:26569414

  2. Symptom Recognition and Healthcare Experiences of Young Women with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Judith H.; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C.; Watanabe, Emi; Allen, Norrina B.; Garavalia, Brian; Garavalia, Linda S.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Curry, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prompt recognition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms and timely care-seeking behavior are critical to optimize acute medical therapies. Relatively little is known about the symptom presentation and care-seeking experiences of women aged ≤55 years with AMI, a group shown to have increased mortality risk as compared with similarly aged men. Understanding symptom recognition and experiences engaging the healthcare system may provide opportunities to reduce delays and improve acute care for this population. Methods and Results We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 30 women (aged 30-55 years) hospitalized with AMI to explore their experiences with prodromal symptoms and their decision-making process to seek medical care. Five themes characterized their experiences: 1) prodromal symptoms varied substantially in both nature and duration; 2) they inaccurately assessed personal risk of heart disease and commonly attributed symptoms to non-cardiac causes; 3) competing and conflicting priorities influenced decisions about seeking acute care; 4) the healthcare system was not consistently responsive to them, resulting in delays in workup and diagnosis; and 5) they did not routinely access primary care, including preventive care for heart disease. Conclusions Participants did not accurately assess their cardiovascular risk, reported poor preventive health behaviors, and delayed seeking care for symptoms, suggesting that differences in both prevention and acute care may be contributing to young women's elevated AMI mortality relative to men. Identifying factors that promote better cardiovascular knowledge, improved preventive health care, and prompt care-seeking behaviors represent important targets for this population. PMID:25714826

  3. Is physical activity causally associated with symptoms of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; Lichtenstein, Paul; Rydell, Mina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) enhances cognition and may be a protective factor for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet, the impact of PA on ADHD symptoms has only been investigated in a few undersized, non-randomised and retrospective studies. We examined the effect of PA during late adolescence on ADHD symptoms in early adulthood while controlling for unmeasured genetic and shared environmental confounding. Methods The effect of PA at age 16-17 (baseline) on ADHD symptoms at age 19-20 (follow-up) was examined using a within-monozygotic twins fixed-effects model in 232 monozygotic twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. Parents rated their children’s DSM ADHD symptoms at baseline and follow-up. Participants’ weekly energy expenditure (in metabolic equivalent task minutes/ week) was based on self-reports at baseline of PA frequency, intensity and duration. Results Greater weekly energy expenditure in adolescence was significantly associated with reduced ADHD symptom levels in early adulthood, even when controlling for unmeasured confounding (all genetic and shared environmental factors shared within MZ twin pairs) and ADHD symptoms and BMI at baseline, β = - 0.21, p=0.013 (95% CI= -0.38 – -0.05). Similar results were observed for the two ADHD sub-components; hyperactivity/ impulsivity, β = -0.21, p=0.022 (95% CI= -0.39 – -0.03), and inattention, β = -0.19, p=0.049 (95% CI= -0.36 – -0.0005). Conclusion In line with a causal hypothesis, PA was inversely associated with ADHD symptoms, even after adjusting for unmeasured confounding. These findings suggest that PA in adolescence might decrease ADHD symptoms in early adulthood. However, given the size of the effect, the clinical value of this intervention needs to be explored further. PMID:26088661

  4. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35 kg/m2 (N = 114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m2) completed the GI symptoms survey between August 2011 and April 2012 were included in this study. The survey included 24 items pertaining to upper and lower GI symptoms. The participants rated the frequency of symptoms as absent (never, rarely) or present (occasionally, frequently). The symptoms were clustered into five categories: oral symptoms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p < 0.005 for each). After adjusting for age and gender, the obese patients were more likely to have upper GI symptoms: any oral symptom (OR = 2.3, p = 0.0013), dysphagia (OR 2.9, p = 0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p < 0.0001). Similarly, the obese patients were more likely to have lower GI symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR = 1.7, p = 0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR = 2.8, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These observations suggest a statistically significant increase in frequency of both upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

  5. Associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Pirjo; Laukkanen, Eila; Kylmä, Jari

    2010-02-01

    This longitudinal study explored associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood. The baseline data were collected in 1996 from 14-year-old pupils (n = 235; 116 girls, 119 boys) at schools using a structured questionnaire that included a 14-item scale of psychosomatic symptoms. The follow-up data were collected in 2006 from the same persons at the age of 24 using the Symptom Checklist-90. Follow-up questionnaires were returned by 149 (63.4%) young adults (88 women and 61 men). Young adults who had many psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence suffered more often than the others from somatization and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. In addition, women had more symptoms of depression and paranoid ideation, and men had more interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms. Psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence might be important signals of mental health and this should be taken seriously in school health and in general primary care. PMID:20158547

  6. Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sejeong; Park, So Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Hong, Soo Min; Chon, Suk; Oh, Seungjoon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Young Seol

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rebamipide is an effective gastric cytoprotective agent, but there are few data on its usefulness in T2DM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the improvement of GI symptoms after rebamipide treatment in patients with T2DM. Methods Patients with T2DM and atypical GI symptoms were enrolled. They took rebamipide (100 mg thrice daily) for 12 weeks and filled out the diabetes bowel symptom questionnaire (DBSQ) before and after rebamipide treatment. The DBSQ consisted of 10 questions assessing the severity of GI symptoms by a 1 to 6 scoring system. Changes in the DBSQ scores before and after rebamipide treatment were analyzed to evaluate any improvements of GI symptoms. Results A total of 107 patients were enrolled, and 84 patients completed the study. The mean age was 65.0±7.8, 26 patients were male (24.8%), the mean duration of T2DM was 14.71±9.12 years, and the mean glycosylated hemoglobin level was 6.97%±0.82%. The total DBSQ score was reduced significantly from 24.9±8.0 to 20.4±7.3 before and after rebamipide treatment (P<0.001). The DBSQ scores associated with reflux symptoms, indigestion, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating or distension, peptic ulcer, abdominal pain, and constipation were improved after rebamipide treatment (P<0.05). However, there were no significant changes in symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, and anal incontinence. No severe adverse events were reported throughout the study. Conclusion Rebamipide treatment for 12 weeks improved atypical GI symptoms in patients with T2DM. PMID:27098506

  7. Early Trajectory of Psychiatric Symptoms after Traumatic Brain Injury: Relationship to Patient and Injury Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Emma K.T.; Bagiella, Emilia; Arenth, Patricia; Dikmen, Sureyya; Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Novack, Thomas A.; Ricker, Joseph H.; Zafonte, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric disturbance is common and disabling after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Few studies have investigated the trajectory of psychiatric symptoms in the first 6 months postinjury, when monitoring and early treatment might prevent persistent difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of psychiatric symptoms 1–6 months post-TBI, the patient/injury characteristics associated with changes, and characteristics predictive of persisting symptoms. A secondary analysis was performed on data from a clinical trial with three data collection points. Across eight centers, 872 participants with complicated mild to severe TBI were administered the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) at 30, 90, and 180 days postinjury. Mixed-effects models were used to assess longitudinal changes in the BSI Global Severity Index (GSI). Multi-variate logistic regression was used to assess predictors of clinically significant GSI elevations persisting to 6 months post-TBI. In general, GSI scores improved over time. Women improved faster than men; race/ethnicity was also significantly associated with rate of change, with Hispanics showing the most and African Americans the least improvement. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms (caseness) occurred in 42% of the sample at 6 months, and more than one type of symptom was common. Significant predictors of caseness included African American race, age from 30 to 60 years, longer post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration, pre-TBI unemployment, and pre-TBI risky alcohol use. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are common in the first 6 months post-TBI and frequently extend beyond the depression and anxiety symptoms that may be most commonly screened. Patients with longer PTA and preinjury alcohol misuse may need more intensive monitoring for symptom persistence. PMID:24237113

  8. What Are the Symptoms of Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lack of age-related decrease in sleep duration. Brain Development , Dec;23(Suppl 1). [top] Nomura, Y. (2005). ... behavior characteristics and sleep disturbance in Rett syndrome. Brain and Development , Nov;27(Suppl 1). [top] Rare Diseases Clinical ...

  9. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Clemente; Guo, Jennifer; Killory, Brendan; Danielson, Nathan; Vestal, Matthew; Berman, Rachel; Martin, Leisel; Gonzalez, Jose L.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Spann, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) has been recently linked to a number of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional disorders. Identification of affective disorders (anxiety and depression) presents unique challenges in pediatric populations, and successful early intervention may significantly improve long-term developmental outcomes. The current study examined the specific anxiety and depression symptoms CAE children experience, and explored the role of disease factors in the severity of their presentation. Forty-five subjects with CAE and 41 healthy matched controls, ages 6 to 16 participated in the study. The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) was completed by parents, and the Anxiety and Depression subscales were used to characterize problems. Item analysis within the subscales revealed that CAE children demonstrated higher rates of symptoms of anxiety (nervousness and thought rumination) and depression (sadness and crying), as well as more general psychosocial problems including isolation and low self-esteem. Disease duration, intractability, and medication effects were not associated with higher rates of affective problems in this limited patient sample. Screening CAE patients for comorbid psychiatric disorders early by focusing on specific symptom profiles unique to this population may enhance overall treatment and developmental outcomes. PMID:21635244

  10. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology. PMID:20388223

  11. Aging Veterans and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottom of the page. Share this page Search PTSD Site Choose Section Enter Term and Search ... Coach Online Tools to help you manage stress. Search Pilots Search PILOTS *, the largest citation database on ...

  12. Osteoporosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Osteoporosis can strike at any age, although the risk ...

  13. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  14. Red blood cell storage duration and trauma.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Rosemary L

    2015-04-01

    Numerous retrospective clinical studies suggest that transfusion of longer stored red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with an independent risk of poorer outcomes for certain groups of patients, including trauma, intensive care, and cardiac surgery patients. Large multicenter randomized controlled trials are currently underway to address the concern about RBC storage duration. However, none of these randomized controlled trials focus specifically on trauma patients with hemorrhage. Major trauma, particularly due to road accidents, is the leading cause of critical injury in the younger-than-40-year-old age group. Severe bleeding associated with major trauma induces hemodynamic dysregulation that increases the risk of hypoxia, coagulopathy, and potentially multiorgan failure, which can be fatal. In major trauma, a multitude of stress-associated changes occur to the patient's RBCs, including morphological changes that increase cell rigidity and thereby alter blood flow hemodynamics, particularly in the microvascular vessels, and reduce RBC survival. Initial inflammatory responses induce deleterious cellular interactions, including endothelial activation, RBC adhesion, and erythrophagocytosis that are quickly followed by profound immunosuppressive responses. Stored RBCs exhibit similar biophysical characteristics to those of trauma-stressed RBCs. Whether transfusion of RBCs that exhibit storage lesion changes exacerbates the hemodynamic perturbations already active in the trauma patient is not known. This article reviews findings from several recent nonrandomized studies examining RBC storage duration and clinical outcomes in trauma patients. The rationale for further research on RBC storage duration in the trauma setting is provided.

  15. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  16. Conflicting Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages in the garnet gneisses of the Central Appalachians, Eastern U.S.: Implications for the timing and duration of Grenville Orogeny and a case for using coupled Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Ramsey, M.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Southworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Grenville orogeny is one of the most significant geological events in Earth's history with remnants of this event prominent on virtually every continent. Constraining its timing and duration is important not only for understanding the tectonics of the Grenville itself, but also for understanding supercontinent cycles and other questions of Earth's evolution. In order to provide better constraints on the timing of Grenvillian metamorphism, we analyzed garnet-bearing Mesoproterozoic ortho- and paragneisses, collected along a 150 km transect in the northern Blue Ridge Province, using combined Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology. The orthogneisses have U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of ~1140 and 1100 Ma. The paragneisses have maximum depositional ages ~1050-1020 Ma, based on the youngest detrital zircon populations. Zircon overgrowths and monazite suggest metamorphic events between ~1050 and 960 Ma. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data for these samples both yield robust garnet ages with large spread of parent/daughter ratios, low age uncertainties, and low MSWD values. Lu-Hf ages define a narrow time span (1043×12 Ma to 1016×4 Ma; wtd. mean, 1024×7 Ma, 2σ). The Sm-Nd ages, determined on the same solutions as Lu-Hf, also define a narrow time range but are systematically younger (974×11 Ma to 932×5 Ma; wtd. mean, 957×10 Ma). The average difference between Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages is 67 Ma; the oldest Sm-Nd age is 40 Ma younger than the youngest Lu-Hf age. These large systematic differences in the ages are enigmatic. While Sm-Nd ages younger than Lu-Hf are not uncommon, these differences are typically small; nothing of this magnitude has been previously reported. There are, however, potential explanations for these differences. (1) Lu partitions strongly into garnet during growth yielding ages weighted toward the beginning of growth (e.g., Skora, 2006); no similar partitioning exists in Sm-Nd and these ages reflect mean garnet growth. (2) Lu diffuses much faster than Hf at

  17. Self-reported sleep duration is associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate among adults with hypertension: a population-based study from rural northeast China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Li, Zhao; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Liqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zou, Lu; Hu, Wenyu; Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Luoning; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-06-01

    Short sleep duration has been found recently to be a predictor of proteinuria. However, population-based investigations addressing the association between self-reported sleep duration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among hypertensive patients are lacking. We therefore sought to investigate the extent to which self-reported sleep duration might be associated with reduced GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural northeast China. A total of 5555 hypertensive participants, aged ≥35 years, in rural areas of Liaoning Province, China, were screened between January 2012 and August 2013, using a stratified, cluster multi-stage sampling scheme. Anthropometric measurements, self-reported sleep duration, blood biochemical indexes and other health-related variables were collected by medically trained personnel. Reduced GFR was defined as the estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(2). On average, participants slept for 6.9 ± 1.6 h per night. Mean self-reported sleep duration decreased with eGFR (P < 0.001). For both genders, a lower prevalence of reduced GFR was observed among participants who slept ≤6 h per night in total. In the multivariable regression model, after adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, clinical correlates, depressive symptoms and general quality of life, participants who slept for 6 h or less per night were associated with a higher risk of reduced GFR [odds ratio (OR: 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.73] compared with the reference group (self-reported sleep duration >7 and ≤8 h day(-1) ). We concluded that short self-reported sleep duration (≤6 h per night) was related significantly to an increased risk of reduced GFR in a hypertensive population. This novel risk factor should be taken into consideration during daily management of hypertension to prevent chronic kidney disease.

  18. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  19. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  20. Menopausal symptoms among Thai women in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Sukwatana, P; Meekhangvan, J; Tamrongterakul, T; Tanapat, Y; Asavarait, S; Boonjitrpimon, P

    1991-09-01

    A random probability cluster area sampling of 614 women living in Bangkok was conducted to determine the prevalence of abnormal symptoms related to the menopause. Women interviewed were aged 40 and above currently registered as living in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed experienced abnormal symptoms. Eighty-two percent of those with abnormal symptoms reported having hot flushes. Palpitation, increased heat intolerance and emotional liability were common symptoms. Minor abnormalities included insomnia, weakness, anxiety and urinary symptoms. Changes related to sexual function were difficult to elicit due to cultural limitations. Economic and cultural factors might play important roles in the way these women perceived symptoms related to the menopause and sought medical assistance.

  1. Symptoms of Aspergillosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Types of Fungal Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Healthcare Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes ...

  2. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

  3. Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Signs and Symptoms Partly because there are different types ... This section presents a general picture of CMT signs and symptoms. Contractures and bone deformities Many people ...

  4. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... print email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? ... be damaged as a result. About Dermatomyositis (DM) Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes/Inheritance Medical Management Research ...

  5. Bell's Palsy Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Symptoms Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  6. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Building Construction Workers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Alsaaran, Zaid Fahad; Alshehri, Moayad Khalid; Azam Khashougji, Mohammed; Almeterk, Abdul Aziz Zayed; Almutairi, Saif Fraj; Alsaeed, Saad Fahad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among building construction workers. Methods: Total 389 apparently healthy, male volunteers were selected with mean age 34.56±8.33 years and a mean working duration in building construction as 5.76±2.68 years. Musculoskeletal complaints were recorded through a detailed clinical interview and comprehensive questionnaire. Results: Substantial number of building construction workers developed musculoskeletal symptoms including neck pain 29 (7.5%), shoulder pain 41(10.5%), upper back pain 24(6.2%), lower back pain 64 (16.5%), legs pain 93 (23.9%), feet pain 52 (13.4%), head heaviness 44 (11.3%) and whole body fatigue 78 (20.1%). These complaints were significantly associated with long-term duration-response in building construction industry. Furthermore, cigarette smokers had little higher percentage of musculoskeletal complaints compared to non-smoker companions. Conclusions: Building construction occupation is a prolific source of musculoskeletal ailments and complaints were significantly increased with long-term working duration in building construction industry. PMID:24550961

  7. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Iranian experience.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Zahra; Shakiba, Mansoor; Narouie, Behzad; Mladkova, Nikol; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Khosravi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders including depression represent clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recognition of depression in SLE patients is of utmost importance since it is treatable and can be of fatal consequences if unrecognized. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in SLE patients in terms of age, gender, disease duration and severity, and duration of steroid treatment in SLE patients. Eighty-five SLE patients (77 women, 8 men) with verified SLE diagnosis completed Beck's depression inventory, a self-reported measure of depression. Clinical data on disease and treatment were obtained from patient files. In total, 60% of patients achieved scores indicating depression. The most common depressive symptoms in participants were fatigue and weakness (88.2%), irritability (82.3%), sadness (77.6%), and somatic preoccupation (76.4%), while the least common symptoms were weight loss (34.1%), low level of energy (28.2%), and suicide ideation (10.5%). There was a significant difference between the disease activity and the severity of depression (P = 0.0001). Our findings show higher prevalence of depression in our sample in comparison with previous studies, suggesting that the prevalence of depression varies across different populations. Severity of depression increases with more severe disease course.

  8. Expected endings and judged duration.

    PubMed

    Jones, M R; Boltz, M G; Klein, J M

    1993-09-01

    In four experiments, the predictions of an expectancy/contrast model (Jones & Boltz, 1989) for judged duration were evaluated. In Experiments 1 and 2, listeners estimated the relative durations of auditory pattern pairs that varied in contextual phrasing and temporal contrast. The results showed that when the second pattern of a pair either seems to (Experiments 1 and 2) or actually does (Experiment 2) end earlier (later) than the first, subjects judge it as being relatively shorter (longer). In Experiment 3, listeners heard single patterns in which notes immediately preceding the final one were omitted. Timing of the final (target) tone was varied such that it was one beat early, on time, or one beat late. Listeners' ratings of target tones revealed systematic effects of phrasing and target timing. In Experiment 4, listeners temporally completed (extrapolated) sequences of Experiment 3 that were modified to exclude the target tone. The results again showed that phrase context systematically influenced expectancies about "when" sequences should end. As a set, these studies demonstrate the effects of event structure and anticipatory attending upon experienced duration and are discussed in terms of the expectancy/contrast model.

  9. Gastrointestinal Symptoms Before and After Total Pancreatectomy With Islet Autotransplantation: The Role of Pancreatic Enzyme Dosing and Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Jill; Bellin, Melena D.; Radosevich, David M.; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Dunn, Ty B.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Freeman, Martin L.; Beilman, Greg J.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In a large cohort of subjects undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT), we assessed the prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before and after the procedure and to determine the impact of enzyme adherence on gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods 356 pre- and post-operative questionnaires were collected from 184 subjects between ages of 5 and 66 years who underwent TPIAT between 2008 and 2011 at University of Minnesota. Questionnaires were analyzed for self-reported frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms, pancreatic enzyme usage, and glycemic variability index (GVI). Results After surgery, patient-reported steatorrhea increased; constipation decreased. Gastrointestinal symptoms interfered with daily activity in 44–69% of subjects, before and after surgery, despite high reported enzyme adherence. Post-operatively, ≥79% of subjects reported consistent use of enzymes at all meals. Presence of gastrointestinal symptoms did not vary with adherence. GVI of 2 had a 2.8 fold increased odds of steatorrhea (95% confidence interval 1.1– 7.0) compared to GVI of 0. Conclusions Gastrointestinal symptoms were common after TPIAT; ongoing management is needed. Enzyme non-adherence was not a major contributor to diarrhea/steatorrhea in this cohort. Glycemic variability was closely associated with steatorrhea; poor response to enzyme replacement may complicate diabetes management. PMID:25486528

  10. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Shin, Hayden H; Gray, Andrew R; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-07-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers.Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms.

  11. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  12. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  13. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  14. Association between duration of the sleep and body weight.

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M

    2009-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P < 0.001). This association was found both in males and females and in both districts. Other anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were not associated with the sleep duration.

  15. Trajectories of BMI and internalizing symptoms: Associations across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ames, Megan E; Wintre, Maxine G; Flora, David B

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal relations between body mass index (BMI) and internalizing symptoms among youth ages 10-17. Adolescents were selected from Statistics Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate: 1) whether initial level (at age 10) or change in BMI were associated with changes in internalizing symptoms; and, 2) whether initial level or change in internalizing symptoms were associated with changes in BMI across adolescence. Associations between trajectories differed for boys and girls. Boys who started out with higher BMI experienced more internalizing symptoms across early- to mid-adolescence, but not more depressive symptoms at ages 16 and 17. For girls, there was a bidirectional relation between BMI and internalizing symptoms which persisted into later adolescence. Results suggest the bidirectional relation between BMI and internalizing symptoms is more salient for girls than for boys.

  16. [Clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tariska, P; Urbanics, K; Knolmayer, J; Mészáros, A

    1995-04-23

    Data of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and checked out in the special unit named Memory Clinic functioning from 1992 in the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology are summarized. Age average of the 60 patients was 63 years, the first symptoms of the disease had appeared in 57 p.c. before the age of 65, so the classical presenile form of the ailment is represented too in the material. Predominance of multifocal cortical function disturbances in the symptomatology is characteristic, association of the depression is outstandingly frequent. The atypical features, or those characteristic in diseases of cerebrovascular origin are not infrequently seen (headache, dizziness, slight symptoms of pyramidal lesions). The absence of epileptic seizures It was interesting even in considering the data of the literature too. The main points of clinical diagnostics and differential diagnostics are demonstrated with the aid of case reports. The author's material is the first Hungarian publication in the topics of clinical symptoms of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease that had been investigated with up-to-date methods. Occurrence of the disease of very great frequency could be supposed to occur at general practitioners, the importance of differential diagnostics and planning of the complex longlasting therapy is extremely great.

  17. Prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms in young adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Wagner, E H; Grimson, R C; Miller, F T

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 junior high school students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. In 384 usable symptom scales, item-scale correlations (most were above .50), inter-item correlations, coefficient alpha (.85), and patterns of reported symptoms were reasonable. Persistent symptoms were reported more often by Blacks, especially Black males. Prevalence of persistent symptoms in Whites was quite close to reported figures for adults, ranging from 1 per cent to 15 per cent in adolescent males and 2 per cent to 13 per cent in adolescent females. Adolescents reported persistent vegetative symptoms less often and psychosocial symptoms more often. Reports of symptoms without regard to duration were much more frequent in the adolescents, ranging from 18 per cent to 76 per cent in White males, 34 per cent to 76 per cent in White and Black females, and 41 per cent to 85 per cent in Black males. The results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to measure depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Transient symptoms reported by adolescents probably reflect their stage of development, but persistent symptoms are likely to have social psychiatric importance. PMID:6625033

  18. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  19. Children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms.

    PubMed

    Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional symptoms, empathy, and victimization. Children reported their empathy and victimization experiences. Peer victimization was a predictor of emotional symptoms at Time 1; this association was stronger for children with average or high levels of empathy. Increases in peer victimization predicted increases in boys' emotional symptoms, and increases in victimization were related to decreases in empathy. The results emphasize the role of negative peer relations and children's social-emotional information processing for the development of emotional symptoms.

  20. Medications for Ataxia Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ropinirole (Requip) Rigidity : Pramipexole (Mirapex), Ropinirole (Requip) Sleep Disorders/Parasomnias (vivid dreams, nightmares, acting out dreams, sleepwalking) : Clonazepam. Sleep apnea symptoms must be evaluated with ...

  1. A Developmental Decline in the Learning-Promoting Effects of Infant-Directed Speech for Infants of Mothers with Chronically Elevated Symptoms of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Peter S.; Danko, Christina M.; Kalinka, Christina J.; Cejka, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants of mothers who varied in symptoms of depression were tested at 4 and 12 months of age for their ability to associate a segment of an unfamiliar non-depressed mother’s infant-directed speech (IDS) with a face. At 4 months, all infants learned the voice-face association. At 12 months, despite the fact that none of the mothers were still clinically depressed, infants of mothers with chronically elevated self-reported depressive symptoms, and infants of mothers with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms at 4 months but not 12 months, on average did not learn the association. For infants of mothers diagnosed with depression in remission, learning at 12 months was negatively correlated with the postpartum duration of the mother’s depressive episode. At neither age did extent of pitch modulation in the IDS segments correlate with infant learning. However, learning scores at 12 months correlated significantly with concurrent maternal reports of infant receptive language development. The roles of the duration and timing of maternal depressive symptoms are discussed. PMID:22721737

  2. The effect of fibromyalgia syndrome to gravidity, parity and duration of breastfeeding; A prospective study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tulay, Koca Tuba; Emrullah, Tanrikut; Aydin, Arslan; Ciledag, Ozdemir Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is a chronic pain disorder usually affecting women in their fertile period of life. However, the relationship between FS and pregnancy has not been studied in depth. The effect of FS on the course of pregnancy is poorly investigated in the current literature. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of FS to menarche age, gravidity, parity and duration of breastfeeding. Methods: One hundred and eighty-seven non-pregnant females attending between March 2015-June 2015, to Malatya State Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic, were included in this prospective study. One hundred eleven (111) of them were diagnosed with FS according to the American Rheumatology Association (ACR) 2010 criteria and were defined as group 1; group 2 comprised of seventy six (76) non-pregnant healthy volunteers. All participants were asked about their menarche age, marriage age, gravidity, parity, duration of breastfeeding by conducting a basic questionnaire survey. Patients’ body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Depression parameters were evaluated by Beck Depression Scale (BDS). Results: The average age of the patients was 39.04±9.21 (FS) and 38.47±9.65 (Control) years; first menarche age was at 13.28±1.38 (FS) and 13.59±1.54 years (Control), and marriage age was 20.1±3.62 (FS) and 20.69±3.90 years (Control), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found (p=0.598) between BMI values (FS, 27.76±4.95; Control 26.90±4.56 kg/m2). The results from both groups were similar in terms of gravidity, parity, and breastfeeding duration, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.252, 0.093, 0.075, respectively). The only significant difference was found in the depression parameter. The BDS results were statistically different between the groups, found higher in FS group (p=0.000). Conclusion: FS occurs as a result of symptoms such as mood disorder, anxiety, cognitive and sleep disorders, and also

  3. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A; Dalhoff, Kim; Wikkelsoe, Mette; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-10-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms were contacted. A total of 181 patients were registered (112 children). Ingested LT dose ranged from 10 to 9000 mcg (median 275 mcg). A total of 29 of 181 (16%) patients were symptomatic at the time of enquiry, and there was no difference in ingested LT dose between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p < 0.68 and p < 0.47, respectively). In total, 153 of 181 (85%) patients did not have symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases, hospital contact was needed and there were no reports of long-term sequelae. Acute LT poisoning often follows a benign course. The occurrence of symptoms appears not to be dose dependent. Late-onset symptoms seem to be common. However, all symptoms resolved spontaneously without need of medical care.

  4. Contributors to Depressive Symptoms among Korean Immigrants with Type 2 Diabete

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sarah E.; Reed, Preston L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes have a higher prevalence of depression than the general population. Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes are understudied. Objectives To identify the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Korean immigrants. Method In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a community sample of 164 Korean immigrant adults with type 2 diabetes were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Predictors of depression were grouped into three categories: demographic (age, gender, education, English proficiency); clinical (duration of diabetes, comorbidities, insulin use); and psychosocial (general health, diabetes-related quality-of-life, family support). Results Approximately 56% of participants had CES-D scores ≥ 16. Higher levels of depression were associated with greater impact of diabetes on QOL (b = 5.68, p = .001), worse overall health (b = -0.09, p = .012), and less family support (b = -4.02, p = .042). The relationship between depression and diabetes impact on quality-of-life was stronger for men than women (b = 6.67, p = .020). Discussion Depressive symptoms are common among Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes. Assessing diabetes-related quality-of-life, general health, and family support may be of value in better understanding depressive symptoms among this population. Among Korean immigrant men with type 2 diabetes, specific attention should be paid to diabetes-related quality-of-life. PMID:23190692

  5. Stimulant treatment in young boys with symptoms suggesting childhood mania: a report from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, G A; Loney, J; Salisbury, H; Kramer, J R; Arthur, C

    2000-01-01

    This study used data from a completed longitudinal study to examine the effects of methylphenidate on 6-12-year-old boys presumably at risk for bipolar disorder. Of 75 boys referred, diagnosed with hyperkinetic reaction of childhood (minimal brain dysfunction), treated clinically with methylphenidate, and followed as young adults, 23% (the maximorbid or MAX group) had childhood symptoms of irritability and emulated DSM-IV diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), plus oppositional defiant or conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and anxiety or depression or both. The remaining boys (the minimorbid or MIN group) had fewer symptoms and disorders. MAX and MIN groups did not differ in rated response to methylphenidate, duration of treatment, clinically determined maintenance doses, concurrent or subsequent treatment with other medications, or other aspects of medication experience. At ages 21-23, individuals with bipolar-related lifetime diagnoses (adult mania, hypomania, or cyclothymia) did not differ from those without bipolar-related diagnoses in any aspect of early methylphenidate treatment history. These findings indicate that ADHD boys with symptoms suggesting childhood mania do not respond differently to methylphenidate than boys without such symptoms, and there is no evidence here that methylphenidate precipitates young adult bipolar disorders in susceptible individuals.

  6. [Psychiatric symptoms can reveal Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Thusgaard, Helle; Arnfred, Sidse Marie H

    2013-02-01

    Turner syndrome is usually diagnosed by physical characteristics, i.e. low height and infertility. This case report presents a woman, who was referred to a chromosome analysis at the age of 35 years, due to a specific pattern of psychiatric symptoms. She felt childish, had strong emotional bonds to her family, yet lacked friendships and intimate relationships. She had moderate symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder with a sexual content. Confronted with this constellation of symptoms, psychiatrists and psychologists should be aware of Turner syndrome.

  7. Demographic correlates of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Waford, Rachel N.; MacDonald, Allison; Goines, Katrina; Novacek, Derek M.; Trotman, Hanan D.; Walker, Elaine F.; Addington, Jean; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Heinssen, Robert; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Woods, Scott W.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that the utilization of standardized clinical criteria can enhance prediction of psychosis. These criteria are primarily concerned with the presence and severity of attenuated positive symptoms. Because these symptom criteria are used to derive algorithms for designating clinical high risk (CHR) status and for maximizing prediction of psychosis risk, it is important to know whether the symptom ratings vary as a function of demographic factors that have previously been linked with symptoms in diagnosed psychotic patients. Using a sample of 356 CHR individuals from the NAPLS-II multi-site study, we examined the relation of three sex, age, and educational level, with the severity of attenuated positive symptom scores from the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Demographic factors accounted for little of the variance in symptom ratings (5–6%). Older CHR individuals manifested more severe suspiciousness, and female CHR participants reported more unusual perceptual experiences than male participants. Contrary to prediction, higher educational level was associated with more severe ratings of unusual thought content, but less severe perceptual abnormalities. Overall, sex, age and education were modestly related to unusual thought content and perceptual abnormalities, only, suggesting minimal implication for designating CHR status and predicting psychosis-risk. PMID:25999040

  8. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  9. Variation in vowel duration among southern African American English speakers

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511

  10. Objectively-measured sleep duration and hyperglycemia in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Pien, Grace W.; Homko, Carol; Goetzl, Laura M.; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our primary purpose was to assess the impact of objectively-measured nighttime sleep duration on gestational glucose tolerance. We additionally examined associations of objectively-measured daytime sleep duration and nap frequency on maternal glycemic control. Methods 63 urban, low-income, pregnant women wore wrist actigraphs for an average of 6 full days in mid-pregnancy prior to screening for hyperglycemia using the 1-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Correlations of nighttime and daytime sleep durations with 1-hour OGTT values were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate independent associations between sleep parameters and hyperglycemia, defined as 1-hour OGTT values ≥ 130 mg/dL. Results Mean nighttime sleep duration was 6.9 ± 0.9 hours which was inversely correlated with 1-hour OGTT values (r = −0.28, p = 0.03). Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with hyperglycemia, even after controlling for age and body mass index (adjusted OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). There were no associations of daytime sleep duration and nap frequency with 1-hour OGTT values or hyperglycemia. Conclusions Using objective measures of maternal sleep time, we found that women with shorter nighttime sleep durations had an increased risk of gestational hyperglycemia. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our negative daytime sleep findings. PMID:24239498

  11. Sleep duration and incidence of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, L; Duan, Z; Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Hale, L; White, D L; El-Serag, H B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration is dependent on circadian rhythm that controls a variety of key cellular functions. Circadian disruption has been implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis in experimental studies. We prospectively examined the association between sleep duration and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, 75 828 postmenopausal women reported habitual sleep duration at baseline 1993–1998. We used Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of CRC and its associated 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: We ascertained 851 incident cases of CRC through 2010, with an average 11.3 years of follow-up. Compared with 7 h of sleep, the HRs were 1.36 (95% CI 1.06–1.74) and 1.47 (95% CI 1.10–1.96) for short (⩽5 h) and long (⩾9 h) sleep duration, respectively, after adjusting for age, ethnicity, fatigue, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), physical activity, and waist to hip ratio. The association was modified by the use of HRT (P-interaction=0.03). Conclusion: Both extreme short and long sleep durations were associated with a moderate increase in the risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. Sleep duration may be a novel, independent, and potentially modifiable risk factor for CRC. PMID:23287986

  12. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (<3 min.) as opposed to 4 long songs (6+ min.) were played in the background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  13. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  14. Expanding concept of clinical conditions and symptoms in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirohisa; Riku, Yuichi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ito, Mizuki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Yoshida, Mari; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-07-28

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. MSA patients show various phenotypes during the course of their illness including parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic failure, and pyramidal signs. MSA is classified into the parkinsonian (MSA-P) or cerebellar (MSA-C) variant depending on the clinical motor phenotype at presentation. MSA-P and MSA-C are predominant in Western countries and Japan, respectively. The mean age at onset is 55 to 60 years. Prognosis ranges from 6 to 10 years, but some cases survive for more than 15 years. Early and severe autonomic failure is a poor prognostic factor. MSA patients sometimes present with isolated autonomic failure or motor symptoms/signs, and the median duration from onset to the concomitant appearance of motor and autonomic symptoms was approximately 2 years in our previous study. As the presence of the combination of motor and autonomic symptoms is essential for the current diagnostic criteria, early diagnosis is difficult when patients present with isolated autonomic failure or motor symptoms/signs. We experienced MSA patients who died before presentation of the motor symptoms/signs diagnostic for MSA (i.e., premotor MSA). Detection of the nature of autonomic failure consistent with MSA and identification of the dysfunctional anatomical sites may increase the probability of a diagnosis of premotor MSA. Dementia is another problem in MSA. Although dementia had been thought to be rare in MSA, frontal lobe dysfunction is observed frequently during the early course of the illness. Magnetic resonance imaging can show progressive cerebral atrophy in longstanding cases. More recently, MSA patients presenting with frontotemporal dementia preceding the presence of motor and autonomic manifestations diagnostic of MSA have been reported. Novel diagnostic criteria based on an expanding concept of the clinical conditions and symptoms of MSA will be needed for the development of disease

  15. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  16. Lower Limb Arteriovenous Communications in Diabetes Mellitus: A Potential Reason for Aggravation of Ischemic Symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hamady, Mohamad S.; Yu, Dominic F.; Sayer, Gabriel L.; Edmonds, Michael E.; Walters, Huw L.; Sidhu, Paul S.

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and to evaluate the clinical associations of arteriovenous communications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and lower limb peripheral arterial ischemia. Peripheral arteriography of DM patients from an eight-year period (1993-2000) was evaluated retrospectively by two observers. The presence of arteriovenous communications, defined as occurring without evidence of a preceding precipitating event, and the distribution and severity of the vascular disease were evaluated. The type (non-insulin-dependent DM or insulin-dependent DM) and the duration of the DM, the presenting symptoms, and the presence of a peripheral neuropathy were documented by a review of the clinical records. A total of 348 arteriography studies in 285 DM patients were evaluated (duration of DM: median, 16 years; range, 7-42 years); an arteriovenous communication was present in 14/285 patients (4.9%), 9 male and 5 female (median age, 71 years; range, 17-84 years). Symptoms were those of a peripheral leg ulcer (n = 11), claudication (n = 3), and gangrene (n = 1), with symptoms ipsilateral to the side of the arteriovenous communication in 13/14 patients. The sites of the arteriovenous communications were infra popliteal (n = 7), popliteal (n = 3), superficial femoral artery (n = 3), and common femoral artery (n = 1). Features of a peripheral neuropathy were found in 12/14 and ipsilateral to the side of the communication in 11/12. Arteriovenous communications in the peripheral femoral arterial system of patients with DM is an uncommon finding. Although not proven in the current study, arteriovenous communications might be associated with more severe symptoms than that attributable to the underlying vascular disease alone.

  17. Youth Meeting Symptom and Impairment Criteria for Mania-Like Episodes Lasting Less than Four Days: An Epidemiological Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Santosh, Paramala; Leibenluft, Ellen; Goodman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about short-duration episodes of mania-like symptoms in youth. Here we determine the prevalence, morbid associations, and contribution to social impairment of a phenotype characterised by episodes during which symptom and impairment criteria for mania are met, but DSM-IV duration criteria are not (bipolar not otherwise…

  18. Maternal sensitivity and children's behavior problems: examining the moderating role of infant sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Stéphanie; Bernier, Annie; Carrier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine infant sleep duration as a moderator of the relations between maternal sensitivity and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms, in a prospective longitudinal design. Fifty-five Caucasian infants (33 girls) took part in 2 assessments, at 1 and 4 years. Maternal sensitivity was rated at 1 year, based on observations performed throughout a home visit. Infant sleep duration (i.e., nighttime sleep duration and 24-hr sleep duration) was assessed at 1 year as well, using a sleep diary completed by mothers. At 4 years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist to assess children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results indicated that maternal sensitivity interacted with infant nighttime sleep duration, such that there were negative relations between sensitivity and subsequent internalizing and externalizing symptoms only for children who slept more at night. Interactions using 24-hr sleep duration as the moderator were not significant. These findings add to an emerging literature on the importance of sleep for children's daytime functioning by suggesting that inadequate or insufficient sleep in infancy can interfere with the normal developmental process linking early maternal sensitivity to child subsequent emotional and behavioral adjustment. PMID:22642676

  19. Depressive symptoms and observed eating in youth.

    PubMed

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B; Reina, Samantha A; Hannallah, Louise M; Adelyn Cohen, L; Courville, Amber B; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-04-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12-17y (15.3±1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8-17y (13.0±2.8y; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  20. Symptoms of Poststroke Depression among Stroke Survivors: An Appraisal of Psychiatry Needs and Care during Physiotherapy Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ibeneme, Sam Chidi; Anyachukwu, Canice Chukwudi; Nwosu, Akachukwu; Ibeneme, Georgian Chiaka; Bakare, Muideen; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify stroke survivors with symptoms of poststroke depression and the extent of psychiatry needs and care they have received while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. Participants. Fifty stroke survivors (22 females and 28 males) at the outpatient unit of Physiotherapy Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, who gave their informed consent, were randomly selected. Their age range and mean age were 26-66 years and 54.76 ± 8.79 years, respectively. Method. A multiple case study of 50 stroke survivors for symptoms of poststroke depression was done with Beck's Depression Inventory, mini mental status examination tool, and Modified Motor Assessment Scale. The tests were performed independently by the participants except otherwise stated and scored on a scale of 0-6. Data were analyzed using Z-test for proportional significance and chi-square test for determining relationship between variables, at p < 0.05. Results. Twenty-one (42.0%) stroke survivors had symptoms of PSD, which was significantly dependent on duration of stroke (χ (2) = 21.680, df = 6, and p = 0.001), yet none of the participants had a psychiatry review. Conclusions. Symptoms of PSD may be common in cold compared to new cases of stroke and may need psychiatry care while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. PMID:27190683

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  2. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

  3. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M. B.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    the relation between vascular compliance in the head and neck and the development of VIIP after a long duration space flight, we will study 10 astronauts before, during, and after long-duration ISS missions. Pre- and post-flight testing will be identical to that described above. During flight, images of the same vessels of interest will be obtained for later analysis. Ophthalmic data including VIIP scores will be obtained through data sharing from medically-required tests. To investigate the effects of age and elevated sodium intake, two potential contributors to VIIP, we will study 24 men (in two age groups: 25-35 and 45-55) during a 14 day 6deg head-down bed rest, a well-accepted analog of space flight. Standard NASA bed rest conditions will be maintained except for dietary sodium. Sodium intake will be similar to that of ISS astronauts, which is higher than consumed in previous bed rest studies. Pre- and post-bed rest testing procedures will be identical to the testing protocol described above for astronauts. Ophthalmic testing (optical coherence tomography, fundoscopy, and tonometry) will be conducted on the same day that vascular compliance measures are obtained. To identify parameters that may relate to an increase in an astronaut's susceptibility to developing VIIP, we will use data mining techniques to evaluate astronaut data obtained from the LSAH. Medical history, family history, space flight history and its related exposures, and history of high performance jet aircraft exposure will be examined for their potential relationship to ocular data. We hypothesize that the cephalad fluid shift induced by space flight will result in structural and functional adaptations in head and neck vessels leading to decreased vascular compliance and related to the development of VIIP symptoms. Further, although VIIP has not been observed in previous bed rest studies, we hypothesize that an elevated sodium intake will increase the incidence of VIIP symptoms in this space

  4. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p < 0.001) concentrations than the 'no depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  5. Trajectories and stability of self-reported short sleep duration from adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Skogen, Jens C; Øverland, Simon; Wold, Bente; Williams, Lana J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-12-01

    The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short sleep duration was based on normative values and set as ≤ 8.5 h (age 13 years), ≤ 8 h (age 15 years) and ≤ 7 h (ages 23 and 30 years). Results indicated a significant overall reduction in total sleep duration (h per night) across age groups. Sleep duration (continuous) at age 15 and 23 years (whole group) was moderately but positively correlated with sleep duration at age 30 years (P < 0.01). When split by sex, at age 15 years, this association was present among females only (P < 0.01); however, at age 23 years, this association was present in both male and females (both P < 0.001). Categorical short sleep at age 23 years (whole group) was associated with short sleep at age 30 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval 2.36-5.69). Following sex stratification, this effect was significant for both males (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.22-6.42) and females (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.04). No associations were noted for categorical short sleep at ages 13 or 15 years, and subsequent short sleep at 30 years. Habitual short sleep duration during middle adulthood is not sustained from the time of early adolescence. Rather, these trends appear to be formed during early adulthood. PMID:26172979

  6. Trajectories and stability of self-reported short sleep duration from adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Skogen, Jens C; Øverland, Simon; Wold, Bente; Williams, Lana J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-12-01

    The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short sleep duration was based on normative values and set as ≤ 8.5 h (age 13 years), ≤ 8 h (age 15 years) and ≤ 7 h (ages 23 and 30 years). Results indicated a significant overall reduction in total sleep duration (h per night) across age groups. Sleep duration (continuous) at age 15 and 23 years (whole group) was moderately but positively correlated with sleep duration at age 30 years (P < 0.01). When split by sex, at age 15 years, this association was present among females only (P < 0.01); however, at age 23 years, this association was present in both male and females (both P < 0.001). Categorical short sleep at age 23 years (whole group) was associated with short sleep at age 30 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval 2.36-5.69). Following sex stratification, this effect was significant for both males (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.22-6.42) and females (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.04). No associations were noted for categorical short sleep at ages 13 or 15 years, and subsequent short sleep at 30 years. Habitual short sleep duration during middle adulthood is not sustained from the time of early adolescence. Rather, these trends appear to be formed during early adulthood.

  7. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  8. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  9. Correlations of electromyographic silent period duration and the Helkimo dysfunction index.

    PubMed

    Helkimo, M I; Bailey, J O; Ash, M M

    1979-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients seen for consultation concerning mandibular dysfunction symptoms were examined utilizing the Helkimo index of dysfunction and electromyographic silent period recordings from masticatory muscles. The data collected were analyzed for correlations between the two parameters. Several significant correlations were noted between certain variables of the dysfunction index and the duration of the silent period. The mean duration of the silent period increased with increasing dysfunction index value. However, the clinical significance of this correlation is not established as long as we do not know the validity of neither the dysfunction index nor the the EMG silent period duration.

  10. Visual duration aftereffect is position invariant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baolin; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Youguo; Liu, Peiduo; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to relatively long or short sensory events leads to a negative aftereffect, such that the durations of the subsequent events within a certain range appear to be contracted or expanded. The distortion in perceived duration is presumed to arise from the adaptation of duration detectors. Here, we focus on the positional sensitivity of those visual duration detectors by exploring whether the duration aftereffect may be constrained by the visual location of stimuli. We adopted two different paradigms, one that tests for transfer across visual hemifields, and the other that tests for simultaneous selectivity between visual hemifields. By employing these experimental designs, we show that the duration aftereffect strongly transfers across visual hemifields and is not contingent on them. The lack of position specificity suggests that duration detectors in the visual system may operate at a relatively later stage of sensory processing. PMID:26500591

  11. Listeriosis: Definition and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Listeria (Listeriosis) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Definition & Symptoms Outbreaks Listeriosis Linked to Frozen ...

  12. Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    WRIISC War Related Illness and Injury Study Center Office of Public Health Department of Veterans Affairs MEDICALLY UNEXPLAINED SYMPTOMS ... showed that CFS was more common in Gulf War Veterans than non- Gulf War Veterans ( Kang et ...

  13. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result ... or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to ...

  14. Symptoms and Warning Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas Other symptoms that may develop over ... with self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives and diuretics, fasting, and excessive exercise binging and purging in ...

  15. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  16. Fibromyalgia Symptoms and Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Wasan, Ajay D.; Szigethy, Eva; Lotrich, Francis; DiMartini, Andrea F.

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between fibromyalgia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been previously described. However, the relationship between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibromyalgia symptoms has not been assessed, though they share several risk factors. Aim We aimed to assess the factors associated with fibromyalgia symptoms across etiologies of liver disease. Methods Patients with cirrhosis due to HCV, NASH, or alcohol were recruited from an outpatient hepatology clinic and administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. Serum inflammatory markers were measured with standard luminex assays. Results Of 193 participants, 53 (27 %) met criteria for fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with etiology of liver disease (HCV: 35 %, NASH: 30 %, alcohol-related liver disease: 12 %, p < 0.01). Using logistic regression, mood symptoms (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.22), sleep disturbance (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.16, 1.52), and etiology of liver disease (NASH vs. HCV not different, alcohol vs. HCV OR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.63) were associated with fibromyalgia symptoms. If abdominal pain was included in the model, etiology became nonsignificant, indicating that it may be central sensitization due to abdominal pain in patients with chronic liver disease that explains fibromyalgia symptoms rather than the etiology of liver disease or inflammation. Conclusions Fibromyalgia symptoms were significantly associated with HCV and NASH cirrhosis and with psychiatric symptoms. Future work should focus on the underlying pathophysiology and management of widespread pain in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:25433921

  17. Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

  18. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  19. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  20. Physical Activity, Gender Difference, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yen, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of physical activity (exercise) and sociodemographic factors in depressive symptoms among men and women in the United States. Data Source 2011 U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Study Design Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) scores are aggregated and divided into five categories. An ordered switching probability model with binary endogenous physical activity is developed to accommodate ordinality of depression categories and ameliorate statistical biases due to endogeneity of physical activity. Principal Findings Average treatment effects suggest physical activity ameliorates depressive symptoms among mildly and moderately depressed individuals, most notably among mildly depressed women. Gender differences exist in the roles of sociodemographic factors, with age, income, race, education, employment status, and recent mental health condition playing differentiated roles in affecting depressive symptoms. Conclusions Regular physical activity reduces depressive symptoms among both men and women with mild to moderate depression, notably among women. PMID:25630931

  1. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  2. Duration perception in crossmodally-defined intervals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-01

    How humans perform duration judgments with multisensory stimuli is an ongoing debate. Here, we investigated how sub-second duration judgments are achieved by asking participants to compare the duration of a continuous sound to the duration of an empty interval in which onset and offset were marked by signals of different modalities using all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. The pattern of perceived durations across five stimulus durations (ranging from 100 ms to 900 ms) follows the Vierordt Law. Furthermore, intervals with a sound as onset (audio-visual, audio-tactile) are perceived longer than intervals with a sound as offset. No modality ordering effect is found for visualtactile intervals. To infer whether a single modality-independent or multiple modality-dependent time-keeping mechanisms exist we tested whether perceived duration follows a summative or a multiplicative distortion pattern by fitting a model to all modality combinations and durations. The results confirm that perceived duration depends on sensory latency (summative distortion). Instead, we did not find evidence for multiplicative distortions. The results of the model and the behavioural data support the concept of a single time-keeping mechanism that allows for judgments of durations marked by multisensory stimuli. PMID:23953664

  3. Duration tuning in the mouse auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Brand, A; Urban, R; Grothe, B

    2000-10-01

    Temporal cues, including sound duration, are important for sound identification. Neurons tuned to the duration of pure tones were first discovered in the auditory system of frogs and bats and were discussed as specific adaptations in these animals. More recently duration sensitivity has also been described in the chinchilla midbrain and the cat auditory cortex, indicating that it might be a more general phenomenon than previously thought. However, it is unclear whether duration tuning in mammals is robust in face of changes of stimulus parameters other than duration. Using extracellular single-cell recordings in the mouse inferior colliculus, we found 55% of cells to be sensitive to stimulus duration showing long-pass, short-pass, or band-pass filter characteristics. For most neurons, a change in some other stimulus parameter, (e.g., intensity, frequency, binaural conditions, or using noise instead of pure tones) altered and sometimes abolished duration-tuning characteristics. Thus in many neurons duration tuning is interdependent with other stimulus parameters and, hence, might be context dependent. A small number of inferior colliculus neurons, in particular band-pass neurons, exhibited stable filter characteristics and could therefore be referred to as "duration selective." These findings support the idea that duration tuning is a general phenomenon in the mammalian auditory system.

  4. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  5. Articulation Rate and Its Relationship to Disfluency Type, Duration, and Temperament in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M.; Throneburg, Rebecca N.; Kayikci, Mavis E. Kulak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between articulation rate, frequency and duration of disfluencies of different types, and temperament in preschool children who stutter (CWS). In spontaneous speech samples from 19 CWS (mean age = 3:9; years:months), we measured articulation rate, the frequency and duration of (a) sound…

  6. Production and Perception of Distortion in Word-Initial Friction Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovicic, Slobodan T.; Kasic, Zorca; Punisic, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate (a) the distortion in production of word-initial friction duration in fricative /[esh]/, and (b) the perceptual discrimination between typical (normal) and atypical (prolonged or lengthened) friction duration. In the first experiment 80 school aged children pronounced word /[esh]uma/, 40 of them…

  7. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  8. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  9. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  10. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  11. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  12. Anorexia Nervosa: Its Symptoms and Possible Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, David E.

    This document presents a definition and description of anorexia nervosa as a disorder that occurs predominantly in girls and that can affect 1 out of every 250 girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The existence of a distorted mental body image among anorexics is discussed and symptoms of the disorder are described, including amenorrhea…

  13. Prevalence of cold-related complaints, symptoms and injuries in the general population: the FINRISK 2002 cold substudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of cold-related complaints and symptoms in the general population has remained unknown. As part of the nationwide FINRISK 2002 health survey performed in Finland, 8,723 people aged 25 64 years filled in a questionnaire asking about the number of hours spent weekly in cold air, their sensations during cold exposure, cold-related complaints, symptoms of diseases, and degradation of performance. Cold thermal sensations at +5°C to -5°C were reported by 35% of men and 46% of women. Almost all subjects reported at least some cold-related complaints, most commonly musculoskeletal pain (men 30%, women 27%), followed by respiratory (25% / 29%), white finger (15% / 18%) and episodic peripheral circulation symptoms (12% / 15%). Decreased mental or physical performance in cold was reported by 75% of men and 70% of women, most commonly impairing manual dexterity and tactile sense. With declining temperature, the first symptom to emerge was pain in the elbow or the forearm (at -3°C), followed by increased excretion of mucus from the lungs (-5°C), while most other symptoms appeared only at lower temperatures of -15°C to -20°C. Most symptoms showed little or no association with the weekly duration of exposure, with the exception of cold-induced pain at most sites. Although, in general, Finns are well adapted to the cold climate, the high prevalence of cold-related complaints poses a challenge to the health care system in terms of decreased performance and the possibility that such symptoms predict more serious health effects, such as increased mortality.

  14. Maternal Sensitivity and Children's Behavior Problems: Examining the Moderating Role of Infant Sleep Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeleau, Stephanie; Bernier, Annie; Carrier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine infant sleep duration as a moderator of the relations between maternal sensitivity and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms, in a prospective longitudinal design. Fifty-five Caucasian infants (33 girls) took part in 2 assessments, at 1 and 4 years. Maternal sensitivity was rated at 1 year, based on…

  15. An optimization principle for determining movement duration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Krakauer, John W; Qian, Ning

    2006-06-01

    Movement duration is an integral component of motor control, but nearly all extant optimization models of motor planning prefix duration instead of explaining it. Here we propose a new optimization principle that predicts movement duration. The model assumes that the brain attempts to minimize movement duration under the constraint of meeting an accuracy criterion. The criterion is task and context dependent but is fixed for a given task and context. The model determines a unique duration as a trade-off between speed (time optimality) and accuracy (acceptable endpoint scatter). We analyzed the model for a linear motor plant, and obtained a closed-form equation for determining movement duration. By solving the equation numerically with specific plant parameters for the eye and arm, we found that the model can reproduce saccade duration as a function of amplitude (the main sequence), and arm-movement duration as a function of the ratio of target distance to size (Fitts's law). In addition, it explains the dependency of peak saccadic speed on amplitude and the dependency of saccadic duration on initial eye position. Furthermore, for arm movements, the model predicts a scaling relationship between peak velocity and distance and a reduction in movement duration with a moderate increase in viscosity. Finally, for a linear plant, our model predicts a neural control signal identical to that of the minimum-variance model set to the same movement duration. This control signal is a smooth function of time (except at the endpoint), in contrast to the discontinuous bang-bang control found in the time-optimal control literature. We suggest that one aspect of movement planning, as revealed by movement duration, may be to assign an endpoint accuracy criterion for a given task and context. PMID:16571740

  16. Quality of life, social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms in Jordanian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hamaideh, S; Al-Magaireh, D; Abu-Farsakh, B; Al-Omari, H

    2014-06-01

    The major purposes of this study were to examine levels and correlations of quality of life (QOL), social support, and severity of psychiatric symptoms as well as to identify the variables that best predict QOL among Jordanian patients with schizophrenia. Descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 160 patients selected through systematic random sampling from two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Results showed that the highest domain of QOL was the social relationship domain, and the highest source of social support was perceived from significant others. Severity of affective symptoms was the highest, and severity of positive symptoms was the lowest. QOL correlated positively with social support, patients' educational and income level, and employment; and negatively with severity of psychiatric symptoms, duration of untreated illness, and duration of treatment. Support from friends, duration of untreated illness, income level, and severity of affective symptoms predicted QOL and accounting for 47.3% of the variance.

  17. Botulinum toxin: examining duration of effect in facial aesthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Timothy Corcoran

    2010-01-01

    durations of response. Across all studies providing relapse rates, most patients relapsed by 6 months. In studies assessing patient satisfaction, satisfaction remained high throughout the duration of the studies ( approximately 4 months). With the Dysport formulation (abobotulinumtoxinA, clostridium botulinum type A toxin-hemagglutinin complex; Ipsen Biopharm Ltd, Wrexham, England), retreatment intervals were estimated at a mean of 3.9 months (median = 3.3 months). These results were consistent with responder rates from another Dysport study in which the active treatment differed from placebo at 3 but not 4 months. A single comparative study demonstrated that the proportion of patients relapsing at week 16 was 23% (95% CI 11.5, 41.6) in the BOTOX Cosmetic group as compared with 40% (95% CI 25.2, 60.1) in the Dysport group. Myobloc (rimabotulinumtoxinB, botulinum toxin type B; Solstice Neurosciences, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA) was associated with shorter durations of action (2-3 months). Data from facial areas other than the glabella, although more limited, supported a duration of at least 3-4 months. The addition of BoNTA to dermal fillers or light/laser therapy appeared to increase the degree of effect. Repeated BoNTA treatments may prolong duration of effect or potentiate the effect. In conclusion, patients can expect treatments to last > or =3 months but often as many as 4-5 months depending on the facial area, dose, and formulation. Additional research should help clarify the impact of age, baseline rhytid severity, patient sex, repeated treatments, and combination treatment on longevity of effect. PMID:20369902

  18. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  19. Multimodal Learning and Intelligent Prediction of Symptom Development in Individual Parkinson's Patients.

    PubMed

    Przybyszewski, Andrzej W; Kon, Mark; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Szymanski, Artur; Habela, Piotr; Koziorowski, Dariusz M

    2016-01-01

    We still do not know how the brain and its computations are affected by nerve cell deaths and their compensatory learning processes, as these develop in neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Compensatory learning processes are ND symptoms usually observed at a point when the disease has already affected large parts of the brain. We can register symptoms of ND such as motor and/or mental disorders (dementias) and even provide symptomatic relief, though the structural effects of these are in most cases not yet understood. It is very important to obtain early diagnosis, which can provide several years in which we can monitor and partly compensate for the disease's symptoms, with the help of various therapies. In the case of Parkinson's disease (PD), in addition to classical neurological tests, measurements of eye movements are diagnostic. We have performed measurements of latency, amplitude, and duration in reflexive saccades (RS) of PD patients. We have compared the results of our measurement-based diagnoses with standard neurological ones. The purpose of our work was to classify how condition attributes predict the neurologist's diagnosis. For n = 10 patients, the patient age and parameters based on RS gave a global accuracy in predictions of neurological symptoms in individual patients of about 80%. Further, by adding three attributes partly related to patient 'well-being' scores, our prediction accuracies increased to 90%. Our predictive algorithms use rough set theory, which we have compared with other classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, Decision Trees/Tables, and Random Forests (implemented in KNIME/WEKA). We have demonstrated that RS are powerful biomarkers for assessment of symptom progression in PD.

  20. Multimodal Learning and Intelligent Prediction of Symptom Development in Individual Parkinson’s Patients

    PubMed Central

    Przybyszewski, Andrzej W.; Kon, Mark; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Szymanski, Artur; Habela, Piotr; Koziorowski, Dariusz M.

    2016-01-01

    We still do not know how the brain and its computations are affected by nerve cell deaths and their compensatory learning processes, as these develop in neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Compensatory learning processes are ND symptoms usually observed at a point when the disease has already affected large parts of the brain. We can register symptoms of ND such as motor and/or mental disorders (dementias) and even provide symptomatic relief, though the structural effects of these are in most cases not yet understood. It is very important to obtain early diagnosis, which can provide several years in which we can monitor and partly compensate for the disease’s symptoms, with the help of various therapies. In the case of Parkinson’s disease (PD), in addition to classical neurological tests, measurements of eye movements are diagnostic. We have performed measurements of latency, amplitude, and duration in reflexive saccades (RS) of PD patients. We have compared the results of our measurement-based diagnoses with standard neurological ones. The purpose of our work was to classify how condition attributes predict the neurologist’s diagnosis. For n = 10 patients, the patient age and parameters based on RS gave a global accuracy in predictions of neurological symptoms in individual patients of about 80%. Further, by adding three attributes partly related to patient ‘well-being’ scores, our prediction accuracies increased to 90%. Our predictive algorithms use rough set theory, which we have compared with other classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, Decision Trees/Tables, and Random Forests (implemented in KNIME/WEKA). We have demonstrated that RS are powerful biomarkers for assessment of symptom progression in PD. PMID:27649187

  1. Multimodal Learning and Intelligent Prediction of Symptom Development in Individual Parkinson's Patients.

    PubMed

    Przybyszewski, Andrzej W; Kon, Mark; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Szymanski, Artur; Habela, Piotr; Koziorowski, Dariusz M

    2016-01-01

    We still do not know how the brain and its computations are affected by nerve cell deaths and their compensatory learning processes, as these develop in neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Compensatory learning processes are ND symptoms usually observed at a point when the disease has already affected large parts of the brain. We can register symptoms of ND such as motor and/or mental disorders (dementias) and even provide symptomatic relief, though the structural effects of these are in most cases not yet understood. It is very important to obtain early diagnosis, which can provide several years in which we can monitor and partly compensate for the disease's symptoms, with the help of various therapies. In the case of Parkinson's disease (PD), in addition to classical neurological tests, measurements of eye movements are diagnostic. We have performed measurements of latency, amplitude, and duration in reflexive saccades (RS) of PD patients. We have compared the results of our measurement-based diagnoses with standard neurological ones. The purpose of our work was to classify how condition attributes predict the neurologist's diagnosis. For n = 10 patients, the patient age and parameters based on RS gave a global accuracy in predictions of neurological symptoms in individual patients of about 80%. Further, by adding three attributes partly related to patient 'well-being' scores, our prediction accuracies increased to 90%. Our predictive algorithms use rough set theory, which we have compared with other classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, Decision Trees/Tables, and Random Forests (implemented in KNIME/WEKA). We have demonstrated that RS are powerful biomarkers for assessment of symptom progression in PD. PMID:27649187

  2. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  3. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of the District of Columbia Department of Corrections § 330.1102 Duration. This program terminates 1 year...

  4. Depressive symptoms amongst asthmatic children's caregivers.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Alexandra; Mezei, Györgyi; Kovári, Eva; Cserháti, Endre

    2010-06-01

    We wanted to find out, whether the number of depressive symptoms is higher amongst asthmatic children's caregivers, compared to international data, to the Hungarian population average, and to parents of children with chronic renal disease. Are these depressive symptoms connected to the children's psychological status, asthma severity or current asthma symptoms? One-hundred and eight, 7- to 17-yr-old asthmatic children were enrolled, who have been treated at the Semmelweis University, First Department of Pediatrics. Children were suffering from asthma for at least 1 yr, with a median of 8 yr (1-16 yr), they started to develop asthmatic symptoms between the age of 0.5-14 yr (median: 3 yr). We also identified 27 children with chronic renal diseases and their caregivers, who functioned as a control group. Children were asked to complete the Hungarian-validated versions of the Child Depression Inventory, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Asthma severity and current symptoms were also documented, 56% had no symptoms on the preceding week. Caregivers were asked to complete the Hungarian versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) short form, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory and the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Caregivers' Quality of Life Questionnaire. Caregivers of asthmatic children had significantly more depressive symptoms (7.73 +/- 6.69 s.d.) than the age-specific normal population (p < 0.01). Caregivers of renal patients also experience more depressive symptoms (9.61 +/- 7.43 s.d.) than their healthy peers, but difference between the two chronic diseases' group did not prove to be significant. Asthmatic children's caregivers who scored more points on the BDI than the population average suffer from more anxiety symptoms, but their quality of life is not worse than the caregivers' with less depressive points. Depressive symptoms were neither connected to the children's psychological

  5. Symptoms of gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Diehl, A K

    1992-11-01

    The most certain symptomatic manifestation of gallstones is episodic upper abdominal pain. Characteristically, this pain is severe and located in the epigastrium and/or the right upper quadrant. The onset is relatively abrupt and often awakens the patient from sleep. The pain is steady in intensity, may radiate to the upper back, be associated with nausea and lasts for hours to up to a day. Dyspeptic symptoms of indigestion, belching, bloating, abdominal discomfort, heartburn and specific food intolerance are common in persons with gallstones, but are probably unrelated to the stones themselves and frequently persist after surgery. Many, if not most, persons with gallstones have no history of pain attacks. Persons discovered to have gallstones in the absence of typical symptoms appear to have an annual incidence of biliary pain of 2-5% during the initial years of follow-up, with perhaps a declining rate thereafter. Gallstone-related complications occur at a rate of less than 1% annually. Those whose stones are symptomatic at discovery have a more severe course, with approximately 6-10% suffering recurrent symptoms each year and 2% biliary complications. The far higher rates of symptom development reported in a few studies raise the possibility that these incidence estimates may be too low. The best predictors of future biliary pain are a history of pain at the time of diagnosis, female gender and possibly obesity. The risk of acute cholecystitis appears to be greater in those with large solitary stones, that of biliary pancreatitis in those with multiple small stones, and that of gallbladder cancer in those with large stones of any number. Drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins may now be the treatment of choice in patients with gallstones who are suffering acute pain attacks. Persistent dyspeptic symptoms occur frequently following cholecystectomy. A prolonged history of such symptoms prior to surgery and evidence of significant psychological distress

  6. Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L; Murphy, Therese M; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Pidsley, Ruth; Burrage, Joe; Dempster, Emma L; Wong, Chloe C Y; Pariante, Carmine M; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychotic symptoms are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood; thus, elucidating early risk indicators is crucial to target prevention efforts. There is considerable discordance for psychotic symptoms between monozygotic twins, indicating that child-specific non-genetic factors must be involved. Epigenetic processes may constitute one of these factors and have not yet been investigated in relation to childhood psychotic symptoms. Therefore, this study explored whether differences in DNA methylation at age 10 were associated with monozygotic twin discordance for psychotic symptoms at age 12. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study cohort of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) was assessed for age-12 psychotic symptoms and 24 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for symptoms were identified for methylomic comparison. Children provided buccal samples at ages 5 and 10. DNA was bisulfite modified and DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with psychotic symptoms were subsequently tested in post-mortem prefrontal cortex tissue from adult schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls. Site-specific DNA methylation differences were observed at age 10 between monozygotic twins discordant for age-12 psychotic symptoms. Similar DMPs were not found at age 5. The top-ranked psychosis-associated DMP (cg23933044), located in the promoter of the C5ORF42 gene, was also hypomethylated in post-mortem prefrontal cortex brain tissue from schizophrenia patients compared to unaffected controls. These data tentatively suggest that epigenetic variation in peripheral tissue is associated with childhood psychotic symptoms and may indicate susceptibility to schizophrenia and other mental health problems. PMID:26479702

  7. Shortened Sleep Duration does not Predict Obesity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Calamaro, Christina J.; Park, Sunhee; Mason, Thornton B. A.; Marcus, Carole L.; Weaver, Terri E.; Pack, Allan; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health issue. In adolescents, there are limited studies on the relationship between obesity and sleep duration. We hypothesied that average sleep duration of less than 6 hours in adolescents was associated with obesity. Data was from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health); survey of 90,000 youths, ages 12 – 18 years; surveyed in several waves. The sample population for our study was 13,568. Weighted multiple logistic regression was used to identify relationship between obesity at Wave II and sleep duration, having adjusted for skipping breakfast ≥ 2/week; race, gender, parental income, TV ≥ 2hrs/day, depression, and obesity at Wave I. At Wave I, mean age 15.96±0.11 yrs; mean sleep hours 7.91±0.04. 10.6% and 11.2% of adolescents were obese at Waves I and II, respectively. Adjusted analyses suggest that effect of shortened sleep duration in Wave I was not significantly predictive of obesity in Wave II (p<0.218).Longitudinally, depression and TV ≥ 2hrs/day at Wave I was associated with higher risk of obesity at Wave II in adjusted analyses. Depressed adolescents were almost twice as likely to be obese (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.25–2.72); adolescents who watched TV ≥ 2hrs/day were 37% more likely to be obese (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.09–1.72).Environmental factors including TV ≥ 2hrs/day and depression were significantly associated with obesity; shortened sleep duration was not. Future longitudinal studies in adolescents are needed to determine whether timing of television watching directly influences sleep patterns, and ultimately obesity. PMID:20545836

  8. Probiotics reduce symptoms of antibiotic use in a hospital setting: a randomized dose response study.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; DongLian, Cai; Weijian, Xu; Stewart, Morgan; Ni, Jiayi; Stewart, Tad; Miller, Larry E

    2014-01-16

    Probiotics are known to reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) risk in a strain-specific manner. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of a four strain probiotic combination (HOWARU(®) Restore) on the incidence of AAD and CDAD and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in adult in-patients requiring antibiotic therapy. Patients (n=503) were randomized among three study groups: HOWARU(®) Restore probiotic 1.70×10(10) CFU (high-dose, n=168), HOWARU(®) Restore probiotic 4.17×10(9) CFU (low-dose, n=168), or placebo (n=167). Subjects were stratified by gender, age, and duration of antibiotic treatment. Study products were administered daily up to 7 days after the final antibiotic dose. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of AAD. Secondary endpoints included incidence of CDAD, diarrhea duration, stools per day, bloody stools, fever, abdominal cramping, and bloating. A significant dose-response effect on AAD was observed with incidences of 12.5, 19.6, and 24.6% with high-dose, low-dose, and placebo, respectively (p=0.02). CDAD was the same in both probiotic groups (1.8%) but different from the placebo group (4.8%; p=0.04). Incidences of fever, abdominal pain, and bloating were lower with increasing probiotic dose. The number of daily liquid stools and average duration of diarrhea decreased with higher probiotic dosage. The tested four strain probiotic combination appears to lower the risk of AAD, CDAD, and gastrointestinal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner in adult in-patients.

  9. Breastfeeding Duration Is Associated With Child Diet at 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Galuska, Deborah A.; Thompson, Frances E.; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Breastfeeding has been associated with early infant food preferences, but less is known about how breastfeeding is associated with later child diet. The objective of this study was to assess whether any and exclusive breastfeeding duration are associated with child diet at 6 years. METHODS: We linked data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Year 6 Follow-Up. We used approximately monthly questionnaires throughout infancy to calculate any and exclusive breastfeeding duration (n = 1355). We calculated median daily frequency of intake of water, milk, 100% juice, fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, and savory snacks at 6 years from a dietary screener and examined frequency of consumption of each food or beverage group by any and exclusive breastfeeding duration. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds of consuming more than the median daily frequency of intake of food or beverage items, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Intake of milk, sweets, and savory snacks at 6 years was not associated with any or exclusive breastfeeding duration in unadjusted analyses. Frequency of consumption of water, fruits, and vegetables was positively associated, and intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was inversely associated with any and exclusive breastfeeding duration in adjusted models; 100% juice consumption was inversely associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration only. CONCLUSIONS: Among many other health benefits, breastfeeding is associated with a number of healthier dietary behaviors at age 6. The association between breastfeeding and child diet may be an important factor to consider when examining associations between breastfeeding and child obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:25183756

  10. Therapeutic Yoga: Symptom Management for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kim A; MacDonald, Megan

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, affecting over 2.3 million people worldwide. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the age of disease onset is typically between 20 and 40 years, with a higher incidence in women. Individuals with MS experience a wide range of symptoms, including declining physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms (e.g., fatigue, imbalance, spasticity, chronic pain, cognitive impairment, bladder and bowel dysfunction, visual and speech impairments, depression, sensory disturbance, and mobility impairment). To date, both the cause of and cure for MS remain unknown. In recent years, more individuals with MS have been pursuing alternative methods of treatment to manage symptoms of the disease, including mind-body therapies such as yoga, meditation, breathing, and relaxation techniques. It has been suggested that the practice of yoga may be a safe and effective way of managing symptoms of MS. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the most relevant literature on exercise and mind-body modalities to treat MS symptoms and, more specifically, the benefits and potential role of yoga as an alternative treatment of symptom management for individuals with MS. The article also discusses future directions for research. PMID:26270955

  11. OZONE-INDUCED RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION DECREMENTS IN HUMANS: EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short duration exposure to ozone (<8 hr) is known to result in lung function decrements and respiratory symptoms in humans. The magnitudes of these responses are functions of ozone concentration (C), activity level measured by minute ventilation (Ve), duration of exposure (T), a...

  12. Chronotype and sleep duration: the influence of season of assessment.

    PubMed

    Allebrandt, Karla V; Teder-Laving, Maris; Kantermann, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; Metspalu, Andres; Roenneberg, Till

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about human entrainment under natural conditions, partly due to the complexity of human behavior, torn between biological and social time and influenced by zeitgebers (light-dark cycles) that are progressively "polluted" (and thereby weakened) by artificial light. In addition, data about seasonal variations in sleep parameters are scarce. We, therefore, investigated seasonal variation in cross-sectional assessments of sleep/wake times of 9765 subjects from four European populations (EGCUT = Estonian Genome Centre, University of Tartu in Estonia; KORA = Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg in Germany; KORCULA = The Korcula study in Croatia; and ORCADES = The Orkney Complex Disease Study in Scotland). We identified time-of-year dependencies for the distribution of chronotype (phase of entrainment assessed as the mid-sleep time point on free days adjusted for sleep deficit of workdays) in cohorts from Estonia (EGCUT) and Germany (KORA). Our results indicate that season (defined as daylight saving time - DST and standard zonetime periods - SZT) specifications of photoperiod influence the distribution of chronotype (adjusted for age and sex). Second, in the largest investigated sample, from Estonia (EGCUT; N = 5878), we could detect that seasonal variation in weekly average sleep duration was dependent on individual chronotype. Later chronotypes in this cohort showed significant variation in their average sleep duration across the year, especially during DST (1 h advance in social time from the end of March to end of October), while earlier chronotypes did not. Later chronotypes not only slept less during the DST period but the average chronotype of the population assessed during this period was earlier than during the SZT (local time for a respective time zone) period. More in detail, hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that, beyond season of assessment (DST or SZT), social jetlag (SJl; the discrepancy

  13. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  14. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  15. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 550.6 Section 550.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 550.6 Duration. REE...

  16. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration. 550.6 Section 550.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 550.6 Duration. REE...

  17. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  18. Symptom Management of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a treatment approach for the symptom management of bulimia that is a synthesis of various techniques, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, response prevention, relapse training, and psychodynamic therapy. The model has been a useful teaching tool for staff and patients in both group and individual formats. Addresses the challenges of…

  19. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  20. Teacher Testing: A Symptom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    Current teacher testing is a symptom of what is wrong with American public education, rooted in invalid generalizations of method from one discipline to another. America's top educational policymakers are rarely educators, instead tending to be political leaders. The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) has produced a…

  1. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? The ... ability to be physically active, and wheezing. These signs and symptoms most often begin between the ages ...

  2. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... often attribute the first symptoms to things like aging, gaining weight or being out of shape. And because of this, they don’t even recognize the symptoms.” Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD in the United States, but long-term exposure ...