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Sample records for age systolic blood

  1. Obesity and systolic blood pressure in young adult men born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Laganović, Mario; Lela, Ivana Vuković; Premuzić, Vedran; Karanović, Sandra; Vrdoljak, Ana; Jelaković, Bojan

    2013-09-01

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are supposed to be at higher risk to develop cardiovascular disorders, and recent report showed that concurrent obesity influences blood pressure (BP) in SGA children. Our aim was to investigate the impact of obesity and birth weight on blood pressure values in young adult men born SGA and controls born after normal pregnancy, Normotensive, non-treated adult men were enrolled (N = 185; mean age 21.29 +/- 0.9 years). Birth parameters were obtained from medical records and SGA was defined as birth weight (BW) under 10th percentile for gestational age and obesity as BMI > 25 kg/m2. According to the presence or absence of obesity and BW the subjects were divided into four groups: (1) non-obese with normal BW (N = 50), (2) non-obese SGA (N = 67), (3) obese with normal BW (N = 40), (4) obese SGA (N = 28). BP was measured using Omron M6 and Spacelab 90207 device following the ESH/ESC guidelines. Systolic BP, 24-hour BP variability and pulse pressure were significantly higher in SGA subjects than in those with normal BW (p < 0.05). The highest 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values as well as 24-hour pulse pressure were found in the subgroup of obese SGA subjects (p < 0.001). Significant differences for the above parameters were observed between obese SGA group and non-obese SGA group (p < 0.05). Obese SGA subjects had higher 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values compared to obese normal BW group. No difference was found in BP between non-obese SGA and non-obese group with normal BW (p > 0.05). In addition to BW and shorter pregnancy duration, obesity concurrently and significantly determines systolic BP in young normotensive men and point to a need for more aggressive implementation of healthy lifestyle as early as possible.

  2. Elevated Systolic Blood Pressure in Male GH Transgenic Mice Is Age Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Adam; Benner, Chance M.; Sim, Don; Liu, Xingbo; List, Edward O.; Householder, Lara A.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mice expressing bovine GH (bGH) gene have previously been used to examine the effects of chronic GH stimulation on cardiovascular function. Results concerning systolic blood pressure (SBP) in bGH mice are conflicting. We hypothesized that these discrepancies may be the result of the various ages of the mice used in previous studies. In the current study, SBP was assessed monthly in male bGH mice from 3–12 months of age. Factors known to alter blood pressure were assessed during this time and included: levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and glucose homeostasis markers, and renal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Beginning at 6 months of age bGH had increased SBP compared with wild-type controls, which remained elevated through 12 months of age. Despite having increased blood pressure and cardiac BNP mRNA, bGH mice had decreased circulating levels of BNP. Additionally, bGH mice had an age-dependent decline in insulin levels. For example, they were hyperinsulinemic at 3 months, but by 11 months of age were hypoinsulinemic relative to wild-type controls. This decrease in insulin was accompanied by improved glucose tolerance at 11 months. Finally, both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were severely depressed in kidneys of 11-month-old bGH mice. These results indicate that elevated SBP in bGH mice is dependent on age, independent of insulin resistance, and related to alterations in both the natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems. PMID:24424040

  3. Elevated systolic blood pressure in male GH transgenic mice is age dependent.

    PubMed

    Jara, Adam; Benner, Chance M; Sim, Don; Liu, Xingbo; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kopchick, John J

    2014-03-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mice expressing bovine GH (bGH) gene have previously been used to examine the effects of chronic GH stimulation on cardiovascular function. Results concerning systolic blood pressure (SBP) in bGH mice are conflicting. We hypothesized that these discrepancies may be the result of the various ages of the mice used in previous studies. In the current study, SBP was assessed monthly in male bGH mice from 3-12 months of age. Factors known to alter blood pressure were assessed during this time and included: levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and glucose homeostasis markers, and renal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Beginning at 6 months of age bGH had increased SBP compared with wild-type controls, which remained elevated through 12 months of age. Despite having increased blood pressure and cardiac BNP mRNA, bGH mice had decreased circulating levels of BNP. Additionally, bGH mice had an age-dependent decline in insulin levels. For example, they were hyperinsulinemic at 3 months, but by 11 months of age were hypoinsulinemic relative to wild-type controls. This decrease in insulin was accompanied by improved glucose tolerance at 11 months. Finally, both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were severely depressed in kidneys of 11-month-old bGH mice. These results indicate that elevated SBP in bGH mice is dependent on age, independent of insulin resistance, and related to alterations in both the natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems. PMID:24424040

  4. [Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Different Ages].

    PubMed

    Kobalava, Z D; Kotovskaya, Y V

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk-factor for cardiovascular disease and death from them. Traditionally, the problem of isolated systolic hypertension is associated with old age in mind the natural dynamics of systolic and diastolic blood pressure throughout life. Isolated systolic hypertension is the most common type of hypertension in elderly men as well as young adults. The pathophysiology of this condition in different age periods have fundamental differences. The adverse prognostic significance of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly, and the need for its non-drug and drug treatment are well documented. Accumulating epidemiological evidence on the adverse prognostic significance of isolated systolic hypertension. People young and middle-aged isolated systolic hypertension heterogeneous and may be a consequence of excessive pulse pressure amplification from the aorta to the peripheral arteries and the manifestation of an accelerated aging. Evaluation of central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in young may help identify premature vascular aging.

  5. Very preterm birth is a risk factor for increased systolic blood pressure at a young adult age.

    PubMed

    Keijzer-Veen, Mandy G; Dülger, Arzu; Dekker, Friedo W; Nauta, Jeroen; van der Heijden, Bert J

    2010-03-01

    Children born very prematurely who show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are suggested to be at risk of developing high blood pressure as adults. Renal function may already be impaired by young adult age. To study whether very preterm birth affects blood pressure in young adults, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (Spacelabs 90207 device) and renin concentration in 50 very premature individuals (<32 weeks of gestation), either small (SGA) or appropriate (AGA) for gestational age (21 SGA, 29 AGA), and 30 full-term controls who all were aged 20 years at time of measurement. The mean (standard deviation) daytime systolic blood pressure in SGA and AGA prematurely born individuals, respectively, was 122.7 (8.7) and 123.1 (8.5) mmHg. These values were, respectively, 3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.9 to 8.0] and 4.2 mmHg (95% CI 0.4-8.0) higher than in controls [119.6 (7.6)]. Daytime diastolic blood pressure and nighttime blood pressure did not differ between groups. We conclude that individuals born very preterm have higher daytime systolic blood pressure and higher risk of hypertension at a young adult age. PMID:20012998

  6. Age dependency of peripheral and central systolic blood pressures: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Staessen, Jan A; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; O'Rourke, Michael; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have described the age-related changes in both peripheral and central systolic blood pressures (SBPs) in populations. We addressed this issue in 1066 women and 978 men, all untreated (mean age, 45.1 years; 27.2% hypertensive) and randomly selected from a Chinese population, of whom 369 and 330 underwent a repeat examination after 3.6 years (median). In cross-sectional analyses, central SBP increased more with age than peripheral SBP in women below age 50 (1.21 vs. 1.01 mm Hg per year; P<0.001) and in men below age 60 (0.73 vs. 0.48 mm Hg per year; P<0.001), whereas in older women (0.64 vs. 0.58 mm Hg per year; P=0.27) and older men (0.45 vs. 0.44 mm Hg per year; P=0.79), the slopes of central and peripheral SBPs on age were similar. Compared with men, women had steeper (P<0.001) age-related increases in peripheral and central SBPs. Systolic augmentation pressure increased with age, but this increase was substantially smaller (P<0.0001) for peripheral than central augmentation (women, 0.086 vs. 0.45 mm Hg per year; men, 0.083 vs. 0.39 mm Hg per year). In multivariable-adjusted regression, age contributed ≥89.7% of the explained variance in peripheral and central SBPs. In longitudinal analyses, the annual percentage increases from baseline to follow-up in peripheral and central SBP were similar (P≥0.76) in both women (2.14% vs. 2.16 % per year) and men (1.33% vs. 1.34 % per year; P-values for sex difference ≤0.044). In conclusion, in younger subjects assessed cross-sectionally, the age-related increase was larger for central than peripheral SBP, whereas the corresponding cross-sectional estimates in older subjects and the longitudinal estimates in all subjects showed similar age-related increases in central and peripheral SBP. PMID:21918523

  7. Associations between age, cohort, and urbanization with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in China: a population-based study across 18 years

    PubMed Central

    ATTARD, Samantha M; HERRING, Amy H; ZHANG, Bing; DU, Shufa; POPKIN, Barry M; GORDON-LARSEN, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether large-scale environmental changes, such as those seen with urbanization, are differentially associated with systolic versus diastolic blood pressure, and whether those changes vary by birth cohort. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort study of Chinese adults (n=18,976; ages 18–70y) seen a maximum of 7 times over 1991–2009. We used hierarchical multivariable linear models to simultaneously estimate systolic and diastolic blood pressure as correlated outcomes over time, accounting for their physiologic, time-varying correlation. Main exposure variables were urbanicity, age, and birth cohort. Over 18 years of modernization, median systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 10 and 7 mm Hg, respectively. Results Our hierarchical model results suggest greater temporal increases in systolic and particularly diastolic blood pressure at lower versus higher urbanicity. At the same chronological age, for a 10-year difference in birth cohort (i.e., born in 1980s versus 1970s) the adjusted mean diastolic blood pressure was ~3mm Hg higher for the later birth cohort (p<0.001). Pulse pressure (calculated as model-predicted systolic minus diastolic blood pressure) was also higher at low versus high urbanicity. Conclusions These results suggest increased susceptibility of diastolic blood pressure (and thus peripheral vascular resistance) to environmental change, particularly in younger Chinese adults. Because diastolic blood pressure more strongly predicts cardiovascular disease risk in younger adulthood, hypertension-related health burden in China may increase over time. PMID:25668349

  8. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  9. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  10. Systolic blood pressure and systolic hypertension in adolescence of atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2007-11-01

    Annual medical examinations were conducted during adolescence for the in utero clinical study sample subjects exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Systolic blood pressure and several anthropometric measurements were recorded during these examinations. For 1014 persons exposed in utero, two types of longitudinal analyses were performed, for a total of 7029 observations (6.93 observations per subject) of systolic blood pressure (continuous data) and systolic hypertension (binary data) for persons aged 9 to 19 years. Body mass index (BMI) and/or body weight were considered in the analyses as potential confounders. For the measurements of systolic blood pressure, the common dose effect was 2.09 mmHg per Gy and was significant (P = 0.017). The dose by trimester interaction was suggestive (P = 0.060). A significant radiation dose effect was found in the second trimester (P = 0.001), with an estimated 4.17 mmHg per Gy, but in the first and third trimesters, radiation dose effects were not significant (P > 0.50). For prevalence of systolic hypertension, the radiation dose effect was significant (P = 0.009); the odds ratio at 1 Gy was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.04], and the dose by trimester interaction was not significant (P = 0.778). The dose response of systolic hypertension had no dose threshold, with a threshold point estimate of 0 Gy (95% CI: <0.0, 1.1 Gy). The dose response for systolic blood pressure was most pronounced in the second trimester, the most active organogenesis period for the organs relevant to blood pressure.

  11. Relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1988-06-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an elevated blood lead level was a significant predictor of subsequent systolic blood pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed association. These data suggest that blood lead level can influence systolic blood pressure even within the normal range.

  12. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years.

    PubMed

    Blumfield, Michelle L; Nowson, Caryl; Hure, Alexis J; Smith, Roger; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Collins, Clare E

    2015-05-01

    The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP), which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children's Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E%) polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045), E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03) and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (β coefficient -14.14; 95% CI -27.68, -0.60; p = 0.04) were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy) and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy) intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  13. Older age is associated with greater central aortic blood pressure following the exercise stress test in subjects with similar brachial systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p < 0.01). Despite similar BSPs in all age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.

  14. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W; Rossen, Niklas B; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Hansen, Michael G; Munkholm, Henrik; Thomsen, Kristian K; Søndergaard, Hanne; Bøttcher, Morten; Raungaard, Bent; Madsen, Morten; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Poulsen, Per L

    2016-09-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively measured aortic systolic BP were recorded in 21 908 patients (mean age: 63 years; 58% men; 14% with diabetes mellitus) with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective coronary angiography during January 2001 to December 2012. Multivariate Cox models were used to assess the association with incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Discrimination and reclassification were assessed using Harrell's C and the Continuous Net Reclassification Index. Data were analyzed with and without stratification by diabetes mellitus status. During a median follow-up period of 3.7 years (range: 0.1-10.8 years), 422 strokes, 511 myocardial infarctions, and 1530 deaths occurred. Both office and aortic systolic BP were associated with stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio per 10 mm Hg, 1.18 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.30] and 1.14 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.24], respectively) and with myocardial infarction in patients without diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12] and 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.10], respectively). In models including both BP measurements, aortic BP lost statistical significance and aortic BP did not confer improvement in either C-statistics or net reclassification analysis. In conclusion, invasively measured aortic systolic BP does not add prognostic information about cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality compared with office BP in patients with stable angina pectoris, either with or without diabetes mellitus. PMID:27402917

  15. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W; Rossen, Niklas B; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Hansen, Michael G; Munkholm, Henrik; Thomsen, Kristian K; Søndergaard, Hanne; Bøttcher, Morten; Raungaard, Bent; Madsen, Morten; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Poulsen, Per L

    2016-09-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively measured aortic systolic BP were recorded in 21 908 patients (mean age: 63 years; 58% men; 14% with diabetes mellitus) with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective coronary angiography during January 2001 to December 2012. Multivariate Cox models were used to assess the association with incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Discrimination and reclassification were assessed using Harrell's C and the Continuous Net Reclassification Index. Data were analyzed with and without stratification by diabetes mellitus status. During a median follow-up period of 3.7 years (range: 0.1-10.8 years), 422 strokes, 511 myocardial infarctions, and 1530 deaths occurred. Both office and aortic systolic BP were associated with stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio per 10 mm Hg, 1.18 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.30] and 1.14 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.24], respectively) and with myocardial infarction in patients without diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12] and 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.10], respectively). In models including both BP measurements, aortic BP lost statistical significance and aortic BP did not confer improvement in either C-statistics or net reclassification analysis. In conclusion, invasively measured aortic systolic BP does not add prognostic information about cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality compared with office BP in patients with stable angina pectoris, either with or without diabetes mellitus.

  16. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP <120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, mean SBP: 121.5 mm Hg) versus <140 (standard treatment, mean SBP: 134.6 mm Hg) reduced cardiovascular events 25%. SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP <140 mm Hg. To examine these assumptions, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2012 data were analyzed on 3 groups of adults with treated hypertension: group 1 consisted of SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP <140; 68.3%, 74.8%, and 83.4% of the controlled subset had SBP <130. Mean SBPs in those controlled to <140 were 123.3, 120.9, and 118.9, respectively. Among US adults with treated hypertension, (1) the SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP <140, SBP values were within <3 mm Hg of SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is <130, especially for the SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP <140 could approximate SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  17. Low Systolic Blood Pressure and Mortality From All Causes and Vascular Diseases Among Older Middle-aged Men: Korean Veterans Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, low systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to be associated with an increased risk of death from vascular diseases in a rural elderly population in Korea. However, evidence on the association between low SBP and vascular diseases is scarce. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the association between low SBP and mortality from all causes and vascular diseases in older middle-aged Korean men. Methods: From 2004 to 2010, 94 085 Korean Vietnam War veterans were followed-up for deaths. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A stratified analysis was conducted by age at enrollment. SBP was self-reported by a postal survey in 2004. Results: Among the participants aged 60 and older, the lowest SBP (<90 mmHg) category had an elevated aHR for mortality from all causes (aHR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.1) and vascular diseases (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, I00-I99; aHR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.4) compared to those with an SBP of 100 to 119 mmHg. Those with an SBP below 80 mmHg (aHR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 18.8) and those with an SBP of 80 to 89 mmHg (aHR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 10.2) also had an increased risk of vascular mortality, compared to those with an SBP of 90 to 119 mmHg. This association was sustained when excluding the first two years of follow-up or preexisting vascular diseases. In men younger than 60 years, the association of low SBP was weaker than that in those aged 60 years or older. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that low SBP (<90 mmHg) may increase vascular mortality in Korean men aged 60 years or older. PMID:25857648

  18. Efficacy of combination therapy for systolic blood pressure in patients with severe systolic hypertension: the Systolic Evaluation of Lotrel Efficacy and Comparative Therapies (SELECT) study.

    PubMed

    Neutel, Joel M; Smith, David H G; Weber, Michael A; Schofield, Lesley; Purkayastha, Das; Gatlin, Marjorie

    2005-11-01

    Systolic hypertension is predominant among patients over 50 years of age, is a more important cardiovascular risk factor than diastolic blood pressure, and is more difficult to control than diastolic blood pressure. Consequently, the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommends combination therapy as first-line treatment for patients with stage 2 hypertension. In the Systolic Evaluation of Lotrel Efficacy and Comparative Therapies (SELECT) study, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used to identify patients with systolic hypertension and to determine the impact of 8 weeks of treatment with either amlodipine besylate/benazepril HCl 5/20 mg combination therapy (n=149), amlodipine besylate 5 mg (n=146), or benazepril HCl 20 mg (n=148). Combination therapy was significantly more effective in reducing systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure than either monotherapy (p<0.0001). Significantly greater percentages of patients in the combination group compared with either monotherapy achieved blood pressure control (p<0.0001). Adverse events were low in all three treatment arms, with less peripheral edema in the combination group than in the amlodipine-treated group. The combination of amlodipine besylate/benazepril HCl given to patients with stage 2 systolic hypertension resulted in significantly greater reductions in blood pressure and pulse pressure than those seen with monotherapy and was at least as well tolerated as the separate components. This data supports the recommendation of the JNC 7 for the use of combination therapy in patients with stage 2 hypertension. PMID:16278521

  19. Differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in blacks with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Ayodele, Olugbenga E.; Alebiosu, C. Olutayo; Salako, Babatunde L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases has been shown to be higher for systolic blood pressure than diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians with primary hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a prospective observational study carried out at the Medical Outpatient Department of the State Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of 185 consecutive patients (65 males, 120 females), aged 35-85 years with primary hypertension who had been on drugs one- to 25 years prior to the onset of the study. Clinic blood pressure control was assessed during a year period. Six consecutive clinic blood pressure readings were recorded for each patient and the average calculated (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure separately). Patients were classified into subgroups based on the pattern of blood pressure control. RESULTS: Clinic systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was controlled in 58 patients (31.4%). Systolic blood pressure control was less frequent than diastolic blood pressure control (35.7% versus 51.4%, p<0.05). Patients with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure were significantly older than patients with only uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (66.7+/-7.4 versus 52.9+/-8.7 years, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Systolic blood pressure is less frequently controlled than diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians treated for primary hypertension. This may increase the patient's risk of developing stroke, and cardiovascular and renal complications. PMID:15040512

  20. Target blood pressure for treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: valsartan in elderly isolated systolic hypertension study.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao; Rakugi, Hiromi; Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Ito, Sadayoshi; Eto, Tanenao; Kimura, Genjiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Takishita, Shuichi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point study, we aimed to establish whether strict blood pressure control (<140 mm Hg) is superior to moderate blood pressure control (> or =140 mm Hg to <150 mm Hg) in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension. We divided 3260 patients aged 70 to 84 years with isolated systolic hypertension (sitting blood pressure 160 to 199 mm Hg) into 2 groups, according to strict or moderate blood pressure treatment. A composite of cardiovascular events was evaluated for > or =2 years. The strict control (1545 patients) and moderate control (1534 patients) groups were well matched (mean age: 76.1 years; mean blood pressure: 169.5/81.5 mm Hg). Median follow-up was 3.07 years. At 3 years, blood pressure reached 136.6/74.8 mm Hg and 142.0/76.5 mm Hg, respectively. The blood pressure difference between the 2 groups was 5.4/1.7 mm Hg. The overall rate of the primary composite end point was 10.6 per 1000 patient-years in the strict control group and 12.0 per 1000 patient-years in the moderate control group (hazard ratio: 0.89; [95% CI: 0.60 to 1.34]; P=0.38). In summary, blood pressure targets of <140 mm Hg are safely achievable in relatively healthy patients > or = 70 years of age with isolated systolic hypertension, although our trial was underpowered to definitively determine whether strict control was superior to less stringent blood pressure targets.

  1. The design and rationale of a multi-center clinical trial comparing two strategies for control of systolic blood pressure: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is an important public health concern because it is highly prevalent and a risk factor for adverse health outcomes, including coronary heart disease, stroke, decompensated heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and decline in cognitive function. Observational studies show a progressive increase in risk associated with blood pressure above 115/75 mm Hg. Prior research has shown that reducing elevated systolic blood pressure lowers the risk of subsequent clinical complications from cardiovascular disease. However, the optimal systolic blood pressure to reduce blood pressure-related adverse outcomes is unclear, and the benefit of treating to a level of systolic blood pressure well below 140 mm Hg has not been proven in a large, definitive clinical trial. Purpose To describe the design considerations of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and the baseline characteristics of trial participants. Methods SPRINT is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial that compares two strategies for treating systolic blood pressure: one targets the standard target of <140 mm Hg, and the other targets a more intensive target of <120 mm Hg. Enrollment focused on volunteers of age ≥50 years (no upper limit) with an average baseline systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and evidence of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, 10-year Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score ≥15%, or age ≥75 years. SPRINT recruitment also targeted three pre-specified subgroups: participants with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73m2), participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, and participants 75 years of age or older. The primary outcome is first occurrence of a myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular disease death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, decline in kidney function or development of end-stage renal disease

  2. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R K; Silver, J; Mills, P J; Dillbeck, M C; Wagoner, D E

    1983-03-01

    Systolic blood pressure was measured in 112 subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. The subjects were between the ages of 35 and 64 years. A significant difference was found between the systolic blood pressures of subjects (matched for sex, race, and general educational background) practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi programs and norms for the general population. This difference was independent of diet and exercise patterns but related to length of time meditating. A significant difference was also found between short-term (under 5 years) and long-term (over 5 years) participants of the TM program, covarying for age. No previous reports exist concerning the long-term effects of the TM program on blood pressure. Despite methodological problems associated with cross sectional data, the findings suggest the beneficial effects of the long-term practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs on systolic blood pressure. Even if self-selection plays a role, the characteristics of an easily identifiable group already showing traits beneficial to the general population deserves further study.

  3. Age-Related Differences in Memory and Executive Functions in Healthy "APOE"[epsilon]4 Carriers: The Contribution of Individual Differences in Prefrontal Volumes and Systolic Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Andrew R.; Raz, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced age and vascular risk are associated with declines in the volumes of multiple brain regions, especially the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Older adults, even unencumbered by declining health, perform less well than their younger counterparts in multiple cognitive domains, such as episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of…

  4. Baseline characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Still, Carolyn H; Craven, Timothy E; Freedman, Barry I; Van Buren, Peter N; Sink, Kaycee M; Killeen, Anthony A; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn M; Wall, Barry M; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia M; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wright, Jackson T

    2015-09-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mm Hg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mm Hg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. SPRINT enrolled 9361 hypertensive participants aged older than 50 years. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared with non-AAs. AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared with non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared with non-AAs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mm Hg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of systolic blood pressure targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  5. Estimation of central systolic blood pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Lung-Ching; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Ding, Philip Yu-An; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2010-06-01

    Current noninvasive techniques for assessing central aortic pressure require the recording of an arterial pressure wave using a high-fidelity applanation tonometer. We therefore developed and validated a novel method to estimate the central aortic systolic pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor alone. Invasive high-fidelity right brachial and central aortic pressure waves, and left-brachial pulse volume plethysmography from an oscillometric blood pressure monitor, were obtained at baseline and 3 min after administration of sublingual nitroglycerin in 100 patients during cardiac catheterization. In the initial 50 patients (Generation Group), Central systolic blood pressure was predicted by a multi-variate prediction model generated from the comprehensive analysis of the invasive brachial pressure wave, including brachial late-systolic shoulder pressure value and parameters related to wave reflection and arterial compliance. Another prediction model was similarly constructed from the noninvasively calibrated pulse volume plethysmography. Both models were validated in the subsequent 50 patients (Validation Group) with results: r=0.98 (P<0.001) and mean difference=0.5+/-4.5 (95% confidence interval -8.3 to 9.3) mm Hg for the invasive model, and r=0.93 (P<0.001) and mean difference=-0.1+/-7.6 (95% confidence interval -15.0 to 14.8) mm Hg for the noninvasive model. Thus, our results indicate that central aortic systolic blood pressure could be estimated by analysis of the noninvasive brachial pressure wave alone from an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

  6. Beetroot supplementation lowers daily systolic blood pressure in older, overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Jajja, A; Sutyarjoko, A; Lara, J; Rennie, K; Brandt, K; Qadir, O; Siervo, M

    2014-10-01

    Although inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation are associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (BP), these results have primarily been obtained from short-term trials that focused on healthy young adults. Therefore, we hypothesized that oral supplementation of beetroot juice concentrate would decrease systolic BP in overweight older participants but that the decline in BP would not be sustained after a 1-week interruption of the beetroot juice supplementation. For 3 weeks, 24 participants were randomized to either the beetroot juice concentrate or blackcurrant juice group, with a 1-week postsupplementation phase (week 4). Changes in systolic and diastolic BP were assessed during the supplementation and postsupplementation phases. Blood pressure was measured using 3 different methods: (1) resting clinic BP, (2) 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and (3) home monitoring of daily resting BP. The first 2 methods were applied at baseline and after weeks 3 and 4. Daily measurements were conducted throughout the study, with 21 subjects completing the study (beetroot/blackcurrant = 10/11; male/female = 12/9; age = 62.0 ± 1.4 years; body mass index = 30.1 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). After 3 weeks, beetroot juice supplementation was not associated with significant changes in resting clinic BP or 24-hour ABPM. Conversely, beetroot juice concentrate reduced daily systolic BP after 3 weeks (-7.3 ± 5.9 mm Hg, P = .02); however, the effect was not maintained after the interruption of the supplementation (week 4, 2.8 ± 6.1 mm Hg, P = .09). In overweight older subjects, beetroot juice concentrate supplementation was associated with beneficial effects on daily systolic BP, although the effects were not significant when measured by 24-hour ABPM or resting clinic BP. PMID:25294299

  7. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.

  8. Clinical usefulness of the second peak of radial systolic blood pressure for estimation of aortic systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kohara, K; Tabara, Y; Tomita, H; Nagai, T; Igase, M; Miki, T

    2009-08-01

    Central aortic blood pressure (BP), obtained from radial arterial waveform using the transfer function method (TFM), has been shown to have prognostic value independently of brachial BP. In this study, the relationship between peripheral systolic BP (SBP) and aortic SBP was evaluated. We further investigated whether TFM-derived aortic SBP can be estimated by information obtained from the radial waveform. The radial waveform was analysed to obtain the first peak of radial SBP (SBP1), second peak of radial SBP (SBP2), radial augmentation index (AI) (radial (SBP2-DBP)/(SBP1-DBP) x 100 and aortic SBP and AI using TFM in 233 subjects in the supine position. Measurements were repeated after changing position to the prone position. The constructed equation was validated in 149 community residents with different backgrounds. Radial SBP2 was closer to TFM-derived aortic SBP compared with brachial SBP. TFM-derived aortic SBP was approximated by the equation: aortic SBP=18.9-radial SBP2-0.03 x HR-0.214 x radial AI (r2=0.992). The equation was also applicable to predicting aortic SBP in the prone position as well as in different populations (mean difference between predicted aortic SBP and TFM-derived aortic SBP: -0.01+/-1.34 and 1.05+/-1.47 mm Hg, respectively). Radial arterial waveform analysis can be used for estimation of TFM-derived aortic SBP.

  9. A comparison of systolic blood pressure measurement obtained using a pulse oximeter, and direct systolic pressure measurement in anesthetized sows.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Duke, T; Bailey, J V

    1994-01-01

    Systolic blood pressure measurement obtained with a pulse oximeter has been compared to values obtained by other indirect methods in man. Direct pressure measurement is subject to less error than indirect techniques. This study was designed to compare systolic pressure values obtained using a pulse oximeter, with values obtained by direct arterial pressure measurement. The pulse oximeter waveform was used as an indication of perfusion. A blood pressure cuff was applied proximal to the pulse oximeter probe. The cuff was inflated until the oximeter waveform disappeared, this value was recorded as the systolic pressure at the disappearance of the waveform (SPD). The cuff was inflated to a pressure > 200 mmHg, then gradually deflated until the waveform reappeared, this value was recorded as the systolic pressure at reappearance of the waveform (SPR). The average of the two values, SPD and SPR, was calculated and recorded as SPA. The study was performed in sows (n = 21) undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia and IV sedation. A total of 280 measurements were made of SPD, SPR and SPA. Regression analysis of SPA and direct measurement revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.81. Calculation of mean difference (bias) and standard deviation of the bias (precision) for direct pressure--SPA revealed a value of 1.3 +/- 12.1. When compared with direct measurement, the correlation of this technique was similar to that recorded for other indirect techniques used in small animals. This indicates that this technique would be useful for following systolic pressure trends.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004540

  10. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressu...

  11. Comparison of the effects of antihypertensive agents on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Isla S; McEniery, Carmel M; Dhakam, Zahid; Brown, Morris J; Cockcroft, John R; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2009-08-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and results primarily from elastic artery stiffening. Although various drug therapies are used to lower peripheral blood pressure (BP) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the effects of the 4 major classes of antihypertensive agents on central BP, pulse pressure (PP) amplification, and arterial stiffness in this condition are not clear. Fifty-nine patients over the age of 60 years with untreated isolated systolic hypertension (systolic BP > or =140 mm Hg and diastolic BP systolic BP and peripheral PP were reduced similarly after treatment with all 4 classes of drug. However, central PP was only reduced significantly by perindopril, lercanidipine, and bendrofluazide, whereas atenolol had no effect. Lercanidipine reduced the augmentation index, whereas atenolol increased it. Aortic pulse wave velocity was not changed by any of the drugs. In summary, despite similar reductions in peripheral systolic and PPs with the 4 classes of drug, changes in central pressure and augmentation index varied. Because central PP and increased wave reflections are considered important risk factors in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, the choice of therapy may be influenced by these findings in the future.

  12. Audit-based education lowers systolic blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: the Quality Improvement in CKD (QICKD) trial results.

    PubMed

    Lusignan, Simon de; de Lusignana, Simon; Gallagher, Hugh; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Tahir, Aumran; Thomas, Nicola; Jain, Neerja; Dmitrieva, Olga; Rafi, Imran; McGovern, Andrew; Harris, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    Strict control of systolic blood pressure is known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared audit-based education (ABE) to guidelines and prompts or usual practice in lowering systolic blood pressure in people with CKD. This 2-year cluster randomized trial included 93 volunteer general practices randomized into three arms with 30 ABE practices, 32 with guidelines and prompts, and 31 usual practices. An intervention effect on the primary outcome, systolic blood pressure, was calculated using a multilevel model to predict changes after the intervention. The prevalence of CKD was 7.29% (41,183 of 565,016 patients) with all cardiovascular comorbidities more common in those with CKD. Our models showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.41 mm Hg (CI 0.59-4.29 mm Hg), in the ABE practices with an odds ratio of achieving at least a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.24 (CI 1.05-1.45). Practices exposed to guidelines and prompts produced no significant change compared to usual practice. Male gender, ABE, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were independently associated with a greater lowering of systolic blood pressure but the converse applied to hypertension and age over 75 years. There were no reports of harm. Thus, individuals receiving ABE are more likely to achieve a lower blood pressure than those receiving only usual practice. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence intervals.

  13. Audit-based education lowers systolic blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: the Quality Improvement in CKD (QICKD) trial results

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignana, Simon; Gallagher, Hugh; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Tahir, Aumran; Thomas, Nicola; Jain, Neerja; Dmitrieva, Olga; Rafi, Imran; McGovern, Andrew; Harris, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Strict control of systolic blood pressure is known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared audit-based education (ABE) to guidelines and prompts or usual practice in lowering systolic blood pressure in people with CKD. This 2-year cluster randomized trial included 93 volunteer general practices randomized into three arms with 30 ABE practices, 32 with guidelines and prompts, and 31 usual practices. An intervention effect on the primary outcome, systolic blood pressure, was calculated using a multilevel model to predict changes after the intervention. The prevalence of CKD was 7.29% (41,183 of 565,016 patients) with all cardiovascular comorbidities more common in those with CKD. Our models showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.41 mm Hg (CI 0.59–4.29 mm Hg), in the ABE practices with an odds ratio of achieving at least a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.24 (CI 1.05–1.45). Practices exposed to guidelines and prompts produced no significant change compared to usual practice. Male gender, ABE, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were independently associated with a greater lowering of systolic blood pressure but the converse applied to hypertension and age over 75 years. There were no reports of harm. Thus, individuals receiving ABE are more likely to achieve a lower blood pressure than those receiving only usual practice. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence intervals. PMID:23536132

  14. Effects of feedback and reinforcement on the control of human systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D; Tursky, B; Gershon, E; Stern, M

    1969-02-01

    An automatic procedure providing information about human systolic blood pressure at each successive heartbeat under routine laboratory conditions is described. Twenty normal male subjects were given feedback of their own systolic pressure, half operantly reinforced for increasing and half reinforced for decreasing their pressure. Significant differences in pressure were obtained in a single session. The apparatus and results suggest a possible approach to the treatment of essential hypertension. PMID:4883117

  15. Prognostic significance of blood pressure response to exercise in patients with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kallistratos, Manolis S; Poulimenos, Leonidas E; Pavlidis, Antonios N; Dritsas, Athanasios; Laoutaris, Ioannis D; Manolis, Athanasios J; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2012-01-01

    High systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been linked to worse cardiovascular outcomes. However, emerging data suggest that in patients with heart failure (HF), low SBP correlates with increased mortality. The purpose was to examine the impact of baseline and post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), as well as pulse pressure (PP), on cardiac mortality in patients with systolic HF. One hundred sixty patients with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction 33 ± 8) were studied. Blood pressure (BP) levels were determined at rest and at peak exercise during a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Patients were followed up for a period of 2.5 ± 0.8 years. During this period 22 patients died and 5 subjects underwent heart transplantation. Patients with higher SBP and DBP at rest, and patients with SBP ≥160 mmHg and PP ≥75 mmHg at peak exercise had the most favorable prognosis. There was a fourfold increase in cardiac mortality risk for patients with SBP <160 mmHg at peak exercise (hazard ratio: 3.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.60-9.84) and a threefold increase for patients with PP <75 mmHg at peak exercise (hazard ratio: 2.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-6.82). There is an inverse relationship between SBP and cardiac mortality in patients with systolic HF. BP response to exercise could serve as a simple risk stratification model in HF patients.

  16. Genetic Influences on Trajectories of Systolic Blood Pressure Across Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D.; Parmar, Priyakumari G.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Briollais, Laurent; Newnham, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; Tilling, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Beilin, Lawrie J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) tends to increase across childhood and adolescence, but the genetic influences on rates of BP change are not known. Potentially important genetic influences could include genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies of adults as being associated with BP, height, and body mass index. Understanding the contribution of these genetic variants to changes in BP across childhood and adolescence could yield understanding into the life course development of cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results Pooling data from 2 cohorts (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [n=7013] and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort [n=1459]), we examined the associations of allelic scores of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for adult BP, 180 height SNPs, and 32 body mass index SNPs, with trajectories of systolic BP (SBP) from 6 to 17 years of age, using linear spline multilevel models. The allelic scores of BP and body mass index SNPs were associated with SBP at 6 years of age (per-allele effect sizes, 0.097 mm Hg [SE, 0.039 mm Hg] and 0.107 mm Hg [SE, 0.037 mm Hg]); associations with age-related changes in SBP between 6 and 17 years of age were of small magnitude and imprecisely estimated. The allelic score of height SNPs was only weakly associated with SBP changes. No sex or cohort differences in genetic effects were observed. Conclusions Allelic scores of BP and body mass index SNPs demonstrated associations with SBP at 6 years of age with a similar magnitude but were not strongly associated with changes in SBP with age between 6 and 17 years. Further work is required to identify variants associated with changes with age in BP. PMID:24200906

  17. Relation of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation With Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing (from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project).

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Nasir, Khurram; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-15

    Decreases in systolic blood pressure during exercise may predispose to arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) because of underlying abnormal autonomic tone. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF in 57,442 (mean age 54 ± 13 years, 47% women, and 29% black) patients free of baseline AF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing project. Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable across clinically relevant categories (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1-SD decrease. Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, history of coronary heart disease, history of heart failure, and metabolic equivalent of task achieved, was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 5.0 years, a total of 3,381 cases (5.9%) of AF were identified. An increased risk of AF was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR 1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99, 1.20; ≤0 mm Hg: HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40). Similar results were obtained per 1-SD decrease in systolic blood pressure response (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). The results were consistent when stratified by age, sex, race, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. In conclusion, our results suggest that a decreased systolic blood pressure response during exercise may identify subjects who are at risk for developing AF. PMID:26603907

  18. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  19. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  20. Development of causal interactions between systolic blood pressure and inter-beat intervals in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Svačinová, J; Javorka, M; Nováková, Z; Závodná, E; Czippelová, B; Honzíková, N

    2015-01-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes control the cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBI) duration via baroreflex. Conversely, SBP is influenced by IBI via non-baroreflex mechanisms. Both causal pathways (feedback - baroreflex and feedforward - non-baroreflex) form a closed loop of the SBP - IBI interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related changes in the IBI - SBP interaction. We have non-invasively recorded resting beat-to-beat SBP and IBI in 335 healthy subjects of different age, ranging from 11 to 23 years. Using a linear autoregressive bivariate model we obtained gain (Gain(SBP,IBI), used traditionally as baroreflex sensitivity) and coherence (Coh(SBP,IBI)) of the SBP-IBI interaction and causal gain and coherence in baroreflex (Gain(SBP->IBI), Coh(SBP->IBI) and coherence in non-baroreflex (Coh(IBI->SBP)) directions separately. A non-linear approach was used for causal coupling indices evaluation (C(SBP->IBI), C(IBI->SBP)) quantifying the amount of information transferred between signals. We performed a correlation to age analysis of all measures. Coh(IBI->SBP) and C(IBI->SBP) were higher than Coh(SBP->IBI) and C(SBP->IBI), respectively. Gain(SBP,IBI) increased and Coh(SBP->IBI) decreased with age. The coupling indices did not correlate with age. We conclude that the feedforward influence dominated at rest. The increase of Gain(SBP,IBI) with age was not found in the closed loop model. A decrease of Coh(SBP->IBI) could be related to a change in the cardiovascular control system complexity during maturation.

  1. Impact of baseline systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability: the Kailuan study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anxin; Li, Zhifang; Yang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Wang, Chunxue; Wu, Yuntao; Ruan, Chunyu; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wu, Shouling

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship between baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in a general population. Methods This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Study participants attended a face-to-face interview every 2 years. Blood pressure variability was defined using the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of all SBP values at baseline and follow-up visits. The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean SBP. We used multivariate linear regression models to test the relationships between SBP and standard deviation, and between SBP and coefficient of variation. Results Approximately 43,360 participants (mean age: 48.2±11.5 years) were selected. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for potential confounders, baseline SBPs <120 mmHg were inversely related to standard deviation (P<0.001) and coefficient of variation (P<0.001). In contrast, baseline SBPs ≥140 mmHg were significantly positively associated with standard deviation (P<0.001) and coefficient of variation (P<0.001). Baseline SBPs of 120–140 mmHg were associated with the lowest standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The associations between baseline SBP and standard deviation, and between SBP and coefficient of variation during follow-ups showed a U curve. Conclusion Both lower and higher baseline SBPs were associated with increased blood pressure variability. To control blood pressure variability, a good target SBP range for a general population might be 120–139 mmHg. PMID:27536123

  2. Dose-dependent effect of caffeine on reducing leg muscle pain during cycling exercise is unrelated to systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Motl, Robert W; Broglio, Steven P; Ely, Matthew R

    2004-06-01

    This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of ingesting two doses of caffeine on perceptions of leg muscle pain and blood pressure during moderate intensity cycling exercise. Low caffeine consuming college-aged males (N=12) ingested one of two doses of caffeine (5 or 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight) or placebo and 1 h later completed 30 min of moderate intensity cycling exercise (60% VO2peak). The order of drug administration was counter-balanced. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately before and 1 h after drug administration. Perceptions of leg muscle pain as well as work rate, blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded during exercise. Caffeine increased resting systolic pressure in a dose-dependent fashion but these blood pressure effects were not maintained during exercise. Caffeine had a significant linear effect on leg muscle pain ratings [F(2,22)=14.06; P < 0.0001; eta2=0.56 ]. The mean (+/-SD) pain intensity scores during exercise after ingesting 10 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, 5 mg.kg(-1) body weight caffeine, and placebo were 2.1+/-1.4, 2.6+/-1.5, and 3.5+/-1.7, respectively. The results support the conclusion that caffeine ingestion has a dose-response effect on reducing leg muscle pain during exercise and that these effects do not depend on caffeine-induced increases in systolic blood pressure during exercise.

  3. Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure in older individuals

    PubMed Central

    Firth, C.; Harrison, R.; Ritchie, S.; Wardlaw, J.; Ferro, C.J.; Starr, J.M.; Deary, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a chronic infection that is widely distributed in the population. CMV infects a range of tissues, including endothelium, and viral replication is suppressed by the host immune system. Infection is associated with increased risk of mortality from vascular disease in older people, but the mechanisms behind this have not been determined. Aim: We investigated the association between CMV infection and cardiovascular phenotype in a cohort of healthy elderly donors. Design: CMV serostatus and cardiovascular parameters were determined in the Lothian Birth cohort, which comprises 1091 individuals aged 70 years in whom many environmental, biochemical and radiological correlates of vascular function have been determined. Methods: CMV serostatus was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and correlated with a range of biochemical and phenotypic measures. Results: Sixty-five percent of participants were CMV seropositive, which indicates chronic infection. The mean sitting systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 149.2 mmHg in CMV seropositive individuals compared with 146.2 mmHg in CMV seronegative subjects (SD 18.7 vs. 19.7; P < 0.017). This association between CMV infection and SBP was not attenuated after adjustment for a wide range of biological and socio-economic factors. Conclusions: These data show that CMV infection is associated with an increase in SBP in individuals at age 70 years. The magnitude is comparable to environmental variables such as obesity, diabetes or high salt intake. This is the first evidence to show that a chronic infection may be an important determinant of blood pressure and could have significant implications for the future management of hypertension. PMID:27071749

  4. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with ambulatory daytime systolic blood pressure but not with the dipping status.

    PubMed

    Vasunta, R L; Kesäniemi, Y A; Ukkola, O

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between the ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measurement and plasma adiponectin levels in a population-based cohort. Non-hypertensive, non-diabetics from the Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis cohort aged 40-60 years with ABP measurement available in 226 men and 236 women were analysed. ABP was recorded using the fully automatic SpaceLabs 90207 oscillometric unit. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were assayed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Without adjustment the highest plasma adiponectin tertile was associated with the lowest ABP and office BP measurements (P from 0.025 to P<0.001, respectively). Only the association of plasma adiponectin concentration with systolic ABP was independent of other conventional risk factors (age, body mass index (BMI), waist, gender, insulin sensitivity index, smoking and alcohol consumption) for hypertension (P=0.017). No association was observed between systolic dipping pattern and adiponectin level. The plasma high adiponectin concentration is independently associated with low daytime systolic ABP value. The mechanisms may include effects on endothelial function and the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:20010617

  5. Predictors of systolic blood pressure in post-menopausal euthyroid women: A study of the NHANES continuous survey data 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Khitan, Zeid; Dial, Larry; Santhanam, Prasanna

    2015-06-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and higher rate of hypertension in post-menopausal (compared to pre-menopausal women). We analysed the cross-sectional National Health and Nutritional Examination and Survey 2007-2012 to look at the factors that affect systolic blood pressure in post-menopausal women. We also performed a linear regression with systolic blood pressure as the dependent variable and age, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, A1C and serum creatinine as independent variables. In the regression model, only body mass index was a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure (adjusted r (2) of 0. 100, F(6, 740) = 14.74, standard error β = 0.08, standardized coefficient B = 0.31, p < 0.01).

  6. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Control Through Analysis of Inter Beat Interval, Systolic Blood Pressure and Photoplethysmographic Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, N. P.; Lerma-González, C.; Infante-Vázquez, O.

    2010-12-01

    Most studies of blood pressure control consider only the relationship between blood pressure and heart rate. The aim of this work was to study the contribution of blood volume to the stability of blood pressure. Time series analysis was applied to three variables: systolic blood pressure (SBP), inter beat interval (IBI) and pulse volume (PV), in 10 healthy subjects who underwent an orthostatic challenge. During orthostatism, IBI was shortened due to decrease in vagal activity and increase in sympathetic activity to the heart. The mean SBP increased, with a trend of higher sympathetic activity to the blood vessels. However, mean PV decreased without change in the PV variability. Negative linear correlations between SBP and PV were observed in most cases. Moreover, the linear model explained better the variability of SBP in relation to PV than the relation between SBP and IBI.

  7. Azilsartan medoxomil plus chlorthalidone reduces blood pressure more effectively than olmesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide in stage 2 systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Bakris, George L; White, William B; Weber, Michael A; Sica, Domenic; Roberts, Andrew; Lloyd, Eric; Kupfer, Stuart

    2012-08-01

    Azilsartan medoxomil, an effective, long-acting angiotensin II receptor blocker, is a new treatment for hypertension that is also being developed in fixed-dose combinations with chlorthalidone, a potent, long-acting thiazide-like diuretic. We compared once-daily fixed-dose combinations of azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone force titrated to a high dose of either 40/25 mg or 80/25 mg with a fixed-dose combination of the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan medoxomil plus the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide force titrated to 40/25 mg. The design was a randomized, 3-arm, double-blind, 12-week study of 1071 participants with baseline clinic systolic blood pressure 160 to 190 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≤119 mm Hg. Patients had a mean age of 57 years; 59% were men, 73% were white, and 22% were black. At baseline, mean clinic blood pressure was 165/96 mm Hg and 24-hour mean blood pressure was 150/88 mm Hg. Changes in clinic (primary end point) and ambulatory systolic blood pressures at week 12 were significantly greater in both azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone arms than in the olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide arm (P<0.001). Changes in clinic systolic blood pressure (mean±SE) were -42.5±0.8, -44.0±0.8, and -37.1±0.8 mm Hg, respectively. Changes in 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure were -33.9±0.8, -36.3±0.8, and -27.5±0.8 mm Hg, respectively. Adverse events leading to permanent drug discontinuation occurred in 7.9%, 14.5%, and 7.1% of the groups given azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone 40/25 mg, azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone 80/25 mg, and olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 40/25 mg, respectively. This large, forced-titration study has demonstrated superior antihypertensive efficacy of azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone fixed-dose combinations compared with the maximum approved dose of olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide.

  8. Reduced effect of percutaneous renal denervation on blood pressure in patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Sebastian; Ukena, Christian; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schmieder, Roland E; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ≥140/<90 mm Hg) is unknown. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation in 126 patients divided into 63 patients with ISH and 63 patients with combined hypertension (CH, ≥140/≥90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.

  9. Pulsatile diastolic increase and systolic decrease in arterial blood pressure: their mechanism of production and physiological role.

    PubMed

    Mandoki, Juan José; Casa-Tirao, Beatriz; Molina-Guarneros, Juan Arcadio; Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; García-Mondragón, María Juana; Maldonado-Espinoza, Amelia

    2013-08-01

    The diastolic pulsatile increase in arterial blood pressure is shown to occur earlier in the aorta than in other arteries. It is thus not a reflection of the systolic pressure wave, as has been generally assumed, but an independent pressure wave produced by the sequential contraction of the arterial tree. Conversely, a systolic pulsatile decrease in the rate of blood pressure rise is also produced by an active relaxation of the arterial tree. Simultaneously with the pulsatile changes in arterial blood pressure, there are corresponding changes in arterial blood flow. All these cyclic changes are reflex responses to decreasing diastolic and increasing systolic baroreceptor firing rates, respectively. The two reflexes contribute, together with the known compliance of the large arteries and the great arteriolar blood flow resistance, to the steadiness of capillary blood flow throughout the systolic and the much longer-lasting diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle.

  10. Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats.

    PubMed

    Chaguri, Joao Leandro; Godinho, Antonio Francisco; Horta, Daniel França; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Possomato-Vieira, Jose Sergio; Nascimento, Regina Aparecida; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30 mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fipronil group) or physiological solution (Control group). While fipronil increased significantly the systolic blood pressure (158±13 mmHg), no significant changes were observed in Control group (127±3 mmHg). Significantly, higher levels of fipronil in plasma were observed in Fipronil group (0.46±0.09 μg/mL versus 0.17±0.11 μg/mL in Control group). Fipronil group showed lower weight gain compared with Control group. While fipronil resulted in higher concentrations of endothelin-1, reduced antioxidant capacity and lower levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites compared to Control group, no alteration was observed in serum biomarkers of renal and hepatic/biliary functional abilities. Therefore, this study suggests that fipronil causes hypertension and endothelin-1 plays a key role. Also, these findings suggest that reductions of both MMP-2 and NO may contribute with the elevation of systolic blood pressure observed with fipronil.

  11. Differences in central systolic blood pressure and aortic stiffness between aerobically trained and sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Pierre; Marenco, Patrice; Castagna, Olivier; Smulyan, Harold; Blacher, Jacques; Safar, Michel E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate central (carotid) artery blood pressure (BP) in endurance athletes. Carotid-femoral (= aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV) together with radial and carotid tonometry and pulse wave analysis were performed at rest in 30 endurance athletes and 30 sedentary controls, all males matched for age, height, brachial systolic BP (SBP), and diastolic BP. Whereas brachial BP was similar in the two groups, carotid SBP and pulse pressure (PP) were higher in endurance athletes than in controls irrespective of age (123.1 ± 2.17 vs. 110.2 ± 1.29 mm Hg, and 50.9 ± 1.95 vs. 34.1 ± 1.01 mm Hg; P < .0001 for both). PP amplification evaluated from the brachial/carotid PP ratio was lower in athletes than in controls (1.05 ± 0.04 vs. 1.40 ± 0.02; P < .0001). When compared with controls, athletes had lower PWV (7.81 ± 0.17 vs. 9.8 ± 0.23 m/second; P < .0001), higher reflected wave transit time/left ventricular ejection time ratio (P = .02), and lower heart rate (52.03 ± 1.54 vs. 68.9 ± 1.72 beats/minute; P < .0001). When matched for brachial BP, central SBP and PP were higher in endurance athletes than in sedentary controls. The possible negative pathophysiological impact of increased central BP on the overall favorable effects of training deserves further study.

  12. Socioeconomic status, systolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure: the Tanjong Pagar Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, J L Y; Aung, T; Wong, T‐Y; Machin, D; Khaw, P T; Khaw, K‐T; Seah, S; Foster, P J

    2007-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in many countries. Present evidence suggests that glaucoma has similar risk factors to major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the association between SES and intraocular pressure (IOP), an important risk factor for glaucoma. Methods The Tanjong Pagar Study was a population‐based cross‐sectional survey of Chinese people aged 40–79 years, who were randomly selected from the Singapore electoral register. Of the 2000 people selected, 1717 were considered eligible and 1090 were examined in clinic and included in the present study. IOP was measured using applanation tonometry. SES was assessed using a standardised questionnaire; education and income were used as the main explanatory variables. The effect of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was also examined. Results Participants with lower levels of education and income had higher mean IOP (both p<0.01). These associations remained after adjusting for age and central corneal thickness, a strong independent predictor. SBP was strongly associated with both SES and IOP (both p<0.01). Adjusting for SBP attenuated the association between SES and IOP. Conclusion Participants with lower education and income have a higher mean IOP. This effect may be mediated, in part, by an association of education and income with SBP. This is the first study to suggest that there is a social gradient in the distribution of the only major modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. Increasing similarities exist between the causation models of chronic diseases and that of glaucoma. PMID:16928704

  13. Childhood to Early-Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectories: Early-Life Predictors, Effect Modifiers, and Adult Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modeled an average population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors, and early-midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32, and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify 4 distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: normal (21.8%), high-normal (43.3%), prehypertensive (31.6%), and hypertensive (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at the age of 7 years and most recently measured at the age of 38 years. Family history of high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR], 43.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-354.65), male sex (OR, 109.48; 95% CI, 26.82-446.96), being first born (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.00-8.69) and low birth weight (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.49-3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared with the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection and subsequent targeted prevention and intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure. PMID:26558818

  14. Childhood to Early-Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectories: Early-Life Predictors, Effect Modifiers, and Adult Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modeled an average population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors, and early-midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32, and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify 4 distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: normal (21.8%), high-normal (43.3%), prehypertensive (31.6%), and hypertensive (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at the age of 7 years and most recently measured at the age of 38 years. Family history of high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR], 43.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-354.65), male sex (OR, 109.48; 95% CI, 26.82-446.96), being first born (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.00-8.69) and low birth weight (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.49-3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared with the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection and subsequent targeted prevention and intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure.

  15. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P < .000001) but larger association with the SP deviation (R(2) = 0.761; P < .001). Wlzip allows detecting levels of variability in SP that could be hazardous. This new indicator can be easily added to the 24-hour BP monitors improving information toward diagnosis.

  16. Body Weight and Not Exercise Capacity Determines Central Systolic Blood Pressure, a Surrogate for Arterial Stiffness, in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Meyer, Joanna; Elmenhorst, Julia; Oberhoffer, Renate

    2016-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary fitness benefits cardiovascular health. Various studies have shown a strong negative correlation between exercise capacity and arterial stiffness in adults. However, evidence for this connection in children and adolescents is scarce. About 320 healthy children and adolescents (252 male, 14.0±2.1 years) were evaluated with regard to their demographic, anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, and their peak oxygen uptake. Peripheral and central systolic blood pressures were measured with patients in a supine position using an oscillometric device. Peak oxygen uptake was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In multivariate regression, only peripheral systolic blood pressure (β=0.653, P<.001) and body weight (β=0.284, P<.001) emerged as independent determinants for central systolic blood pressure. Body weight therefore determines central systolic blood pressure in children and adolescents rather than measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. The prevention of overweight in childhood is necessary to reduce stiffening of the arteries and delay the onset of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Predictors of high central blood pressure in young with isolated systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Radchenko, GD; Torbas, OO; Sirenko, Yu M

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension 2013 guidelines, evaluation of aortic blood pressure (BP) is needed in young with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), but using special devices is not common, especially in Ukraine, where only a few centers have these devices. The purpose of our study was to identify the simple clinical predictors for differentiation (with or without elevated aortic systolic BP [SBP]) of the young with ISH without the need for further extensive work-up. Patients and methods The study included 44 young men (mean age: 32.2±1.3 years) with office SBP ≥140 mmHg and office diastolic BP (DBP) <90 mmHg (average: 153.4±2.1 mmHg and 83.4±1.7 mmHg, respectively). The following procedures were performed in all the subjects: body weight and height evaluation; measurement of office SBP, DBP, and heart rate; ambulatory BP monitoring; measurement of pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic and muscle types and central SBP (cSBP); biochemical blood tests; electrocardiography; echocardiography; and carotid ultrasound investigations. Step-by-step multifactor regression analyses were used for finding the predictors of high cSBP. Results Depending on the cSBP level, all the patients were divided into two groups: first group (n=17), subjects with normal cSBP, and second group (n=27), subjects with elevated cSBP. Patients in the second group were significantly older, with less height and higher body mass index; they had significantly higher levels of office SBP and DBP. Characteristics of target organ damage were within normal limits in both groups and did not differ significantly. Only pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic type was significantly higher in the second group. The independent predictors of increased cSBP were as follows: height ≤178 cm (β=7.038; P=0.05), body weight ≥91 kg (β=5.53, P=0.033), and the level of office DBP ≥80 mmHg (β=4.43; P=0.05). The presence of two or three of

  18. Discordant effects of beta-blockade on central aortic systolic and brachial systolic blood pressure: considerations beyond the cuff.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Benjamin J; Anderson, Shawn

    2007-09-01

    The role of beta-blockers in uncomplicated hypertension has been challenged recently. Compared with other antihypertensives, beta-blockers are less effective for preventing cardiovascular events in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. Moreover, a recent meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials concluded that atenolol is not more efficacious than placebo for preventing cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension. Although these agents lower blood pressure measured conventionally over the brachial artery with a blood pressure cuff, they do not exert a commensurate effect on blood pressure in the central aorta. Central aortic blood pressure and aortic augmentation index are strong predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Emerging data are illuminating the antihypertensive paradox whereby antihypertensive agents may elicit discordant effects on central and peripheral blood pressure and hemodynamics. Vasodilatory antihypertensives, such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and calcium channel blockers, elicit reductions in central aortic blood pressure equal to or greater than that in the brachial artery. Conversely, beta-blockers lower central aortic blood pressure to a lesser degree even when blood pressure measured by sphygmomanometry is reduced substantially. Given the strong relationship between central aortic blood pressure and target organ damage, the effectiveness of beta-blockers may be overestimated in practice on the basis of conventional blood pressure measurements alone. Differences in central and peripheral blood pressure may account for the lack of cardiovascular protection afforded by beta-blockers in clinical trials and could account for a portion of the apparent "benefit beyond blood pressure" reduction with other classes of antihypertensive agents. Future studies should aim to better clarify the role of central aortic blood pressure in the treatment of

  19. Noninvasive Central Systolic Blood Pressure Is More Strongly Related to Kidney Function Decline Than Peripheral Systolic Blood Pressure in a Chinese Community-Based Population.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangfang; Qi, Litong; Jia, Jia; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yang; Qin, Xianhui; Li, Jianping; Li, Haixia; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of noninvasive central aortic blood pressure with kidney function decline in a Chinese community-based population with normal kidney function at baseline. A total of 3153 Chinese participants from an atherosclerosis cohort were included in our analysis. The primary outcome was renal function decline defined as a drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) category accompanied by a ≥25% drop in eGFR from baseline; or a sustained decline in eGFR of >5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)/y. The secondary outcomes were rapid eGFR decline (a decline in eGFR of >3 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)/y) and new incidence of chronic kidney disease. Participants were 56.6±8.5 years old, 36.0% were males, and 48.8% had hypertension. Mean (SD) baseline eGFR was 101.2±10.6 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) After a mean 2.35-year follow-up, the incidence of renal function decline, rapid eGFR decline and chronic kidney disease were 7.3%, 19.7%, and 0.7%, respectively. In multivariate logistic-regression analyses, central and peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) were both independently associated with all outcomes after adjustment for various confounders. When peripheral SBP was forced into the model with central SBP simultaneously, its significant association with the 3 outcomes all disappeared; however, central SBP was still significantly related with all outcomes even after further adjusting peripheral SBP. In conclusion, central SBP is a stronger predictor compared with peripheral SBP for early kidney function decline in a Chinese community-based population with normal kidney function at baseline.

  20. Increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to acute stress is related with better self-reported health

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bradley J.; O'Brien, Shaun; Hazi, Agnes; Kent, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute stress tasks is related with future blood pressure status, heart hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. We assessed the stress reactivity hypothesis and aimed to identify which physiological indices (blood pressure, heart-rate, cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA)) related to self-reported mental and physical health. We also assessed if physiological reactions elicited by an acute stressor were more related than basal assessments. Participants provided physiological samples, self-reported stress and health-data before and after an assessed 5–7 minute academic oral presentation. In hierarchical regression models, increased systolic and reduced sIgA reactivity was associated with better perceptions of mental health. Reactivity data were more related to self-reported data than basal data. In line with the only 2 studies to assess the reactivity hypothesis with self-perceived health, increased systolic reactivity was best associated with better perceived physical and mental health. The findings suggest that increased SBP reactivity may also be associated with positive health outcomes. Further research is required to determine if increased or decreased sIgA reactivity is most predictive of future morbidity. PMID:25391460

  1. Continuous measurement of systolic blood pressure using the PTT and other parameters.

    PubMed

    Park, E; Cho, B; Park, S; Lee, J; Lee, J; Kim, I; Kim, Sun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed the regression model which could estimate unspecified people's systolic blood pressure (SBP) conveniently and continuously and checked its accuracy through clinical experiments. The method for estimating each individual SBP by using only pulse transit time (PTT) has been studied, but it is difficult to estimate unspecified people's SBP with the method using only PTT. Thus we researched several physical characteristic parameters which might affect blood pressure (BP) with the standard that we can measure them easily and conveniently, chose valid physical characteristic parameters through a clinical testing and correlation analysis, and made the regression model using PTT and valid physical characteristic parameters for estimating unspecified people's SBP. Comparing the result of the proposed method with American National Standards Institute of the Association of the Advancement of Medical Instrument (ANSI/AAMI), we know that the proposed regression model gives an acceptable result. PMID:17280992

  2. [Morphological and functional parameters of the left ventricle (mass, wall thickness and end-systolic stress) in school children with different levels of blood pressure, at rest and during maximal exercise].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S; Soltero, I; Onorato, E; Pietri, C; Zambrano, F

    1990-01-01

    Echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass, diastolic septal and posterior wall thickness and end-systolic wall stress, as well as electrocardiographic indexes of left ventricular enlargement (Sokolow-Lyon index and Romhilt-Estes score) and of left atrial enlargement (P terminal index) were correlated with resting and exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and with several parameters of body size (weight, height, body surface area, Quetelet index), in 130 school children (61 boys, 69 girls) 6 to 15 years of age. Parameters of body size had a positive correlation both with systolic and diastolic blood pressures and with parameters of left ventricular size. Thus, the latter were adjusted for body surface area, for correlation with blood pressure. Left ventricular mass and diastolic septal and posterior wall thickness had a very poor correlation with resting and exercise diastolic blood pressures. Left ventricular mass and diastolic posterior wall thickness had a significantly higher correlation with peak exercise systolic blood pressure than with resting systolic blood pressure. End-systolic wall stress had a positive correlation with resting diastolic and systolic blood pressures. Electrocardiographic parameters of left ventricular and left atrial enlargement had a very poor correlation with resting and exercise blood pressure. Our findings suggest that early in life left ventricular mass and wall thickness are more closely related to maximal systolic blood pressure during physical exercise than to blood pressure in basal conditions. The electrocardiogram is an insensitive method to detect early modifications of left ventricular size in relation to different levels of blood pressure. The echocardiogram is the method of choice for this purpose.

  3. Clinical effect of naturally random allocation to lower systolic blood pressure beginning before the development of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ference, Brian A; Julius, Stevo; Mahajan, Nitin; Levy, Phillip D; Williams, Kim Allan; Flack, John M

    2014-06-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) rises approximately linearly with age in most societies. The cause of this rise is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that SBP is causally associated with the rate of rise in SBP with age by evaluating the effect of 12 polymorphisms associated with lower SBP on the age-related rate of rise in SBP in a series of meta-regression analyses involving ≤199 477 participants in 63 studies. We then evaluated the effect of these polymorphisms on the odds of coronary heart disease in 22,223 case and 64,762 control subjects and compared it with the effect of lower SBP observed in both prospective cohort studies and blood pressure-lowering randomized trials. All 12 polymorphisms were associated with both lower SBP and a slower age-related rise in SBP. The weighted mean effect of these 12 polymorphisms was associated with a 0.32-mm Hg lower SBP (P=1.79×10(-7)) and a 0.093-mm Hg/decade slower age-related rise in SBP (P=3.05×10(-5)). The effect of long-term exposure to lower SBP on coronary heart disease mediated by these polymorphisms was 2-fold greater than that observed in prospective cohort studies (P=0.006) and 3-fold greater than that observed in short-term blood pressure treatment trials (P=0.001). We conclude therefore that SBP seems to be causally associated with the rate of rise in SBP with age and has a cumulative effect on the risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Blood Pressure, Left Ventricular Geometry, and Systolic Function in Children Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; Ayllon-Vergara, Julio C.; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Hernández-Castellanos, Erika; Sánchez-Peña, Luz C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a ubiquitous element present in the groundwater worldwide. Cardiovascular effects related to iAs exposure have been studied extensively in adult populations. Few epidemiological studies have been focused on iAs exposure–related cardiovascular disease in children. Objective: In this study we investigated the association between iAs exposure, blood pressure (BP), and functional and anatomical echocardiographic parameters in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 161 children between 3 and 8 years was conducted in Central Mexico. The total concentration of arsenic (As) species in urine (U-tAs) was determined by hydride generation–cryotrapping–atomic absorption spectrometry and lifetime iAs exposure was estimated by multiplying As concentrations measured in drinking water by the duration of water consumption in years (LAsE). BP was measured by standard protocols, and M-mode echocardiographic parameters were determined by ultrasonography. Results: U-tAs concentration and LAsE were significantly associated with diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in multivariable linear regression models: DBP and SBP were 0.013 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.024) and 0.021 (95% CI: 0.004, 0.037) mmHg higher in association with each 1-ng/mL increase in U-tAs (p < 0.025), respectively. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was significantly associated with LAsE [5.5 g higher (95% CI: 0.65, 10.26) in children with LAsE > 620 compared with < 382 μg/L-year; p = 0.03] in an adjusted multivariable model. The systolic function parameters left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and shortening fraction were 3.67% (95% CI: –7.14, –0.20) and 3.41% (95% CI: –6.44, –0.37) lower, respectively, in children with U-tAs > 70 ng/mL compared with < 35 ng/mL. Conclusion: Early-life exposure to iAs was significantly associated with higher BP and LVM and with lower EF in our study population of Mexican children. Citation: Osorio-Yáñez C, Ayllon-Vergara JC

  5. Impact of Stress Reduction Interventions on Hostility and Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Lynda Brown; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM), life skills (LS) training, and health education (HE) interventions on self-reported hostility and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 121 African American (AA) ninth graders at increased risk for development of essential hypertension. They were randomly assigned to BAM, LS, or HE and engaged in intervention sessions during health class for 3 months. Before, after, and 3 months following intervention cessation, self-reported hostility and 24-hour ABP were measured. Results indicated that between pre- and postintervention, BAM participants displayed significant reductions in self-reported hostility and 24-hour systolic ABP. Reductions in hostility were significantly related to reductions in 24-hour systolic ABP. Between postintervention and follow-up, participants receiving LS showed a significant reduction in hostility but not in 24-hour ABP. Significant changes were not found for the HE group in 24-hour ABP or self-reported hostility, but these change scores were significantly correlated. The implications of the findings are discussed with regard to behavioral stress reduction programs for the physical and emotional health of AAs. PMID:22485058

  6. Derivation of systolic time intervals from Doppler measurement of temporal arterial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Rothendler, J A; Schick, E C; Ryan, T J

    1981-01-01

    The carotid pulse method of recording systolic time intervals is limited by significant motion-induced artifact, making it unsuitable for studying patients during exercise. As an approach to overcoming this limitation, a new method utilizing the blood velocity profile of the superficial temporal artery measured by Doppler ultrasound has been developed. When compared with the values obtained from the conventional carotid pulse method, Doppler-derived left ventricular ejection time and preejection period showed excellent correlation (r = 0.99 for both) and the Doppler-derived measurements showed little intra- or interobserver variability. Studies performed during treadmill exercise showed that in 8 of 10 subjects, suitable tracing could be recorded through stage 3 of the Bruce protocol, confirming the enhanced stability of the technique compared with the carotid pulse method.

  7. Influence of age, systemic blood pressure, smoking, and blood viscosity on orbital blood velocities.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, T H; Lowe, G D; Baxter, G M

    1995-01-01

    The influence of multiple systemic factors upon the blood velocities obtained from the orbital circulations was investigated. The velocities obtained by colour Doppler imaging from the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and vein from 95 ophthalmologically healthy volunteers were analyzed. The effects of age, systemic blood pressure, and smoking habit were examined. In 24 volunteers blood viscosity was also measured and its relation with blood velocity assessed. Age was weakly negatively correlated with the blood velocities in the ophthalmic artery and weakly positively correlated with resistance to flow in the retinal circulation. Systolic blood pressure showed a positive correlation with the peak systolic velocities in the arteries while cigarette smoking was associated with lower ophthalmic artery velocities. Increased haematocrit and viscosity were positively correlated with resistance to flow proximal to the ophthalmic artery and red cell rigidity negatively correlated with the pulsatility of flow in the retinal vein. These results help to identify the roles of systemic conditions in the ocular circulation. The influence of blood viscosity on retinal venous flow may be relevant to the pathogenetic mechanisms of conditions such as central retinal vein occlusion. Images PMID:7880783

  8. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (<3 days from ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  9. Systolic blood pressure goals to reduce cardiovascular disease among older adults.

    PubMed

    Muntner, Paul; Bowling, C Barrett; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-08-01

    The 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) was recently published. This guideline recommended that older adults (≥60 years) without diabetes or chronic kidney disease with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg be initiated on antihypertensive medication with a treatment goal SBP/DBP <150/90 mm Hg. In contrast, the previous 3 JNC guidelines recommended treatment for these individuals be initiated at SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg with goal SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. In this article, we review randomized trials of antihypertensive medication and observational data on SBP and DBP with cardiovascular outcomes among older adults, possible explanations underlying the different findings from these randomized trials and observational studies, and contemporary antihypertensive treatment patterns among older U.S. adults. In closing, we highlight future research needs related to hypertension and outcomes among older adults. PMID:24978394

  10. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Safranal on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, exhibits different pharmacological activities. In this study, the effects of safranal, on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) - salt induced hypertensive rats in chronic administration were investigated. Three doses of safranal (1, 2 and 4 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) were administrated to the different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) for Five weeks. Then the effects of safranal on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of effect of safranal on SBP, was also evaluated. Our results indicated that chronic administration of safranal could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. Safranal did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of safranal did not persist. In summary, our results showed that safranal exhibits antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:25901167

  11. Effects of Proximate Foreclosed Properties on Individuals' Systolic Blood Pressure in Massachusetts, 1987–2008

    PubMed Central

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M. Maria; Chakrabarti, Prabal; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Introduction No studies have examined the effects of local foreclosure activity on neighbors' blood pressure, despite the fact that spillover effects of nearby foreclosures include many known risk factors for increased blood pressure. We assessed the extent to which living near foreclosed properties is associated with subsequent systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods and Results We used geocoded 6,590 observations collected from 1,740 participants in the Framingham Offspring Cohort across five waves (1987-2008) of the Framingham Heart Study to create a longitudinal record of exposure to nearby foreclosure activity. We distinguished between Real Estate Owned foreclosures (REOs), which typically sit vacant, and foreclosures purchased by third party buyers, which are generally put into productive use. Counts of lender-owned foreclosed properties within 100 meters of participants' homes were used to predict measured SBP and odds of being hypertensive. We assessed whether self-reported alcoholic drinks per week and measured BMI helped explain the foreclosure activity-SBP relationship. Each additional REO located within 100 meters of a participant's home was associated with an increase in SBP of 1.71 mm/hg (p=.03; 95%CI = 0.18 - 3.24) after adjusting for individual- and area-level confounders, but not with odds of hypertension. The presence of foreclosures purchased by third party buyers was not associated with SBP nor with hypertension. BMI and alcohol consumption attenuated the effect of living near REOs on SBP in fully adjusted models. Conclusion Real Estate Owned foreclosed properties may put nearby neighbors at risk for increased SBP, with higher alcohol consumption and body mass index partially mediating this relationship. PMID:24891622

  12. Safety and Feasibility of Achieving Lower Systolic Blood Pressure Goals in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: The SANDS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Matthew R.; Yeh, Fawn; Silverman, Angela; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Howard, William J.; Russell, Marie; Wilson, Charlton; Ratner, Robert; Sorkin, John; Umans, Jason; Fleg, Jerome L.; Stylianou, Mario; Lee, Elisa; Howard, Barbara V.

    2009-01-01

    The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) was a randomized open-label clinical trial in type 2 diabetics designed to examine the effects of intensive reduction of blood pressure, aggressive vs standard goals (≤115 / 75 mm Hg vs ≤130 / 80 mm Hg), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol on the composite outcome of change in carotid intimal-medial thickness and cardiovascular events. The study demonstrated that in conjunction with a lower LDL cholesterol target of 70 mg/ dL, aggressive systolic blood pressure–lowering resulted in a reduction in carotid intimal-medial thickness and left ventricular mass without measurable differences in cardiovascular events. The blood pressure treatment algorithm included renin-angiotensin system blockade, with other agents added if necessary. The authors conclude that both standard and more aggressive systolic blood pressure reduction can be achieved with excellent safety and good tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:19817934

  13. Systolic hypertension: an increasing clinical challenge in Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Bae; Kario, Kazuomi; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Systolic hypertension, the predominant form of hypertension in patients aged over 50-60 years, is a growing health issue as the Asian population ages. Elevated systolic blood pressure is mainly caused by arterial stiffening, resulting from age-related vascular changes. Elevated systolic pressure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, mortality and renal function decline, and this risk may increase at lower systolic pressure levels in Asian than Western subjects. Hence, effective systolic pressure lowering is particularly important in Asians yet blood pressure control remains inadequate despite the availability of numerous antihypertensive medications. Reasons for poor blood pressure control include low awareness of hypertension among health-care professionals and patients, under-treatment, and tolerability problems with antihypertensive drugs. Current antihypertensive treatments also lack effects on the underlying vascular pathology of systolic hypertension, so novel drugs that address the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening are needed for optimal management of systolic hypertension and its cardiovascular complications.

  14. Comparison of two generalized transfer functions for measuring central systolic blood pressure by an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y-T; Cheng, H-M; Sung, S-H; Hu, W-C; Chen, C-H

    2013-03-01

    Central aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP-C) can be estimated from a cuff oscillometric waveform derived during the pulse volume plethysmography (PVP) by applying a device-specific aortic pressure-to-PVP waveform-generalized transfer function (A2P(GTF)). The present study compared the performance of an aortic-to-brachial pressure waveforms generalized transfer function (A2B(GTF)), which is independent of any PVP devices, with an A2P(GTF). Generalized transfer function of aortic-to-brachial (A2B(GTF)) and aortic-to-PVP (A2P(GTF)) were generated from the simultaneously obtained central aortic and brachial pressure waveforms recorded by a high-fidelity dual pressure sensor catheter, and the PVP waveform recorded by a customized noninvasive blood pressure monitor during cardiac catheterization in 40 patients, and were then applied in another 100 patients with simultaneously recorded invasive aortic pressure and noninvasively calibrated (using cuff SBP and diastolic blood pressures) PVP waveforms. The mean difference±s.d. between the noninvasively estimated and invasively recorded SBP-C was -2.1±7.7 mm Hg for A2B(GTF), which was not greater than that of -3.0±7.7 mm Hg for A2P(GTF) (P<0.01). In conclusion, SBP-C can be measured reliably using a noninvasive blood pressure monitor by applying either an A2P(GTF) or A2B(GTF) to a noninvasively calibrated PVP waveform. The performance of an A2B(GTF) is not inferior to that of an A2P(GTF).

  15. Effects of music on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit S.; Arora, Rohit; Shah, Parinda H.; Chandrasekar, Suraj; Molnar, Janos

    2012-01-01

    There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a metaanalysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Compared to those who did not receive music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, −2.629, confidence interval (CI), −3.914 to −1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, −1.112, CI, −1.692 to −0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, −3.422, CI, −5.032 to −1.812, P < 0.001). PMID:22664817

  16. Arm-ankle systolic blood pressure difference at rest and after exercise in the assessment of aortic coarctation.

    PubMed Central

    Engvall, J.; Sonnhag, C.; Nylander, E.; Stenport, G.; Karlsson, E.; Wranne, B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the difference in systolic blood pressure at the arm and ankle at rest and after various exercise tests for the assessment of aortic coarctation. METHODS--22 patients (mean age 33 years, range 17-66) were investigated on the suspicion of having haemodynamically significant aortic coarctation. Eight had undergone previous coarctation surgery, of whom five had received vascular grafts and three end to end anastomoses. The patients exercised submaximally while supine, seated on a bicycle, and walking on a treadmill, as well as exercising maximally on a treadmill. Arm and ankle blood pressure were measured with a cuff at rest and 1-10 minutes after exercise. Invasive pressures and cardiac output by thermodilution were recorded during catheterisation while patients were at rest and during and after supine bicycle exercise. The degree of constriction was assessed by angiography. Twelve healthy volunteers (mean age 32 years, range 17-56) provided reference values for cuff pressures after exercise. RESULTS--All patients with a difference in cuff pressure at rest of 35 mm Hg or more had a difference in invasive pressure of 35 mm Hg or more. Increasing severity of constriction on angiography correlated with larger pressure gradients at rest and during exercise (P < 0.0001). When cuff measurements after exercise were considered singly or combined to form a predictor they did not improve the prediction of the invasive pressure gradients at rest or after maximal exercise. A pressure gradient between arm and ankle also developed in normal subjects after maximal but not after submaximal exercise. CONCLUSION--In most patients with suspected haemodynamically significant coarctation the difference in cuff pressure between arm and ankle at rest is sufficient to select patients in need of further evaluation. If exercise is performed submaximal exercise is preferable. PMID:7727189

  17. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring with self-care support on uncontrolled systolic hypertension in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G; Irvine, M Jane; McIsaac, Warren J; Tisler, Andras; Rossos, Peter G; Easty, Anthony; Feig, Denice S; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    Lowering blood pressure reduces cardiovascular risk, yet hypertension is poorly controlled in diabetic patients. In a pilot study we demonstrated that a home blood pressure telemonitoring system, which provided self-care messages on the smartphone of hypertensive diabetic patients immediately after each reading, improved blood pressure control. Messages were based on care paths defined by running averages of transmitted readings. The present study tests the system's effectiveness in a randomized, controlled trial in diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension. Of 244 subjects screened for eligibility, 110 (45%) were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 55) or control (n = 55) group, and 105 (95.5%) completed the 1-year outcome visit. In the intention-to-treat analysis, mean daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure, the primary end point, decreased significantly only in the intervention group by 9.1 ± 15.6 mmHg (SD; P < 0.0001), and the mean between-group difference was 7.1 ± 2.3 mmHg (SE; P < 0.005). Furthermore, 51% of intervention subjects achieved the guideline recommended target of <130/80 mmHg compared with 31% of control subjects (P < 0.05). These improvements were obtained without the use of more or different antihypertensive medications or additional clinic visits to physicians. Providing self-care support did not affect anxiety but worsened depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (baseline, 4.1 ± 3.76; exit, 5.2 ± 4.30; P = 0.014). This study demonstrated that home blood pressure telemonitoring combined with automated self-care support reduced the blood pressure of diabetic patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension and improved hypertension control. Home blood pressure monitoring alone had no effect on blood pressure. Promoting patient self-care may have negative psychological effects.

  18. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  19. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rodeghier, Mark J.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Howard, Thomas H.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T.; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T.; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M.; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K.; King, Allison A.; Rhodes, Melissa M.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Heiny, Mark E.; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C.; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E.; Saccente, Suzanne L.; Kalinyak, Karen A.; Strouse, John J.; Fixler, Jason M.; Gordon, Mae O.; Miller, J. Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Casella, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P < .001), higher baseline systolic blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761. PMID:22096242

  20. Mediation and moderation of the association between cynical hostility and systolic blood pressure in low-income women.

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae; Kaplan, George A

    2012-04-01

    Hostility may be related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as blood pressure. However, the process by which hostility affects blood pressure is not fully understood. The current study sought to evaluate abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) as a potential mediator and modifier of the relationship between cynical hostility and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in a group of disadvantaged women. Path analysis and multiple regression models were used to identify mediating and moderating pathways in the relationship between cynical hostility and SBP. Results indicate a significant interaction between WHR and cynical hostility. WHR was a partial mediator and significant moderator of the association between hostility and blood pressure. These findings highlight the potential importance of examining abdominal obesity and psychosocial factors as conjunctive determinants of CVD and risk factors for related metabolic conditions.

  1. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Figen Kir; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Ural, Ulku Mete; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Senturk, Senol; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Balik, Gulsah; Cure, Erkan; Yuce, Suleyman; Kirbas, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1) may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR).This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. PCOS was diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines. Ferriman-Gallwey scores (FGS) were calculated, while N1, VD, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were measured for all subjects. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured as well. HR was calculated using an electrocardiogram.The levels of N1 (p < 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (p = 0.036), homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001), systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p < 0.001) BP and HR (p < 0.001) in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the control group. However, the VD levels of the PCOS group were lower than the control group (p = 0.004). N1 had a strong positive correlation with BMI, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, luteinizing hormone, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. VD levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and luteinizing hormone.Elevated N1 and decreased VD levels may be related to the presence of high-normal BP or hypertension in PCOS subjects.  N1 level may be associated with an increased BP due to its relation to inflammation and IR.

  2. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Materials and Methods Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Results Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. Conclusions It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:24624210

  3. Effect of oral nitrates on pulse pressure and arterial elasticity in patients aged over 65 years with refractory isolated systolic hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isolated systolic hypertension is a highly prevalent disease among the elderly. The little available evidence on the efficacy of nitrates for treating the disease is based on small experimental studies. Methods/design We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III, placebo-controlled trial in 154 patients aged over 65 years with refractory isolated systolic hypertension. Patients were randomized to placebo or 40 mg/day of extended-release isosorbide mononitrate added to standard therapy and titrated to 60 mg/day at week 6 if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg. The primary objective was to assess the effect on clinical pulse pressure of extended-release isosorbide mononitrate added to standard therapy in patients aged over 65 years with refractory isolated systolic hypertension after 3 months of treatment. The secondary objectives were as follows: to quantify the effect of adding the study drug on central blood pressure and vascular compliance using the augmentation index and pulse wave velocity; to evaluate the safety profile by recording adverse effects (frequency, type, severity) and the percentage of patients who had to withdraw from the trial because of adverse events; to quantify the percentage of patients who reach a clinical systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg or <130 mmHg measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; and to quantify the change in pulse pressure measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Discussion Few clinical trials have been carried out to test the effect of oral nitrates on isolated systolic hypertension, even though these agents seem to be effective. Treatment with extended-release isosorbide mononitrate could improve control of systolic blood pressure without severe side effects, thus helping to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Trial registration EUDRACT Number: 2012-002988-10 PMID:24228894

  4. Decreased nocturnal systolic blood pressure fall in older subjects with depression.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Angelo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Cangelosi, Marcello; Gianni, Walter; Assisi, Antonio; Brancati, Anna Maria; Modestino, Anna; Caltagirone, Carlo; Volpe, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Depressed subjects have a two-fold increased risk of CV events than non-depressed ones. Altered blood pressure (BP) circadian profile may be one mechanism underlying this association. We studied 135 elderly subjects (mean age 78+/-6 yrs, range 69- 93; 30 M, 87 F). On the basis of the 15-items Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), score>5 identified subjects with depressive symptoms. Based upon 24-h Ambulatory BP Monitoring (Spacelabs 90207), the following BP circadian profile measures were examined: SD of 24-h, day, and night SBP, DBP, MBP; 24-h, day, and night SBP and DBP load; night SBP and DBP decline; dipping status for SBP and DBP. Compared with non-depressed subjects (n=61), depressed subjects (n=74) were similar in age and more likely to be women. No significant differences in traditional CV risk factors or in medication use were observed between the two groups. After controlling for age, sex, and traditional CV risk factors, subjects with depressive symptoms presented a significantly lower night-time SBP fall than non-depressed ones (average, -4.4 mmHg for SBP) with a significantly higher occurrence of non-dipper status. The GDS score was an independent significant inverse determinant of 24-h SD of SBP. Depressive symptoms in older subjects are accompanied by lower nocturnal BP fall and are significant independent determinants of SBP variability. PMID:19959917

  5. Systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.R.; McCabe, A.P.H.; Vrquhart, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Selected Contents of this book are: Efficient Systolic Arrays for the Solution of Toeplitz Systems, The Derivation and Utilization of Bit Level Systolic Array Architectures, an Efficient Systolic Array for Distance Computation Required in a Video-Codec Based Motion-Detection, On Realizations of Least-Squares Estimation and Kalman Filtering by Systolic Arrays, and Comparison of Systolic and SIMD Architectures for Computer Vision Computations.

  6. DB 01-3 TREATMENT TARGET OF SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETES MAY DIFFER ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY (PRO).

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-09-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. Stroke is more common than coronary artery disease in Eastern Asian countries, while the coronary artery disease is more common than stroke in Western countries. The association slope between higher blood pressure (BP) and the risk of cardiovascular events is steeper in Asians than in Caucasians. This may partly explained by the recent result demonstrating that the morning BP surge in Asians is more extended (Hoshide, Kario, Parati et al. Hypertension 2016;68:54-61). Thus, 24-hr BP control including night-time and morning periods is especially important for Asian hypertensive patients (Kario. Essential manual of 24 hour blood pressure management. Wiley, UK, pp.1-158.2016).The existing direct evidence from Asian studies are limited than the accumulated evidence from Western countries. In the ACCORD BP trial which enrolled 4733 participants with type 2 diabetes and randomized them to a target systolic BP <120mmHg (intensive BP control) or <140mmHg (standard BP control). Despite the significant difference in the achieved systolic BP, there was no significant difference in the incidence of primary cardiovascular outcomes. Based on this evidence, the target systolic BP for diabetics has been revised from 130 mmHg to 140 mmHg in the majority of Western guidelines. However, in the ACCORD study, the intensive BP control was associated with significant reduction in both total stroke and nonfatal stroke. In addition, the ONTARGET study, which showed that in diabetic patients, the risk of stroke continued to decrease down to achieved SBP <115mmHg with no evidence of J curve.The new guidelines of the Japanese Society of Hypertension regarding the management of hypertension (JSH2014) were published in 2014 (Hypertens Res 2014;37:253-390). The JSH2014 guidelines use the systolic BP value 130 mmHg, a lower target clinic BP compared to the Western guidelines (140 mmHg), for hypertensive

  7. Influence of Bronchial Blood Flow and Conductance on Pulmonary Function in Stable Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ceridon, Maile L.; Morris, Norman R.; Hulsebus, Minelle L.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between airway blood flow (Q̇aw), airway conductance (Gf-aw) and pulmonary function in patients with stable HF. 12 controls (CTRL: age=63±9yr, FVC=98±15%pred, LVEF=61±6%) (all data presented as mean±SD), 16 patients with mild HF (HF-A, NYHA I–II: age=64±9yr, FVC=90±17%pred, LVEF=28±6%), and 14 patients with moderate/severe HF (HF-B, NYHA III–IV: age=65±6yr, FVC=84±12%pred, LVEF=26±6%) were studied. Q̇aw was assessed using soluble gas measurements; perfusion pressure across airway bed (ΔPaw) was estimated from systemic and pulmonary pressure measurements; Gf-aw was calculated as Q̇aw/ΔPaw; PF was assessed by spirometry. While Q̇aw was not significantly different between CTRL (61.3±17.9 μL·min−1·ml−1), HF-A (70.1±26.9 μL·min−1·ml−1) and HF-B (56.2±14.9 μL·min−1·ml−1) groups, Gf-aw, was elevated in HF-A (1.1±0.4 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1, p<0.03) and tended to be elevated in HF-B (1.2±0.6 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1, p=0.07) when compared to CTRL (0.8±0.3 μL·min−1·ml−1·mmHg−1). Significant positive correlations were found between Gf-aw and RV/TLC for HF-A (r=0.63, p<0.02) and HF-B (r=0.58, p<0.05). These results support the hypothesis that increased bronchial conductance and bronchial congestion may be related to greater small airway obstruction and as such may play a role in the PF abnormalities and symptoms of congestion commonly observed in HF patients. PMID:21545852

  8. Longitudinal Study of Left Ventricular Mass Growth: Comparative Study of Clinic and Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2016-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an established cardiovascular risk factor, yet little is known about its trajectory in people with chronic kidney disease. The goal of this prospective research study was to describe the trajectory of LV mass index, its relationship with blood pressure (BP), and specifically to compare the relationship of BP measured in the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with LV mass index. Among 274 veterans with chronic kidney disease followed for over ≤ 4 years, the rate of growth of log LV mass index was inversely related to baseline LV mass index; it was rapid in the first 2 years, and plateaued subsequently. Systolic BP also significantly increased, but linearly, 1.7 mm Hg/y by clinic measurements and 1.8 mm Hg/y by 24-hour ambulatory BP. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of both clinic BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP with LV mass index were similar; both BP recording methods were associated with LV mass index and its growth over time. Controlled hypertension, masked uncontrolled hypertension, and uncontrolled hypertension categories had increasing LV mass index when diagnosed by 24-hour ambulatory and awake BP (P<0.05 for linear trend) but not sleep BP. After accounting for clinic BP both at baseline and longitudinally, LV mass index among individuals was additionally predicted by the difference in sleep systolic BP and clinic systolic BP (P=0.032). In conclusion, among people with chronic kidney disease, the growth of LV mass index is rapid. Research-grade clinic BP is useful to assess LV mass index and its growth over time. PMID:26831191

  9. Acute effects of aspartame on systolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kiritsy, P J; Maher, T J

    1986-01-01

    Exogenous tyrosine lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The artificial sweetener aspartame also elevates blood and brain tyrosine levels in rats by being hydrolyzed to phenylalanine, which is then rapidly hydroxylated to tyrosine in the liver. Hence we tested the ability of aspartame; its hydrolytic products phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol; and of tyrosine itself to lower blood pressure in SHR. For one week prior to experimentation rats were acclimated to the indirect blood pressure measurement technique; on the day of an experiment they received I.P. injections (mg/kg) of aspartame (12.5-200), tyrosine (25-200) or phenylalanine (100-200), or of aspartic acid or methanol in the doses theoretically contained within 200 mg/kg aspartame. Animals receiving 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg of aspartame exhibited maximum falls in blood pressure of 17.3, 24.2 and 19.3 mmHg, respectively. All changes were significant, as determined by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls test (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine or phenylalanine also lowered blood pressure, but aspartic acid or methanol produced no significant effects. Co-administration of aspartame with valine, a large neutral amino acid that competes with phenylalanine or tyrosine for brain uptake, attenuated aspartame's hypotensive effect. These observations suggest that the neurochemical changes produced by aspartame lead to predicted tyrosine-induced changes in blood pressure.

  10. Interactive but not direct effects of perceived racism and trait anger predict resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rodney

    2006-09-01

    This correlation study explicated the association of perceived racism and trait anger to resting blood pressure in a high school sample of 234 Blacks. Perceived racism and trait anger were assessed via self-report, and resting blood pressure was measured with a noninvasive blood pressure monitor. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism and trait anger were not independent predictors of systolic or diastolic blood pressure. However, these analyses revealed that the interactive effects of perceived racism and trait anger were predictive of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Although perceived racism was not significantly related to blood pressure among those who were high in trait anger, perceived racism was inversely associated with blood pressure among those who were low in trait anger. The findings may have important longer term implications for future research examining the contribution of psychosocial factors to cardiac and vascular functioning in Blacks.

  11. Active tissue factor and activated factor XI in circulating blood of patients with systolic heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zabczyk, Michał; Butenas, Saulius; Palka, Ilona; Nessler, Jadwiga; Undas, Anetta

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Elevated clotting factors and thrombin generation have been reported to occur in patients with heart failure (HF). Circulating activated factor XI (FXIa) and active tissue factor (TF) can be detected in acute coronary syndromes and stable angina. OBJECTIVES We investigated circulating FXIa and active TF and their associations in patients with systolic HF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS In an observational study, we assessed 53 consecutive patients, aged below 75 years, with stable HF associated with documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Atrial fibrillation (LA), recent thromboembolic events, and current anticoagulant therapy were the exclusion criteria. Plasma TF and FXIa activity was determined in clotting assays by measuring the response to inhibitory monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS Coagulant TF activity was detected in 20 patients (37.7%), and FXIa in 22 patients (41.5%). Patients with detectable TF activity and/or FXIa were younger, had a history of myocardial infarction more frequently, significantly higher F1+2 prothrombin fragments, larger LA and right ventricular diastolic diameter, and higher right ventricular systolic pressure than the remaining subjects (P ≤0.01 for all). Circulating FXIa was positively correlated with F1+2 levels (r = 0.69; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Circulating active TF and FXIa occurred in about 40% of patients with systolic HF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of these factors was associated with enhanced thrombin formation. Associations between both factors and LA diameter and right ventricular parameters might suggest that TF and FXIa predispose to thromboembolic complications of HF. PMID:20864906

  12. Regular Cocaine Use Is Associated with Increased Systolic Blood Pressure, Aortic Stiffness and Left Ventricular Mass in Young Otherwise Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kozor, Rebecca; Grieve, Stuart M.; Buchholz, Stefan; Kaye, Sharlene; Darke, Shane; Bhindi, Ravinay; Figtree, Gemma A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular impact of cocaine use in otherwise healthy individuals who consider themselves ‘social’ users is not well established. Methods/Results Twenty regular cocaine users and 20 control subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed to assess cardiac and vascular structure and function. Cocaine users had higher systolic blood pressure compared to non-users (134±11 vs 126±11 mmHg, p = 0.036), a finding independent of age, body surface area, smoking and alcohol consumption. Cocaine use was associated with increased arterial stiffness - reflected by reduced aortic compliance (1.3±0.2 vs 1.7±0.5 cm2×10−2.mmHg−1, p = 0.004), decreased distensibility (3.8±0.9 vs 5.1±1.4 mmHg−1.10−3, p = 0.001), increased stiffness index (2.6±0.6 vs 2.1±0.6, p = 0.005), and higher pulse wave velocity (5.1±0.6 vs 4.4±0.6 m.s−1, p = 0.001). This change in aortic stiffness was independent of vessel wall thickness. Left ventricular mass was 18% higher in cocaine users (124±25 vs 105±16 g, p = 0.01), a finding that was independent of body surface area, and left atrial diameter was larger in the user group than controls (3.8±0.6 vs 3.5±0.3 cm, p = 0.04). The increased left ventricular mass, systolic blood pressure and vascular stiffness measures were all associated with duration and/or frequency of cocaine use. No late gadolinium enhancement or segmental wall motion abnormalities were seen in any of the subjects. Conclusions Compared with the non-user control cohort, cocaine users had increased aortic stiffness and systolic blood pressure, associated with greater left ventricular mass. These measures are all well known risk factors for premature cardiovascular events, highlighting the dangers of cocaine use, even in a ‘social’ setting, and have important public health implications. PMID:24717541

  13. Differentiation of Overweight from Normal Weight Young Adults by Postprandial Heart Rate Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Taffe, Lauren; Stancil, Kimani; Bond, Vernon; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and cardiovascular disease are inextricably linked and the health community’s response to the current epidemic of adolescent obesity may be improved by the ability to target adolescents at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease in the future. Overweight manifests early as autonomic dysregulation and current methods do not permit differentiation of overweight adolescents or young adults at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Aim This study was designed to test the hypothesis that scaling exponents motivated by nonlinear fractal analyses of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) differentiate overweight, otherwise healthy adolescent/young adult subjects at risk for developing prehypertension, the primary forerunner of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods The subjects were 18-20year old males with Body Mass Index (BMI) 20.1-42.5kg/m2. Electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR) intervals were measured during 3h periods of bed rest after overnight fasting and ingestion of 900Cal high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages on separate days. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), k-means cluster and ANOVA analyses of scaling coefficients α, α1, and α2, showed dependencies on hourly measurements of systolic blood pressure and on premeasured BMI. Results It was observed that α value increased during the caloric challenge, appears to represent metabolically-induced changes in HRV across the participants. An ancillary analysis was performed to determine the dependency on BMI without BMI as a parameter. Cluster analysis of the high-carbohydrate test beverage treatment and the high-fat treatment produced grouping with very little overlap. ANOVA on both clusters demonstrated significance at p<0.001. We were able to demonstrate increased sympathetic modulation of our study group during ingestion and metabolism of isocaloric high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages. Conclusion These findings demonstrate significantly different

  14. Impact of Stress Reduction Interventions on Hostility and Ambulatory Systolic Blood Pressure in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lynda Brown; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM), life skills (LS) training, and health education (HE) interventions on self-reported hostility and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 121 African American (AA) ninth graders at increased risk for development of essential hypertension. They were randomly assigned to BAM,…

  15. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Langefeld, Carl D.; Divers, Jasmin; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Hawfield, Amret T.; Reboussin, David M.; Bild, Diane E.; Kaysen, George A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Raj, Dominic; Ricardo, Ana C.; Wright, Jackson T.; Sedor, John R.; Rocco, Michael V.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2,571 African Americans from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logistic regression models that adjusted for potentially important confounders tested for association between APOL1 risk variants and baseline clinical CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary or carotid artery revascularization) and CKD (eGFR under 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or UACR over 30 mg/g). African American SPRINT participants were 45.3% female with mean (median) age of 64.3 (63) years, mean arterial pressure 100.7 (100) mmHg, eGFR 76.3 (77.1) ml/min/1.73m2, UACR 49.9 (9.2) mg/g, and 8.2% had clinical CVD. APOL1 (recessive inheritance) was positively associated with CKD (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.73) and log UACR estimated slope [β] 0.33) and negatively associated with eGFR (β −3.58), all significant. APOL1 risk variants were not significantly associated with prevalent CVD (1.02, 0.82–1.27). Thus, SPRINT data show that APOL1 risk variants are associated with mild CKD but not prevalent CVD in African American with a UACR under 1000 mg/g. PMID:25029429

  16. Systolic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, J.C.; Yuan, S. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper presents a formal algebraic notation to express the global data interacting activities of a systolic array. The notation we use is the generating function. Using generating functions, we can describe the velocity and the moving path of a data stream at any time. Several generating functions can be grouped together to form a systolic flow which can aid the specification, design, and verification of a systolic array.

  17. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women. PMID:27528065

  18. Systolic Blood Pressure Control Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Three Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probstfield, Jeffery; Hire, Donald; Redmon, J. Bruce; Evans, Gregory W.; Coday, Mace; Lewis, Cora E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Wilmoth, Sharon; Bahnson, Judy; Dulin, Michael F.; Green, Jennifer B.; Knowler, William C.; Kitabchi, Abbas; Murillo, Anne L.; Osei, Kwame; Rehman, Shakaib U.; Cushman, William C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The relative effectiveness of 3 approaches to blood pressure control—(i) an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) focused on weight loss, (ii) frequent goal-based monitoring of blood pressure with pharmacological management, and (iii) education and support—has not been established among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who are appropriate for each intervention. METHODS Participants from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) cohorts who met criteria for both clinical trials were identified. The proportions of these individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140mm Hg from annual standardized assessments over time were compared with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS Across 4 years among 480 Look AHEAD and 1,129 ACCORD participants with baseline SBPs between 130 and 159mm Hg, ILI (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = [1.18–1.81]) and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacotherapy (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = [1.16–1.97]) yielded higher rates of blood pressure control compared to education and support. The intensive behavioral-based intervention may have been more effective among individuals with body mass index >30kg/m2, while frequent goal-based monitoring with medication management may be more effective among individuals with lower body mass index (interaction P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, both ILI and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY clinicaltrials.gov identifiers NCT00017953 (Look AHEAD) and NCT00000620 (ACCORD). PMID:25666468

  19. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women.

  20. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Radha Mani, K.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würz, Peter; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kranthi Kumar, M.J.; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Wong, Tien Y.; Shyong Tai, E.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn , Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

  1. Urinary Proteome and Systolic Blood Pressure as Predictors of 5-Year Cardiovascular and Cardiac Outcomes in a General Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Thijs, Lutgarde; Petit, Thibault; Gu, Yu-Mei; Jacobs, Lotte; Yang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Yan-Ping; Koeck, Thomas; Zürbig, Petra; Jin, Yu; Verhamme, Peter; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Mischak, Harald; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-07-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study, we identified a multidimensional urinary classifier (HF1), which was associated with left ventricular dysfunction. We investigated whether HF1 predicts cardiovascular end points over and beyond traditional risk factors. In 791 randomly recruited Flemish (mean age, 51.2 years; 50.6% women), we quantified HF1 by capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition, we measured cardiovascular risk factors. HF1 averaged -0.97 U (range, -3.26 to 2.60). Over 6.1 years (median), 35 participants died and 63, 45, and 22 experienced fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular and cardiac end points, standardized for sex and age, increased across thirds of the HF1 distribution (P≤0.014), whereas trends for all-cause mortality and coronary events were nonsignificant (P≥0.10). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (+1-SD) were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.65; P=0.029) and 1.39 (1.06-1.84; P=0.018) for cardiovascular and cardiac events in relation to HF1. For systolic pressure, the corresponding estimates were 0.97 (0.74-1.28; P=0.85) and 0.93 (0.67-1.29; P=0.66), respectively. The HF1 upper thresholds optimized by maximizing Younden's index were -0.50 and -0.36 U for cardiovascular and cardiac end points, respectively. Prognostic accuracy significantly (P≤0.006) improved by adding HF1 to Cox models already including the other baseline predictors. Sensitivity analyses, from which we excluded 71 participants with previous cardiovascular disease, were confirmatory. In conclusion, over a 6-year period, the urinary proteome, but not systolic pressure, predicted cardiovascular and cardiac disease. PMID:26063667

  2. A chair for cuffless real-time estimation of systolic blood pressure based on pulse transit time.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zunyi; Sekine, Masaki; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshida, Masaki; Chen, Wenxi

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an unobtrusive cuffless blood pressure (BP) monitoring system for estimating beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) in real-time based on pulse transit time (PTT). The system mainly includes an electrocardiograph with three conductive textile electrodes, a pulse monitor with a LED and a photodetector, a control circuit with a Bluetooth module, and a battery, all of which are mounted on a common armchair to measure ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals from users during sitting on the armchair. The measured ECG and PPG data are transmitted to the software terminal installed on a tablet PC and are further derived to obtain a series of PTT for estimating beat-by-beat BP using Chen's method. We had 9 healthy subjects undergo the BP monitoring experiments of still sitting on a chair for 3 minutes, lying on a bed for 10 minutes, and pedaling using ergometer for 11 minutes in order to assess the accuracy of the estimated BP. A Finometer and a cuff-type BP meter were used as references in the experiments. Preliminary results showed that the mean error and mean absolute difference (MAD) of estimated BP were within -0.5 ± 5.3 mmHg and 4.1 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively, compared to references. The result suggests that the proposed BP estimation system has the potential for long-term home BP monitoring. PMID:26737443

  3. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  4. Hyperglycemia and nocturnal systolic blood pressure are associatedwith left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Felício, João S; Pacheco, Juliana T; Ferreira, Sandra R; Plavnik, Frida; Moisés, Valdir A; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Ribeiro, Artur B; Zanella, Maria T

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, when compared to patients with essential hypertension have an increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and a worse diastolic function, and if this fact would be related to 24-h pressoric levels changes. Methods Ninety-one hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (group-1 [G1]), 59 essential hypertensive patients (group-2 [G2]) and 26 healthy controls (group-3 [G3]) were submitted to 24-h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography (ECHO) with Doppler. We calculated an average of fasting blood glucose (AFBG) values of G1 from the previous 4.2 years and a glycemic control index (GCI) (percentual of FBG above 200 mg/dl). Results G1 and G2 did not differ on average of diurnal systolic and diastolic BP. However, G1 presented worse diastolic function and a higher average of nocturnal systolic BP (NSBP) and LVMI (NSBP = 132 ± 18 vs 124 ± 14 mmHg; P < 0.05 and LVMI = 103 ± 27 vs 89 ± 17 g/m2; P < 0.05, respectively). In G1, LVMI correlated with NSBP (r = 0.37; P < 0.001) and GCI (r = 0.29; P < 0.05) while NSBP correlated with GCI (r = 0.27; P < 0.05) and AFBG (r = 0.30; P < 0.01). When G1 was divided in tertiles according to NSBP, the subgroup with NSBP≥140 mmHg showed a higher risk of LVH. Diabetics with NSBP≥140 mmHg and AFBG>165 mg/dl showed an additional risk of LVH (P < 0.05; odds ratio = 11). In multivariate regression, both GCI and NSBP were independent predictors of LVMI in G1. Conclusion This study suggests that hyperglycemia and higher NSBP levels should be responsible for an increased prevalence of LVH in hypertensive patients with Type 2 DM. PMID:16968545

  5. Immobilization-induced increases of systolic blood pressure and dysregulation of electrolyte balance in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Farzana; Haque, Zeba; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-07-01

    Clinical and experimental studies revealed that alcohol drinking and life event stresses are predisposing factors to hypertension. Intra and extra cellular levels of electrolytes may play important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium is suggested to have a role in the regulation of blood pressure. The present study was designed to monitor the effects of acute exposure to 2h immobilization stress and ethanol administration at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight (i.p.) and combined effect of acute administration of ethanol and immobilization stress on systolic blood pressure (SBP), intraerythrocyte, serum and tissue electrolytes in rats. Results showed that acute exposure to 2h immobilization increased SBP, intraerythrocyte sodium and decreased intraerythrocyte potassium in water as well as in ethanol injected rats. The concentration of Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ increased while that of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ decreased in the heart and kidney tissue. Ethanol administration also increased Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ levels and decreased K⁺ and Mg²⁺ levels in the heart and kidney tissue. Restraint stress decreased serum levels of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, P, and Cl⁻ and increased serum Mg²⁺, glucose and haematocrit. Ethanol administration also decreased serum levels of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, P, and Cl⁻ and increased serum Mg²⁺, glucose and haematocrit. The effects of ethanol and stress on the changes of blood and tissues electrolytes were additive and may be involved in the greater occurrence of hypertension in alcoholics. Our results suggested an important role of intra and extra cellular electrolytes in both stress and ethanol-induced hypertension. The findings may help to develop strategies for the treatment of hypertension in alcoholics.

  6. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive Asians measured using radial tonometry: an open prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Teong, Hui Hwang; Chin, Adeline Mei Lin; Sule, Ashish Anil; Tay, Jam Chin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) has been shown to be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than brachial blood pressure (BP). Different classes of drugs have differential effects on CASP and brachial BP. This open prospective cohort study aimed to observe changes in CASP (measured using radial tonometry) among hypertensive Asians after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS Patients with treatment-naïve hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension who were on non-ARB therapy were eligible for inclusion. Patients with uncontrolled BP (i.e. ≥ 140/90 mmHg) received valsartan for 12 weeks. The patients’ brachial systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), and CASP changes were monitored using the BPro® watch. RESULTS The mean age of the 44 enrolled patients was 35 years. At baseline, the mean BP and CASP were 150.2/91.4 ± 10.6/9.4 mmHg and 136.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, respectively. Valsartan reduced SBP, DBP and CASP by 14.9 ± 10.7 mmHg, 10.9 ± 8.4 mmHg and 15.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, respectively (all p < 0.001). Every 1.0-mmHg reduction in brachial SBP resulted in a 0.8-mmHg reduction in CASP (p < 0.001). A CASP cut-off of 122.5 mmHg discriminated between controlled and uncontrolled BP (sensitivity 74%, specificity 88%). CONCLUSION Using radial tonometry, we demonstrated good correlation between CASP and brachial SBP reductions after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan in our study cohort. Correlation analysis between CASP and SBP reductions may be useful for demonstrating whether a drug is able to lower CASP beyond lowering SBP. PMID:26875683

  7. Effects of age on blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... become less elastic with age. The "average" blood pressure increases from 120/70 to 150/90 and may persist slightly high even if treated. The blood vessels respond more slowly to a change in body ...

  8. Cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6) Genotype is Associated with Elevated Systolic Blood Pressure in Preterm Infants Following NICU Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, John M; Fisher, Tyler J; Haynes, Susan E; Berends, Susan K; Brophy, Patrick D; Morriss, Frank H; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine genetic and clinical risk factors associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) in preterm infants following discharge. Study design A convenience cohort of infants <32 weeks gestational age was followed after discharge; we retrospectively identified a subgroup of subjects with ESBP (SBP > 90th percentile for term infants). Genetic testing identified alleles associated with ESBP. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed for the outcome ESBP with clinical characteristics and genotype as independent variables. Results Predictors of ESBP were: CYP2D6 (rs28360521) CC genotype (OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.48, 5.79), adjusted for outpatient oxygen therapy (OR 4.53, 95%CI 2.23, 8.81) and history of urinary tract infection (OR 4.68, 95% CI 1.47, 14.86). Maximum SBP was modeled by multivariable linear regression analysis: Maximum SBP = 84.8 mmHg + 6.8 mmHg (if CYP2D6 CC genotype) + 6.8 mmHg (if discharged on supplemental oxygen) + 4.4 mmHg (if received inpatient glucocorticoids) (p=0.0002). Conclusion ESBP is common among preterm infants with residual lung disease following NICU discharge. This study reveals clinical factors associated with ESBP, identifies a candidate gene for further testing, and supports the recommendation that BP be monitored sooner than at age 3 years as suggested for term infants. PMID:21353244

  9. Patterns and Correlates of Baseline Thiazide-Type Diuretic Prescription in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tara I; Evans, Gregory; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Diamond, Matthew J; Dwyer, Jamie P; Huan, Yonghong; Kitzman, Dalane; Kostis, John B; Oparil, Suzanne; Rastogi, Anjay; Roumie, Christianne L; Sahay, Rukmani; Stafford, Randall S; Taylor, Addison A; Wright, Jackson T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-03-01

    Thiazides and thiazide-type diuretics are recommended as first-line agents for the treatment of hypertension, but contemporary information on their use in clinical practice is lacking. We examined patterns and correlates of thiazide prescription in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from participants enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). We examined baseline prescription of thiazides in 7582 participants receiving at least 1 antihypertensive medication by subgroup, and used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for thiazide prescription (versus no thiazide). Forty-three percent of all participants were prescribed a thiazide at baseline, but among participants prescribed a single agent, the proportion was only 16%. The prevalence of thiazide prescription differed significantly by demographic factors, with younger participants, women, and blacks all having higher adjusted prevalence of thiazide prescription than other corresponding subgroups. Participants in the lowest category of kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2) were half as likely to be prescribed a thiazide as participants with preserved kidney function. In conclusion, among persons with hypertension and heightened cardiovascular risk, we found that thiazide prescription varied significantly by demographics and kidney disease status, despite limited evidence about relative differences in effectiveness.

  10. Patterns and Correlates of Baseline Thiazide-Type Diuretic Prescription in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tara I; Evans, Gregory; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Diamond, Matthew J; Dwyer, Jamie P; Huan, Yonghong; Kitzman, Dalane; Kostis, John B; Oparil, Suzanne; Rastogi, Anjay; Roumie, Christianne L; Sahay, Rukmani; Stafford, Randall S; Taylor, Addison A; Wright, Jackson T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-03-01

    Thiazides and thiazide-type diuretics are recommended as first-line agents for the treatment of hypertension, but contemporary information on their use in clinical practice is lacking. We examined patterns and correlates of thiazide prescription in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from participants enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). We examined baseline prescription of thiazides in 7582 participants receiving at least 1 antihypertensive medication by subgroup, and used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for thiazide prescription (versus no thiazide). Forty-three percent of all participants were prescribed a thiazide at baseline, but among participants prescribed a single agent, the proportion was only 16%. The prevalence of thiazide prescription differed significantly by demographic factors, with younger participants, women, and blacks all having higher adjusted prevalence of thiazide prescription than other corresponding subgroups. Participants in the lowest category of kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2) were half as likely to be prescribed a thiazide as participants with preserved kidney function. In conclusion, among persons with hypertension and heightened cardiovascular risk, we found that thiazide prescription varied significantly by demographics and kidney disease status, despite limited evidence about relative differences in effectiveness. PMID:26865200

  11. Comparison of two noninvasive devices for measurement of central systolic blood pressure with invasive measurement during cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Ott, Christian; Haetinger, Siegberto; Schneider, Markus P; Pauschinger, Matthias; Schmieder, Roland E

    2012-09-01

    Recently, a new device for noninvasive assessment of central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) (BPro device with A-Pulse) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, but available data are limited. In 52 patients undergoing invasive elective cardiac evaluation, central hemodynamics were measured invasively. Immediately thereafter, radial artery waveforms were sampled by two noninvasive techniques, the BPro and, as a comparator, the SphygmoCor System. Then, central hemodynamics were measured invasively for a second time. The invasively recorded cSBP (137 ± 27 mm Hg) did not differ with both noninvasively assessed cSBP by BPro (136 ± 21 mm Hg, P = .627 vs invasive cSBP) and by SphygmoCor (136 ± 23 mm Hg, P=.694 vs invasive cSBP) and correlated highly between invasively recorded and both noninvasively assessed cSBP. However, using Bland-Altman plots, spreading of compared data of both devices can be found (BPro: 0.87 ± 13 mm Hg vs invasive cSBP; SphygmoCor: 0.77 ± 14 mm Hg vs invasive cSBP). There was an excellent correlation of both noninvasive devices for the calculation of cSBP (r=0.961, P<.001). cSBP differed by only 0.1 ± 6 mm Hg (P=.913) between the two noninvasive devices. Therefore, both noninvasive devices showed an accurate agreement in cSBP compared with invasively measured cSBP. PMID:22947354

  12. Comparison between invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in young, middle and old age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Li, Qiao; Qiu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (IBP and NIBP) measurements in young, middle and old age using the data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database. In total, 23,679 blood pressure measurements were extracted from 742 patients, divided into three groups of young, middle and old age. IBP-NIBP differences in systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were 0.1 ± 16.5 mmHg/11.0 ± 12.2 mmHg in young age, -2.9 ± 19.8 mmHg/6.9 ± 17.5 mmHg in middle age and -3.2 ± 29.3 mmHg/8.5 ± 19.8 mmHg in old age. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of invasive systolic blood pressure (ISBP)-non-invasive systolic blood pressure (NISBP) differences increased from young to middle then to old age, and the SD of invasive diastolic blood pressure (IDBP)-non-invasive diastolic blood pressure (NIDBP) differences also increased with age. In young, middle and old age, the correlation coefficients were 0.86, 0.79 and 0.53, respectively, between ISBP and NISBP, and 0.78, 0.78 and 0.41 between IDBP and NIDBP. In conclusion, IBP showed good correlation with NIBP in each age category. The agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was influenced by age category.

  13. Water aerobics is followed by short-time and immediate systolic blood pressure reduction in overweight and obese hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Arsa, Gisela; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Lopes, Lorena Curado; Santana, Fabio; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thais I; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2016-07-01

    One exercise training session such as walking, running, and resistance can lead to a decrease in blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive individuals, but few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training in an aquatic environment for overweight and obese hypertensive individuals. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a water aerobics session on blood pressure changes in pharmacologically treated overweight and obese hypertensive women. A randomized crossover study was carried out with 18 hypertensive women, 10 of them were overweight (54.4 ± 7.9 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) and eight obese (56.4 ± 6.6 years; body mass index: 33.0 ± 2.0 kg/m(2)). The water aerobics exercise session consisted of a 45-minute training at the intensity of 70%-75% of maximum heart rate adjusted for the aquatic environment. The control group did not enter the pool and did not perform any exercise. We measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) before, immediately after, and every 10 minutes up to 30 minutes after the aerobic exercise or control session. Overall (n = 18), DBP did not change after the water aerobic exercise and control session, and SBP decreased at 10 and 20 minutes postexercise compared to the control session. Among overweight women, SBP decreased at 10 and 20 minutes postexercise. In contrast, among obese women, SBP decreased only at 10 minutes postexercise. SBP variation was -2.68 mm Hg in overweight and -1.24 mm Hg in obese women. In conclusion, the water aerobics session leads to a reduction in SBP, but not in DBP, during 10 and 20 minutes postexercise recovery. Thus, it may be safely prescribed to overweight and obese women. PMID:27245928

  14. Interaction of central Angiotensin II and estrogen on systolic blood pressure in female DOCA-salt treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kafami, Marzieh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Niazmand, Saeed; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Alreza; Farrokhi, Esmaeil; Mazloum, Tahereh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a probable interaction of central angiotensin II (Ang II) and estrogen (Est) on blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Therefore, in the present study, the interaction between Ang II and Est in ovariectomized (Ovx) and Sham rats that were treated with DOCA- salt was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The female rats were divided into 10 groups as follows: Sham, Ovx, Sham-DOCA, Ovx-DOCA, Sham-DOCA-estrogen (E), Ovx DOCA-E, Sham-DOCA-losartan (L), Ovx-DOCA-L, Sham–DOCA-L-E, and Ovx-DOCA-L-E. The Est groups received estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; daily; subcutaneously (s.c)) for four weeks. Following that, several doses of Ang II (0.5, 5, 50, 500, 5000 ng/5 μl) were injected via the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) route and the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated. In the losartan groups, 200 μg losartan was injected (i.c.v) 15 minutes after the Ang II injection and the blood pressure was recorded. Treatment by DOCA was performed by removal of one kidney, injection of DOCA (45 mg/kg i.p), and adding of sodium chloride (NaCl) (1%) and potassium chloride (KCl) (0.1%) in the drinking water. Results: The SBP was increased by Ang II and this effect in DOCA-salt treated rat was higher than in the untreated groups. The effect of Ang II on SBP in groups that were treated with Est and L was lower than that in the DOCA-salt groups. Increase in SBP was strongly attenuated by Ang II in groups that were co-treated with both Est and L compared to the DOCA-treated rats. These results showed that Est significantly attenuated the effect of central Ang II on SBP in the DOCA-salt treated rats. Conclusion: We suggest that there are interactions between E and Ang II in the control of blood pressure in DOCA-salt treated rats. PMID:27195251

  15. Differential effects of the changes of LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure on the risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effects of baseline and changes in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol on the carotid intima media thickness (IMT) have not been well documented. Methods A total of 2572 adults (mean age 53.8 years, 54.6% women) in a Taiwanese community undertook three blood pressure and LDL cholesterol examinations over 6 years. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate the effects of baseline and change in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on IMT. Results Greater baseline LDL and blood pressure were associated with an increase in IMT (0.005 ± 0.002 mm per 1 mg/dL [p = 0.006] and 0.041 ± 0.004 mm mmHg [p <0.0001], respectively. Change in blood pressure was associated with a significant increase in IMT (0.047±0.016, P = 0.004), whilst the association between change in LDL and change in IMT was not statistically significant (0.008±0.006, P = 0.20). Conclusions Carotid IMT was associated with baseline blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, yet only changes of blood pressure, not LDL cholesterol, were related to carotid IMT during the 6-year observation. PMID:22900906

  16. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  17. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  18. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  19. Systolic blood pressure response to exercise as a predictor of mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Morita, Hirohiko; Harada, Haruhito; Katoh, Atsushi; Adachi, Hisashi; Koga, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hisao

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that peak oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise obtained from the cardiopulmonary exercise test are prognostic parameters in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, it is unclear whether exercise-induced parameters obtained from the routine exercise stress test predict mortality in patients with CHF. We studied 136 patients (93 males/43 females) with CHF. All patients underwent symptom-limited exercise stress testing. Exercise parameters included exercise duration, exercise-induced HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and metabolic equivalents (METs). During the follow-up period (mean 6.2 years), 34 patients died. Survival rates at the 3rd and 5th years were 90% and 83%, respectively. Body mass index was significantly smaller in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group (P < 0.01). The incidence of patients with New York Heart Association III class was higher in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, predictors of mortality included peak HR and SBP, increases in HR and SBP during exercise, HR and SBP at the 1st minute after exercise, HR at the 3rd minute after exercise, and METs. The use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents was not associated with prognosis. In Cox hazard model analysis, the increase in SBP (P < 0.002), HR at the 3rd minute after exercise (P < 0.05), and METs (P < 0.05) were independent predictors of mortality. SBP response to exercise, HR recovery after exercise, and METs obtained from the routine exercise test predicted mortality in patients with CHF irrespective of the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents.

  20. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  1. Antihypertensive medications and sexual function in women: Baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Holly N.; Evans, Gregory W.; Berlowtiz, Dan R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Conroy, Molly B.; Foy, Capri G.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Riley, William T.; Russell, Laurie; Williams, Olubunmi; Hess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and kidney disease, but treatment can substantially reduce risks. Many patients avoid antihypertensive medications due to fear of side effects. While associations between antihypertensives and sexual dysfunction in men have been documented, it remains unclear whether antihypertensives are associated with sexual dysfunction in women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from women in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to evaluate the relations among class of antihypertensive medication and the outcomes (a) sexual activity and (b) sexual function. Methods SPRINT enrolled individuals 50 and older with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular disease. A subset of participants completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (QoL), including sexual function. Antihypertensive class was determined by medications taken at baseline. Results Of 690 women in the QoL subset of SPRINT, 183 (26.5%) were sexually active. There were no significant differences in sexual activity among women taking one or more antihypertensives and women not taking any. Women taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) had higher odds of sexual activity [OR 1.66 (1.12-4.27), p=0.011]. Among sexually active women, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high (52.5%). No class of medication was associated with sexual dysfunction in the multivariable model. Conclusions ACEI/ARB use was associated with higher odds of sexual activity. While prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high, no single class of antihypertensive medication was associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:27032074

  2. Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural geomagnetic storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.; Miranda-Anaya, M.; Durán, P.; Flores-Chávez, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of geomagnetic storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the geomagnetic field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a geomagnetic storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known geomagnetic storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural geomagnetic storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a reference value. We suggested that the changes in the geomagnetic field associated with a geomagnetic storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.

  3. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  4. Association between umbilical cord glucocorticoids and blood pressure at age 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Andrew, Ruth; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and 'programs' hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Methods Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. Results At age 3 years, each unit increase in the F/E ratio was associated with a 1.6 mm Hg increase in systolic BP (95% CI 0.0 to 3.1). The F/E ratio was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or birth weight for gestational age z-score. Conclusion A higher F/E ratio in umbilical venous cord blood, likely reflecting reduced placental 11β-HSD2 activity, was associated with higher systolic blood pressure at age 3 years. Our data suggest that increased fetal exposure to active maternal glucocorticoids may program later systolic blood pressure. PMID:18755017

  5. The conundrum of arterial stiffness, elevated blood pressure, and aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time, central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased SBP. This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta's function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the left ventricle is optimal within a physiological range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an "initial insult" at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently, aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling, there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men and slower increase in pulse pressure (PP) than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of

  6. Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging – A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Westerhof, Nico; Westerhof, Berend E.; Broomé, Michael; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure. PMID:27341106

  7. Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging - A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Maksuti, Elira; Westerhof, Nico; Westerhof, Berend E; Broomé, Michael; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.

  8. Medication adherence and visit-to-visit variability of systolic blood pressure in African Americans with chronic kidney disease in the AASK trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, K; Muntner, P; Kronish, I; Shilane, D; Chang, T I

    2016-01-01

    Lower adherence to antihypertensive medications may increase visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure (VVV of BP), a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death. We used data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial to examine whether lower medication adherence is associated with higher systolic VVV of BP in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Determinants of VVV of BP were also explored. AASK participants (n=988) were categorized by self-report or pill count as having perfect (100%), moderately high (75-99%), moderately low (50-74%) or low (<50%) proportion of study visits with high medication adherence over a 1-year follow-up period. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine determinants of medication adherence, and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to examine the association between medication adherence and systolic VVV of BP, defined as the coefficient of variation or the average real variability (ARV). Participants with lower self-reported adherence were generally younger and had a higher prevalence of comorbid conditions. Compared with perfect adherence, moderately high, moderately low and low adherence was associated with 0.65% (±0.31%), 0.99% (±0.31%) and 1.29% (±0.32%) higher systolic VVV of BP (defined as the coefficient of variation) in fully adjusted models. Results were qualitatively similar when using ARV or when using pill counts as the measure of adherence. Lower medication adherence is associated with higher systolic VVV of BP in African Americans with hypertensive CKD; efforts to improve medication adherence in this population may reduce systolic VVV of BP.

  9. Expedited blood pressure control with initial angiotensin II antagonist/diuretic therapy compared with stepped-care therapy in patients with ambulatory systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lacourcière, Yves; Poirier, Luc; Lefebvre, Jean

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether initiating therapy with a combination of losartan (L) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) allows for faster blood pressure (BP) control and fewer medications than the usual stepped-care approach in patients with stage 2 or 3 hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension. METHODS: Patients with a mean daytime systolic ambulatory BP (ABP) of 135 mmHg or higher were randomly assigned to receive L 50 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg titrated to L 100 mg plus HCTZ 25 mg versus HCTZ 12.5 mg plus atenolol 50 mg. Amlodipine 5 mg was then added, if needed, to achieve a BP goal of less than 130 mmHg. Treatment titration was based on ABP. RESULTS: Significantly more patients randomly assigned to L/HCTZ (63.5%) than stepped-care (37.5%; P=0.008) achieved the primary end point (daytime systolic BP of less than 130 mmHg). Initial L/HCTZ induced significantly greater decreases in ABP during each 24 h period after six weeks of therapy. Although reductions in systolic and diastolic ABP were not statistically different at the end of the study, ABP reduction was significantly greater (P<0.001) with the L/HCTZ-based regimen. Twice as many patients in the L/HCTZ group achieved the goal ABP with no more than two drugs (30.0% versus 14.7%; P=0.03). Moreover, tolerability was significantly better (P=0.006) in the L/HCTZ group, with a 40.0% incidence of adverse events, versus 65.6% in the stepped-care group. CONCLUSION: Initiating antihypertensive therapy with the combination of L/HCTZ in patients with stage 2 or 3 hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension reaches a target BP faster in a higher proportion of patients, with fewer adverse events and less need for a third drug regimen than the conventional stepped-care approach. PMID:17440643

  10. The effects of increasing levels of dietary garlic bulb on growth performance, systolic blood pressure, hematology, and ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Varmaghany, Saifali; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Lotfollahian, Houshang; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The effects of dietary garlic bulb were studied separately on hematological parameters, ascites incidence, and growth performance of an ascites susceptible broiler hybrid under both standard temperature conditions ( STC: ) and cold temperature conditions ( CTC: ). A total of 336 one-day-old male broiler chickens were allocated to 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates of 21 birds each under STC. In addition, the same grouping with another 336 birds was used for CTC. Under CTC, the birds were exposed to cold temperatures for induction of ascites. Experimental groups were defined by the inclusion of 0 (control), 5, 10 or 15 g/kg garlic bulbs in the diets under both STC and CTC. Growth performance, systolic blood pressure (as a measure of systemic arterial blood pressure), physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as ascites indices (right ventricle [ RV: ], total ventricle [ TV: ] weights, and RV/TV: ) were evaluated. Systolic blood pressure was determined using an indirect method with a sphygmomanometer, a pediatric cuff, and a Doppler device. The final body weight decreased quadratically (P = 0.003), with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. The feed conversion ratio showed no significant differences among all groups under both STC and CTC. No significant differences were observed in total mortality and ascites-related mortality in all groups under STC, although total mortality (L: P = 0.01; Q: P = 0.001) and ascites-related mortality (L: P = 0.007; Q: P = 0.001) were significantly different among the diets under CTC. Under STC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, RV, TV, and RV/TV did not vary significantly among the diets. However, red blood cell count and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased linearly (P < 0.005) with increasing garlic bulb levels in the diets under STC. Under CTC, the systolic blood pressure, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decreased

  11. Isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly subject.

    PubMed

    Herpin, D

    1993-01-01

    Interest in isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly has increased in the last few years. The definition of this disorder remains controversial: according to most authors, the systolic blood pressure has to be above 160 mm Hg and the diastolic under 90 mm Hg. The prevalence depends on number of visits, as well as on sex, age and race. The elderly is characterized by haemodynamic and neurohormonal features, which have to be pointed out: cardiac output and renal blood flow as well as hepatic blood flow are significantly lower than those of younger adults; great vessels compliance is diminished, baroreflex is impaired and cerebral autoregulation curve is shifted towards the right. From a prognostic point of view, systolic hypertension is now recognized as an independent risk factor for cardio-vascular morbidity and mortality. Recently, the SHEP study has demonstrated that the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension with diuretics alone or associated with beta-blockers resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of stroke and major cardio-vascular events. The effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists is still under evaluation. PMID:8258051

  12. Associations of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with maternal adiposity and systolic blood pressure at 3 and 7 years postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jessica R.; Perng, Wei; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Ms. Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objective was to examine the associations of total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG) rate with postpartum maternal weight and cardiometabolic risk. We hypothesized the first trimester GWG would be most strongly associated with long-term maternal health. METHODS We studied 801 women enrolled during the 1st trimester of pregnancy in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort 1999–2002. At 3 years postpartum we measured maternal weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collected fasting blood from a subset. At 7 years postpartum we again measured weight and waist circumference. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate relations of total and trimester-specific GWG rate with weight change (vs. self-reported pre-pregnancy weight) and waist circumference at each timepoint, stratified by pre-pregnancy weight, as well as associations with SBP and insulin resistance at 3 years. RESULTS Median age at enrollment was 34.0 years (range: 16.4–44.9); 65% were white. Mean (SD) total GWG rate was 0.38 (0.14) kg/week. Women gained weight faster during the second (0.47 [0.19] kg/week) and third trimesters (0.44 [0.22] kg/week) than the first (0.22 [0.22] kg/week). Total and first trimester GWG rate were most strongly associated with postpartum weight change. Among normal weight women, each 1 SD increase in total and first trimester GWG rate corresponded with 0.85 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.63) kg and 2.08 (1.32, 2.84) kg greater weight change at 3 and 7 years postpartum respectively, but there was not strong evidence of association for either second (−0.30 kg; 95% CI: −1.08, 0.48) or third trimester (−0.26 kg; 95% CI: −1.08, 0.55) GWG. First trimester GWG rate also related to 3-year postpartum weight change in overweight (2.28 kg; 95% CI: 0.95, 3.61) and obese (2.47 kg; 95% CI: 0.98, 3.97) women. Greater total and first trimester GWG rate were associated with larger waist circumference and higher SBP but not insulin

  13. Relationships of the systolic blood pressure response during exercise with insulin resistance, obesity, and endurance fitness in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Kai, Y; Hanada, H; Uezono, K; Sasaki, H

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships among the resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or SBP response during exercise with insulin resistance evaluated by a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR), abdominal fat accumulation (visceral fat area [VFA], subcutaneous fat area [SFA]) by computed tomography (CT), and an estimation of the maximal oxygen uptake (V*O2max) in 63 Japanese middle-aged male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in type 2 DM subjects were significantly higher than in age-matched healthy male control subjects (n = 135) with normal glucose tolerance. Resting SBP (127.7 +/- 16.2 mm Hg v 119.4 +/- 13.0 mm Hg) and DBP (82.2 +/- 11.9mmHg v 76.8 +/- 9.4 mm Hg) levels, and the percentage of hypertension (20.6% v 1.5%) in type 2 DM subjects were significantly higher than in the control subjects (P <.05). According to a multiple regression analysis for resting blood pressure in type 2 DM, VFA was found to be an independent predictor of SBP, while V*O2max and HOMA-IR were independent predictors of DBP. In the controls, however, HOMA-IR was not found to be a significantly independent predictor for either resting SBP or resting DBP. Measurement of the SBP response during graded exercise using a ramp test was performed by an electrical braked cycle ergometer in 54 patients with type 2 DM only. The SBP was measured at 15-second intervals during exercise. The exercise intensity at the double product breaking point (DPBP), which strongly correlated with the exercise intensity at the lactate threshold, was used as an index for the SBP response to standardized exercise intensity. The SBP corresponding to exercise intensity at DPBP (SBP@DPBP) was evaluated as an index of the SBP response to standardized exercise intensity. The change in SBP (deltaSBP = SBP@DPBP - resting SBP) was significantly and positively associated with log area under the curve for glucose

  14. A relative difference in systolic blood pressure between arms by synchronal measurement and conventional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Suematsu, Yasunori; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-06-01

    It is not known the relationships between a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) between arms by synchronal measurement and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and between a difference in BP between arms and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. We enrolled 425 consecutive patients (M/F = 286/139, 67 ± 13 year) who were admitted to our University Hospital and in whom we could measure the absolute (|rt. BP - lt. BP|) and relative (rt. BP - lt. BP) differences in SBP and DBP using a nico PS-501(®) (Parama-Tech). We divided all patients into those who did and did not have CAD. The relative differences in SBP between arms in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. However, the relative difference in SBP between arms was not a predictor of the presence of CAD. We also divided 267 patients who underwent coronary angiography into tertiles according to the Gensini score (low, middle, and high score groups). Interestingly, the middle + high score groups showed significantly lower relative differences in SBP between arms than the low score group. The mean Korotkoff sound graph in the middle + high Gensini score group was significantly higher than that in the low Gensini score group. Among conventional cardiovascular risk factors and nico parameters, the relative difference in SBP between arms in addition to the risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus) was associated with the score by a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, the relative difference in SBP between arms as well as conventional risk factors may be associated with the severity of coronary arteriosclerosis.

  15. Interarm differences in systolic blood pressure and mortality among US army veterans: aetiological associations and risk prediction in the Vietnam experience study

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Laust H; Kivimäki, Mika; Gale, Catharine R; Batty, G David

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences between the arms in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥10 mmHg have been associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with hypertensive and chronic renal disease. For the first time, we examined these relationships in a non-clinical population. Design Cohort study. Methods Participants were 4419 men (mean age 38.37 years) from the Vietnam Experience Study. Bilateral SBP and diastolic BP (DBP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, metabolic syndrome, and ankle brachial index were assessed in 1986. Results Ten per cent of men had an interarm difference of ≥10 and 2.4% of ≥15 mmHg. A 15-year follow-up period gave rise to 246 deaths (64 from cardiovascular disease, CVD). Interarm differences of ≥10 mmHg were associated with an elevated risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, HR, 1.49, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.04–2.14) and CVD mortality (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.01–3.69). After adjusting for SBP, DBP, lipids, fasting glucose, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, associations between interarm differences of ≥10 mmHg and all-cause mortality (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.94–1.95) and CVD mortality (1.62, 95% CI 0.84–3.14) were significantly attenuated. Conclusions In this non-clinical cohort study, interarm differences in SBP were not associated with mortality after accounting for traditional CVD risk factors. Interarm differences might not be valuable as an additional risk factor for mortality in populations with a low risk of CVD. PMID:23818287

  16. Significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes population.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2012-03-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons <18 years of age, the present analysis totaled 7295 persons, of whom 1593 had isolated systolic hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) and subjects with normal BP (CBP <140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) were at similar risk (adjusted hazard rate: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.87-1.57]; P=0.29). Furthermore, in treated subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79-1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43-2.79]; P<0.0001) and treated subjects with normal BP (adjusted hazard rate: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.49-2.62]; P<0.0001) were at higher risk as compared with untreated normotensive subjects. In conclusion, subjects with sustained hypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, "treated normalized hypertension." Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term "white-coat hypertension" to persons

  17. Loss of Rad-GTPase produces a novel adaptive cardiac phenotype resistant to systolic decline with aging

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Janet R.; Withers, Catherine N.; Levitan, Bryana; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Andres, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Rad-GTPase is a regulator of L-type calcium current (LTCC), with increased calcium current observed in Rad knockout models. While mouse models that result in elevated LTCC have been associated with heart failure, our laboratory and others observe a hypercontractile phenotype with enhanced calcium homeostasis in Rad−/−. It is currently unclear whether this observation represents an early time point in a decompensatory progression towards heart failure or whether Rad loss drives a novel phenotype with stable enhanced function. We test the hypothesis that Rad−/− drives a stable nonfailing hypercontractile phenotype in adult hearts, and we examine compensatory regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) loading and protein changes. Heart function was measured in vivo with echocardiography. In vivo heart function was significantly improved in adult Rad−/− hearts compared with wild type. Heart wall dimensions were significantly increased, while heart size was decreased, and cardiac output was not changed. Cardiac function was maintained through 18 mo of age with no decompensation. SR releasable Ca2+ was increased in isolated Rad−/− ventricular myocytes. Higher Ca2+ load was accompanied by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) protein elevation as determined by immunoblotting and a rightward shift in the thapsigargan inhibitor-response curve. Rad−/− promotes morphological changes accompanied by a stable increase in contractility with aging and preserved cardiac output. The Rad−/− phenotype is marked by enhanced systolic and diastolic function with increased SR uptake, which is consistent with a model that does not progress into heart failure. PMID:26371164

  18. Effects of Patient-Controlled Abdominal Compression on Standing Systolic Blood Pressure in Adults With Orthostatic Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Juan J.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sandroni, Paola; Sletten, David M.; Gehrking, Tonette L.; Gehrking, Jade A.; Low, Phillip; Basford, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of patient-controlled abdominal compression on postural changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH). Secondary variables included subject assessments of their preferences and the ease-of-use. Design Randomized crossover trial. Setting Clinical research laboratory. Participants Adults with neurogenic OH (N=13). Interventions Four maneuvers were performed: moving from supine to standing without abdominal compression; moving from supine to standing with either a conventional or an adjustable abdominal binder in place; application of subject-determined maximal tolerable abdominal compression while standing; and while still erect, subsequent reduction of abdominal compression to a level the subject believed would be tolerable for a prolonged period. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome variable included postural changes in SBP. Secondary outcome variables included subject assessments of their preferences and ease of use. Results Baseline median SBP in the supine position was not affected by mild (10mmHg) abdominal compression prior to rising (without abdominal compression: 146mmHg; interquartile range, 124–164mmHg; with the conventional binder: 145mmHg; interquartile range, 129–167mmHg; with the adjustable binder: 153mmHg, interquartile range, 129–160mmHg; P=.85). Standing without a binder was associated with an −57mmHg (interquartile range, −40 to −76mmHg) SBP decrease. Levels of compression of 10mmHg applied prior to rising with the conventional and adjustable binders blunted these drops to −50mmHg (interquartile range, −33 to −70mmHg; P=.03) and −46mmHg (interquartile range, −34 to −75mmHg; P=.01), respectively. Increasing compression to subject-selected maximal tolerance while standing did not provide additional benefit and was associated with drops of −53mmHg (interquartile range, −26 to −71mmHg; P=.64) and −59mmHg (interquartile range, −49 to −76mm

  19. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  20. Efficacy of a classical antiobesity Unani pharmacopial formulation (Safoof-e-Muhazzil) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure: A randomized, open-labeled, controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asim Ali; Jahangir, Umar; Jalees, Farhan; Kapoor, Prem; Urooj, Shaista

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a Unani formulation in hypertension. A total of 90 patients with total cholesterol level of more than 220 mg/dl with associated conditions were included in this study. A total of 30 patients having a mean systolic blood pressure (BP) of 133.86 mmHg comprising Group A received Unani formulation Safoof-e-Muhazzil (SM) in its classical powder form in the dose of 5 g twice a day orally. Group B comprising of 30 patients with a mean systolic BP of 133.13 mmHg received same drug, but in compressed tablet form in the same dosage, whereas, 30 patients comprising Group C with a mean systolic BP of 129.45 mmHg, received Atorvastatin 10 mg as a standard control. Patients were evaluated on each follow-up at 2nd, 4th and 6th week. The mean systolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 133.86 ± 3.028 mmHg and 133.13 ± 2.852 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 119.33 ± 1.922 mmHg (P < 0.001) and 119 ± 1.760 mmHg (P < 0.001) respectively. In the control Group C before treatment BP was 129.45 ± 2.499 mmHg and after treatment it significantly decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01). The percentage change after treatment was 10.85%, 10.61% and 3.94% respectively in each group. Mean diastolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 85.06 ± 2.11 mmHg and 84.56 ± 1.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 79.06 ± 1.56 mmHg (P < 0.001) and 79.96 ± 1.15 mmHg (P < 0.001) respectively, BP before treatment in Group C was 83.23 ± 1.588 mmHg, which was decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01). The study results indicate that the test drug was quite effective in reducing both systolic as well as diastolic BP. PMID:24350049

  1. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  2. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  3. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-walking training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Latosik, Ewelina; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Trabka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity. PMID:25713659

  4. Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).

    PubMed

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing.

  5. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not.

  6. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not. PMID:26683975

  7. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  8. Systolic arterial blood pressure in small-breed dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease: a prospective study of 103 cases (2007-2012).

    PubMed

    Petit, A M; Gouni, V; Tissier, R; Trehiou-Sechi, E; Misbach, C; Pouchelon, J-L; Lefebvre, H P; Chetboul, V

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this prospective observational study was to assess systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP) in small-breed dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD) from different International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) heart failure classes. For this purpose, 103 client-owned dogs weighing <20 kg (mean ± standard deviation, 8.5 ± 3.0 kg; aged 9.8 ± 2.9 years) and presenting with MVD diagnosed by echo-Doppler examination were enrolled. Nineteen healthy dogs (9.9 ± 2.3 years; 8.7 ± 4.2 kg) were concurrently recruited as controls. SABP was measured in unsedated dogs using the Doppler method according to the recommendations in the American College of Veterinary Medicine consensus statement. SABP was significantly increased in dogs in ISACHC class 1 (n=53; median, interquartile range 140 mmHg, 130-150 mmHg) and class 2 (n=21; 140 mmHg, 130-150 mmHg), compared to the control group (n=19; 130 mmHg, 120-140 mmHg; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), but remained within the reference interval (≤ 160 mmHg). Conversely, dogs in ISACHC class 3 showed a significantly lower SABP (n=29, 120 mmHg, 110-130 mmHg) than those from all other ISACHC classes (P<0.001) and the controls (P<0.05). Additionally, SABP<120 mmHg was recorded in 13/103 dogs (13%). The 13 dogs were all ISACHC class 3 (3a or 3b) and were under medical treatment for heart failure. In conclusion, MVD was often associated with SABP values that were within the reference interval, but at its upper end. However, a significant decrease in SABP was observed in dogs with ISACHC heart failure class 3. Whether such low SABP values resulted from an MVD-related decrease in cardiac output, an afterload reduction owing to cardiac treatment, or both, remains to be determined.

  9. Mediation and Moderation of the Association between Cynical Hostility and Systolic Blood Pressure in Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versey, H. Shellae; Kaplan, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Hostility may be related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as blood pressure. However, the process by which hostility affects blood pressure is not fully understood. The current study sought to evaluate abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) as a potential mediator and modifier of the relationship between cynical…

  10. Plasma ghrelin levels in healthy elderly volunteers: the levels of acylated ghrelin in elderly females correlate positively with serum IGF-I levels and bowel movement frequency and negatively with systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Akamizu, T; Murayama, T; Teramukai, S; Miura, K; Bando, I; Irako, T; Iwakura, H; Ariyasu, H; Hosoda, H; Tada, H; Matsuyama, A; Kojima, S; Wada, T; Wakatsuki, Y; Matsubayashi, K; Kawakita, T; Shimizu, A; Fukushima, M; Yokode, M; Kangawa, K

    2006-02-01

    Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone (GH) secretion, appetite and energy intake. As ghrelin stimulates both GH secretion and appetite, reductions in ghrelin levels may be involved in the reductions in GH secretion and appetite observed in the elderly. However, only preliminary studies have been performed on the role of ghrelin in elderly subjects. In this study, we sought to clarify the physiologic implications of the age-related alterations in ghrelin secretion by determining plasma ghrelin levels and other clinical parameters in healthy elderly subjects. Subjects were > or = 65 years old, corresponding to the SENIEUR protocol, had not had a resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract and had not been treated with hormones. One hundred and five volunteers (49 men and 56 women) were admitted to this study (73.4 +/- 6.3 years old). Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in elderly female subjects positively correlated with serum IGF-I levels and bowel movement frequency and negatively with systolic blood pressure. In elderly men, desacyl ghrelin levels correlated only weakly with bowel movement frequency. These findings suggest that the plasma levels of the acylated form of ghrelin may influence the age-related alterations in GH/IGF-I regulation, blood pressure and bowel motility. These observational associations warrant further experimental studies to clarify the physiologic significance of these effects.

  11. Systolic blood pressure control among individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A comparative effectiveness analysis of three interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive lifestyle management or frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes....

  12. The antimetastatic drug NAMI-A potentiates the phenylephrine-induced contraction of aortic smooth muscle cells and induces a transient increase in systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Vadori, M; Florio, C; Groppo, B; Cocchietto, M; Pacor, S; Zorzet, S; Candussio, L; Sava, G

    2015-07-01

    The ruthenium-based drug imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethylsulphoxidetetrachlorido ruthenate (NAMI-A) is a novel antitumour drug under clinical evaluation. In this study, NAMI-A is tested on aortic rings in vitro and on the systolic blood pressure in vivo with the aim of evaluating its effects on smooth muscle cells and, more in general, on the vascular system. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with 10 µM NAMI-A for 10 min potentiates the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE). The reduction of the B max value of [(3)H]-prazosin bound to NAMI-A-treated aortic rings and the ability of NAMI-A to displace [(3)H]-prazosin and [(3)H]-IP3 binding by 25 and 42%, respectively, suggest the involvement of α1-adrenoceptor in mediating the effects on smooth muscle cells. NAMI-A also decreases the number of maximal sites of [(3)H]-prazosin bound to kidney membrane preparation from 34 to 24 fmol/mg proteins. A single i.p. dose (105 mg/kg) or a repeated treatment for 6 consecutive days (17 mg/kg/day) in Wistar rats increases the systolic blood pressure, respectively, 1 h and 3 days after treatment, and the responsiveness of rat aortic rings to PE. Atomic absorption spectroscopy confirms the presence of ruthenium in the aortic rings excised from the treated rats. These findings suggest monitoring the cardiovascular parameters when the drug is used in humans for treating cancer patients, particularly if the drug is associated with chemicals that are potentially active at the cardiovascular level.

  13. Meta-analysis of the comparative effects of different classes of antihypertensive agents on brachial and central systolic blood pressure, and augmentation index

    PubMed Central

    Manisty, Charlotte H; Hughes, Alun D

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP) exceeds aortic pressure by a variable amount, and estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) may be a better indicator of cardiovascular risk than bSBP. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of single and multiple antihypertensive agents on bSBP, cSBP and augmentation index (AIx). Methods A random effects meta-analysis was performed on 24 randomized controlled trials of antihypertensives with measurements of bSBP, cSBP and/or AIx. Separate analyses were performed for drug comparisons with or without placebo, and drug combinations. Results In the placebo vs. drug meta-analysis, antihypertensive therapy reduced bSBP more than cSBP and there was no statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity by drug class, although the number of individual studies was small. In placebo-adjusted drug vs. drug comparison, treatment with β-blockers, omapatrilat and thiazide diuretics lowered cSBP significantly less than bSBP (i.e. central to brachial amplification decreased), whereas other monotherapies lowered cSBP and bSBP to similar extents. Sample sizes were too small and effect estimates insufficiently precise to allow firm conclusions to be made regarding comparisons between individual drug classes. Antihypertensive combinations that included β-blockers decreased central to brachial amplification. β-Blockers increased AIx, whereas all other antihypertensive agents reduced AIx to similar extents. CONCLUSIONS A reduction in central to brachial amplification by some classes of antihypertensive drug will result in lesser reductions in cSBP despite achievement of target bSBP. This effect could contribute to differences in outcomes in randomized clinical trials when β-blocker- and/or diuretic-based antihypertensive therapy are compared with other regimens. PMID:22625662

  14. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability in the Time Domain in Patients with Recent and Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C; Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Morales, Irving O; Landa, Emmanuel; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Moreno, Rene; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects the cardiovascular response of patients. To study this effect, interbeat intervals (IBI) and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability of patients during supine, standing and controlled breathing tests were analyzed in the time domain. Simultaneous noninvasive measurements of IBI and SBP for 30 recently diagnosed and 15 long-standing DM patients were compared with the results for 30 rigorously screened healthy subjects (control). A statistically significant distinction between control and diabetic subjects was provided by the standard deviation and the higher moments of the distributions (skewness, and kurtosis) with respect to the median. To compare IBI and SBP for different populations, we define a parameter, α, that combines the variability of the heart rate and the blood pressure, as the ratio of the radius of the moments for IBI and the same radius for SBP. As diabetes evolves, α decreases, standard deviation of the IBI detrended signal diminishes (heart rate signal becomes more "rigid"), skewness with respect to the median approaches zero (signal fluctuations gain symmetry), and kurtosis increases (fluctuations concentrate around the median). Diabetes produces not only a rigid heart rate, but also increases symmetry and has leptokurtic distributions. SBP time series exhibit the most variable behavior for recently diagnosed DM with platykurtic distributions. Under controlled breathing, SBP has symmetric distributions for DM patients, while control subjects have non-zero skewness. This may be due to a progressive decrease of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels as diabetes evolves.

  15. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability in the Time Domain in Patients with Recent and Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C; Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Morales, Irving O; Landa, Emmanuel; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Moreno, Rene; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects the cardiovascular response of patients. To study this effect, interbeat intervals (IBI) and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability of patients during supine, standing and controlled breathing tests were analyzed in the time domain. Simultaneous noninvasive measurements of IBI and SBP for 30 recently diagnosed and 15 long-standing DM patients were compared with the results for 30 rigorously screened healthy subjects (control). A statistically significant distinction between control and diabetic subjects was provided by the standard deviation and the higher moments of the distributions (skewness, and kurtosis) with respect to the median. To compare IBI and SBP for different populations, we define a parameter, α, that combines the variability of the heart rate and the blood pressure, as the ratio of the radius of the moments for IBI and the same radius for SBP. As diabetes evolves, α decreases, standard deviation of the IBI detrended signal diminishes (heart rate signal becomes more "rigid"), skewness with respect to the median approaches zero (signal fluctuations gain symmetry), and kurtosis increases (fluctuations concentrate around the median). Diabetes produces not only a rigid heart rate, but also increases symmetry and has leptokurtic distributions. SBP time series exhibit the most variable behavior for recently diagnosed DM with platykurtic distributions. Under controlled breathing, SBP has symmetric distributions for DM patients, while control subjects have non-zero skewness. This may be due to a progressive decrease of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels as diabetes evolves. PMID:26849653

  16. Fixed-Combination Olmesartan/Amlodipine Was Superior to Perindopril + Amlodipine in Reducing Central Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, Luis M

    2016-06-01

    This post hoc analysis from the Sevikar Compared to the Combination of Perindopril Plus Amlodipine on Central Arterial Blood Pressure in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Hypertension (SEVITENSION) study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of olmesartan (OLM) and amlodipine (AML) in reducing central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) compared with perindopril (PER) plus AML in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were randomized to OLM/AML 40/10 mg or PER/AML 8/10 mg for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the absolute change in CSBP from baseline to week 24, which was greater with OLM/AML (-13.72±1.14 mm Hg) compared with PER/AML (-10.21±1.11 mm Hg). The between-group difference was -3.51±1.60 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -6.66 to -0.36 mm Hg) and was within the noninferiority margin (2 mm Hg) as well as the superiority margin (0 mm Hg). In addition, OLM/AML was associated with a higher proportion of patients achieving blood pressure normalization. In hypertensive patients with diabetes, the fixed-dose combination of OLM/AML was superior to PER/AML in reducing CSBP, as well as other secondary endpoints. PMID:26395174

  17. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  18. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women.

  19. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability in the Time Domain in Patients with Recent and Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.; Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Morales, Irving O.; Landa, Emmanuel; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Moreno, Rene; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects the cardiovascular response of patients. To study this effect, interbeat intervals (IBI) and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability of patients during supine, standing and controlled breathing tests were analyzed in the time domain. Simultaneous noninvasive measurements of IBI and SBP for 30 recently diagnosed and 15 long-standing DM patients were compared with the results for 30 rigorously screened healthy subjects (control). A statistically significant distinction between control and diabetic subjects was provided by the standard deviation and the higher moments of the distributions (skewness, and kurtosis) with respect to the median. To compare IBI and SBP for different populations, we define a parameter, α, that combines the variability of the heart rate and the blood pressure, as the ratio of the radius of the moments for IBI and the same radius for SBP. As diabetes evolves, α decreases, standard deviation of the IBI detrended signal diminishes (heart rate signal becomes more “rigid”), skewness with respect to the median approaches zero (signal fluctuations gain symmetry), and kurtosis increases (fluctuations concentrate around the median). Diabetes produces not only a rigid heart rate, but also increases symmetry and has leptokurtic distributions. SBP time series exhibit the most variable behavior for recently diagnosed DM with platykurtic distributions. Under controlled breathing, SBP has symmetric distributions for DM patients, while control subjects have non-zero skewness. This may be due to a progressive decrease of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels as diabetes evolves. PMID:26849653

  20. Brachial blood pressure-independent relations between radial late systolic shoulder-derived aortic pressures and target organ changes.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gavin R; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Maseko, Muzi J; Libhaber, Carlos; Redelinghuys, Michelle; Kruger, Deirdre; Veller, Martin; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2012-04-01

    Central aortic blood pressure (BP; BPc) predicts outcomes beyond brachial BP. In this regard, the application of a generalized transfer function (GTF) to radial pulse waves for the derivation of BPc is an easy and reproducible measurement technique. However, the use of the GTF may not be appropriate in all circumstances. Although the peak of the second shoulder of the radial waveform (P2) is closely associated with BPc, and, hence, BPc may be assessed without the need for a GTF, whether P2-derived BPc is associated with adverse cardiovascular changes independent of brachial BP is uncertain. Thus, P2- and GTF-derived aortic BPs were assessed using applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software. Left ventricular mass was indexed for height(1.7) (n=678) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT; n=462) was determined using echocardiography and vascular ultrasound. With adjustments for nurse-derived brachial pulse pressure (PP), P2-derived central PP was independently associated with left ventricular mass indexed for height(1.7) (partial r=0.18; P<0.0001) and IMT (partial r=0.40; P<0.0001). These relations were similar to nurse-derived brachial PP-independent relations between GTF-derived central PP and target organ changes (left ventricular mass indexed for height(1.7): partial r=0.17, P<0.0001; IMT: partial r=0.37, P<0.0001). In contrast, with adjustments for central PP, nurse-derived brachial PP-target organ relations were eliminated (partial r=-0.21 to 0.05). Twenty-four-hour, day, and night PP-target organ relations did not survive adjustments for nurse-derived brachial BP. In conclusion, central PP derived from P2, which does not require a GTF, is associated with cardiovascular target organ changes independent of brachial BP. Thus, when assessing adverse cardiovascular effects of aortic BP independent of brachial BP, P2-derived measures may complement GTF-derived measures of aortic BP.

  1. Whole-body vibration attenuates the increase in leg arterial stiffness and aortic systolic blood pressure during post-exercise muscle ischemia.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Gil, Ryan; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A

    2011-07-01

    Exercise with whole-body vibration (WBV) decreases brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness. To examine the effect of WBV on arterial responses, 12 young men underwent three experimental trials: (1) no-exercise control (CON), (2) static squat with WBV, and (3) static squat without WBV (no-WBV). Bilateral baPWV and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV), carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), first (P1) and second (P2) systolic peaks, aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest, during 4-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) on the left thigh, and 4-min recovery. During PEMI, right faPWV increased (P < 0.05) after no-WBV and did not change after CON and WBV. Right baPWV, P2, and aSBP increased (P < 0.05) after both exercise trials, but the increase was lower (P < 0.05) after WBV than no-WBV. The increases in cfPWV (P < 0.05), AIx (P < 0.05), P1 (P < 0.01), and HR (P < 0.05) were similar in both trials during PEMI. During recovery, right faPWV and baPWV remained similar than rest after WBV and CON, but remained elevated (P < 0.05) after no-WBV. Aortic SBP, P1, and P2 remained elevated (P < 0.05) in both exercise trials during recovery, but the levels were lower (P < 0.05) than PEMI. Left faPWV and baPWV were reduced (P < 0.05) from rest in the three trials. CfPWV, AIx, and HR returned to resting levels in both exercises. WBV prevents the increases in faPWV and attenuates the increase in baPWV and aSBP induced by post-static squat muscle ischemia due to an attenuated P2 response.

  2. Some anthropometric characteristics, reactions on physical stress, and blood pressure in males aged 18 in "Primorsko-Goranska" County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kontosić, I; Mesaros-Kanjski, E; Bozin-Juracić, J; Vukelić, M; Grubisić-Greblo, H; Jonjić, A

    2001-06-01

    The paper presents the distribution and average values of some anthropometric characteristics in 1,210 males aged 18 in "Primorsko-Goranska" County, as well as some manifestations of physical fitness parameters and some correlations between these two groups of characteristics. The prevalence of hypertensive and limit values for systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 8.6% and for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 2.1%. Body weight and body mass index were in a significantly positive correlation with SBP and DBP Body mass index showed a significantly positive correlation with heart rate after step-test. Therefore, it can be concluded that overweight reduces tolerance on workload.

  3. Reasoning about systolic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Systolic algorithms are a class of parallel algorithms, with small grain concurrency, well suited for implementation in VLSI. They are intended to be implemented as high-performance, computation-bound back-end processors and are characterized by a tesselating interconnection of identical processing elements. This dissertation investigates the problem of providing correctness of systolic algorithms. The following are reported in this dissertation: (1) a methodology for verifying correctness of systolic algorithms based on solving the representation of an algorithm as recurrence equations. The methodology is demonstrated by proving the correctness of a systolic architecture for optimal parenthesization. (2) The implementation of mechanical proofs of correctness of two systolic algorithms, a convolution algorithm and an optimal parenthesization algorithm, using the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. (3) An induction principle for proving correctness of systolic arrays which are modular. Two attendant inference rules, weak equivalence and shift transformation, which capture equivalent behavior of systolic arrays, are also presented.

  4. Age determines the effects of blood pressure lowering during the acute phase of ischemic stroke: the TICA study.

    PubMed

    Leira, Rogelio; Millán, Mónica; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Blanco, Miguel; Serena, Joaquín; Fuentes, Blanca; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Castellanos, Mar; Lago, Aida; Dávalos, Antonio; Castillo, José

    2009-10-01

    To increase understanding of the influence of blood pressure (BP) changes on functional outcome, we designed a multicenter, prospective, observational study involving patients with ischemic stroke. We included 1092 patients with ischemic stroke. BP was measured on admission and after 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48 hours, and the averages of the readings were taken every 8 hours on days 3 to 7, at the day of discharge, and at 3 months. The main study variable was modified Rankin scale at 3 months. Systolic BPs >181 mm Hg at the emergency department and after 24 hours were associated with poor prognosis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.2 and OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.3, respectively); systolic BP <136 mm Hg at the emergency department also determined worse prognosis at 3 months (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.9). The influence of systolic BP changes in the first hours depended on patient age. In elder patients (>70 years), reductions in systolic BP determined a significant increase in the proportion of patients with worse prognosis. In patients >80 years of age, decreases in systolic BP >27.2 mm Hg determined a worse prognosis in patients with antihypertensive treatment at the emergency department (n=91) compared with those who did not receive treatment (n=106; OR: 21.7, 95% CI: 13.6 to 33.5 versus OR: 8.5, 95% CI: 3.2 to 19.6). In summary, the effect of BP modification during the acute phase of ischemic stroke on functional outcome is strongly dependent on age.

  5. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W; Manning, Alisa K; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert V; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R; Morrison, Alanna C; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M; Psaty, Bruce M; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gauderman, W James; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2016-07-01

    Studying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and G × E interaction effects (the "joint" framework). The alternative "stratified" framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from genome-wide association studies of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on (1) the minor allele frequency, (2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and (3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low-frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts.

  6. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W; Manning, Alisa K; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert V; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R; Morrison, Alanna C; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M; Psaty, Bruce M; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gauderman, W James; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2016-07-01

    Studying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and G × E interaction effects (the "joint" framework). The alternative "stratified" framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from genome-wide association studies of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on (1) the minor allele frequency, (2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and (3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low-frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts. PMID:27230302

  7. Reductions in systolic blood pressure with liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes: Insights from a patient-level pooled analysis of six randomized clinical trials☆

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vivian A.; DeVries, J. Hans; Henry, Robert R.; Donsmark, Morten; Thomsen, Henrik F.; Plutzky, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Aims To quantify the effect of liraglutide on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and assess the influence of covariates on observed SBP reductions. Methods A patient-level pooled analysis of six phase 3, randomized trials was conducted. Results The analysis included 2792 randomized patients. In the intention-to-treat population (n = 2783), mean [±SE] SBP reductions from baseline with liraglutide 1.2 mg (2.7 [0.8] mmHg) and 1.8 mg (2.9 [0.7] mmHg) once daily were significantly greater than with placebo (0.5 [0.9] mmHg; P = 0.0029 and P = 0.0004, respectively) after 26 weeks, and were evident after 2 weeks. Liraglutide was also associated with significantly greater SBP reductions than glimepiride and, at a dose of 1.8 mg, insulin glargine and rosiglitazone. SBP reductions with liraglutide weakly correlated with weight loss (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: 0.08–0.12; P ≤ 0.0148). No dependence of these reductions on concomitant antihypertensive medications was detected (P = 0.1304). Liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg were associated with mean increases in pulse of 3 beats per minute (bpm), versus a 1 bpm increase with placebo (P < 0.0001 for each dose versus placebo). Conclusions Liraglutide reduces SBP in patients with T2D, including those receiving concomitant antihypertensive medication. PMID:24561125

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: coming of age in nephrology.

    PubMed

    Townsend, R R; Ford, V

    1996-11-01

    The number of patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the number of publications using this technique to evaluate the risks and effects of high blood pressure on target organs has been increasing, and dramatically so, in the last 5 years. Much of this growth has centered on the role of the blood pressure load (the percentage of systolic or diastolic readings above a preset value during a specific time period) and the changes in blood pressures levels that occur, with sleep. Although many studies are focused on the interaction between blood pressure (as assessed by ABPM) and the heart, interest is growing in the application of ABPM to the practice of nephrology. This paper discusses some of the technical aspects of ABPM, followed by a review of five areas of clinical research using ABPM, and which are relevant to renal medicine: microalbuminuria, renal function, renovascular hypertension, dialysis (hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis), and transplantation. Despite a general lack of reimbursement for performance of the ABPM procedure, the growth in its usage and the willingness of clinicians to withhold or alter therapy on the basis of ABPM readings is testimony to its clinical value in the management of hypertension. PMID:8959618

  9. Reasoning about systolic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.; Subrahmanyam, P.A.

    1988-12-01

    The authors present a methodology for verifying correctness of systolic algorithms. The methodology is based on solving a set of Uniform Recurrence Equations obtained from a description of systolic algorithms as a set of recursive equations. They present an approach to mechanically verify correctness of systolic algorithms, using the Boyer-Moore theorem proven. A mechanical correctness proof of an example from the literature is also presented.

  10. Relationship of blood lead to blood pressure in a longitudinal study of working men

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure.

  11. Transesophageal Doppler echocardiographic assessment of systolic and diastolic coronary blood flow velocities at baseline and during adenosine triphosphate-induced coronary vasodilation in chronic aortic regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kisanuki, A; Matsushita, R; Murayama, T; Otsuji, Y; Miyazono, Y; Toyonaga, K; Nakao, S; Taira, A; Tanaka, H

    1997-01-01

    Few reports exist on the changes in systolic and diastolic coronary flow velocities (CFVs) at baseline and during coronary vasodilation in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We examined the left anterior descending CFVs in 21 patients with AR (11 patients with mild AR and 10 patients with moderate to severe AR), 9 patients without AR (no AR group), and 6 patients who had undergone surgery for moderate to severe AR (postoperation group) with transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was infused into a peripheral right arm vein at four different doses (35, 70, 100, and 140 micrograms/kg/min). Coronary flow velocity response in systole and diastole was calculated as the ratio of systolic peak and mean and diastolic peak and mean CFVs during maximal ATP infusion to those at baseline. The systolic peak and mean CFVs and the diastolic peak and mean CFVs at baseline were significantly increased in the moderate to severe group compared with those in the other groups (p < 0.05, respectively). Systolic and diastolic CFVs were significantly increased during ATP infusions in the four groups. No significant differences of systolic and diastolic CFVs were observed among the four groups during maximal ATP infusion. The coronary flow velocity response calculated from the peak and mean diastolic CFVs were significantly decreased in the moderate to severe group (1.6 +/- 0.3 and 1.7 +/- 0.4) compared with those in the other three groups (3.6 +/- 0.7 and 3.2 +/- 1.1 in the no AR group, 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 2.5 +/- 0.4 in the mild group, and 2.5 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.6 in the postoperation group) (p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the systolic and diastolic left CFVs at baseline appeared to be significantly increased in patients with moderate to severe chronic AR. However, the velocities during coronary vasodilation by ATP were equal to those in other groups, resulting in a decrease of coronary flow velocity response in systole and diastole

  12. Time-updated systolic blood pressure and the progression of chronic kidney disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amanda H; Yang, Wei; Townsend, Raymond R; Pan, Qiang; Chertow, Glenn M; Kusek, John W; Charleston, Jeanne; He, Jiang; Kallem, RadhaKrishna; Lash, James P; Miller, Edgar R; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T; Feldman, Harold I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is often inadequately controlled in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous reports of the longitudinal association between achieved level of BP and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have not incorporated time-updated BP with appropriate adjustment for known confounders. Objective To assess the association between baseline and time-updated systolic BP (SBP) with the progression of CKD. Design Observational, prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00304148) Setting Seven US clinical centers Patients Participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (N=3,708) followed for a median (25th, 75th percentiles) of 5.7 (4.6, 6.7) years Measurements The mean of three seated SBP measurements were used as the visit-specific SBP. SBP was time-updated as the mean of that visit and all prior visits. Outcomes were ESRD and the composite renal endpoint of ESRD (dialysis or transplantation) or halving of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses investigating baseline and time-updated SBP utilized traditional Cox proportional hazards models and marginal structural models, respectively. Results SBP was ≥130 mmHg at all study visits in 19.2% of participants, and ≥140 mmHg in 10.6%. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for ESRD among participants with SBP 130–139 mmHg, compared to SBP <120 mmHg, was 1.46 (1.13–1.88) using only baseline data, and was 2.37 (1.48–3.80) using all available time-updated data. Among those with SBP ≥140 mmHg, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.46 (1.18–1.88) and 3.37 (2.26–5.03), respectively. Limitations SBP was measured once annually, and the CRIC Study cohort is not a random sample. Conclusions Among participants in the CRIC Study, time-updated SBP over 130 mmHg was more strongly associated with progression of CKD than analyses based on baseline SBP. Funding The CRIC Study is funded under cooperative agreements from the National Institute of

  13. Dietary patterns and blood pressure among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Xu, Wang-Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension has increased over the past decade in many developed and developing countries, including China. This increase may be associated with changes in lifestyle, including dietary patterns. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with blood pressure (BP) by using data from a large, population-based cohort study of middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, the Shanghai Men's Health Study. This cross-sectional study includes 39,252 men who reported no prior history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke nor use of antihypertensive drugs at study enrollment. Three dietary patterns, ‘vegetable’, ‘fruit and milk’, and ‘meat’, were derived using factor analysis. The fruit and milk diet was inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic BP (ptrend<0.001). The adjusted mean systolic BP was 2.9mmHg lower (95% CI:-3.4, -2.4) and diastolic BP was 1.7mmHg lower (95% CI: -2.0, -1.4) for men in the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern compared with men in the lowest quintile. This inverse association was more evident among heavy drinkers; the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with 4.1mmHg reduction in systolic BP versus 2.0mmHg reduction among non-drinkers (Pinteraction=0.003) compared to the lowest quintile. The corresponding reductions in diastolic BP were 2.0mmHg versus 1.3mmHg (Pinteraction=0.011). The ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of both pre-hypertension and hypertension, and the associations appeared to be stronger among drinkers. Results of this study suggest an important role for diet in the prevention of hypertension. PMID:20187997

  14. Nighttime Systolic Blood-Pressure Load Is Correlated with Target-Organ Damage Independent of Ambulatory Blood-Pressure Level in Patients with Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenjie; Gong, Wenyu; Liu, Xun; Ye, Zengchun; Peng, Hui; Lou, Tanqi

    2015-01-01

    Background The impacts of blood pressure (BP) load on target-organ damage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are largely unclear. We examined whether BP load is correlated with target-organ damage (TOD) in Chinese CKD patients independent of BP level. Methods We recruited 1219 CKD patients admitted to our hospital division in this cross-sectional study. The TOD were measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in this study. Univariate and multivariate linear analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) load, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) load and these renal, cardiovascular parameters. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, BP load and ambulatory BP levels both independently correlated with LVMI, eGFR and proteinuria in all groups of CKD patients (p<0.05), 24-h SBP correlated with cIMT only in non-diabetic CKD patients without hypertension (p<0.05), while nighttime SBP load was associated with cIMT only in non-diabetic CKD patients (p<0.05). Furthermore, nighttime SBP load additionally increased coefficient of determination (R2) and correlated with LVMI, proteinuria in non-diabetic CKD patients without hypertension (R2 = 0.034, P<0.001 and R2 = 0.012, P = 0.006 respectively) and LVMI, cIMT, eGFR in non-diabetic CKD patients with hypertension (R2>0.008, P<0.05) in multivariable-adjusted model which already including the 24-h BP. BP load did not refine this correlation based on the 24-h BP level in diabetic CKD patients. Conclusion Night-time SBP load was correlated with TOD in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease independent of BP level. PMID:26186336

  15. Age and blood pressure changes. A 20-year follow-up study in nuns in a secluded order.

    PubMed

    Timio, M; Verdecchia, P; Venanzi, S; Gentili, S; Ronconi, M; Francucci, B; Montanari, M; Bichisao, E

    1988-10-01

    In a prospective study, 144 white nuns belonging to a secluded monastic order and 138 white control laywomen were followed for 20 years to investigate whether living for a long time in a stress-free environment influences the effect of aging on blood pressure. Silence, meditation, and isolation from society are the distinctive features of the life-style examined. At study entry, blood pressure was not dissimilar in the nuns and the control group, but it increased over time only in the controls, with a mean slope of the regression line (beta coefficient) of 0.089 in the nuns (NS) and 2.171 in the controls (p less than 0.0001) for systolic blood pressure and of 0.054 in the nuns (NS) and 0.742 in the controls (p less than 0.0001) for diastolic blood pressure. Weight and body mass index increased similarly over time in the two groups. Family history of hypertension was not dissimilar between the groups. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides, higher at study entry in the nuns, increased similarly over time in the two groups. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion, collected randomly in both groups, did not differ over time between nuns and controls. None of the women smoked or used oral contraceptives. Educational level was higher in the control group, but subgroups of 48 nuns and 52 laywomen of comparable educational level maintained the same difference in the blood pressure trend over time as in the main cohort. Parity affected the increase of systolic, but not of diastolic, blood pressure with age among the laywomen, but nuns and no-childbirth controls maintained a significantly different blood pressure trend over time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Longitudinal perspective on the conundrum of central arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and aging.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, Angelo; Morrell, Christopher H; Orrù, Marco; Strait, James B; Tarasov, Kirill V; Ferreli, Liana Anna Pina; Loi, Francesco; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Delitala, Alessandro; Spurgeon, Harold; Najjar, Samer S; AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2014-12-01

    The age-associated increase in arterial stiffness has long been considered to parallel or to cause the age-associated increase in blood pressure (BP). Yet, the rates at which pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and BP trajectories change over time within individuals who differ by age and sex have not been assessed and compared. This study determined the evolution of BP and aortic PWV trajectories during a 9.4-year follow-up in >4000 community-dwelling men and women of 20 to 100 years of age at entry into the SardiNIA Study. Linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that PWV accelerates with time during the observation period, at about the same rate over the entire age range in both men and women. In men, the longitudinal rate at which BP changed over time, however, did not generally parallel that of PWV acceleration: at ages>40 years the rates of change in systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) increase plateaued and then declined so that SBP, itself, also declined at older ages, whereas PP plateaued. In women, SBP, diastolic BP, and mean BP increased at constant rates across all ages, producing an increasing rate of increase in PP. Therefore, increased aortic stiffness is implicated in the age-associated increase in SBP and PP. These findings indicate that PWV is not a surrogate for BP and that arterial properties other than arterial wall stiffness that vary by age and sex also modulate the BP trajectories during aging and lead to the dissociation of PWV, PP, and SBP trajectories in men.

  17. Systolic and diastolic short-term blood pressure variability and its determinants in patients with controlled and uncontrolled hypertension: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pengo, Martino F; Rossitto, Giacomo; Bisogni, Valeria; Piazza, Daniele; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Seccia, Teresa Maria; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Pessina, Achille C; Calò, Lorenzo A

    2015-04-01

    Absolute blood pressure (BP) values are not the only causes of adverse cardiovascular consequences. BP variability (BPV) has also been demonstrated to be a predictor of mortality for cardiovascular events; however, its determinants are still unknown. This study considers 426 subjects with ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) measuring 24-h, diurnal and nocturnal absolute BP values and their standard deviations of the mean, along with nocturnal fall, age, sex and current treatment. Patients were divided in two subgroups, controlled and uncontrolled BP, and BPV of patients with "true" and "false" resistant hypertension was also analyzed. Nocturnal and 24-h BPV were higher in the group with uncontrolled hypertension. Multiple regression analysis showed that absolute BP, age, nocturnal fall, but not sex predicted BPV. Patients with "true" resistant hypertension had greater BPV than "false" resistant hypertension patients. Absolute BP resulted as the main determinant of 24-h and nocturnal BPV but not daytime BPV. Also nocturnal BP fall and age resulted as predictors of BPV in treated and untreated patients. Patients with "true" resistant hypertension have a higher BPV, suggesting a higher sympathetic activation. Evidence is still limited regarding the importance of short-term BPV as a prognostic factor and assessment of BPV cannot yet represent a parameter for routine use in clinical practice. Future prospective trials are necessary to define which targets of BPV can be achieved with antihypertensive drugs and whether treatment-induced reduction in BPV is accompanied by a corresponding reduction in cardiovascular events.

  18. An adaptive technique for multiscale approximate entropy (MAEbin) threshold (r) selection: application to heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) under postural stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal; Saini, Barjinder Singh; Singh, Dilbag

    2016-06-01

    Multiscale approximate entropy (MAE) is used to quantify the complexity of a time series as a function of time scale τ. Approximate entropy (ApEn) tolerance threshold selection 'r' is based on either: (1) arbitrary selection in the recommended range (0.1-0.25) times standard deviation of time series (2) or finding maximum ApEn (ApEnmax) i.e., the point where self-matches start to prevail over other matches and choosing the corresponding 'r' (rmax) as threshold (3) or computing rchon by empirically finding the relation between rmax, SD1/SD2 ratio and N using curve fitting, where, SD1 and SD2 are short-term and long-term variability of a time series respectively. None of these methods is gold standard for selection of 'r'. In our previous study [1], an adaptive procedure for selection of 'r' is proposed for approximate entropy (ApEn). In this paper, this is extended to multiple time scales using MAEbin and multiscale cross-MAEbin (XMAEbin). We applied this to simulations i.e. 50 realizations (n = 50) of random number series, fractional Brownian motion (fBm) and MIX (P) [1] series of data length of N = 300 and short term recordings of HRV and SBPV performed under postural stress from supine to standing. MAEbin and XMAEbin analysis was performed on laboratory recorded data of 50 healthy young subjects experiencing postural stress from supine to upright. The study showed that (i) ApEnbin of HRV is more than SBPV in supine position but is lower than SBPV in upright position (ii) ApEnbin of HRV decreases from supine i.e. 1.7324 ± 0.112 (mean ± SD) to upright 1.4916 ± 0.108 due to vagal inhibition (iii) ApEnbin of SBPV increases from supine i.e. 1.5535 ± 0.098 to upright i.e. 1.6241 ± 0.101 due sympathetic activation (iv) individual and cross complexities of RRi and systolic blood pressure (SBP) series depend on time scale under consideration (v) XMAEbin calculated using ApEnmax is correlated with cross-MAE calculated using ApEn (0.1-0.26) in steps of 0

  19. Designing linear systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.K.P.; Tsai, Y.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The authors develop a simple mapping technique to design linear systolic arrays. The basic idea of the technique is to map the computations of a certain class of two-dimensional systolic arrays onto one-dimensional arrays. Using this technique, systolic algorithms are derived for problems such as matrix multiplication and transitive closure on linearly connected arrays of PEs with constant I/O bandwidth. Compared to known designs in the literature, the technique leads to modular systolic arrays with constant hardware in each PE, few control lines, lexicographic data input/output, and improved delay time. The unidirectional flow of control and data in this design assures implementation of the linear array in the known fault models of wafer scale integration.

  20. Cognitive Functions and Cognitive Reserve in Relation to Blood Pressure Components in a Population-Based Cohort Aged 53 to 94 Years

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Nunzia; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Palatini, Paolo; Bascelli, Anna; Boschetti, Giovanni; De Lazzari, Fabia; Grasselli, Carla; Martini, Bortolo; Caffi, Sandro; Piccoli, Antonio; Mazza, Alberto; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT) were less efficient than the normotensives (NT) in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10) (−33%, P = 0.03), clock drawing test (CLOX) (−28%, P < 0.01), and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (−6%, P = 0.02). Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, P = 0.02; OR 0.98, P < 0.005; OR 0.95, P < 0.001) and higher pulse blood pressure (BP) (OR 0.97, P = 0.02; OR 0.97, P < 0.01; and 0.95, P < 0.0001). The cognitive reserve index (CRI) was 6% lower in the HT (P = 0.03) and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, P < 0.001). The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP. PMID:22548150

  1. Drinking water arsenic exposure and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive age in Inner Mongolia, China

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K. Mendola, Pauline; Liu Zhiyi; Savitz, David A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Ling Heling; Xia Yajuan; Lobdell, Danelle; Zeng Donglin; Thorp, John M.; Creason, John P.; Mumford, Judy L.

    2007-08-01

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic exposure. This study observed increased systolic blood pressure levels with increasing drinking water arsenic, at lower exposure levels than previously reported in the literature. As compared to the referent category (below limit of detection to 20 {mu}g of As/L), the overall population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.29 mm Hg (95% CI 0.82, 1.75), 1.28 mm Hg (95% CI 0.49, 2.07), and 2.22 mm Hg (95% CI 1.46, 2.97) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased from 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L, respectively. Controlling for age and body weight (n = 3260), the population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI 1.03, 2.73), 3.90 mm Hg (95% CI 2.52, 5.29), and 6.83 mm Hg (95% CI 5.39, 8.27) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased, respectively. For diastolic blood pressure effect, while statistically significant, was not as pronounced as systolic blood pressure. Mean diastolic blood pressure rose 0.78 mm Hg (95% CI 0.39, 1.16), 1.57 mm Hg (95% CI 0.91, 2.22) and 1.32 mm Hg (95% CI 0.70, 1.95), respectively, for the overall population and rose 2.11 mm Hg (95% CI 1.38, 2.84), 2.74 mm Hg (95% CI 1.55, 3.93), and 3.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84, 4.31), respectively, for the adjusted population (n = 3260) at drinking water arsenic concentrations of 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L. If our study results are confirmed in other populations, the potential burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to drinking water arsenic is significant.

  2. Effect of age and Blood Pressure on Surrogate Markers of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Namrata Bindurao; Ganu, Meghana Ulhas; Godbole, Sanjay Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased arterial stiffness may be an important path- way linking diabetes mellitus to increased cardiovascular risk. Aim: The study was conducted to assess the surrogate markers of arterial stiffness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and compare with age-matched hypertensive and healthy controls. Also the effect of age and blood pressure on these markers was evaluated. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in West India. Methods: After a detailed medical history and anthropometric evaluation, all the participants were subjected to measurements of Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI), Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), and Augmentation Index (AIx) using a non-invasive oscillometric method. The four study groups consisted of patients with T2DM (>5 years) along with hypertension, newly diagnosed patients with T2DM (<2years) without hypertension, hypertensive controls, and healthy controls. Results: PWV, ASI, AIx were elevated in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Patients with T2DM above 60 years had higher carotid-femoral PWV, ASI and AIx than those below 60 years (p<0.05). ASI and AIx were significantly increased in patients with T2DM with hypertension having systolic BP > 140 mmHg compared to those with systolic BP < 140 mmHg. A very strong correlation between PWV and AIx in patients with T2DM and hypertensive controls was observed. Conclusion: This study reveals that markers of arterial stiffness (PWV, ASI, AIx) were increased significantly in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls. Age and systolic blood pressure had significant influence on these markers. Thus, oscillometric markers have potential utility in identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. PMID:25120969

  3. Relationship between office and home blood pressure with increasing age: The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO).

    PubMed

    Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Hozawa, Atsushi; Imai, Yutaka; Johansson, Jouni K; Jula, Antti M; Kollias, Anastasios; Luzardo, Leonella; Niiranen, Teemu J; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tzourio, Christophe; Wei, Fang-Fei; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known to be lower than conventional office blood pressure (OBP) measurements. However, this difference might not be consistent across the entire age range and has not been adequately investigated. We assessed the relationship between OBP and HBP with increasing age using the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). OBP, HBP and their difference were assessed across different decades of age. A total of 5689 untreated subjects aged 18-97 years, who had at least two OBP and HBP measurements, were included. Systolic OBP and HBP increased across older age categories (from 112 to 142 mm Hg and from 109 to 136 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being higher than HBP by ∼7 mm Hg in subjects aged >30 years and lesser in younger subjects (P=0.001). Both diastolic OBP and HBP increased until the age of ∼50 years (from 71 to 79 mm Hg and from 66 to 76 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being consistently higher than HBP and a trend toward a decreased OBP-HBP difference with aging (P<0.001). Determinants of a larger OBP-HBP difference were younger age, sustained hypertension, nonsmoking and negative cardiovascular disease history. These data suggest that in the general adult population, HBP is consistently lower than OBP across all the decades, but their difference might vary between age groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger and older subjects and in hypertensive individuals. PMID:27053011

  4. Perinatal exposure to PBDEs elevate systolic blood pressure in response to hyperosmotic stimulation in aged adult rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely throughout the U S. These chemicals are persistent throughout the environment and accumulate in biota. In previous work, we showed that PBDEs and the structurally similar compounds such as PCBs disrupt the s...

  5. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the 'transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  6. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  7. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  8. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process. PMID:27545843

  9. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process. PMID:27545843

  10. Age, race, diabetes, blood pressure, and mortality among hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Myers, Orrin B; Adams, Christopher; Rohrscheib, Mark R; Servilla, Karen S; Miskulin, Dana; Bedrick, Edward J; Zager, Philip G

    2010-11-01

    Observational studies involving hemodialysis patients suggest a U-shaped relationship between BP and mortality, but the majority of these studies followed large, heterogeneous cohorts. To examine whether age, race, and diabetes status affect the association between systolic BP (SBP; predialysis) and mortality, we studied a cohort of 16,283 incident hemodialysis patients. We constructed a series of multivariate proportional hazards models, adding age and BP to the analyses as cubic polynomial splines to model potential nonlinear relationships with mortality. Overall, low SBP associated with increased mortality, and the association was more pronounced among older patients and those with diabetes. Higher SBP associated with increased mortality among younger patients, regardless of race or diabetes status. We observed a survival advantage for black patients primarily among older patients. Diabetes associated with increased mortality mainly among older patients with low BP. In conclusion, the design of randomized clinical trials to identify optimal BP targets for patients with ESRD should take age and diabetes status into consideration.

  11. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and their children's blood pressure and resting cardiac autonomic balance at age 5 to 6 years.

    PubMed

    Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; Roseboom, Tessa J; van der Post, Joris A M; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2013-09-01

    Adverse intrauterine conditions can program hypertension. Because one of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be cardiac autonomic balance, we investigated the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure and indicators of the autonomic balance in the child at age 5 to 6 years. Also investigated was whether these associations were mediated by standardized birth weight and child BMI. Pregnant women (n=3074) participating in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study completed a questionnaire at gestational week 14. At age 5 to 6 years, offspring's sympathetic drive (pre-ejection period), parasympathetic drive (respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate were measured by electrocardiography and impedance cardiography at rest. Blood pressure was assessed simultaneously. After adjusting for possible maternal/offspring confounders, prepregnancy BMI was positively linearly associated with diastolic blood pressure (β=0.11 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.17), systolic blood pressure (β=0.14 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.21), but not with heart rate, sympathetic or parasympathetic drive. After adding birth weight and child BMI to the model, the independent effect size of prepregnancy body mass index on systolic blood pressure (β=0.07 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.14) and diastolic blood pressure (β=0.07 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.13) decreased by ≈50%. Birth weight did not mediate these relationships, but was independently and negatively associated with blood pressure. Child BMI was positively associated with blood pressure and partly mediated the association between prepregnancy BMI and blood pressure. In conclusion, higher prepregnancy BMI is associated with higher blood pressure in the child (aged 5-6 years) but does not seem to be attributable to early alterations in resting cardiac autonomic balance. Child BMI, but not birth weight, mediated the association between prepregnancy

  12. Synchronizing large systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.L.; Kung, H.T.

    1982-04-01

    Parallel computing structures consist of many processors operating simultaneously. If a concurrent structure is regular, as in the case of systolic array, it may be convenient to think of all processors as operating in lock step. Totally synchronized systems controlled by central clocks are difficult to implement because of the inevitable problem of clock skews and delays. An alternate means of enforcing necessary synchronization is the use of self-timed, asynchronous schemes, at the cost of increased design complexity and hardware cost. Realizing that different circumstances call for different synchronization methods, this paper provides a spectrum of synchronization models; based on the assumptions made for each model, theoretical lower bounds on clock skew are derived, and appropriate or best-possible synchronization schemes for systolic arrays are proposed. This paper represents a first step towards a systematic study of synchronization problems for large systolic arrays.

  13. Systolic and semisystolic design

    SciTech Connect

    Leiserson, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Architectural transformation techniques which can be used to help produce efficient systolic and semisystolic architectures for signal processing, image processing, numerical computation and raster graphics are identified. The transformations include: retiming, slowdown, broadcast and census elimination, coalescing, interlacing, code motion, resetting, register elimination and parallel/serial compromises. All the transformations are at the architectural or algorithmic level, as distinct from the electrical circuit level, and provide high-level tools for a designer. In addition, they provide a step toward automatic compilation of systolic and semisystolic systems. 12 references.

  14. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects and methods A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Results Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Conclusion Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation

  15. The age associations of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose: analysis of health examination surveys from international populations

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, Pamela M; Lin, John K; Cowan, Melanie J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Khang, Young-Ho; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M; Lim, Stephen S; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The age-association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be partially because its metabolic risk factors tend to rise with age. Few studies have analyzed age-associations of multiple metabolic risks in the same population, especially in nationally representative samples. We examined worldwide variations in the age associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Methods and Results We used individual records from 83 nationally or sub-nationally representative health examination surveys in 52 countries to fit a linear model to risk factor data between ages 30-64 years for SBP and FPG, and between 30-54 years for TC. We report the cross-country variation of the slope and intercept of this relationship. We also assessed non-linear associations in older ages. Between 30 and 64 years of age, SBP increased by 1.7-11.6 mmHg per ten years of age and FPG increased by 0.8-20.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different countries and in the two sexes. Between 30 and 54 years of age, TC increased by 0.2-22.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different surveys and in the two sexes. For all risk factors and in most countries, risk factor levels rose more steeply among women than among men, especially for TC. On average, there was a flattening of age-SBP relationship in older ages; TC and FPG age associations reversed in older ages, leading to lower levels in older ages than in middle ages. Conclusions The rise with age of major metabolic CVD risk factors varies substantially across populations, especially for FPG and TC. TC rises more steeply in high-income countries and FPG in the Oceania countries, the Middle East, and the US. The SBP age association had no specific income or geographical pattern. PMID:22492580

  16. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  17. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy”) has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05). Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD) method. Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. PMID:25809507

  18. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-25

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p<0.05). Subjects reported feeling significantly more "relaxed" and "natural" according to the Semantic Differential (SD) method. Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale scores for "tension-anxiety," "confusion," and "anger-hostility," as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  20. Differences in the association between high blood pressure and cognitive functioning among the general Japanese population aged 70 and 80 years: The SONIC study.

    PubMed

    Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakama, Chikako; Oguro, Ryosuke; Kabayama, Mai; Kawai, Tatsuo; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Serina; Imaizumi, Yuki; Takeya, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Takeda, Masao; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Koichi; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ikebe, Kazunori; Inagaki, Hiroki; Masui, Yukie; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takayama, Michiyo; Arai, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    High blood pressure in middle age (up to 64 years) has been proposed as a predictive indicator of dementia. However, the association between hypertension and the cognitive functioning is controversial in older age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in 70-80-year-old participants in the Japanese study of Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Participants aged 70 (±1) and 80 (±1) years (n=1000 and 973, respectively) were randomly recruited from the general population in Japan. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Blood pressure and other medical and social variables were analyzed by multiple regression analyses. High systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with a reduced cognitive functioning only in participants aged 70 years. Additionally, this correlation became more marked in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure at age 70 years. In contrast, SBP was not significantly correlated with the cognitive functioning at age 80 years. Nutritional status indicators such as serum albumin and frequency of going outdoors were significantly associated with cognitive functioning at age 80 years. Our findings indicate that high SBP has a significant role in cognitive functioning at age 70 years; however, blood pressure is less important as a risk factor for cognitive decline at age 80 years. PMID:27009579

  1. Differences in the association between high blood pressure and cognitive functioning among the general Japanese population aged 70 and 80 years: The SONIC study.

    PubMed

    Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakama, Chikako; Oguro, Ryosuke; Kabayama, Mai; Kawai, Tatsuo; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Serina; Imaizumi, Yuki; Takeya, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Takeda, Masao; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Koichi; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ikebe, Kazunori; Inagaki, Hiroki; Masui, Yukie; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takayama, Michiyo; Arai, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    High blood pressure in middle age (up to 64 years) has been proposed as a predictive indicator of dementia. However, the association between hypertension and the cognitive functioning is controversial in older age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in 70-80-year-old participants in the Japanese study of Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Participants aged 70 (±1) and 80 (±1) years (n=1000 and 973, respectively) were randomly recruited from the general population in Japan. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Blood pressure and other medical and social variables were analyzed by multiple regression analyses. High systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with a reduced cognitive functioning only in participants aged 70 years. Additionally, this correlation became more marked in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure at age 70 years. In contrast, SBP was not significantly correlated with the cognitive functioning at age 80 years. Nutritional status indicators such as serum albumin and frequency of going outdoors were significantly associated with cognitive functioning at age 80 years. Our findings indicate that high SBP has a significant role in cognitive functioning at age 70 years; however, blood pressure is less important as a risk factor for cognitive decline at age 80 years.

  2. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  3. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  4. Socioeconomic Position, But Not African Genomic Ancestry, Is Associated With Blood Pressure in the Bambui-Epigen (Brazil) Cohort Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Leite, Maria Lea Corrêa; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Gouveia, Mateus H; Leal, Thiago P; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Macinko, James; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    The study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (<4 years versus higher) showed a significant and positive association with systolic blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (blood pressure and hypertension control.

  5. Effects of age and blood pressure on the retinal arterial wall, analyzed using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Muraoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-07-20

    The wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the vasculature is a promising early marker of retinal microvascular changes. Recently, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) enabled direct and noninvasive visualization of the arterial wall. Using AOSLO, we analyzed the correlation between age and WLR in 51 normal subjects. In addition, correlations between blood pressure and WLR were analyzed in 73 subjects (51 normal subjects and 22 hypertensive patients). WLR showed a strong correlation with age (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001), while outer diameter and inner diameter did not show significant correlation with age in the normal group (r = 0.13, P = 0.36 and r = -0.12, P =  .41, respectively). In the normal and hypertensive groups, WLR showed a strong correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.65, P < 0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, AOSLO provided noninvasive and reproducible arterial measurements. WLR is an early marker of morphological changes in the retinal arteries due to age and blood pressure.

  6. The Contribution of Age and Weight to Blood Pressure Levels Among Blacks and Whites Receiving Care in Community-Based Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Kan, Athena Wing-ga; Hussain, Tanvir; Carson, Kathryn A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Albert, Michael; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether race and age, risk factors for obesity and hypertension, affect the association of obesity with elevated blood pressure (BP). Using electronic medical record data, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients seen at 6 Maryland primary care clinics from September 2011 through June 2012. The risk for higher BP among patients younger than 65 years and in an elevated weight category was greater for both races but was higher for whites than blacks. For patients aged 65 years or older, weight had little impact on systolic BP, suggesting that approaches involving weight loss to address elevated BP should focus on populations younger than 65.

  7. Systolic time intervals at rest and during exercise in sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Franculescu, V; Sallam, E B; Otoiu, M E

    1982-01-01

    The authors using non-invasive methods, have studied left ventricular performance at rest and during training of sportsmen, taking into consideration the period of activity (during resting, training and competition periods). The studied subjects belonged to three groups (football, basketball and athletics). They all had more than 5 years of performance training. The obtained values are compared with data obtained from a control group of untrained subjects in the same age group. Determination of systolic time intervals has been done using mechanophonocardiographic tracing, registered at rest and during various exercise intensities, measuring PEP, LVET and Weissler ratio. Obtained data have been correlated with oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood pressure. Systolic time intervals measured at rest have been compared with the values obtained by Weissler from untrained subjects. Regression equations are given for values obtained in exercise tests in the case of sportsmen as well as for sedentary persons. In conclusion the authors stress the importance of systolic time intervals determinations for indirect estimation of left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise tests. From the presented data results the importance of PEP and Weissler ratio, which parametres the authors recommend to be systematically determined in the case of performance sportsmen. The most significant modifications are recorded when values are compared for the same subject during all the three periods of activity.

  8. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  9. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Marco; Somigliana, Edgardo; Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  10. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Marco; Somigliana, Edgardo; Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  11. Design of robust systolic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Varman, P.J.; Fussell, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A primary reason for the susceptibility of systolic algorithms to faults is their strong dependence on the interconnection between the processors in a systolic array. A technique to transform any linear systolic algorithm into an equivalent pipelined algorithm that executes on arbitrary trees is presented. 5 references.

  12. Clock genes explain large proportion of phenotypic variance in systolic blood pressure and this control is not modified by environmental temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Diurnal variation in blood pressure (BP) is regulated, in part, by an endogenous circadian clock; however, few human studies have identified associations between clock genes and BP. Accounting for environmental temperature may be necessary to correct for seasonal bias. METHODS: We examin...

  13. Systolic processor for signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, G.A.; Greenawalt, E.M.; Kulkarni, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A systolic array is a natural architecture for a high-performance signal processor, in part because of the extensive use of inner-product operations in signal processing. The modularity and simple interconnection of systolic arrays promise to simplify the development of cost-effective, high-performance, special-purpose processors. ESL incorporated has built a proof of concept model of a systolic processor. It is flexible enough to permit experimentation with a variety of algorithms and applications. ESL is exploring the application of systolic processors to image- and signal-processing problems. This paper describes this experimental system and some of its applications to signal processing. ESL is also pursuing new types of systolic architectures, including the VLSI implementation of systolic cells for solving systems of linear equations. These new systolic architectures allow the real-time design of adaptive filters. 14 references.

  14. Effects of Aroma Massage on Home Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Women with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Myeong-Sook; Lee, Sahng; Bae, Ikyul; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Seong, Kayeon; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n = 28), the placebo group (n = 28), and the no-treatment control group (n = 27). To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group received a massage with essential oils prescribed by an aromatherapist once a week and body cream once a day. The placebo group received a massage using artificial fragrance oil once a week and body cream once a day. BP, pulse rate, sleep conditions, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were monitored before and after the experiment. There was a significant difference in home systolic blood pressure (SBP) (F = 6.71, P = 0.002) between groups after intervention. There was also a significant difference in SBP (F = 13.34, P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (F = 8.46, P = 0.005) in the laboratory between aroma massage and placebo groups. In sleep quality, there was a significant difference between groups (F = 6.75, P = 0.002). In conclusion, aroma massage may help improve patient quality of life and maintain health as a nursing intervention in daily life. PMID:23431338

  15. Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040

  16. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  17. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  18. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p < 0.05), while high consumption of vegetables was associated with higher 1-hour glucose challenge test (p < 0.05).No other significant associations were found. In conclusion, consumption of high dense energy food diets in pregnancy, such as rice, sweets and desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  19. Systolic systems: algorithms and complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis has two main contributions. The first is the design of efficient systolic algorithms for solving recurrence equations, dynamic programming problems, scheduling problems, as well as new systolic implementation of data structures such as stacks, queues, priority queues, and dictionary machines. The second major contribution is the investigation of the computational power of systolic arrays in comparison to sequential models and other models of parallel computation.

  20. What is a Systolic Algorithm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sailesh K.; Kollath, T.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper, we show that every systolic array executes a Regular Iterative Algorithm with a strongly separating hyperplane and conversely, that every such algorithm can be implemented on a systolic array. This characterization provides us with an unified framework for describing the contributions of other authors. It also exposes the relevance of many fundamental concepts that were introduced in the sixties by Hennie, Waite and Karp, Miller and Winograd, to the present day concern of systolic array

  1. Effects of age, ethnicity and menopause on ambulatory blood pressure: Japanese-American and Caucasian school teachers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Brown, D E; Sievert, L L; Aki, S L; Mills, P S; Etrata, M B; Paopao, R N; James, G D

    2001-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements of 120 female teachers of Japanese-American or Caucasian ethnicity working in public schools located in Hilo, Hawaii, were recorded. BP was measured at 15-min intervals during waking hours and 30-min intervals during sleep over a 24-hr period that included a full work day. These measurements were averaged during three daily settings: at work, at home while awake ("home"), and during sleep. ANCOVAs using ethnicity as a predictor variable of BP, with age and the body mass index (BMI) as covariates, show a significant interaction effect between age and ethnicity in some daily settings. Among Japanese-Americans partial correlations between age and systolic BP controlling for the BMI are significant in these settings, while among Caucasians none of the correlations are significant. Menopausal status is not significantly related to BP when age is controlled in analyses. There was no significant ethnic difference in number of symptoms reported, including frequency of "hot flushes/flashes," within the past two weeks. Those who reported hot flushes had significantly elevated BP in waking settings but not during sleep. The greater increase in BP with age in Japanese-Americans may be related to their elevated risk for development of hypertension. The lack of a significant relationship between menopausal status and BP may be due to the high rate of usage of hormonal replacement therapy in this sample, as well as an unusually high rate of hysterectomy. PMID:11400219

  2. Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-03-01

    As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP.

  3. Relation of Left Ventricular Mass at Age 23 to 35 years to Global Left Ventricular Systolic Function 20 Years Later (From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Satoru; Armstrong, Anderson C.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Jacobs, David R.; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Lima, João A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and LV ejection fraction (EF) are major independent predictors of future cardiovascular disease. The association of LV mass with future LVEF in younger populations has not been studied. We investigated the relation of LV mass index (LVMI) at age 23 to 35 years to LV function after 20 years of follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. CARDIA is a longitudinal study that enrolled young adults in 1985–1986. We included participants with echocardiographic examinations at both years-5 and -25. LVMI and LVEF were assessed using M-mode echocardiography at year-5 and using both M-mode and 2-dimensional images at year-25. Statistical analytic models assessed the correlation between LVMI and LV functional parameters both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. A total of 2,339 participants were included. The mean LVEF at year-25 was 62%. Although there was no cross-sectional correlation between LVMI and LVEF at year-5, there was a small, but statistically significant negative correlation between LVMI at year-5 and LVEF 20 years later (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001); this inverse association persisted for LVMI in the multivariable model. High LVMI was an independent predictor of systolic dysfunction (LVEF < 50%) 20 years later (odds ratio 1.46, p = 0.0018). In conclusion, we have shown that LVMI in young adulthood in association with chronic risk exposure impacts systolic function in middle age; the antecedents of heart failure may occur at younger ages than previously thought. PMID:24176073

  4. Bit-level systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation the author considered the design of bit - level systolic arrays where the basic computational unit consists of a simple one - bit logic unit, so that the systolic process is carried out at the level of individual bits. In order to pursue the foregoing research, several areas have been studied. First, the concept of systolic processing has been investigated. Several important algorithms were investigated and put into systolic form using graph-theoretic methods. The bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays which have been designed for these algorithms exhibit linear speedup with respect to the number of processors and exhibit efficiency close to 100%, even with low interprocessor communication bandwidth. Block-level systolic arrays deal with blocks of data with block-level operations and communications. Block-level systolic arrays improve cell efficiency and are more efficient than their word-level counterparts. A comparison of bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays was performed. In order to verify the foregoing theory and analysis a systolic processor called the SPRINT was developed to provide and environment where bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic algorithms could be confirmed by direct implementation rather than by computer simulation. The SPRINT is a supercomputer class, 64-element multiprocessor with a reconfigurable interconnection network. The theory has been confirmed by the execution on the SPRINT of the bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic algorithms presented in the dissertation.

  5. A systolic array parallelizing compiler

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a completely new approach to the problem of systolic array parallelizing compiler. It describes the AL parallelizing compiler for the Warp systolic array, the first working systolic array parallelizing compiler which can generate efficient parallel code for complete LINPACK routines. This book begins by analyzing the architectural strength of the Warp systolic array. It proposes a model for mapping programs onto the machine and introduces the notion of data relations for optimizing the program mapping. Also presented are successful applications of the AL compiler in matrix computation and image processing. A complete listing of the source program and compiler-generated parallel code are given to clarify the overall picture of the compiler. The book concludes that systolic array parallelizing compiler can produce efficient parallel code, almost identical to what the user would have written by hand.

  6. A systolic radiation monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Shpancer, I.; Kinsner, W.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes a data acquisition system for radiation monitoring which significantly improves performance over conventional systems by providing higher throughput, elimination of data skew, easier and inexpensive isolation, improved system accuracy, and compact implementation. The novel systolic data acquisition system, including systolic converter, processor and networking was developed to alleviate drawbacks of various conventional data acquisition systems used in radiation monitoring. The system is based on a systolic conversion, processing and networking method amenable to highly integrated vector architecture. The method employs systolic rules which can be developed for a selected problem. The rules for the radiation monitoring problem have been developed so as to apply not only locally but also globally to the systolic network. A form of the network has been implemented and is operational in a nuclear reactor site. Other forms are being implemented and tested for other data skew sensitive problems.

  7. Does white coat hypertension require treatment over age 80?: Results of the hypertension in the very elderly trial ambulatory blood pressure side project.

    PubMed

    Bulpitt, Christopher J; Beckett, Nigel; Peters, Ruth; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang; Comsa, Marius; Fagard, Robert H; Dumitrascu, Dan; Gergova, Vesselka; Antikainen, Riitta L; Cheek, Elizabeth; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    White coat hypertension is considered to be a benign condition that does not require antihypertensive treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured in 284 participants in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET), a double-blind randomized trial of indapamide sustained release 1.5 mg±perindopril 2 to 4 mg versus matching placebo in hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure 160-199 mm Hg) aged >80 years. ABP recordings (Diasys Integra II) were obtained in 112 participants at baseline and 186 after an average follow-up of 13 months. At baseline, clinic blood pressure (CBP) exceeded the morning ABP by 32/10 mm Hg. Fifty percent of participants fulfilled the established criteria for white coat hypertension. The highest ABP readings were in the morning (average 140/80 mm Hg), the average night-time pressure was low at 124/72 mm Hg, and the average 24-hour blood pressure was 133/77 mm Hg. During follow-up, the systolic/diastolic blood pressure placebo-active differences averaged 6/5 mm Hg for morning ABP, 8/5 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, and 13/5 mm Hg for CBP. The lowering of blood pressure over 24 hours supports the reduction in blood pressure with indapamide sustained release±perindopril as the explanation for the reduction in total mortality and cardiovascular events observed in the main HYVET study. Because we estimate that 50% had white coat hypertension in the main study, this condition may benefit from treatment in the very elderly.

  8. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  9. Use of systolic time intervals in studying hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, R C; Ibrahim, M M; Dustan, H P; Bravo, E L

    1976-01-01

    Systolic time intervals were measured in 54 hypertensive patients divided into three groups according to severity of hypertension, variability of blood pressure levels and presence or absence of a hyperkinetic heart. The three groups were: borderline hypertension (BLH), fixed essential hypertension (FEH) and hyperkinetic essential hypertension (HEH). Systolic time intervals (STI) provided information indicating an increased cardioadrenergic drive in BLH and HEH. This was supported by finding that propranolol abolished the increased contractility found at rest in BLH and HEH.

  10. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    PubMed

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg for patients with CVD, chronic kidney disease, or 10-year CVD risk ≥15%. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained were considered cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled.

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  12. Systolic architecture for heirarchical clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several hierarchical clustering methods (including single-linkage complete-linkage, centroid, and absolute overlap methods) are reviewed. The absolute overlap clustering method is selected for the design of systolic architecture mainly due to its simplicity. Two versions of systolic architectures for the absolute overlap hierarchical clustering algorithm are proposed: one-dimensional version that leads to the development of a two dimensional version which fully takes advantage of the underlying data structure of the problems. The two dimensional systolic architecture can achieve a time complexity of O(m + n) in comparison with the conventional computer implementation of a time complexity of O(m/sup 2*/n).

  13. Nonlinear blood pressure effects on cognition in old age: separating between-person and within-person associations.

    PubMed

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Ostling, Svante; Sacuiu, Simona; Johansson, Boo

    2012-06-01

    Midlife hypertension is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in later life. The association between blood pressure (BP) in older ages and cognition is less clear. In this study we provide estimates of between-person and within-person associations of BP and cognition in a population-based sample (N = 382) followed from age 70 across 12 occasions over 30 years. Between-person associations refer to how individual differences in BP relates to individual differences in cognition. Within-person associations refer to how individual and time specific changes in BP relate to variation in cognition. Hierarchical linear models were fitted to data from three cognitive measurements (verbal ability, spatial ability, and perceptual speed) while accounting for demographic and health-related covariates. We found consistent nonlinear between-person associations between diastolic BP (DBP) and cognition, such that both low (<75 mmHg) and high (>95 mmHg) pressure were associated with poorer cognition. Within-person decreases in systolic BP (SBP) and DBP were associated with decreases in perceptual speed. Notably, between-person and within-person estimates did not reveal similar associations, suggesting the need to separate the two effects in the analysis of associations between BP and cognition in old age.

  14. Systolic algorithms and their implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Very high performance computer systems must rely heavily on parallelism since there are severe physical and technological limits on the ultimate speed of any single processor. The systolic array concept developed in the last several years allows effective use of a very large number of processors in parallel. This article illustrates the basic ideas by reviewing a systolic array design for matrix triangularization and describing its use in the on-the-fly updating of Cholesky decomposition of covariance matrices-a crucial computation in adaptive signal processing. Following this are discussions on issues related to the hardware implementation of systolic algorithms in general, and some guidelines for designing systolic algorithms that will be convenient for implementation. 33 references.

  15. Broadcast normalization in systolic design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.C. ); Wu, I.C. )

    1988-11-01

    When a sequential algorithm is directly mapped into an array of processing elements, quite likely data broadcasts are required and their source places vary during the computation. The authors introduce a normalization method to fix the positions of the broadcast sources so that the derived design can be further transformed by retimings into a systolic array. The authors' method is fully illustrated in designing systolic arrays for enumeration sort, solving simultaneous linear equations, and computing transitive closure.

  16. Dynamically Reconfigurable Systolic Array Accelorators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasu, Aravind (Inventor); Barnes, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphic systolic array framework that works in conjunction with an embedded microprocessor on an FPGA, that allows for dynamic and complimentary scaling of acceleration levels of two algorithms active concurrently on the FPGA. Use is made of systolic arrays and hardware-software co-design to obtain an efficient multi-application acceleration system. The flexible and simple framework allows hosting of a broader range of algorithms and extendable to more complex applications in the area of aerospace embedded systems.

  17. Cyclooxygenase inhibition augments central blood pressure and aortic wave reflection in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Casey, Darren P; Hines, Casey N; Nicholson, Wayne T; Joyner, Michael J

    2012-06-15

    The augmentation index and central blood pressure increase with normal aging. Recently, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly used for the treatment of pain, have been associated with transient increases in the risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of the COX inhibitor indomethacin (Indo) on central arterial hemodynamics and wave reflection characteristics in young and old healthy adults. High-fidelity radial arterial pressure waveforms were measured noninvasively by applanation tonometry before (control) and after Indo treatment in young (25 ± 5 yr, 7 men and 6 women) and old (64 ± 6 yr, 5 men and 6 women) subjects. Aortic systolic (control: 115 ± 3 mmHg vs. Indo: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and diastolic (control: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 79 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) pressures were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects, whereas only diastolic pressure was elevated in young subjects (control: 71 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 76 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure increased in both young and old adults after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). The aortic augmentation index and augmented pressure were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects (control: 30 ± 5% vs. Indo 36 ± 6% and control 12 ± 1 mmHg vs. Indo: 18 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas pulse pressure amplification decreased (change: 8 ± 3%, P < 0.05). In addition, older subjects had a 61 ± 11% increase in wasted left ventricular energy after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, young subjects showed no significant changes in any of the variables of interest. Taken together, these results demonstrate that COX inhibition with Indo unfavorably increases central wave reflection and augments aortic pressure in old but not young subjects. Our results suggest that aging individuals have a limited ability to compensate for the acute hemodynamic changes caused by systemic COX inhibition.

  18. Pragmatic Method Using Blood Pressure Diaries to Assess Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, James E.; Blizzard, Leigh; Kosmala, Wojciech; Nelson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Twenty-four–hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the reference standard of blood pressure control. Home blood pressure (HBP) is superior to clinic blood pressure for assessing control, but a barrier to its use is the need for physicians to calculate average blood pressure from patient diaries. We sought to develop a quick and pragmatic method to assess blood pressure control from patients’ HBP diaries. METHODS Seven-day HBP and 24-hour ABP were measured in 286 patients with uncomplicated treated hypertension (aged 64 ± 8 years; 53% female). We determined the optimal ratio of home systolic blood pressure readings above threshold (≥135 mm Hg) for the last 10 recorded that would best predict elevated 24-hour ABP. Uncontrolled blood pressure was defined as 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or 24-hour ABP daytime systolic blood pressure ≥135 mm Hg. Validation by corroborative evidence was tested by association with markers of end-organ disease. RESULTS The best predictor of 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure above treatment/target threshold was having 3 or more (≥30%) of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure readings ≥135 mm Hg (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.71). Importantly, patients meeting this criterion had evidence of target organ disease, with significantly higher aortic stiffness, left ventricular relative wall thickness, and left atrial area, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction, compared with those who did not meet this criterion. CONCLUSIONS To facilitate uptake of HBP monitoring, we propose that physicians can determine the percentage of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure values ≥135 mm Hg for a patient and tailor management accordingly. PMID:26755785

  19. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R

    2015-12-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging ("epigenetic clock") to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1 x 10(-3)). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0 x 10(-9) in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4 x 10(-6) in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6 x 10(-5) in Caucasians, p=4.5 x 10(-5) in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  20. Dynamically Reconfigurable Systolic Array Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasu, Aravind; Barnes, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A polymorphic systolic array framework has been developed that works in conjunction with an embedded microprocessor on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which allows for dynamic and complimentary scaling of acceleration levels of two algorithms active concurrently on the FPGA. Use is made of systolic arrays and a hardware-software co-design to obtain an efficient multi-application acceleration system. The flexible and simple framework allows hosting of a broader range of algorithms, and is extendable to more complex applications in the area of aerospace embedded systems. FPGA chips can be responsive to realtime demands for changing applications needs, but only if the electronic fabric can respond fast enough. This systolic array framework allows for rapid partial and dynamic reconfiguration of the chip in response to the real-time needs of scalability, and adaptability of executables.

  1. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... over include high blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity, and smoking. Eat a heart-healthy diet with ... aorta. Get more exercise: Exercise may help prevent obesity, and it helps people with diabetes control their ...

  2. The relationship of age, body mass index and waist circumference with blood pressure in Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arnab; Roy, Sabyasachi; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to study the relationship of age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure. The mean age and the BMI of the subjects were 40.7 years (S.D. = 15.2) and 23.2 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.2), respectively. The mean SBP, DBP and MAP were 124.7 mmHg (S.D. = 7.8), 81.5 mmHg (S.D. = 5.7) and 95.9 mmHg (S.D. = 6.1), respectively. Age had similar significant (p < 0.001) correlations with BMI and WC. Age and WC were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with all the three blood pressure variables. In general, the correlations of BMI with SBP (r = 0.24, p < 0.01), DBP (r = 0.15, n.s.) and MAP (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) were weaker. Age controlled multiple regression analyses demonstrated that BMI did not have a significant effect of any blood pressure variable. However, WC had a significant impact (p < 0.0001) on SBP (t = 7.068), DBP (t = 5.190) and MAP (t = 6.387), even after adjusting for the effect of age. Moreover, even after age adjustment, percent variations in SBP (20.7%), DBP (12.5%) and MAP (17.2%) explained by WC were high. This significant impact (p < 0.0001) of WC on SBP (t = 9.426), DBP (t = 8.349) and MAP (t = 9.642) remained even after controlling for the combined effects of age and BMI.

  3. Blood invasiveness of Salmonella enterica as a function of age and serotype.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, M.; Andorn, N.; Agmon, V.; Cohen, D.; Shohat, T.; Pitlik, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    We explored the dual influence of the patient's age and the infecting serotype on the blood invasiveness patterns of non-Typhi Salmonella enterica (NTS). Blood invasiveness ratio (BIR) was calculated as the ratio between the number of blood and blood + stool isolates. Analysis of 14,951 NTS isolates showed that the BIR increased drastically above the age of 60 years, reaching levels 3.5-7 times higher compared to age group < 2 years. Different patterns of age-related invasiveness were observed for the five most common NTS serotypes (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Hadar, Infantis). Among children < 2 years, the BIR was highest for serotype Virchow and lowest for serotype Hadar, while in persons > or = 60 years it was highest for serotypes Enteritidis and lowest for serotype Infantis. The tendency of NTS serotypes to invade the bloodstream was significantly influenced by the patient's age, however the impact of age differed for various NTS serotypes. PMID:15635958

  4. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly.

  5. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Jennifer J; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E; Christou, Demetra D; Hill, Michael A; Jaffe, Iris Z

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. PMID:27683672

  6. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. PMID:27683672

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension increases with age, due to progressive elevation of SBP, and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Extensive research has shown that lowering SBP improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, yet SBP control rates remain largely inadequate regardless of antihypertensive treatment. Arterial stiffness is a major determinant of elevated SBP resulting from structural changes in the vascular system, mediated by neurohormonal alterations that occur with vascular ageing. Clinical data have demonstrated an independent association between arterial stiffness and cardiovascular outcomes. Therefore, arterial stiffness has the potential to be an important therapeutic target in the management of isolated systolic hypertension. Current antihypertensive treatments have limited effects on arterial stiffness, so the development of new treatments addressing neurohormonal alterations central to vascular ageing is important. Such therapies may represent effective strategies in the future management of SBP.

  8. The Age-Dependent Relationship between Blood Pressure and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Area of Xi'an, China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Suhang; Li, Pei; Deng, Meiying; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Chen; Qu, Qiumin

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, although the relationship between hypertension and cognitive impairment is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive impairment. Methods Blood pressure and global cognitive function information was collected from 1799 participants (age 40–85) who lived in a village in the suburbs of Xi'an, China, during in-person interviews. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score lower than the cutoff value. The effect of age on the relationship between blood pressure parameters [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and high blood pressure (HBP, SBP≥140 mm Hg and/or DBP≥90 mm Hg)] and cognitive impairment was analyzed by logistic regression models using interaction and stratified analysis. Blood pressure and age were regarded as both continuous and categorical data. Results A total of 231 participants were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment based on our criteria. Interaction analysis for the total population showed that SBP (when regarded as continuous data) was positively correlated with cognitive impairment (OR = 1.130 [95% CI, 1.028–1.242] per 10mmHg, P = 0.011); however, the age by SBP interaction term was negatively correlated with cognitive impairment (OR = 0.989 [95% CI, 0.982–0.997] per 10mmHg×year, P = 0.006), indicating that the relationship between SBP and cognitive impairment was age-dependent (OR = 1.130×0.989(age-55.5) per 10mmHg,40 ≤age≤85). When the blood pressure and age were considered as binary data, the results were similar to those obtained when they were considered as continuous variables. Stratified multivariate analysis revealed that the relationship between SBP (when regarded as continuous data) and cognitive impairment was positive for patients aged 40

  9. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  10. Effects of celecoxib and rofecoxib on blood pressure and edema in patients > or =65 years of age with systemic hypertension and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Andrew; White, William B; Bello, Alfonso E; Puma, Joseph A; Fort, John G

    2002-11-01

    Concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) specific inhibitors, with antihypertensive medication is common practice for many patients with arthritis. This study evaluated the effects of celecoxib 200 mg/day and rofecoxib 25 mg/day on blood pressure (BP) and edema in a 6-week, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind study in patients > or =65 years of age with osteoarthritis who were treated with fixed antihypertensive regimens. One thousand ninety-two patients received study medication (celecoxib, n = 549; rofecoxib, n = 543). Significantly more patients in the rofecoxib group compared with the celecoxib group developed increased systolic BP (change >20 mm Hg plus absolute value > or =140 mm Hg) at any time point (14.9% vs 6.9%, p <0.01). Rofecoxib caused the greatest increase in systolic BP in patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or beta blockers, whereas those on calcium channel antagonists or diuretic monotherapy receiving either celecoxib or rofecoxib showed no significant increases in BP. Clinically significant new-onset or worsening edema associated with weight gain developed in a greater percentage of patients in the rofecoxib group (7.7%) compared with the celecoxib group (4.7%) (p <0.05). Thus, in patients with controlled hypertension on a fixed antihypertensive regimen, careful monitoring of BP is warranted after the initiation of celecoxib or rofecoxib therapy.

  11. SEM analysis of red blood cells in aged human bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Hortolà, P

    1992-08-01

    Mammal red blood cells (RBC) in bloodstains have been previously detected by light microscopy on stone tools from as early as 100,000 +/- 25,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the degree of morphological preservation of erythrocytes in bloodstains, an accidental human blood smear on white chert and several experimental bloodstains on hard substrates (the same stone-white chert; another type of stone-graywacke; a non-stone support-stainless steel), were stored in a room, in non-sterile and fluctuating conditions, for lengths of time ranging from 3 to 18 months. Afterwards, the specimens were coated with gold and examined by a Cambridge Stereoscan 120 scanning electron microscope. Results revealed a high preservation of RBC integrity, with the maintenance of several discocytary shapes, a low tendency to echinocytosis and a frequent appearance of a moon-like erythrocytary shape in the thinner areas of the bloodstains. PMID:1398371

  12. Changes in hyperfrontality of cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity with age

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Y.; Hartmann, A. )

    1989-12-01

    We evaluated the topographic distributions of regional cerebral blood flow in 51 normal subjects (mean age 41 years) by the xenon-133 inhalation technique. Forty-five of these subjects were divided by age into young normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years), middle-aged normals 30-50 years old (mean age 40 years), and elderly normals greater than 50 years old (mean age 62 years); there were 15 subjects in each group. The distributions of vascular CO2 reactivity to hypocapnia were also evaluated in 20 of the normal subjects (mean age 34 years), including 11 younger normals less than 30 years old (mean age 24 years) and nine older (middle-aged or elderly) normals greater than or equal to 30 years old (mean age 45 years). The hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow observed in the young and middle-aged normals was not observed in the elderly normals. The hyperfrontal distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was absent in the older normals. In addition, the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and vascular CO2 reactivity observed in the younger normals was disturbed in the older normals. The data show a hyperfrontal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow in normal subjects that diminishes during the fifth and sixth decades, along with a distribution of vascular CO2 reactivity in younger normal subjects that is not homogeneous throughout the frontoparietal regions.

  13. Changes in En(a-) human red blood cell membranes during in vivo ageing.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, T; Miyata, Y; Takei, S; Yoshida, R; Ogamo, A; Nakagawa, Y; Kuroda, N; Yanagida, J

    1996-01-01

    The human red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) were characterized by the lack of MN antigens. The red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) which were found in a Japanese family were tested to clarify the changes in membrane surfaces of the red blood cells during in vivo ageing. The contents of sialic acid, glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine of the red blood cell membranes obtained from the old red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) were significantly lower than those of the young red blood cell membranes. Neither the young nor the old red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) showed the agglutination with Arachis hypogaea (PNA) which was capable of binding to T agglutinogen. It is presumed that En(a-) red blood cells are not exposed to sialidase in vivo. In comparison with the young En(a-) red blood cell membranes, the number and the distribution density of lectin receptor sites on the old ones for Limulus polyphemus (LPA), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA) were significantly lower. It is thought that En(a-) red blood cell ageing is accompanied by elimination of some sialoglycoconjugates which have affinity for LPA, Con A, WGA and BPA, whereas En(a-) red blood cells lack glycophorin A. PMID:8866734

  14. Design of optimal systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.J.; Wah, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional design of systolic arrays is based on the mapping of an algorithm onto an interconnection of processing elements in a VLSI chip. This mapping is done in an ad hoc manner, and the resulting configuration usually represents a feasible but suboptimal design. In this paper, systolic arrays are characterized by three classes of parameters: the velocities of data flows, the spatial distributions of data, and the periods of computation. By relating these parameters in constraint equations that govern the correctness of the design, the design is formulated into an optimization problem. The size of the search space is a polynomial of the problem size, and a methodology to systematically search and reduce this space and to obtain the optimal design is proposed. Some examples of applying the method, including matrix multiplication, finite impulse response filtering, deconvolution, and triangular-matrix inversion, are given. 30 references.

  15. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  16. Intrinsic Frequency Method for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Rinderknecht, Derek; Tavallali, Peyman; Petrasek, Danny; Matthews, Ray; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    We have recently developed a new mathematical method, intrinsic frequency (IF) method, that views the left ventricle-arterial system as a coupled dynamic pumping system which is decoupled upon the closure of the aortic valve. Utilizing this method, given an arterial blood pressure waveform we are able to extract two intrinsic frequencies (ω1 and ω2) correlating to systole when the left ventricle (LV) and aorta (vasculature) act as a coupled dynamic pumping system and diastole where the dynamics of the LV is removed. Each of these dynamical pumping states has an inherent frequency of operation (ω1 and ω2) which gives information about LV systolic function (ω1) as well as arterial dynamics (ω2) . IF methodology extracts ω1 and ω2 from the pressure wave. This method was applied to invasive aortic pressure waveforms and noninvasively measured carotid pressure waveforms. Our results shows that ω1 is elevated in patients with LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD). However, ω1 remains relatively constant under healthy conditions as age advances. Our results indicate that IF methodology can be used to detect LVSD from a single pressure waveform. One unique advantage of the IF method is only the shape of the waveform is required. Therefore, ω1 can be easily derived from noninvasive measurements and monitored continuously.

  17. Effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ruixing; Li, Hui; Wu, Jinzhen; Lin, Weixiong; Yang, Dezhai; Pan, Shangling; Huang, Jiandong; Long, Xiuyan

    2007-12-01

    Han is the largest group and Zhuang is the largest minority among the 56 ethnic groups in China. Geographically and linguistically, Zhuang can be classified into 43 ethnic subgroups, in which Hei Yi Zhuang is proved to be the most conservative subgroup. Little is known about the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure levels in this population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure levels for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. A total of 657 subjects of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and older were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. Information on demography, diet, and other lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. Anthropometric parameters and serum lipid levels were also obtained in all subjects. The results were compared with those in 520 participants of Han Chinese from the same region. The levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher than those in Han (P < .01-.001). Hypertension was positively correlated with sex (male), age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, serum triglyceride levels, and total energy, total fat, and salt intakes, and negatively associated with educational level in Hei Yi Zhuang (P < .05-.001), whereas positively correlated with sex (male), age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol levels, and total energy, total fat, and salt intakes, and negatively associated with educational level in Han (P < .05-.001). The difference in blood pressure levels between the two ethnic groups might result from different dietary habit, lifestyle, sodium intake, educational level, physical activity, and even genetic factors.

  18. Age-related changes in pial arterial structure and blood flow in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Min; Sohn, Inkyung; Jung, Junyang; Jeong, Joo-Won; Park, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cerebral blood flow decreases are thought to deteriorate cognition and cause senescence, although the related mechanism is unclear. To investigate the relationships between aging and changes in cerebral blood flow and vasculature, we obtained fluorescence images of young (2-month-old) and old (12-month-old) mice using indocyanine green (ICG). First, we found that the blood flow in old mice's brains is lower than that in young mice and that old mice had more curved pial arteries and fewer pial artery junctions than young mice. Second, using Western blotting, we determined that the ratio of collagen to elastin (related to cerebral vascular wall distensibility) increased with age. Finally, we found that the peak ICG intensity and blood flow index decreased, whereas the mean transit time increased, with age in the middle cerebral artery and superior sagittal sinus. Age-related changes in pial arterial structure and composition, concurrent with the observed changes in the blood flow parameters, suggest that age-related changes in the cerebral vasculature structure and distensibility may induce altered brain blood flow.

  19. Systolic and diastolic recovery following the Harvard Step Test in adult Asian Indian men.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Pan, Rapti

    2007-12-01

    The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the 100 adult (> or = 18 years), apparently healthy Asian Indian men to study post exercise systolic and diastolic recovery and effect of age, body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, respiratory rate (RR) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) on these recoveries. Post exercise blood pressures were taken following the Harvard Step Test (HST) at one, three and five minutes post exercise period. Systolic (SRR) and diastolic recovery ratio (DRR) was computed accordingly. Physical fitness index (PFI), RR and PEFR were also considered in the study. The PFI as determined by the HST predict physical abilities of individuals and an average PFI of 62.0 (SD = 10.6) was recoded in the study. Post exercise blood pressures were 143.6/86.9 (after one minute) and 127.7/79.0 (after five minute). Multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI, PFI, age, RR and PEFR cumulatively explained more than 36% (R2 = 0.362) and 31% (R2 = 0.307) total variations of SRR and DRR, respectively.

  20. ME 04-1 ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE FOR CLINICAL APPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trefor

    2016-09-01

    Central Systolic Blood Pressure is lower than brachial artery blood Pressure due to reflected waves and greater augmentation at the periphery. The relationship is not consistent during life and alters with aging of the blood vessels. Increasing stiffness means that a greater component of the reflected waves returns to the central aorta during systolic contraction causing more amplification and a higher systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure on the other hand is always higher in the aorta than at the periphery allowing blood flow. The heart contracts against the central aortic pressure and it is likely that cardiac hypertrophy iis dependent on this value. Likewise damage to the larger blood vessels are more likely to be related to central rather than brachial pressure and this may reflect a greater association with stroke.Central aortic pressure may be measured directly but not practicable in large groups of patients or indirect using tonometry and transformation equations. While the correlation is not ideal there is significant correlation. Central aortic systolic blood pressure is associated with mortality, stokes, heart attacks and cardiac hypertrophy with a higher p value than brachial artery blood pressure. The question is whether it is an independent predictor of these events and whether measurement is justifiable in clinical practice. There is a strong correlation between aortic and brachial systolic blood pressure reducing the ability of the central BP to be independent. In addition the question arises does the measurement of central systolic BP provide extra information above pulse wave velocity?Measuring central systolic blood pressure has allowed an exploration of the effects of different drug classes on central systolic blood pressure. Thus beta blockers increase the amplification index meaning that the fall in central systolic blood pressure is not as great as the fall in brachial artery systolic BP. This may explain in part why beta blockers

  1. ME 04-1 ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE FOR CLINICAL APPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trefor

    2016-09-01

    Central Systolic Blood Pressure is lower than brachial artery blood Pressure due to reflected waves and greater augmentation at the periphery. The relationship is not consistent during life and alters with aging of the blood vessels. Increasing stiffness means that a greater component of the reflected waves returns to the central aorta during systolic contraction causing more amplification and a higher systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure on the other hand is always higher in the aorta than at the periphery allowing blood flow. The heart contracts against the central aortic pressure and it is likely that cardiac hypertrophy iis dependent on this value. Likewise damage to the larger blood vessels are more likely to be related to central rather than brachial pressure and this may reflect a greater association with stroke.Central aortic pressure may be measured directly but not practicable in large groups of patients or indirect using tonometry and transformation equations. While the correlation is not ideal there is significant correlation. Central aortic systolic blood pressure is associated with mortality, stokes, heart attacks and cardiac hypertrophy with a higher p value than brachial artery blood pressure. The question is whether it is an independent predictor of these events and whether measurement is justifiable in clinical practice. There is a strong correlation between aortic and brachial systolic blood pressure reducing the ability of the central BP to be independent. In addition the question arises does the measurement of central systolic BP provide extra information above pulse wave velocity?Measuring central systolic blood pressure has allowed an exploration of the effects of different drug classes on central systolic blood pressure. Thus beta blockers increase the amplification index meaning that the fall in central systolic blood pressure is not as great as the fall in brachial artery systolic BP. This may explain in part why beta blockers

  2. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. ...

  3. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  4. 24-h blood pressure monitoring in normal tension glaucoma: night-time blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Plange, N; Kaup, M; Daneljan, L; Predel, H G; Remky, A; Arend, O

    2006-02-01

    Systemic arterial hypotension, hypertension and altered ocular blood flow are known risk factors in glaucoma. In this study, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and controls to evaluate blood pressure variability. In all, 51 patients with NTG and 28 age-matched controls were included in this prospective study. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs Medical Inc., Redmond, USA) was performed and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were measured every 30 min during daytime (0800-2000) and night time (0000-0600). To evaluate blood pressure variability a variability index was defined as the s.d. of blood pressure measurements. Night-time blood pressure depression ('dip') was calculated (in percent of the daytime blood pressures). Patients with NTG exhibited higher night-time diastolic (P = 0.01) and mean arterial blood pressure values (P = 0.02) compared to controls, whereas systolic blood pressure data were not significantly different. The variability indices of night-time systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure measurements were significantly increased in patients with NTG compared to controls (P < 0.05). The night-time blood pressure depression of systolic (P = 0.47), diastolic (P = 0.11) and mean arterial blood pressures (P = 0.28) was not significantly different between patients with NTG and controls. In conclusion, patients with NTG showed increased variability of night-time blood pressure measurements compared to controls. Increased fluctuation of blood pressure may lead to ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation and may cause ischaemic episodes at the optic nerve head. PMID:16239898

  5. Relationship of Blood Pressure With Mortality and Cardiovascular Events Among Hypertensive Patients aged ≥ 60 years in Rural Areas of China: A Strobe-Compliant Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Jue; Sun, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Xingang; Hu, Dayi; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-09-01

    The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC-8) panel recently recommended a systolic blood pressure (BP) threshold of ≥ 150 mmHg for the initiation of drug therapy and a therapeutic target of <150/90 mmHg in patients ≥ 60 years of age. However, results from some post-hoc analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies did not support these recommendations. In the prospective cohort study, 5006 eligible hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years from rural areas of China were enrolled for the present analysis. The association between the average follow-up BP and outcomes (all-cause and cardiovascular death, incident coronary heart disease [CHD], and stroke), followed by a median of 4.8 years, were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for other potential confounders. The relationship between BP (systolic or diastolic) showed an increased or J-shaped curve association with adverse outcomes. Compared with the reference group of BP <140/90 mmHg, the risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.698; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.989-3.659), cardiovascular death (HR: 2.702; 95% CI: 1.855-3.935), incident CHD (HR: 3.263; 95% CI: 2.063-5.161), and stroke (HR: 2.334; 95% CI: 1.559-3.945) was still significantly increased in the group with BP of 140-149/<90 mmHg. Older hypertensive patients with BP of 140-149/<90 mmHg were at higher risk of developing adverse outcomes, implying that lenient BP control of 140-149/<90 mmHg, based on the JNC-8 guidelines, may not be appropriate for hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years in rural areas of China. PMID:26426621

  6. Analysis of systolic and systolic-type arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jover, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Synchronous, multiprocessor systems interconnected by fixed links are studied. These special-purpose systems, called systolic-type arrays, perform specific algorithms at a higher throughput rate than the sequential architecture of van Neumann. The main contributions of this thesis are the analysis of systolic-type arrays, and the design of one such complex system. In the analysis problem the topology of the network, the function performed by each processor (including timing information), and the input data streams are given. I/O algorithm performed by the array, and the iteration interval (i.e., the time between two consecutive input samples) are to be determined. Solution to the analysis problem turns out to be based on the simple, at least in retrospect, observation that analysis is the reverse of synthesis (design). In design, the start is with a mathematical algorithm and a representation of it as a signal flow graph (SFG) in which the computations (function evaluations) are presented by delay-free (instantaneous) blocks and the index shifts in the sequences processed by the algorithm are all lumped into so-called z/sup -1/ blocks. In the analysis problem, start is also with a physical implementation described by its computational blocks, their associated processing times, and their interconnections. Also presented is parallel architecture for the measurement update step of the Kalman filter, which estimates a vector parameter.

  7. Gene-Age Interactions in Blood Pressure Regulation: A Large-Scale Investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Simino, Jeannette; Shi, Gang; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ehret, Georg B.; Gu, Xiangjun; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sijbrands, Eric; Smith, Albert V.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; Chen, Peng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Corre, Tanguy; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Goel, Anuj; Johnson, Toby; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Navis, Gerjan; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G.M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Snieder, Harold; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Luan, Jian’an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nolte, Ilja M.; Sim, Xueling; Sõber, Siim; van der Most, Peter J.; Verweij, Niek; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bouchard, Claude; Dehghan, Abbas; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elosua, Roberto; Franco, Oscar H.; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Hercberg, Serge; Hofman, Albert; James, Alan L.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Kähönen, Mika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kutalik, Zoltan; Larson, Martin G.; Launer, Lenore J.; Li, Guo; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Navis, Gerjan; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Papanicolau, George J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rice, Kenneth; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A.; Siscovick, David S.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Watkins, Hugh; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Bochud, Murielle; Farrall, Martin; Hartman, Catharina A.; Laan, Maris; Lakatta, Edward G.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Lucas, Gavin; Meneton, Pierre; Palmer, Lyle J.; Rettig, Rainer; Snieder, Harold; Tai, E. Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wong, Tien Yin; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Levy, Daniel; Palmas, Walter; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Rao, Dabeeru C.

    2014-01-01

    Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ≤ 5 × 10−8) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10−4) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations. PMID:24954895

  8. Gene-age interactions in blood pressure regulation: a large-scale investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia.

    PubMed

    Simino, Jeannette; Shi, Gang; Bis, Joshua C; Chasman, Daniel I; Ehret, Georg B; Gu, Xiangjun; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sijbrands, Eric; Smith, Albert V; Verwoert, Germaine C; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Cadby, Gemma; Chen, Peng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Corre, Tanguy; de Boer, Rudolf A; Goel, Anuj; Johnson, Toby; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nolte, Ilja M; Sim, Xueling; Sõber, Siim; van der Most, Peter J; Verweij, Niek; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bouchard, Claude; Dehghan, Abbas; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elosua, Roberto; Franco, Oscar H; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hercberg, Serge; Hofman, Albert; James, Alan L; Johnson, Andrew D; Kähönen, Mika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kutalik, Zoltan; Larson, Martin G; Launer, Lenore J; Li, Guo; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C; Navis, Gerjan; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Papanicolau, George J; Penninx, Brenda W; Psaty, Bruce M; Raffel, Leslie J; Raitakari, Olli T; Rice, Kenneth; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A; Siscovick, David S; Stolk, Ronald P; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Watkins, Hugh; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Bochud, Murielle; Farrall, Martin; Hartman, Catharina A; Laan, Maris; Lakatta, Edward G; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loos, Ruth J F; Lucas, Gavin; Meneton, Pierre; Palmer, Lyle J; Rettig, Rainer; Snieder, Harold; Tai, E Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wong, Tien Yin; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Levy, Daniel; Palmas, Walter; Ridker, Paul M; Rotter, Jerome I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2014-07-01

    Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ≤ 5 × 10(-8)) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10(-4)) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations.

  9. Gene-age interactions in blood pressure regulation: a large-scale investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia.

    PubMed

    Simino, Jeannette; Shi, Gang; Bis, Joshua C; Chasman, Daniel I; Ehret, Georg B; Gu, Xiangjun; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sijbrands, Eric; Smith, Albert V; Verwoert, Germaine C; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Cadby, Gemma; Chen, Peng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Corre, Tanguy; de Boer, Rudolf A; Goel, Anuj; Johnson, Toby; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nolte, Ilja M; Sim, Xueling; Sõber, Siim; van der Most, Peter J; Verweij, Niek; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bouchard, Claude; Dehghan, Abbas; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elosua, Roberto; Franco, Oscar H; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hercberg, Serge; Hofman, Albert; James, Alan L; Johnson, Andrew D; Kähönen, Mika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kutalik, Zoltan; Larson, Martin G; Launer, Lenore J; Li, Guo; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C; Navis, Gerjan; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Papanicolau, George J; Penninx, Brenda W; Psaty, Bruce M; Raffel, Leslie J; Raitakari, Olli T; Rice, Kenneth; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A; Siscovick, David S; Stolk, Ronald P; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Watkins, Hugh; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Bochud, Murielle; Farrall, Martin; Hartman, Catharina A; Laan, Maris; Lakatta, Edward G; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loos, Ruth J F; Lucas, Gavin; Meneton, Pierre; Palmer, Lyle J; Rettig, Rainer; Snieder, Harold; Tai, E Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wong, Tien Yin; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Levy, Daniel; Palmas, Walter; Ridker, Paul M; Rotter, Jerome I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2014-07-01

    Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ≤ 5 × 10(-8)) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10(-4)) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations. PMID:24954895

  10. Wave reflection augments central systolic and pulse pressures during facial cooling.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David G; Roy, Matthew S; Prasad, Raju Y

    2008-06-01

    Cardiovascular events are more common in the winter months, possibly because of hemodynamic alterations in response to cold exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute facial cooling on central aortic pressure, arterial stiffness, and wave reflection. Twelve healthy subjects (age 23 +/- 3 yr; 6 men, 6 women) underwent supine measurements of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery blood pressure, and central aortic pressure (via the synthesis of a central aortic pressure waveform by radial artery applanation tonometry and generalized transfer function) during a control trial (supine rest) and a facial cooling trial (0 degrees C gel pack). Aortic augmentation index (AI), an index of wave reflection, was calculated from the aortic pressure waveform. Measurements were made at baseline, 2 min, and 7 min during each trial. Facial cooling increased (P < 0.05) peripheral and central diastolic and systolic pressures. Central systolic pressure increased more than peripheral systolic pressure (22 +/- 3 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05), resulting in decreased pulse pressure amplification ratio. Facial cooling resulted in a robust increase in AI and a modest increase in PWV (AI: -1.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.2 +/- 3.0 and 19.9 +/- 3.6%; PWV: 5.6 +/- 0.2 vs. 6.5 +/- 0.3 and 6.2 +/- 0.2 m/s; P < 0.05). Change in mean arterial pressure but not PWV predicted the change in AI, suggesting that facial cooling may increase AI independent of aortic PWV. Facial cooling and the resulting peripheral vasoconstriction are associated with an increase in wave reflection and augmentation of central systolic pressure, potentially explaining ischemia and cardiovascular events in the cold.

  11. Mechanical damage of red blood cells by rotary blood pumps: selective destruction of aged red blood cells and subhemolytic trauma.

    PubMed

    Sakota, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryuki; Sobajima, Hideo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were measured to quantify RBC damage by rotary blood pumps. Six-hour hemolysis tests were conducted with a Bio-pump BPX-80, a Sarns 15200 roller pump, and a prototype mag-lev centrifugal pump (MedTech Heart) using fresh porcine blood circulated at 5 L/min against a 100 mm Hg head pressure. The temperature of the test and noncirculated control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of each pump was determined by measuring the plasma-free hemoglobin level. The MCV was measured with a Coulter counter, and MCHC was derived from total hemoglobin and hematocrit. MCH was derived from MCV and MCHC. A multivariance statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences (n = 15, P < 0.05) in MCV, MCHC, and MCH between the blood sheared by the rotary blood pumps and the nonsheared control blood. Normalized to the control blood, the Bio-pump BPX-80 showed an MCV of 1.04 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.95 +/- 0.04, and an MCH of 0.98 +/- 0.02; the mag-lev MedTech Heart had an MCV of 1.02 +/- 0.02, an MCHC of 0.97 +/- 0.02, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01; and the roller pump exhibited an MCV of 1.03 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.96 +/- 0.03, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01. Per 0.01 increase in NIH, the BPX-80 showed a normalized MCV change of +10.1% and a normalized MCHC change of -14.0%; the MedTech Heart demonstrated a +6.9% MCV and -9.5% MCHC change; and the roller pump had a +0.5% MCV and -0.6% MCHC change. Due to shear in the pump circuits, the RBC increased while the MCHC decreased. The likely mechanism is that older RBCs with smaller size and higher hemoglobin concentration were destroyed fast by the shear, leaving younger RBCs with larger size and lower hemoglobin concentration. Subhemolytic trauma caused the intracellular hemoglobin to decrease due to gradual hemoglobin leakage through the micropores formed in the thinned

  12. SY 01-3 HOW DO WE RECONCILE THE DISCREPANCY OF BLOOD PRESSURE GUIDELINES FOR PATIENTS WITH OLD AGE, DIABETES AND CKD?

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2016-09-01

    There are some discrepancies among several international guidelines. I summarise the discrepancies among these guidelines for patients with diabetes, CKD and old age, and describe how-to reconcile.A very controversial topic involves controlling the blood pressure target for hypertension with diabetes. In the treatment for the hypertension with diabetes, until 2012, it was almost universally accepted that the blood pressure control target should be below 130/80 mmHg. However, recent guidelines have increased the target blood pressure to 140 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Very important evidence to support this change is from the results of ACCORD-BP. In ACCORD-BP, the ratio of stroke/myocardial infarction was 0.3. However, in Japanese epidemiological studies showed a two-fold higher incident rate in strokes than myocardial infarction. Thus, the background of cardiovascular disease is very different between European countries or the United States, and Japan. This point should be considered in each country guidelines.As the risk of cardiovascular accidents is high in patients with CKD, their early detection is extremely important. KDIGO 2012 indicated the recent stratification for the treatment of hypertension with CKD. The goal of blood pressure lowering therapy in the case of CKD with proteinuria, are achievement of the blood pressure control target of below 130/80 mmHg. However, in CKD without proteinuria, the target blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg. The difference between KDIGO and other guidelines should be discussed.Considerable evidence has been accumulated from elderly hypertension. HYVET indicated a target blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg in patients 80 years and older. Both JATOS and VALISH conducted in Japan indicated no significant differences in groups with blood pressure below 140 mmHg and those with blood pressure below 150mmHg. However, definition of the age of elderly is different among each guidelines.Recent SPRINT results indicated

  13. Pulse pressure is inversely related to aortic root diameter implications for the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Farasat, S Morteza; Morrell, Christopher H; Scuteri, Angelo; Ting, Chih-Tai; Yin, Frank C P; Spurgeon, Harold A; Chen, Chen-Huan; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2008-02-01

    Hypertension accelerates the age-associated increase in aortic root diameter (AoD), likely because of chronically elevated distending pressures. However, the pulsatile component of blood pressure may have a different relationship with AoD. We sought to assess the relationship between AoD and pulse pressure (PP) while accounting for left ventricular and central arterial structural and functional properties, which are known to influence PP. The study population was composed of 1256 individuals, aged 30 to 79 years (48% women and 48% hypertensive), none of whom were on antihypertensive medications. Blood pressure was measured in the sitting position with conventional sphygmomanometry. PP was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures. AoD was measured at end diastole at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva with echocardiography. The relationship between AoD and PP was evaluated with multiple regression analyses. PP was 50+/-14 mm Hg in men and 54+/-18 mm Hg in women, and AoD was 31.9+/-3.5 mm in men and 28.9+/-3.5 mm in women. After adjusting for age, age(2), height, weight, and mean arterial pressure, AoD was independently and inversely associated with PP in both sexes. After further adjustments for central arterial stiffness and wall thickness, reflected waves, and left ventricular geometry, AoD remained inversely associated with PP in both men (coefficient=-0.48; P=0.0003; model R(2)=0.51) and women (coefficient=-0.40; P=0.01; model R(2)=0.61). Thus, AoD is inversely associated with PP, suggesting that a small AoD may contribute to the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine this possibility.

  14. Normalization effect of sports training on blood pressure in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.

  15. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  16. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Retnakaran, Ravi; Smith, Graeme N.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Walker, Mark C.; Wen, Shi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP). The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women. Methods We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis. Results A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L). Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors. Conclusions Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency. PMID:27182603

  17. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  18. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  19. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  20. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  1. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  2. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    De La Paz, M A; Zhang, J; Fridovich, I

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activity correlates with severity of aging maculopathy in affected individuals. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 54 patients with varying severity of aging maculopathy and 12 similarly aged individuals with normal ophthalmoscopic examination. Macular findings were graded according to a modification of the method described for the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. (AREDS). The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were measured in red blood cells. Haemoglobin content of whole blood was measured, and enzyme activity was determined per mg haemoglobin. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed to determine whether antioxidant enzyme activity was associated with severity of ARMD. No significant association between disease severity of ARMD and antioxidant enzyme activity was identified for any of the enzymes. CONCLUSION: These results do not provide evidence for a relation between oxidative stress, as measured by antioxidant enzyme activity in red blood cells, and disease severity in ARMD. PMID:8695567

  3. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-arginine, N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD+, and NADP+. Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson’s coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4–2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  4. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, D S; Osterloh, J; Becker, C E; Bernard, B; Smith, A H; Fisher, J M; Syme, S L; Holman, B L; Johnston, T

    1988-01-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressures varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 micrograms/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (micrograms/dL) [90% C. I., -1.6, 5.3]. The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (micrograms/dL) [90% C. I., 0.1, 4.9]. These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure. PMID:3203632

  5. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  6. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  7. Effect of age on cerebral blood flow during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Brusino, F.G.; Reves, J.G.; Smith, L.R.; Prough, D.S.; Stump, D.A.; McIntyre, R.W.

    1989-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured in 20 patients by xenon 133 clearance methodology during nonpulsatile hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass to determine the effect of age on regional cerebral blood flow during these conditions. Measurements of cerebral blood flow at varying perfusion pressures were made in patients arbitrarily divided into two age groups at nearly identical nasopharyngeal temperature, hematocrit value, and carbon dioxide tension and with equal cardiopulmonary bypass flows of 1.6 L/min/m2. The range of mean arterial pressure was 30 to 110 mm Hg for group I (less than or equal to 50 years of age) and 20 to 90 mm Hg for group II (greater than or equal to 65 years of age). There was no significant difference (p = 0.32) between the mean arterial pressure in group I (54 +/- 28 mm Hg) and that in group II (43 +/- 21 mm Hg). The range of cerebral blood flow was 14.8 to 29.2 ml/100 gm/min for group I and 13.8 to 37.5 ml/100 gm/min for group II. There was no significant difference (p = 0.37) between the mean cerebral blood flow in group I (21.5 +/- 4.6 ml/100 gm/min) and group II (24.3 +/- 8.1 ml/100 gm/min). There was a poor correlation between mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow in both groups: group I, r = 0.16 (p = 0.67); group II, r = 0.5 (p = 0.12). In 12 patients, a second cerebral blood flow measurements was taken to determine the effect of mean arterial pressure on cerebral blood flow in the individual patient. Changes in mean arterial pressure did not correlate with changes in cerebral blood flow (p less than 0.90). We conclude that age does not alter cerebral blood flow and that cerebral blood flow autoregulation is preserved in elderly patients during nonpulsatile hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  8. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Shear-induced hemolysis: effects of blood chemistry (including aging in storage) and shearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Offeman, R D; Williams, M C

    1976-01-01

    Rotating disks were used to hemolyze blood under low-stress laminar flow conditions. In the first sequence of tests, kinetic hemolysis curves (KHC) were obtained with polyethylene disks for three well-characterized bloods and repeated over a period of four weeks. Each blood had a KHC with different shape, which maintained its characteristics while aging. Correlations were sought between D6000 (percent of complete hemolysis, after 6000 sec of shear) and D0 (measured before shear) by two means of data analysis, in terms of blood chemistry. It was found that uric acid and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were most useful in predicting the characteristic D6000 vs. D0 relation for each blood, and that glucose levels correlated the rate of aging as measured by hemolysis. Other chemical factors are also displayed in terms of their influence on D0. The second series of tests consisted of comparing the KHC for four disk materials using a fourth blood, then repeating with a fifth blood. Hemolytic rankings of the materials were the same with these two blood, although the KHC shapes differed. The rankings were: polyvinyl chloride greater than Silastic approximately equal to polyethylene greater than polyether urethane, with PVC most hemolytic. In another sequence for examining materials effects, five different bloods were used to compare the hemolytic properties of Teflon, nylon, and polyethylene disks. Although the KHC for the three disks bore different relationships to each other with each different blood, extrapolation of data beyond 6000 sec suggests a ranking of Teflon greater than nylon greater than polyethylene.

  10. Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Haritz; Goñi, Joaquín; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David

    2015-12-01

    Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93 years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56 year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance.

  11. Introduction to systolic algorithms and architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, J.L.; Kung, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    The authors survey the class of systolic special-purpose computer architectures and algorithms, which are particularly well-suited for implementation in very large scale integrated circuitry (VLSI). They give a brief introduction to systolic arrays for a reader with a broad technical background and some experience in using a computer, but who is not necessarily a computer scientist. In addition they briefly survey the technological advances in VLSI that led to the development of systolic algorithms and architectures. 38 references.

  12. Left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling after intermittent high intensity team sports

    PubMed Central

    George, K; Dawson, E; Shave, R; Whyte, G; Jones, M; Hare, E; Gaze, D; Collinson, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Prolonged steady state exercise can lead to a decrease in left ventricular (LV) function as well as promote the release of cardiac troponin T (cTnT). There is limited information on the effect of intermittent high intensity exercise of moderate duration. Objectives: To determine the effect of intermittent high intensity exercise of moderate duration on LV function. Methods: Nineteen male rugby and football players (mean (SD) age 21 (2) years) volunteered. Assessments, before, immediately after, and 24 hours after competitive games, included body mass, heart rate (HR), and systolic blood pressure (sBP) as well as echocardiography to assess stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), systolic blood pressure/end systolic volume ratio (sBP/ESV), and global diastolic filling (E:A) as well as to indirectly quantify preload (LV internal dimension at end diastole (LVIDd)). Serum cTnT was analysed using a 3rd generation assay. Changes in LV function were analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance. cTnT data are presented descriptively. Results: SV (91 (26) v 91 (36) v 90 (35) ml before, after, and 24 hours after the game respectively), EF (71 (8) v 70 (9) v 71 (7)%), and sBP/ESV (4.2 (1.8) v 3.8 (1.9) v 4.1 (1.6) mm Hg/ml) were not significantly altered (p>0.05). Interestingly, whereas LVIDd was maintained after the game (50 (5) v 50 (6) mm), sBP was transiently but significantly reduced (131 (3) v 122 (3) mm Hg; p<0.05). E:A was moderately (p<0.05) reduced after the game (2.0 (0.4) v 1.5 (0.4)) but returned to baseline within 24 hours. No blood sample contained detectable levels of cTnT. Conclusions: In this cohort, LV systolic function was not significantly altered after intermittent activity. A transient depression in global diastolic filling was partially attributable to a raised HR and could not be explained by myocyte disruption as represented by cTnT release. PMID:15273183

  13. Changing topographic patterns of human cerebral blood flow with age measured by xenon CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Kandula, P.

    1984-05-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow with age have been of long-standing interest. A study of 20 normal, healthy, right-handed volunteers 20-100 years old using a noninvasive method is reported. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (Llambda) were measured during inhalation of 35% stable xenon gas and serial computed tomographic (CT) scanning (CT-CBF). Relatively higher LCBF values were measured bilaterally in the cortex of occipital and frontal lobes; no significant differences were noted between left and right hemispheres. Significant age-related declines in LCBF values were observed for all cortical and subcortical gray and white matter regions of interest examined. Age-related declines were steepest in the cortex of the frontal lobes, particularly prefrontal cortex, caudate, putamen, and lentiform nuclei. Speech and visual cortical regions, functionally active throughout the normal life span, showed less age-related decline compared with all other regions, particularly prefrontal.

  14. Influence of age on clock gene expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentarou; Kumazaki, Masafumi; Takamura, Toshinari; Yokota, Noritsugu; Saito, Tetsuo; Irie, Shin; Kaneko, Shuichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between circadian clock function and the development of obesity and various age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated whether messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of clock genes are associated with age, body mass index, blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, or shift work. Peripheral blood cells were obtained from 70 healthy women, including 25 shift workers, at approximately 9:00 AM. Transcript levels of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, and PER3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that BMAL1 mRNA levels were correlated only with age (beta = -.50, p < .001). In contrast, PER3 levels were correlated with fasting plasma glucose (beta = -.29, p < .05) and shift work (beta = .31, p < .05). These results suggest that increased age, glucose intolerance, and irregular hours independently affect the intracellular clock in humans.

  15. Distribution and observed associations of orthostatic blood pressure changes in elderly general medicine outpatients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; DesJardin, J. A.; Lichtenstein, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Factors associated with orthostatic blood pressure change in elderly outpatients were determined by surveying 398 medical clinical outpatients aged 65 years and older. Blood pressure was measured with random-zero sphygmomanometers after patients were 5 minutes in a supine and 5 minutes in a standing position. Orthostatic blood pressure changes were at normally distributed levels with systolic and diastolic pressures dropping an average of 4 mm Hg (standard deviation [SD]=15 mm Hg) and 2 mm Hg (SD=11 mm Hg), respectively. Orthostatic blood pressure changes were unassociated with age, race, sex, body mass, time since eating, symptoms, or other factors. According to multiple linear regression analysis, supine systolic pressure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and diabetes mellitus were associated with a decrease in systolic pressure on standing. Hypertension, antiarthritic drugs, and abnormal heartbeat were associated with an increase in systolic pressure on standing. For orthostatic diastolic pressure changes, supine diastolic pressure and COPD were associated with a decrease in diastolic pressure on standing. Congestive heart failure was associated with an increase in standing diastolic pressure. Using logistic regression analysis, only supine systolic pressure was associated with a greater than 20-mm Hg drop in systolic pressure (n=53, prevalence=13%). Supine diastolic pressure and COPD were the only variables associated with a greater than 20-mm Hg drop in diastolic pressure (n=16, prevalence=4%). These factors may help physicians in identifying older persons at risk for having orthostatic hypotension.

  16. Decreases in bone blood flow and bone material properties in aging Fischer-344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Susan A.; Hogan, Harry A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify precisely aging-induced changes in skeletal perfusion and bone mechanical properties in a small rodent model. Blood flow was measured in conscious juvenile (2 months old), adult (6 months old), and aged (24 months old) male Fischer-344 rats using radiolabeled microspheres. There were no significant differences in bone perfusion rate or vascular resistance between juvenile and adult rats. However, blood flow was lower in aged versus adult rats in the forelimb bones, scapulas, and femurs. To test for functional effects of this decline in blood flow, bone mineral density and mechanical properties were measured in rats from these two age groups. Bone mineral density and cross-sectional moment of inertia in femoral and tibial shafts and the femoral neck were significantly larger in the aged versus adult rats, resulting in increased (+14%-53%) breaking strength and stiffness. However, intrinsic material properties at midshaft of the long bones were 12% to 25% lower in the aged rats. Although these data are consistent with a potential link between decreased perfusion and focal alterations in bone remodeling activity related to clinically relevant bone loss, additional studies are required to establish the mechanisms for this putative relationship.

  17. Use of the Adaptive LASSO Method to Identify PM2.5 Components Associated with Blood Pressure in Elderly Men: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingzhen; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but it is unclear whether specific PM2.5 components, particularly metals, may be responsible for cardiovascular effects. Objectives We aimed to determine which PM2.5 components are associated with blood pressure in a longitudinal cohort. Methods We fit linear mixed-effects models with the adaptive LASSO penalty to longitudinal data from 718 elderly men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study, 1999–2010. We controlled for PM2.5 mass, age, body mass index, use of antihypertensive medication (ACE inhibitors, non-ophthalmic beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin receptor antagonists), smoking status, alcohol intake, years of education, temperature, and season as fixed effects in the models, and additionally applied the adaptive LASSO method to select PM2.5 components associated with blood pressure. Final models were identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results For systolic blood pressure (SBP), nickel (Ni) and sodium (Na) were selected by the adaptive LASSO, whereas only Ni was selected for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). An interquartile range increase (2.5 ng/m3) in 7-day moving-average Ni was associated with 2.48-mmHg (95% CI: 1.45, 3.50 mmHg) increase in SBP and 2.22-mmHg (95% CI: 1.69, 2.75 mmHg) increase in DBP, respectively. Associations were comparable when the analysis was restricted to study visits with PM2.5 below the 75th percentile of the distribution (12 μg/m3). Conclusions Our study suggested that exposure to ambient Ni was associated with increased blood pressure independent of PM2.5 mass in our study population of elderly men. Further research is needed to confirm our findings, assess generalizability to other populations, and identify potential mechanisms for Ni effects. Citation Dai L, Koutrakis P, Coull BA, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz JD. 2016. Use of the adaptive LASSO method to

  18. ISH PRE-1 REDUCTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN HYPERTENSIVES WITH COMORBIDITIES: BEYOND BLOOD PRESSURE LOWERING - THE ROLE OF ARTERIAL AGING.

    PubMed

    Safar, Michel E

    2016-09-01

    Mid-life elevated BP is classically associated with a raised systemic vascular resistance. A classical interpretation of the association between aortic stiffness and blood pressure (BP) invokes hypertension as a simple form of premature aging that increases stress on the arterial wall and accelerates age-related stiffening of the aorta. Recent clinical and experimental data have called into question the directionality of this sequence of events associating stiffness and hypertension.Therefore an initial abnormality in stiffness may antedate and contribute initially to the pathogenesis of hypertension, namely isolated systolic hypertension. This possibility is important to consider since it might affect the individual estimation of cardiovascular risk even in low risk prehypertensive subjects. Therefore, it might be essential to direct therapy of hypertension toward the reduction of both BP and aortic stiffness.Cardiovascular (CV) complications are dominant causes of death in severe hypertensive patients with comorbidities, especially diabetic hypertensive patients (DHS) and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Vascular calcifi cation and arterial stiffness are highly prevalent in such subjects, particularly in those with co-morbidities. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) is the gold standard and simple, non-invasive and reproducible measure of large artery stiffness.This measurement have been frequently used as predictors for CV events and CV mortality in the general population, in specifi c populations such as in patients with DHS and ESRD. These fi ndings have been widely observed using conventional cross-sectional investigations. However, in such studies, it has been observed that the association between single measurements of CFPWV and CV events is frequently driven by the high incidence of late events, i.e. after 12 months of follow-up.New data from our prospective studies in DHS and ESRD evaluated the association between longitudinal changes

  19. Age-Specific Peculiarities of Modulation of Blood Aldo-Keto Reductase Isoenzyme Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Davydov, V V

    2015-12-01

    The aldo-keto reductase spectrum of the blood was studied at different stages of ontogeny to elucidate the role of reduction pathway in utilization of the carbonyl products of free radical oxidation in modulation of organism sensitivity to the damaging effect of stress during ontogeny. The studies revealed the age-specific changes in aldo-keto reductase spectrum in the blood. An analogy of the aldo-keto reductase spectrum structure in animals of early maturity and in old rats was found. The appearance of age specificity of the aldo-keto reductase spectrum in the blood creates metabolic prerequisites for changes in the efficiency of utilization of carbonyl products of free radical oxidation via their reductive transformation.

  20. Endothelium-mediated coronary blood flow modulation in humans. Effects of age, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Zeiher, A M; Drexler, H; Saurbier, B; Just, H

    1993-01-01

    The effects of age, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia on vascular function of the coronary circulation were studied by subselective intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine, which releases endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and papaverine, which directly relaxes vascular smooth muscle, in normal patients (n = 18; no risk factors for coronary artery disease), in patients with evidence of early atherosclerosis but normal cholesterol levels and normal blood pressure (n = 12), in patients with hypertension without left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 12), and in patients with hypercholesterolemia (n = 20). Papaverine-induced maximal increases in coronary blood flow were significantly greater in normals, but no differences were noted between the groups of patients with early atherosclerosis, with hypertension, and with hypercholesterolemia. The capacity of the coronary system to increase blood flow in response to acetylcholine was similar in normal and normocholesterolemic patients with epicardial atherosclerosis and/or hypertension but was significantly impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia, irrespective of evidence of epicardial atherosclerotic lesions. Age (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) and total serum cholesterol levels (r = -0.70; P < 0.0001) were the only significant independent predictors of a blunted coronary blood flow response to acetylcholine. Thus, hypercholesterolemia and advanced age selectively impair endothelium-mediated relaxation of the coronary microvasculature in response to acetylcholine, whereas endothelial dysfunction is restricted to epicardial arteries in age-matched normocholesterolemic patients with evidence of coronary atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Images PMID:8349804

  1. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  2. Human red blood cell aging: correlative changes in surface charge and cell properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Mehrishi, Jitendra; Huang, Bao-Tian; Chen, Xing-Yao; Zheng, Xin-Jing; Liu, Wen-Jing; Luo, Man

    2011-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) during microcirculation, aging and storage, lose N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) and other biomaterials thereby altering cell structures, some properties and functions. Such cell damage very likely underlies the serious adverse effects of blood transfusion. However, a controversy has remained since 1961-1977 as to whether with aging, the RBCs, suffering loss of NANA, do have a decreased charge density. Any correlation between the changes in the cell properties with cell aging is also not clear. Therefore, to remove the ambiguity and uncertainty, we carried out multiparameteric studies on Percoll fractions of blood of 38 volunteers (lightest-young-Y-RBCs, densest-old-O-RBCs, two middle fractions).We found that there were striking differences between the properties of Y-RBCs and O-RBCs. The ζ-potential of Y-RBCs decreased gradually with aging. Studies in parallel on RBC fractions incubated with both positively charged quantum dots and Sambucus Nigra-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) along with their ζ-potentials provide for the first time direct visual evidence about the lesser amount of charge density and NANA on O-RBCs, and a collinear decrease in their respective ζ-potentials. Close correlation was found between the surface charge on an aging RBC and its structure and functions, from the cell morphology, the membrane deformability to the intracellular Hb structure and oxidation ability. This quantitative approach not only clarifies the picture but also has implications in biology and medicine.

  3. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamalandua, Aubeline

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0–91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19–70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals PMID:26280308

  4. Age determination of blood spots in forensic medicine by force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Stefan; Zink, Albert; Kada, Gerald; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Peschel, Oliver; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Nerlich, Andreas G; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2007-07-20

    We present a new tool for the estimation of the age of bloodstains, which could probably be used during forensic casework. For this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) for high-resolution imaging of erythrocytes in a blood sample and the detection of elasticity changes on a nanometer scale. For the analytic procedure we applied a fresh blood spot on a glass slide and started the AFM detection after drying of the blood drop. In a first step, an overview image was generated showing the presence of several red blood cells, which could easily be detected due to their typical "doughnut-like" appearance. The consecutively morphological investigations in a timeframe of 4 weeks could not show any alterations. Secondly, AFM was used to test the elasticity by recording force-distance curves. The measurements were performed immediately after drying, 1.5 h, 30 h and 31 days. The conditions were kept constant at room temperature (20 degrees C) and a humidity of 30%. The obtained elasticity parameters were plotted against a timeline and repeated several times. The elasticity pattern showed a decrease over time, which are most probably influenced by the alteration of the blood spot during the drying and coagulation process. The preliminary data demonstrates the capacity of this method to use it for development of calibration curves, which can be used for estimation of bloodstain ages during forensic investigations.

  5. On Cross-Sectional Associations of Leukocyte Telomere Length with Cardiac Systolic, Diastolic and Vascular Function: The Asklepios Study

    PubMed Central

    De Buyzere, Marc L.; Van daele, Caroline M.; Segers, Patrick; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Criekinge, Wim; Bekaert, Sofie; Gillebert, Thierry C.; De Meyer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic telomere length has been associated with measures of diastolic function, vascular stiffness and left ventricular mass mainly in smaller, patient-specific settings and not in a general population. In this study we describe the applicability of these findings in a large, representative population. Methods and Results Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (PBL TL) was measured using telomere restriction fragment analysis in the young to middle-aged (>2500 volunteers, ∼35 to 55 years old) Asklepios study population, free from overt cardiovascular disease. Subjects underwent extensive echocardiographic, hemodynamic and biochemical phenotyping. After adjusting for relevant confounders (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index and use of antihypertensive drugs) we found no associations between PBL TL and left ventricular mass index (P = 0.943), ejection fraction (P = 0.933), peak systolic septal annular motion (P = 0.238), pulse wave velocity (P = 0.971) or pulse pressure (P = 0.999). In contrast, our data showed positive associations between PBL TL and parameters of LV filling: the transmitral flow early (E) to late (A) velocity ratio (E/A-ratio; P<0.001), the ratio of early (e′) to late (a′) mitral annular velocities (e′/a′-ratio; P = 0.012) and isovolumic relaxation time (P = 0.015). Interestingly, these associations were stronger in women than in men and were driven by associations between PBL TL and the late diastolic components (A and a′). Conclusions In a generally healthy, young to middle-aged population, PBL TL is not related to LV mass or systolic function, but might be associated with an altered LV filling pattern, especially in women. PMID:25506937

  6. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

  7. Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Haritz; Goñi, Joaquín; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David

    2015-12-01

    Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93 years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56 year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance. PMID:26362218

  8. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of blood pressure monitor for home use. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS A digital device will also have a cuff that wraps ... on its own. The screen will show a digital readout of your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ...

  9. Age and sex differences in blood lactate response to sprint running in elite master athletes.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko T; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti

    2005-12-01

    The effect of age and sex on anaerobic glycolytic capacity in master athletes is currently unclear. To study this issue, we determined blood lactate concentrations after competitive sprint running in male and female master athletes of different age. Eighty-one men (40-88 yrs) and 75 women (35-87 yrs) participating in the sprint events (100-m, 200-m, 400-m) in the European Veterans Athletics Championships were studied. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip and analysed for peak lactate concentration ([La]bpeak). The [La]bpeak following 100-m to 400-m races showed a curvilinear decline (p < 0.001-0.05) with age in both men and women. However, the age related differences in the [La]b peak were not significant before 70 years of age. No significant sex related differences were found in [La]b peak for any sprint event. The [La]b peak correlated significantly (p < 0.001-0.05) with running times in all sprint distances except for the age-controlled correlation in men for the 100-m and 200-m. In conclusion, the present study showed age but not sex differences in blood lactate response to competitive sprint running in master athletes. Although the [La]b peak level of the athletes was considerably higher than that reported for untrained men and women, these cross-sectional findings suggest that anaerobic energy production from glycolysis declines in later years and may be a factor in the deterioration in sprint performance.

  10. Age-related methylation profiles of equine blood leukocytes in the RNASEL locus.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, T; Semik, E; Szmatoła, T; Oklejewicz, B; Fornal, A; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    Methylation profiles across three CpG islands of the RNASEL gene were determined in blood leukocyte samples of Anglo-Arabian and Hucul horses. Bisulfite sequencing revealed hypomethylated state of the RNASEL promoter coinciding with methylated CpG island placed inside the gene. Several CpG sites were identified for which the methylation state was influenced by DNA polymorphism. Two of them showed monoallelic methylation. One of the CpG sites revealed functional polymorphism. A number of partially methylated CpG sites have been observed in the promoter area of RNASEL, which were used for the comparison of breed- and age-related effects. Clone bisulfite sequencing of blood leukocyte samples collected at different ages from particular individuals of AA and HC breeds and, also, BSPCR sequencing of 50 samples of juvenile and old AA and HC horses revealed increased methylation in particular CpG sites during aging. The age-related heterogeneity of white blood cells was hypothesized as being one of the potential causes of observed variability of methylation profiles in the RNASEL promoter. PMID:26553552

  11. Changing topographic patterns of human cerebral blood flow with age measured by xenon CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Kandula, P.

    1984-05-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow with age have been of long-standing interest. A study of 20 normal, healthy, right-handed volunteers 20-100 years old using a noninvasive method is reported. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (L lambda) were measured during inhalation of 35% stable xenon gas and serial computed tomographic (CT) scanning (CT-CBF). Throughout CT-CBF measurements, subjects lay comfortably at rest, with eyes closed and ears unplugged. Environmental stimulation was limited to ambient light and only those sounds unavoidable during CT scanning. LCBF values were correlated with advancing age by cross-sectional analysis. Relatively higher LCBF values were measured bilaterally in the cortex of occipital and frontal lobes; no significant differences were noted between left and right hemispheres. Significant age-related declines in LCBF values were observed for all cortical and subcortical gray and white matter regions of interest examined (p less than 0.001 for all three regions). Age-related declines were steepest in the cortex of the frontal lobes, particularly prefrontal cortex, caudate, putamen, and lentiform nuclei. Speech and visual cortical regions, functionally active throughout the normal life span, showed less age-related decline compared with all other regions, particularly prefrontal. So-called ''hyperfrontality,'' ratio of mean flow values for frontal cortex to mean pooled values for total cortex, became progressively reduced with age (p less than 0.01).

  12. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  13. Effects of exercise training on neurovascular control and skeletal myopathy in systolic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Middlekauff, Holly R.; Gomes-Santos, Igor L.; Antunes-Correa, Ligia M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurohormonal excitation and dyspnea are the hallmarks of heart failure (HF) and have long been associated with poor prognosis in HF patients. Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide (VE/VO2) are elevated in moderate HF patients and increased even further in severe HF patients. The increase in SNA in HF patients is present regardless of age, sex, and etiology of systolic dysfunction. Neurohormonal activation is the major mediator of the peripheral vasoconstriction characteristic of HF patients. In addition, reduction in peripheral blood flow increases muscle inflammation, oxidative stress, and protein degradation, which is the essence of the skeletal myopathy and exercise intolerance in HF. Here we discuss the beneficial effects of exercise training on resting SNA in patients with systolic HF and its central and peripheral mechanisms of control. Furthermore, we discuss the exercise-mediated improvement in peripheral vasoconstriction in patients with HF. We will also focus on the effects of exercise training on ventilatory responses. Finally, we review the effects of exercise training on features of the skeletal myopathy in HF. In summary, exercise training plays an important role in HF, working synergistically with pharmacological therapies to ameliorate these abnormalities in clinical practice. PMID:25681428

  14. Age of red blood cells and outcome in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) and, in particular, older RBCs has been associated with increased short-term mortality in critically ill patients. We evaluated the association between age of transfused RBCs and acute kidney injury (AKI), hospital, and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, predefined sub-study within the FINNish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study. This study included all elective ICU admissions with expected ICU stay of more than 24 hours and all emergency admissions from September to November 2011. To study the age of RBCs, we classified transfused patients into quartiles according to the age of oldest transfused RBC unit in the ICU. AKI was defined according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. Results Out of 1798 patients, 652 received at least one RBC unit. The median [interquartile range] age of the oldest RBC unit transfused was 12 [11-13] days in the freshest quartile and 21 [17-27] days in the quartiles 2 to 4. On logistic regression, RBC age was not associated with the development of KDIGO stage 3 AKI. Patients in the quartile of freshest RBCs had lower crude hospital and 90-day mortality rates compared to those in the quartiles of older blood. After adjustments, older RBC age was associated with significantly increased risk for hospital mortality. Age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II)-score without age points, maximum Sequental Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the total number of transfused RBC units were independently associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions The age of transfused RBC units was independently associated with hospital mortality but not with 90-day mortality or KDIGO stage 3 AKI. The number of transfused RBC units was an independent risk factor for 90-day mortality. PMID:24093554

  15. SLAPP: A systolic linear algebra parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, B.L.; Luk, F.T.; Speiser, J.M.; Symanski, J.J.

    1987-07-01

    Systolic array computer architectures provide a means for fast computation of the linear algebra algorithms that form the building blocks of many signal-processing algorithms, facilitating their real-time computation. For applications to signal processing, the systolic array operates on matrices, an inherently parallel view of the data, using numerical linear algebra algorithms that have been suitably parallelized to efficiently utilize the available hardware. This article describes work currently underway at the Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, California, to build a two-dimensional systolic array, SLAPP, demonstrating efficient and modular parallelization of key matric computations for real-time signal- and image-processing problems.

  16. Matrix computations on systolic-type meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.H.; Lang, T. )

    1990-04-01

    This article focuses on the execution of matrix computations on systolic-type arrays in an application-specific environment. The authors first present an extension to the concept of a systolic cell by incorporating a small, fixed amount of storage inside the cells, and they discuss the trade-offs this storage gives rise to. Then they review different approaches to decomposing (partitioning) large problems, highlighting their bandwidth requirements and their capabilities for using the storage in the cells. Finally, the authors discuss the basic characteristics of methods for the design of systolic-type arrays, describe the multimesh graph (MMG) design method, and illustrate its application to the transitive closure algorithm.

  17. Systolic and diastolic cardiac function in acromegaly. An echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Galanti, G; Cappelli, B; Diricatti, G; Mininni, S; Vono, M C; Gensini, G F

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the existence of primary acromegalic cardiomyopathy different from the cardiovascular complications often associated with acromegaly. Thirty-four acromegalic patients, referred to our non-invasive laboratory and divided into two groups on the basis of the presence of hypertension, underwent echocardiographic studies. A control group of 34 subjects individually matched with the patients for age, sex, and blood pressure values was also studied. To evaluate cardiac function during exercise, the normotensive acromegalics, the control group, and a group of 9 athletes with left ventricular mass comparable to that of the acromegalic subjects underwent a handgrip test. Cardiac mass was increased in all patients; hypertensive patients had a greater increase than normotensive patients (144.9 +/- 38 vs 120.9 +/- 20.8 g/m, p < 0.02). Systolic wall stress and percent fractional shortening, although similar to the values confirmed in controls, were modified in the hypertensive patients (wall stress 77.5 +/- 9.3 vs 60.8 +/- 9.4 dyne/cm2, p < 0.01). In all patients, diastolic function at rest was similar to that in controls, although the hypertensive patients had deteriorated diastolic function (E peak 56.9 +/- 12.4 vs 71 +/- 15 cm/s, p < 0.01; A peak 70.4 +/- 21.1 vs 52.3 +/- 16.4 cm/s, p < 0.03; E/A ratio 0.89 +/- 0.37 vs 1.38 +/- 0.35, p < 0.02). During handgrip testing, wall stress in both the normotensive acromegalics and the control subjects increased but remained unchanged in the athlete group; percent fractional shortening decreased in all patients and controls but increased slightly in the athlete group. In conclusion, cardiac hypertrophy caused by GH hyperincretion does not improve acromegalic heart activity: diastolic function, although normal at rest, appears deficient during isometric exercise.

  18. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  19. Blood pressure levels of an urban adult New Zealand population: Napier 1973.

    PubMed

    Christmas, B W

    1977-10-26

    Ninety-seven percent of a randomly selected sample of 2600 adults (age range 21 to 92 years) from the Napier City electoral area were surveyed for age and sex distribution of blood pressure. The sample included those currently receiving drug treatment for elevated pressures. There were approximately 400 in each decade and the sex ratio slightly favoured females. Casual systolic pressures rose with age whereas the diastolic rose to approximately age 50 and thereafter remained steady or slightly declined. Before age 50 years males had higher systolic pressures than females and thereafter the mean levels for females exceeded those for the males. Mean systolic pressures for this New Zealand sample population were higher by 2-4mmHg for all ages than the levels reported for the United States National Health Survey 1960-62.

  20. The effect of age on blood flow in the proximal femur in man

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtinen, T.; Alhava, E.M.; Karjalainen, P.; Romppanen, T.

    1981-11-01

    Blood flow in the proximal femur was measured in 45 healthy male and female adults by means of a Xe-133 washout method. On the basis of a two-compartment exponential model, blood flow was calculated assuming that the compartments were hematopoietic (red) marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone. Between the ages of 20 and 55 the bone perfusion was 8.2 +/- 1.4 (1 s.d.) ml/100g/min, decreasing thereafter in older patients. During the same period the red-marrow blood flow (RMBF) decreased linearly: RMBF (ml/100g/min) = -0.14 x age + 24.5. The nonhematopoietic bone perfusion changed like the bone perfusion. The fractional masses of red marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone in the greater trochanteric region of the femur were determined morphometrically from the bone biopsies of seven adult cadavers. They agreed with the values estimated by the Xe-133 washout method. The blood-flow values will be used as reference values for the Xe-133 bone circulation method.

  1. The effect of age on blood flow in the proximal femur in man

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtinen, T.; Alhava, E.M.; Karjalainen, P.; Romppanen, T.

    1981-11-01

    blood flow in the proximal femur was measured in 45 healthy male and female adults by means of a Xe-133 washout method. On the basis of a two-compartment exponential model, blood flow was calculated assuming that the compartments were hematopoietic (red) marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone. Between the ages of 20 and 55 the bone perfusion was 8.3 +/- 1.4 (1 s.d.) ml/100 g/min, decreasing thereafter in older patients. During the same period the red-marrow blood flow (RMBF) decreased linearly: RMBF (ml/100 g/min) . -0.14 x age + 24.5. The nonhematopoietic bone perfusion changed like the bone perfusion. The fractional masses of red marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone in the greater trochanteric region of the femur were determined morphometrically from the bone biopsies of seven adult cadavers. They agreed with the values estimated by the Xe-133 washout method. The blood-flow values will be used as reference values for the Xe-133 bone circulation method.

  2. [Some disorder features of blood circulation in lungs in older age influenza patients].

    PubMed

    Roganova, I V

    2011-01-01

    Patients aged 51-65 years with influenza develop circulatory disorders of the lung. Tone of the arteries of small and medium-caliber and venular vessels of the vascular bed of the lungs persistently reduced during the illness and a month after its start. The flow of venous blood from the vessels of the lungs disturbs: it is slow, difficult and becomes unstable. Such circulatory disorders in the lungs of influenza patients of older age groups appear during the illness and persist for a long time in the recovery period, which is a risk factor associated with complications of the respiratory system, not only during the illness, but after the disease.

  3. Peripheral injection of human umbilical cord blood stimulates neurogenesis in the aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Pabon, Mibel M; Cole, Michael J; Hudson, Charles E; Sanberg, Paul R; Willing, Alison E; Bickford, Paula C; Gemma, Carmelina

    2008-01-01

    Background Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life but dramatically decreases with increasing age. This decrease is mostly related to a decline in proliferative activity as a result of an impoverishment of the microenvironment of the aged brain, including a reduction in trophic factors and increased inflammation. Results We determined that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) given peripherally, by an intravenous injection, could rejuvenate the proliferative activity of the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. This increase in proliferation lasted for at least 15 days after the delivery of the UCBMC. Along with the increase in proliferation following UCBMC treatment, an increase in neurogenesis was also found in the aged animals. The increase in neurogenesis as a result of UCBMC treatment seemed to be due to a decrease in inflammation, as a decrease in the number of activated microglia was found and this decrease correlated with the increase in neurogenesis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a single intravenous injection of UCBMC in aged rats can significantly improve the microenvironment of the aged hippocampus and rejuvenate the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. Our results raise the possibility of a peripherally administered cell therapy as an effective approach to improve the microenvironment of the aged brain. PMID:18275610

  4. Aging in blood vessels. Medicinal agents FOR systemic arterial hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Soto, María Elena; Pastelín, Gustavo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2014-11-01

    Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: (1) Oxidative stress enhancement. (2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. (3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. (4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. (5) Impaired angiogenesis. (6) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is characterized by: (1) Altered replicating potential. (2) Change in cellular phenotype. (3) Changes in responsiveness to contracting and relaxing mediators. (4) Changes in intracellular signaling functions. Systemic arterial hypertension is an age-dependent disorder, and almost half of the elderly human population is hypertensive. The influence of hypertension on the aging cardiovascular system has been studied in models of hypertensive rats. Treatment for hypertension is recommended in the elderly. Lifestyle modifications, natural compounds and hormone therapies are useful for initial stages and as supporting treatment with medication but evidence from clinical trials in this population is needed. Since all antihypertensive agents can lower blood pressure in the elderly, therapy should be based on its potential side effects and drug interactions.

  5. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  6. Systolic temporal arithmetic: A new formalism for specification, verification, and synthesis of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, N.

    1989-01-01

    A novel formalism, termed Systolic Temporal Arithmetic (STA), is introduced. It provides necessary constructs to describe arithmetic operations in dynamic environments. The motivation behind the development of STA is to use it for systolic array design at the array architecture level. It is particularly useful for formally specifying systolic array designs, and for formally verifying their correctness with respect to the algorithm specifications. Besides providing value and operation abstractions from the lower level, the formalism exploits unique systolic features such as synchrony, regularity, repeatability, modularity, pipelinability, parallel processing ability, as well as spatial and temporal locality, to provide constructs and verification techniques for simple, efficient, and effective systolic array specification verification. STA overcomes many limitations of current specification and verification techniques. It can be used with lower level formalism for multilevel reasoning of systolic arrays. Application examples are given to show how STA can be applied to specify and verify several different systolic arrays. To present a more unified design environment, STA is also extended to describe systolic array synthesis process. A synthesis procedure for systolic arrays is presented which also includes an algorithm transformation technique developed that can improve the computation time of resulting arrays for suitable algorithms, without much increase in area requirement. Several systolic array synthesis examples are also provided in this dissertation.

  7. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  8. Some results concerning linear iterative (systolic) arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, O.H.; Palis, M.A.; Kim, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have shown some new interesting results concerning the properties, power, and limitations of various types of linear iterative (systolic) arrays. The method they employed consisted of finding sequential machine characterizations of these array models, and then using the characterizations to prove the results. Because of the absence of any concurrency and synchronization problems, the authors obtained simple proofs to results which when proved directly on the arrays would seem very difficult. The characterizations, therefore, provide a novel and promising method which can be used to analyze other systolic systems. In the future they hope to extend this methodology to the study of two-dimensional and multidimensional systolic arrays, and other systolic systems with different interconnection networks.

  9. Systolic arrays - From concept to implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Fortes, J.A.B.; Wah, B.W.

    1987-07-01

    Systolic arrays are the result of advances in semiconductor technology and of applications that require extensive throughput. Their realization requires human ingenuity combined with techniques and tools for algorithm development, architecture design, and hardware implementation. Invariably, the first reaction of people who are exposed to the systolic-array concept is one of admiration for the concept's elegance and for its potential for high performance. However, those who next attempt to implement a systolic array for a specific application soon realize that a wealth of subsumed concepts and engineering solutions must be mastered and understood. This special issue attempts to provide insights into the implementation process and to illustrate the different techniques and theories that contribute to the design of systolic arrays.

  10. Implementation and use of systolic array processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Major effort are now underway to use systolic array processors in large, real-life applications. The author examines various implementation issues and alternatives, the latter from the viewpoints of flexibility and interconnection topologies. He then identifies some work that is essential to the eventual wide use of systolic array processors, such as the development of building blocks, system support and suitable algorithms. 24 references.

  11. Restructuring for fault-tolerant systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.F.; Jayakumar, R.; Lam, C.

    1989-02-01

    The problem of restructuring systolic arrays with faulty cells is considered. An approach to derive the required data flow paths and computational sites is proposed. The data skewing requirement, which must be satisfied to find an input schedule, is also discussed. Algorithms to restructure systolic arrays for three different architecture of the processing elements are presented. A systematic method to retime the restructure array using additional programmable delays so that the retimed array satisfies the data skewing requirement is developed.

  12. Systolic acousto-optic binary convolver

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    A novel high speed array processing optical architecture is described. A multichannel acousto-optic binary convolver is architecturally configured as a systolic array processor. The architecture provides a high speed means of matrix/vector multiplications using the digital multiplication via an analog convolution algorithm. This algorithm and a systolic acousto-optic implementation permit the speed of optics to be combined with the accuracy of digital computation. 15 references.

  13. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Payal C.; Deal, Allison M.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M.; Park, Yara A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71–7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66–35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding. PMID:25963831

  14. Simplified Assay for Epigenetic Age Estimation in Whole Blood of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Biological age is not always concordant with chronological age and the departures are of interest for understanding how diseases and environmental insults affect tissue function, organismal health, and life expectancy. The best-known biological age biomarker is telomere length, but there are more accurate biomarkers as the recently developed based in epigenetic, transcriptomic, or biochemical changes. The most accurate are the epigenetic biomarkers based on specific changes in DNA methylation referred as DNA methylation age measures (DmAM). Here, we have developed and validated a new DmAM that addresses some limitations of the previously available. The new DmAM includes the study in whole blood (WB) of 8 CpG sites selected as the most informative on a training set of 390 healthy subjects. The 8 CpG DmAM showed better accuracy than other DmAM based in few CpG in an independent validation set of 335 subjects. Results were not significantly influenced by sex, smoking, or variation in blood cell subpopulations. In addition, the new 8 CpG DmAM was amenable to study in a single multiplex reaction done with methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension (MS-SNuPE), a methodology based on commercially available reagents and run in capillary electrophoresis sequencers. In this way, the high cost of DNA methylation microarrays or of a pyrosequencer, which are needed for alternative DmAM, was avoided. Performance of the DmAM with MS-SNuPE was assessed in a set of 557 donors, showing high call rate (>97%), low CV (<3.3%) and high accuracy (Mean Absolute Deviation = 6.07 years). Therefore, the 8 CpG DmAM is a feasible and accurate tool for assessing the epigenetic component of biological age in blood of adults. PMID:27471517

  15. A correlation study of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function with age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Guang; Wang, Yong; Hou, Kai; Jia, Lin-Pei; Ma, Jie; Zhao, De-Long; Zhu, Shu-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the association between telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function in various age groups of a healthy population. A total of 139 healthy individuals were divided into five groups according to their age: 35‑44, 45‑54, 55‑64, 65‑74 and >75 years old. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained and the telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length was assayed using a digoxigenin‑labeled hybridization probe in Southern blot assays. Laboratory assays of kidney function were also performed. A correlation was observed between TRF length and age (r=‑0.314, P<0.001), with the telomere length of the individuals >75 years group being significantly shorter than the telomere length of the 35‑44, 45‑54 and 55‑64 years age groups (P<0.05). By contrast, the TRF length for males versus females did not differ for any of the age groups, while a correlation was observed between TRF length and serum levels of cystatin C (r=‑0.195, P<0.05). There was also a correlation between TRF length and glomerular filtration rate (r=‑0.184, P<0.05). The current study demonstrated that in this cohort, leukocyte telomere length reduced with age and was correlated with serum levels of cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, TRF length is associated with kidney function and may serve as a marker of aging.

  16. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-02-20

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency was observed for the level of hOGG1-sensitive sites, whereas there was no association with the level of strand breaks. The effect of age on oxidatively damaged DNA in women disappeared in multivariate models, which showed robust positive associations between DNA damage and plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all metabolic syndrome criteria. In summary, positive associations between age and levels of oxidatively damaged DNA appeared mediated by age-related increases in metabolic risk factors. PMID:25650665

  17. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound. Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures.

    PubMed

    Plavnik, F L; Ajzen, S; Kohlmann, O; Tavares, A; Zanella, M T; Ribeiro, A B; Ramos, O L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC) using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 +/- 0.13 and 0.62 +/- 0.16 vs 0.54 +/- 0.09 and 0.52 +/- 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001). In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39) in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40). In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37), while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10). There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC. PMID:10625875

  18. Alpha-Synuclein Levels in Blood Plasma Decline with Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Niklas K. U.; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens. PMID:25844871

  19. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  20. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  1. Blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Obese and diabetic states in humans are associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic diseases caused by various coagulation abnormalities. Genetically obese ob/ob mice produce metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about their coagulation features or sex differences. The present study aimed to determine the effects of obese and diabetic complications on blood coagulation and vascular diseases by exploring correlations between blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were significantly increased, whereas those that of platelet factor-4 (PF-4) was slightly, but significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice compared with lean counterparts. Prothrombin time (PT) was significantly shortened in female ob/ob mice and activated partial thrombin time (APTT) significantly differed between male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of antithrombin (AT) were significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice. None of the other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors examined significantly differed between ob/ob mice and lean counterparts. On the contrary, factors such as body weight and cholesterol levels significantly differed between ob/ob and lean mice, whereas glucose, fructosamine and insulin levels significantly differed only in one sex of each strain. These results provided fundamental information about blood coagulation and metabolic features for exploring the function of altered blood coagulation states in ob/ob mice.

  2. Functional osteoclastogenesis: the baseline variability in blood donor precursors is not associated with age and gender.

    PubMed

    Pivetta, Eliana; Wassermann, Bruna; Bulian, Pietro; Steffan, Agostino; Colombatti, Alfonso; Polesel, Jerry; Spessotto, Paola

    2015-10-13

    Mononuclear osteoclast precursors circulate in the monocyte fraction of peripheral blood and form multinuclear cells with all osteoclastic phenotypic characteristics when cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL). The method to obtain osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood is simple but the number of recovered osteoclasts is often largely insufficient for functional analyses. The original aim of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient method that could overcome the donor variability and enrich the osteoclast precursors from a small volume of peripheral blood as a basis for future clinical studies to correlate the differentiation potential of circulating osteoclast precursors with bone lesions in cancer patients. We improved the efficiency of osteoclastogenesis by reducing isolation and purification times and overcame the use of flow cytometry and immunomagnetic purification procedures. In our culture system the osteoclast number was increased several-fold and the precursors were able to reach a full differentiation within seven days of culture. Both age as well as gender differences in osteoclastogenesis efficiency were no longer evident by processing limited volume blood samples with this simple and rapid method.

  3. Is uterine blood flow influenced by hCG and mare age?

    PubMed

    Turna Yilmaz, Ozge; Gunduz, Mehmet Can; Evkuran Dal, Gamze; Kurban, Ibrahim; Erzengin, Omer Mehmet; Ucmak, Melih

    2014-12-30

    Doppler ultrasonography is a noninvasive technique which enables us to follow the physiologic and physiopathologic changes in blood flow in tissues. It is becoming an essential tool in veterinary medicine, especially in theriogenology. Twenty-seven Arabian mares were grouped by age ('young', 3-10 y, n=15; 'old', 19-23 y, n=12). The uterine arteries of the mares were examined using Doppler ultrasonography when an ovarian follicle ≥35mm was visible (Day -1). After these measurements, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 2500IU) was administered to 14 mares selected randomly. One day later (Day 0) Doppler ultrasonography was repeated and then the dominant follicles were aspirated to collect follicular fluid in all groups. On the next day (Day +1), Doppler indices of the uterine artery blood flow were measured again. Blood samples were also collected just prior to ultrasonography, for measuring serum estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that preovulatory hCG administration had no significant effects on uterine artery blood flow indices, or serum or follicular fluid estradiol concentrations. The uterine artery resistance index might decrease in young mares after ovulation, possibly because of increased uterine perfusion. PMID:25465361

  4. Temporal Relationship Between Elevated Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffening Among Middle-Aged Black and White Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Zhang, Tao; Bazzano, Lydia; Urbina, Elaine M; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the temporal relationship between elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in a biracial (black-white) cohort of middle-aged adults aged 32-51 years from the semirural community of Bogalusa, Louisiana. Measurements of aortic-femoral pulse wave velocity (afPWV; n = 446) and large- and small-arterial compliance (n = 381) were obtained at 2 time points between 2000 and 2010, with an average follow-up period of 7 years. A cross-lagged path analysis model was used to examine the temporal relationship of elevated BP to arterial stiffness and elasticity. The cross-lagged path coefficients did not differ significantly between blacks and whites. The path coefficient (ρ2) from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV was significantly greater than the path coefficient (ρ1) from baseline afPWV to follow-up BP (ρ2 = 0.20 vs. ρ1 = 0.07 (P = 0.048) for systolic BP; ρ2 = 0.19 vs. ρ1 = 0.05 (P = 0.034) for diastolic BP). The results for this 1-directional path from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV were confirmed, although marginally significant, by using large- and small-artery elasticity measurements. These findings provide strong evidence that elevated BP precedes large-artery stiffening in middle-aged adults. Unlike the case in older adults, the large-arterial wall is not stiff enough in youth to alter BP levels during young adulthood.

  5. Relation of cord blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels to gestational age and birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Prato, F S; Reese, L; Tevaarwerk, G J; Mackenzie, R; Hurst, C J

    1980-01-01

    A program of screening cord blood for evidence of primary neonatal hypothyroidism was implemented in a general hospital. In 13 months 3456 newborns were screened: the thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in cord blood samples, and when the T4 level was below 8.0 micrograms/dl thyrotropin was also assayed in the sample. The two-tier program was effective. One hypothyroid newborn was detected and treated. More boys than girls had T4 levels below 8.0 micrograms/dl (9.7% v. 4.7%). The T4 level correlated with birth weight slightly better in the boys (r = 0.28 v. 0.21), and in the boys this correlation was stronger when the birth weight was lower. Regression analysis of the data for 54 sets of twins indicated that the T4 level was more strongly related to gestational age than to birth weight. PMID:7192594

  6. [Influence of age on blood glucose levels: percentile reference intervals determined on ambulatory patients].

    PubMed

    Sapigni, T; Astolfi, G; Cavallini, L; Cremonini, F

    1981-06-15

    Data of routine chemical and hematological laboratory tests regarding outpatients were collected in four different hospitals of the provinces of Ferrara, Rovigo and Bologna. Data of about 1500 subjects per hospital were cumulated without preliminary selection of patients; sex, age and pregnancy status were also recorded. At the end of the collection, the second (and third) record of the same patient was discarded; only those referring to the first examination were retained. In this report we consider only the values of the blood sugar level which were obtained by enzymatic methods. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed utilizing a CDC CYBER 70/76 computer. The means and the variances of the data collected at the four hospital laboratories were very similar (Tab 1). The interlaboratory analysis of variance was poorly significant. All frequency distributions were leptocurtic and skewed to the right (Fig. 1). The blood sugar level tend to increase with age (Tab. 2). This correlation is graphically depicted in a two-dimensional plot (Fig 2) in which the regression line and the 2, 5 and 97,5 percentile levels corrected for age were also reported. We think that this diagram may be more helpful to the clinicians interpreting laboratory results than the usual "normal values". PMID:7284101

  7. Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular HDLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages.

  8. Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular DHLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages. 14 references.

  9. Programming environments for systolic arrays. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.

    1986-02-01

    Although a systolic array is often thought of as a hard-wired device, there are many reasons to want to program systolic algorithms. In this paper the problem of providing an efficacious programming environment is addressed. The difficulties of programming complex parallel algorithms are shown to be reduced by using a new concept of a parallel program which maximizes the use of graphical abstractions and minimizes the need for symbolic text. This concept is illustrated by the Poker Parallel Programming Environment which, although designed for a broader class of algorithms, illustrates the main features that a programming environment specialized to systolic computation should have. In the event that the programming environment is for systolic arrays, the programs are parallel and thus impose additional demands on the system such as data formatting, management of multiple process sets, and the specification of data routings. Providing all of these facilities in a single integrated system requires a new concept of parallel program, which, although it is quite different from FORTRAN and PASCAL, is nevertheless easier to use for a systolic array than a conventional programming language. The key to achieving this simplicity is to use graphics so extensively that the resulting programs appear to be dynamic versions of the diagrams presented in textbooks.

  10. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  11. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  12. The effect of caffeine on postprandial blood pressure in the frail elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Heseltine, D.; el-Jabri, M.; Ahmed, F.; Knox, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double-blind, random-order, cross-over study the effects of placebo and 100 mg of caffeine on postprandial sitting and erect blood pressure and heart rate were studied in 20 frail elderly subjects (mean age 84, range 75-93 years) after a standardized 400 K-calorie glucose drink. Maximal postprandial reduction in sitting systolic blood pressure occurred, at 60 minutes post-placebo, of - 11 mmHg (95% confidence interval -5 to -17 mmHg, P less than 0.01), and was attenuated by caffeine (P less than 0.05) with changes in systolic blood pressure, at 60 minutes post-drink, of 1 mmHg (95% CI -6 to 7 mmHg, not significant). Four subjects developed symptomatic postprandial hypotension after placebo which was prevented by caffeine. There were no significant changes in erect systolic blood pressure, postural systolic blood pressure change, sitting and erect, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate between treatment phases. Caffeine attenuates the postprandial fall in sitting blood pressure in frail elderly subjects and in particular prevented symptomatic blood pressure reductions in subjects with postprandial hypotension. PMID:1924023

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Mechanisms That Govern Red Blood Cell Age Structure and Dynamics during Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Savill, Nicholas J.; Chadwick, William; Reece, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has proven an important tool in elucidating and quantifying mechanisms that govern the age structure and population dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we synthesise ideas from previous experimental data and the mathematical modelling literature with new data in order to test hypotheses and generate new predictions about these mechanisms. The result is a set of competing hypotheses about three intrinsic mechanisms: the feedback from circulating RBC concentration to production rate of immature RBCs (reticulocytes) in bone marrow, the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation, and their subsequent ageing and clearance. In addition we examine two mechanisms specific to our experimental system: the effect of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) and blood sampling on RBC dynamics. We performed a set of experiments to quantify the dynamics of reticulocyte proportion, RBC concentration, and erythropoietin concentration in PHZ-induced anaemic mice. By quantifying experimental error we are able to fit and assess each hypothesis against our data and recover parameter estimates using Markov chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference. We find that, under normal conditions, about 3% of reticulocytes are released early from bone marrow and upon maturation all cells are released immediately. In the circulation, RBCs undergo random clearance but have a maximum lifespan of about 50 days. Under anaemic conditions reticulocyte production rate is linearly correlated with the difference between normal and anaemic RBC concentrations, and their release rate is exponentially correlated with the same. PHZ appears to age rather than kill RBCs, and younger RBCs are affected more than older RBCs. Blood sampling caused short aperiodic spikes in the proportion of reticulocytes which appear to have a different developmental pathway than normal reticulocytes. We also provide evidence of large diurnal oscillations in serum erythropoietin levels during anaemia

  14. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  15. Decreased growth rate of P. falciparum blood stage parasitemia with age in a holoendemic population.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Petravic, Janka; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-04-01

    In malaria holoendemic settings, decreased parasitemia and clinical disease is associated with age and cumulative exposure. The relative contribution of acquired immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle is not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether changes in infection dynamics can be best explained by decreasing rates of infection, or by decreased growth rates of parasites in blood. Here, we analyze the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages. We use both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detection of parasitemia in order to understand parasite growth rates and infection rates over time. The more sensitive PCR assay detects parasites earlier than microscopy, and demonstrates a higher overall prevalence of infection than microscopy alone. The delay between PCR and microscopy detection is significantly longer in adults compared with children, consistent with slower parasite growth with age. We estimated the parasite multiplication rate from delay to PCR and microscopy detections of parasitemia. We find that both the delay between PCR and microscopy infection as well as the differing reinfection dynamics in different age groups are best explained by a slowing of parasite growth with age.

  16. Usefulness of verapamil for congestive heart failure associated with abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling and normal left ventricular systolic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Setaro, J.F.; Zaret, B.L.; Schulman, D.S.; Black, H.R.; Soufer, R. )

    1990-10-15

    Normal left ventricular systolic performance with impaired left ventricular diastolic filling may be present in a substantial number of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). To evaluate the effect of oral verapamil in this subset, 20 men (mean age 68 +/- 5 years) with CHF, intact left ventricular function (ejection fraction greater than 45%) and abnormal diastolic filling (peak filling rate less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes per second (edv/s)) were studied in a placebo-controlled, double-blind 5-week crossover trial. All patients underwent echocardiography to rule out significant valvular disease, and thallium-201 stress scintigraphy to exclude major active ischemia. Compared to baseline values, verapamil significantly improved exercise capacity by 33% (13.9 +/- 4.3 vs 10.7 +/- 3.4 minutes at baseline) and peak filling rate by 30% (2.29 +/- 0.54 vs 1.85 +/- 0.45 edv/s at baseline) (all p less than 0.05). Placebo values were 12.3 +/- 4.0 minutes and 2.16 +/- 0.48 edv/s, respectively (difference not significant for both). Improvement from baseline in an objective clinico-radiographic heart failure score (scale 0 to 13) was significantly greater with verapamil compared to placebo (median improvement in score: 3 vs 1, p less than 0.01). Mean ejection fraction and systolic blood pressure were unchanged from baseline; diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased to a small degree. Verapamil may have therapeutic efficacy in patients with CHF, preserved systolic function and impaired diastolic filling.

  17. Some essential elements in maternal and cord blood in relation to birth weight and gestational age of the baby.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Mehrotra, P K; Srivastava, S P; Siddiqui, M K J

    2002-05-01

    Maternal and cord blood were collected from 54 Indian women at parturition and analyzed for Zn, Cu, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the relationship between levels of these elements in mother's and infant's blood and maternal age, birth weight, and gestational age of the baby. The blood Zn level of mothers in the age group 24-28 yr was significantly higher than those of mothers in the age group of 18-23 yr (p<0.05). Similarly, mothers in the 24 to 28-yr group also had higher blood Fe level than mothers in the group 29-38 yr (p<0.05). The levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in the maternal blood and lower, but not significantly, in the cord blood of low-birth-weight babies than in those of normal-birth-weight babies. However, differences in the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe between maternal and cord blood of the two birth-weight groups was statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the levels of the three elements in maternal or cord blood by the gestational age of the baby. A weak but significant correlation was found between the birth weight of the baby and the Fe level in the cord blood (r=0.26; p<0.05). Also, weak significant correlations were observed between gestational age of the baby and Fe (r=0.23; p<0.05) and Cu (r=0.31; p<0.05) levels in the cord blood. Although, there are many confounders of low birth weight and preterm deliveries, a diminished placental transfer of these essential elements could be one of the several etiological factors for low birth weight of newborns. PMID:12008981

  18. On mapping systolic algorithms onto the hypercube

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, O.H.; Sohn, S.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted toward developing efficient algorithms for systolic arrays. Here the authors consider the problem of mapping these algorithms into efficient algorithms for a fixed-size hypercube architecture. They describe in detail several optimal implementations of algorithms given for one-way one and two-dimensional systolic arrays. Since interprocessor communication is many times slower than local computation in parallel computers built to date, the problem of efficient communication is specifically addressed for these mappings. In order to experimentally validate the technique, five systolic algorithms were mapped in various ways onto a 64-node NCUBE/7 MMD hypercube machine. The algorithms are for the following problems: the shuffle scheduling problem, finite impulse response filtering, linear context-free language recognition, matrix multiplication, and computing the Boolean transitive closure. Experimental evidence indicates that good performance is obtained for the mappings.

  19. Systolic temporal arithmetic; A new formalism for specification and verification of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, N. ); Bayoumi, M.A. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel formalism named systolic temporal arithmetic (STA) suitable for describing arithmetic operations in dynamic environments. The motivation behind the development of STA is to use it for formal specifications and verifications of systolic arrays at the array architecture level. Besides providing value and operation abstraction from the lower level, it also exploits several features of systolic arrays such as synchrony, regularity, repeatability, modularity, pipelinability, parallel processing ability, as well as spatial and temporal locality. STA provides constructs and verification techniques for simple, efficient, and effective systolic array specification and verification. Verification techniques such as mathematical induction are suggested to exploit these systolic array features so as to speedup the process.

  20. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  1. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  2. A population-based study on blood pressure and brain atrophy in 85-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Skoog, I; Andreasson, L A; Landahl, S; Lernfelt, B

    1998-09-01

    In the general population, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure increases up to age 75 years but decreases thereafter. The brain has a role in blood pressure regulation; it is not clear whether the cerebral changes that occur with aging contribute to the decline in blood pressure in the very elderly. We examined a population-based sample of 484 85-year-old persons (344 nondemented and 140 demented, 61 with Alzheimer's disease, 65 with vascular dementia, and 14 with other types of dementia) with a neuropsychiatric examination and blood pressure measurements. Dementia was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, edition 3, revised. Brain atrophy was measured by CT of the brain. In the nondemented group, frontal (r=-0.18, P=0.037) and parietal (r=-0.23, P=0.008) cortical atrophy and bifrontal ratio (r=-0.20, P=0.013) were associated with lower systolic blood pressure, and frontal (r=-0.23, P=0.010) and parietal (r=-0.24, P=0.008) cortical atrophy and bifrontal ratio (r=-0.23, P=0.006) with lower diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure was lower in subjects with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, and diastolic blood pressure was lower in those with vascular dementia compared with the nondemented. Systolic (r=-0.27, P<0.0001) and diastolic (r=-0.10, P=0.020) blood pressure was negatively correlated to dementia severity. In the demented subjects, frontal cortical atrophy was correlated to lower diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.21, P=0.043). Our findings suggest that age-related changes in brain structure may contribute to the decrease in blood pressure in the very elderly and that low blood pressure in dementia disorders is mainly a secondary phenomenon. PMID:9740603

  3. Algorithms for systolic-array synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yiwan.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation presents efficient algorithms for solving some crucial transformation/optimization problems in the automatic synthesis of systolic arrays from algorithm specifications. The synthesis process consists of two steps. First, the given algorithm specification is transformed into a functionally equivalent form more amenable to systolic array implementation. Then, the computations defined by the equivalent form are assigned for execution on the processors (processor allocation) at different time steps (scheduling), with the objective that the time and space costs of the implementation be minimized. Many computation intensive algorithms, when expressed in their natural form, are unsuitable for systolic array implementations because they contain many-to-one data dependences (data sharing) which cannot be directly realized on processors with bounded fan-out and localized interconnections. A data routing scheme, called data propagation, is proposed which can be implemented as pipelining on a systolic array. It is shown that any data sharing can be transformed into data propagation and that the increase in I/O bandwidth requirement due to such transformation is bounded. Polynomial time procedures are devised for determining the necessary transformations. The time cost of a systolic array implementation of an algorithm is given by the product of two related quantities: the total number of systolic cycles required and the maximum duration of a cycle. It is shown that the scheduling which minimizes the time cost can be determined from solving a discrete optimization problem. Furthermore, the optimization problem is shown to have a bounded solution space, an efficient branch-and-bound method is proposed for determining the optimal solution. The space cost, on the other hand, is defined as the number of processors required for constructing the array.

  4. Blood Cadmium Levels in Women of Childbearing Age Vary by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  5. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death. PMID:21496231

  6. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  7. Deuterium oxide normalizes blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This study examined the effect of 25% deuterium oxide in drinking water on systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas of Dahl salt-sensitive rats on 0.4% (low) and 8% (high) sodium chloride (salt) diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II were on the low salt diet and groups III and IV on the high salt diet from 6 weeks of age. Additionally, at 10 weeks of age groups I and III were placed on 100% water and groups II and IV on 25% deuterium oxide. At 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in rats on the high salt diet as compared with those on the low salt diet. Deuterium oxide intake normalized systolic blood pressure and aortic calcium uptake but not aortic rubidium 86 uptake in hypertensive rats on the high salt diet. Deuterium oxide had no effect on blood pressure or aortic calcium uptake in rats on the low salt diet. The parallel increase in systolic blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake suggests that increased calcium uptake mechanisms are associated with hypertension in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. Furthermore, deuterium oxide appears to normalize elevated blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by normalizing elevated vascular (aortic) calcium uptake.

  8. The Burden of Blood-Pressure-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Hernández, Dora E.; Lundelin, Krista J.; Picazzo-Palencia, Esteban; de la Cruz, Juan J.; Sánchez, José J.; Banegas, José R.

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that in Mexico, a country at an advanced stage in the epidemiologic transition, with the national burden of disease dominated by noncommunicable diseases, elevated blood pressure is a major clinical and public health problem. 31.7% of the Mexican individuals aged 50 and over had systolic hypertension, and 47.3% were at systolic prehypertensive levels. Also, approximately half of all cardiovascular deaths that occurred annually in the population of Mexico aged ≥50 years are attributable to above optimal levels of systolic blood pressure. We think these estimates may help order health priorities in Mexico (and other middle-income countries) at a time when the costs of medical care take a considerable share of the gross national product in most countries. PMID:24678416

  9. Brachial vs. central systolic pressure and pulse wave transmission indicators: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L

    2014-12-01

    This critique is intended to provide background for the reader to evaluate the relative clinical utilities of brachial cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its derivatives, including pulse pressure, central systolic pressure, central augmentation index (AI), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA). The critical question is whether the newer indicators add sufficient information to justify replacing or augmenting brachial cuff blood pressure (BP) data in research and patient care. Historical context, pathophysiology of variations in pulse wave transmission and reflection, issues related to measurement and model errors, statistical limitations, and clinical correlations are presented, along with new comparative data. Based on this overview, there is no compelling scientific or practical reason to replace cuff SBP with any of the newer indicators in the vast majority of clinical situations. Supplemental value for central SBP may exist in defining patients with exaggerated PPA ("spurious systolic hypertension"), managing cardiac and aortic diseases, and in studies of cardiovascular drugs, but there are no current standards for these possibilities.

  10. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  11. Blood lead levels in children aged 5-9 years living in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Duarte, Diana; Echenique, Marlin; Guette, Jorge; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Parsons, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    During June-August 2004, blood lead (BPb) levels and various hematological parameters were evaluated in children aged 5-9 years old at ten primary schools located in eight neighborhoods in Cartagena, Colombia. The schools selected for this study are attended mainly by children from families of low income. A total of 189 subjects participated in the survey. The arithmetic mean+/-standard error BPb level was 5.49+/-0.23 microg/dL (range<1.0-21.0 microg/dL). The geometric mean was 4.74 microg/dL (95% CI: 4.29-5.18). A proportion of the children (7.4%) had BPb levels above the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's threshold of concern (10 microg Pb/dL). BPb levels were correlated weakly, but significantly and positively, with red blood cell count (RBC), and negatively with child body size, age, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). BPb levels did not differ significantly between boys and girls but significant differences were observed between neighborhoods (P<0.001). Activities such as metal melting-related processes and fishing net sinker production are the main sources of Pb exposure in Cartagena.

  12. The Characterization of Varicella Zoster Virus Specific T Cells In Skin and Blood During Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vukmanovic-Stejic, Milica; Sandhu, Daisy; Seidel, Judith A.; Patel, Neil; Sobande, Toni O.; Agius, Elaine; Jackson, Sarah E.; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Mabbott, Neil A.; Lacy, Katie E.; Ogg, Graham; Nestle, Frank O; Krueger, James G.; Rustin, Malcolm H.A.; Akbar, Arne N.

    2015-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) re-activation increases during ageing. Although the effects of VZV re-activation are observed in the skin (shingles) the number or functional capacity of cutaneous VZV specific T cells have not been investigated. The numbers of circulating IFN-γ secreting VZV specific CD4+ T cells are significantly decreased in old subjects however other measures of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells, including proliferative capacity to VZV antigen stimulation and identification of VZV-specific CD4+ T cells with a MHC class II tetramer (epitope of IE-63 protein), were similar in both age groups. The majority of T cells in the skin of both age groups expressed CD69, a characteristic of skin resident T cells. VZV-specific CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the skin compared to the blood in young and old subjects and their function was similar in both age groups. In contrast the number of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 on CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in the skin of older humans. Therefore VZV-specific CD4+ T cells in the skin of older individuals are functionally competent. However their activity may be restricted by multiple inhibitory influences in situ. PMID:25734814

  13. In vitro assays and clinical trials in red blood cell aging: Lost in translation.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The age of erythrocyte concentrates (EC) in transfusion medicine and the adverse outcomes when transfusing long-term-stored EC are highly controversial issues. Whereas the definition of a short-term-stored EC or a long-term-stored EC is unclear in clinical trials, data based on in vitro storage assays can help defining a limit in addition of the expiration date. The present review merges together these data in order to highlight an EC age cut-off and points out potential misleading consideration. The analysis of in vitro data highlights the presence of reversible and irreversible storage lesions and demonstrates that red blood cells (RBC) exhibit two limits during storage: one around 2 weeks and another one around 4 weeks of storage. Of particular importance, the first lesions to appear, i.e. the reversible ones, are per se reversible once transfused, whereas the irreversible lesions are not. In clinical trials, the EC age cut-off for short-term storage is in general fewer than 14 days (11 ± 4 days) and more disperse for long-term-stored EC (17 ± 13 days), regardless the clinical outcomes. Taking together, EC age cut-off in clinical trials does not totally fall into line of in vitro aging data, whereas it is the key criteria in clinical studies. Long-term-stored EC considered in clinical trials are not probably old enough to answer the question: "Does transfusion of long-term-stored EC (older than 4 weeks) result in worse clinical outcomes?" Depending on ethical concerns and clinical practices, older EC than currently assayed in clinical trials should have to be considered. These two worlds trying to understand the aging of erythrocytes and the impact on patients do not seem to speak the same language.

  14. Preferential phagocytosis of in vivo aged murine red blood cells by a macrophage-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S; Singer, J A; Morrison, M; Jackson, C W

    1984-10-01

    The ability of an established line of mouse macrophages (IC-21) to ingest red blood cells (RBC) aged in vivo was assessed. RBC populations of increasing age were prepared in mice by serial hypertransfusion, a procedure that inhibits erythropoiesis. Mouse RBC with a mean age of about 58 d (normal RBC life span, 60 d) had a circulating half-life of less than 1 d when transfused into normal mice. IC-21 macrophages ingested the in vivo aged RBC in preference to RBC from normal mice (mean RBC age, 30 d). RBC isolated from mice 10 d after being released from one red blood cell lifespan (60 d) of inhibited erythropoiesis (mean RBC age 5 d) were ingested significantly less than RBC from normal mice. The IC-21 macrophage line used with in vivo aged RBC affords a highly defined model system for identifying the mechanism(s) of macrophage-mediated homeostasis. PMID:6477835

  15. Synthesis, verification, and optimization of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rajopadhye, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the issue of providing a sound theoretical basis for three important issues relating to systolic arrays, namely synthesis, verification, and optimization. Former research has concentrated on analysis of the dependency structure of the computation, and there have been numerous approaches to map this dependency structure onto a locally interconnected network. This study pursues a similar approach, but with a major generalization of the class of problems analyzed. In earlier research, it was essential that the dependencies were expressible as constant vectors (from a point in the domain to the points that it depended on); here they are permitted to be arbitrary linear functions of the point. Theory for synthesizing systolic architectures from such generalized specifications is developed. Also a systematic (mechanizable) approach to the synthesis of systolic architectures that have control signals is presented. In the areas of verification and optimization, a rigorous mathematical framework is presented that permits reasoning about the behavior of systolic arrays as functions on streams of data. Using this approach, the verification of such architectures reduces to the problem of verification of functional program.s

  16. A unified systolic array for adaptive beamforming

    SciTech Connect

    Bojanczyk, A.W.; Luk, F.T. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors present a new algorithm and systolic array for adaptive beamforming. The authors algorithm uses only orthogonal transformations and thus should have better numerical properties. The algorithm can be implemented on one single p {times} p triangular array of programmable processors that offers a throughput of one residual element per cycle.

  17. Systolic Architectures For Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. N.; Vlontzos, J. A.; Kung, S. Y.

    1988-10-01

    This paper proposes an unidirectional ring systolic architecture for implementing the hidden Markov models (HMMs). This array architecture maximizes the strength of VLSI in terms of intensive and pipelined computing and yet circumvents the limitation on communication. Both the scoring and learning phases of an HMM are formulated as a consecutive matrix-vector multiplication problem, which can be executed in a fully pipelined fashion (100% utilization effi-ciency) by using an unidirectional ring systolic architecture. By appropriately scheduling the algorithm, which combines both the operations of the backward evaluation procedure and reestimation algorithm at the same time, we can use this systolic HMM in a most efficient manner. The systolic HMM can also be easily adapted to the left-to-right HMM by using bidirectional semi-global links with significant time saving. This architecture can also incorporate the scaling scheme with little extra effort in the computations of forward and backward evaluation variables to prevent the frequently encountered mathematical undertow problems. We also discuss a possible implementation of this proposed architecture using Inmos transputer (T-800) as the building block.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of blood-brain barrier breakdown in the peri-infarct zone in young adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nahirney, Patrick C; Reeson, Patrick; Brown, Craig E

    2016-02-01

    Following ischemia, the blood-brain barrier is compromised in the peri-infarct zone leading to secondary injury and dysfunction that can limit recovery. Currently, it is uncertain what structural changes could account for blood-brain barrier permeability, particularly with aging. Here we examined the ultrastructure of early and delayed changes (3 versus 72 h) to the blood-brain barrier in young adult and aged mice (3-4 versus 18 months) subjected to photothrombotic stroke. At both time points and ages, permeability was associated with a striking increase in endothelial caveolae and vacuoles. Tight junctions were generally intact although small spaces were detected in a few cases. In young mice, ischemia led to a significant increase in pericyte process area and vessel coverage whereas these changes were attenuated with aging. Stroke led to an expansion of the basement membrane region that peaked at 3 h and partially recovered by 72 h in both age groups. Astrocyte endfeet and their mitochondria were severely swollen at both times points and ages. Our results suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability in young and aged animals is mediated by transcellular pathways (caveolae/vacuoles), rather than tight junction loss. Further, our data indicate that the effects of ischemia on pericytes and basement membrane are affected by aging. PMID:26661190

  19. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  20. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  1. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  2. Improvements in blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipoprotein lipids after aerobic exercise plus weight loss in obese, hypertensive middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Dengel, D R; Hagberg, J M; Pratley, R E; Rogus, E M; Goldberg, A P

    1998-09-01

    The clustering of metabolic abnormalities often associated with hypertension, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia, in middle-aged men may be the result of a decrease in cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and the accumulation of body fat with aging. This study examines the effects of a 6-month program of aerobic exercise training plus weight loss (AEX+WL) on VO2max, body composition, blood pressure (BP), glucose and insulin responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose infusion rates (GIR) during 3-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at insulin infusion rates of 120, 600, and 3,000 pmol x m(-2) x min(-1), and plasma lipoprotein levels. Compared with eight non-obese, normotensive, sedentary men (age, 62+/-2 years; 19%+/-2% fat; BP, 117+/-4/72+/-2 mm Hg), the nine obese, hypersensitive, sedentary men studied (age, 56+/-1 year; 32%+/-1% body fat; BP, 147+/-3/93+/-2 mm Hg) initially had a larger waist girth and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and were more hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant with lower GIR at the two lower insulin infusion rates of the clamp and had a 2.9-fold higher EC50, the insulin concentration producing a half-maximal increase in GIR. They had higher triglyceride (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. The AEX+WL intervention reduced body weight by 9%, percent body fat by 21%, waist girth by 9%, and WHR by 3%, and increased VO2max by 16% (P < .01 for all). This was associated with decreases of 14+/-3 mm Hg in systolic and 10+/-2 mm Hg in diastolic BP, significant changes in GIR at the low (+42%) and intermediate (+39%) insulin infusion rates and EC50 (-39%) and in glucose (-21%) and insulin (-51%) responses during OGTT (P < .02 for all). AEX+WL also lowered total cholesterol by 14% and TG by 34%, and raised HDL2-C levels twofold (P < .01 for all). Thus, a 6-month AEX+WL intervention substantially lowers BP and improves glucose and lipid metabolism in obese, sedentary

  3. Relationship between Age and Peripheral White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Parsa, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Total white blood cells (WBCs) decrease slightly in the elderly. In response to an acute infection, the number of WBCs increases and in sepsis, the increase is very dramatic. There are some reports about the effects of increased number of WBCs as a predisposing factor of bacteremia. An association between neutrophilia and eucopenia and increased mortality rate in the elderly has also been observed. We compared peripheral WBC counts in young and elderly patients with sepsis. Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 130 admitted patients who were divided into two groups based on age, ≥ 65 years (case group) and < 65 years (control group). All patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of sepsis in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran, 2001-2006. Results: Mean WBC counts at admission time were 17061.5 ± 14240.2 /μl in the case group and 13567.7 ± 9888.0 /ml in the control group. There were statistically significant associations between age and history of infection and history of hospitalization during the last month in the case group and also between age and source of infection (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The history of infection and the history of hospitalization during the last month with sepsis are important risk factors in elders. PMID:22174963

  4. Associations of Blood Pressure with Body Composition among Afro-Caribbean Children in Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Pamela S.; Hall, Ryan V.; Chami, Peter; St. John, Margaret A.; Gaskin, David A.; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Harding, Seeromanie

    2015-01-01

    Despite complex presentation of adult hypertension and a concomitant obesity epidemic, little is known about overweight in relation to blood pressure among Caribbean children. We examined blood pressure in relation to body size in a cross-sectional study of 573 Barbadian children aged 9–10 years (2010-2011).The United States normative blood pressure percentiles were used to identify children with high (≥ 95th percentile) or high normal blood pressure (90th – 95th percentile). The World Health Organization body mass index cut-off points were used to assess weight status. Major findings Thirty percent of children were overweight/obese. Percentage fat mass differed between girls (20.4%) and boys (17.72%) (p< 0.05). Mean systolic blood pressure among girls was 106.11 (95% CI 105.05, 107.17) mmHg and 105.23 (104.09, 106.38) for boys. The percentages with high or high-normal mean systolic blood pressurewere14.38% (10.47, 18.29) for girls and 8.08% (4.74, 11.41) for boys. Height and body mass index were independent correlates of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Mean systolic blood pressure was related to lean mass but not fat mass, while diastolic blood pressure was associated with fat mass index and overweight. Principal conclusion One third of 9-10 year old children in Barbados were overweight/obese and 12% had elevated mean systolic blood pressure. BP was related to body size. These findings signal potential adverse trends in weight gain and BP trends for children growing up in the context of a country that has recently undergone rapid economic transition. PMID:25815726

  5. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  6. Human Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Are Present in Normal Peripheral Blood of Young, Middle-Aged, and Aged Subjects.

    PubMed

    Sovalat, Hanna; Scrofani, Maurice; Eidenschenk, Antoinette; Hénon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether the number of human very small embryonic-like stem cells (huVSELs) would vary depending on the age of humans. HuVSELs frequency was evaluated into the steady-state (SS) peripheral blood (PB) of healthy volunteers using flow cytometry analysis. Their numbers were compared with volunteers' age. Blood samples were withdrawn from 28 volunteers (age ranging from 20 to 70 years), who were distributed among three groups of age: "young" (mean age, 27.8 years), "middle" (mean age, 49 years), and "older" (mean age, 64.2 years). Comparing the three groups, we did not observe any statistically significant difference in huVSELs numbers between them. The difference in mRNA expression for PSC markers as SSEA-4, Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 between the three groups of age was not statistically significant. A similar frequency of huVSELs into the SS-PB of young, middle-aged, and aged subjects may indicate that the VSELs pool persists all along the life as a reserve for tissue repair in case of minor injury and that there is a continuous efflux of these cells from the BM into the PB.

  7. Human Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Are Present in Normal Peripheral Blood of Young, Middle-Aged, and Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sovalat, Hanna; Scrofani, Maurice; Eidenschenk, Antoinette; Hénon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether the number of human very small embryonic-like stem cells (huVSELs) would vary depending on the age of humans. HuVSELs frequency was evaluated into the steady-state (SS) peripheral blood (PB) of healthy volunteers using flow cytometry analysis. Their numbers were compared with volunteers' age. Blood samples were withdrawn from 28 volunteers (age ranging from 20 to 70 years), who were distributed among three groups of age: “young” (mean age, 27.8 years), “middle” (mean age, 49 years), and “older” (mean age, 64.2 years). Comparing the three groups, we did not observe any statistically significant difference in huVSELs numbers between them. The difference in mRNA expression for PSC markers as SSEA-4, Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 between the three groups of age was not statistically significant. A similar frequency of huVSELs into the SS-PB of young, middle-aged, and aged subjects may indicate that the VSELs pool persists all along the life as a reserve for tissue repair in case of minor injury and that there is a continuous efflux of these cells from the BM into the PB. PMID:26633977

  8. Mental stress-induced increase in blood pressure is not related to baroreflex sensitivity in middle-aged healthy men.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, J P; Cerutti, C; Quelin, P; Laville, M; Gustin, M P; Paultre, C Z; Ducher, M

    2000-04-01

    The baroreflex that acts to blunt blood pressure (BP) variations through opposite variations in heart rate should limit the BP increase produced by an emotional challenge. However, relations between baroreflex sensitivity and BP reactivity induced by a psychological stress in a large group of adults have never been firmly established. In 280 healthy men, rest (10 minutes) and stress (5 minutes) BP and heart rate were recorded beat to beat by a blood pressure monitor. The mental stress was elicited by a well-standardized computerized version of a word color conflict stress test (Stroop Color Test). Rest and stress baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by the cross-spectral analysis of BP and heart rate and by the sequence method. The stress-induced increase in systolic BP (22.4+/-0.1 mm Hg) was not correlated with resting baroreflex sensitivity but was slightly correlated (r=0.2, P<0.001) with BP variability assessed either by standard deviation or by mid-frequency band spectral power. Our results suggested that a centrally mediated sympathetic stimulation overcame cardiac autonomic regulation and emphasized the role of the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the pressure response at the onset of the stressing stimulation. During the sustained sympathoexcitatory phase, the cardiac baroreflex blunts BP variations but at a lower sensitivity.

  9. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  10. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  11. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  12. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  13. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Torrico-Lavayen, Rocío; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; Carvajal-Aguilera, Karla G.; Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS. PMID:27293881

  14. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    PubMed

    Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Torrico-Lavayen, Rocío; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; Carvajal-Aguilera, Karla G; Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS. PMID:27293881

  15. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    estrogen in the aging blood vessels and thereby enhancing the efficacy and safety of MHT in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:19442151

  16. Role of blood volume in the age-associated decline in peak oxygen uptake in humans.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Takamata, A; Yaegashi, K; Itoh, T; Yoshida, T; Kawabata, T; Kimura, M; Morimoto, T

    2001-10-01

    It has been reported that maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) is linearly correlated with blood volume (BV) in young people and that there is a reduction in VO(2 max) with aging. To examine the involvement of BV in the reduction of VO(2 max), we used an incremental cycle ergometer protocol in a semi-recumbent position to determine the relationship between peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) and BV in older subjects (69.1 +/- 1.0 years; n = 22), then compared that relationship with that in young subjects (22.3 +/- 0.5 years; n = 31). In the present study, VO(2 peak) and BV were significantly lower in the older subjects, compared with those in the young subjects. A linear correlation was demonstrated between the VO(2 peak) and BV in both the older (r = 0.705; p < 0.001) and the young (r = 0.681; p < 0.001) subjects within the groups. However, an analysis of covariance with BV as a covariate revealed that VO(2 peak) at a given BV was smaller in the older subjects than in the young subjects (p < 0.001), i.e., graphically, the regression line determined for the older subjects showed a downward shift. The decreased peak heart rate as a result of aging (153 +/- 3 beats/min in the older vs. 189 +/- 2 beats/min in the young subjects) contributed partly to this downward shift. These results suggest that the BV is an important determinant factor for VO(2 peak), especially within an age group, and that the age-associated decline of VO(2 peak) is also, to a relatively larger degree, because of factors other than BV and heart rate.

  17. Comparison of blood pressure between Indiana AMA and NMA members.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, F. M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: 1) To determine whether African-American physicians, compared to caucasian physicians, were at increased risk to develop hypertension; and 2) to determine whether physicians' knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors influenced their pattern of exercise. DESIGN: A mailed survey of members of the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Medical Association (NMA) was completed to assess health status and plans for retirement. RESULTS: High-normal blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure of 85-89 mmHg. Mild (stage-1) hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of 140-159 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 90-99 mmHg. Gender (male), age, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly correlated with elevated levels of selected blood pressure measures. Using regression analysis to control for gender, age, and BMI, ethnicity was identified as a fourth factor accounting for elevated blood pressure. NMA physicians had 3.25 times the risk of having systolic blood pressure in the mild (stage-1) hypertension range, 5.78 times the risk for blood pressure in the high-normal diastolic hypertension range, and 5.19 times the risk for blood pressure in the mild (stage-1) diastolic hypertension range. Medical specialty and type of psychological support were not significant predictors of elevated blood pressure. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that African-American physicians may be at an increased risk to develop abnormal blood pressure, compared to caucasian physicians, potentially affecting the number of physicians available to minority communities. PMID:14651369

  18. Review of isolated systolic hypertension in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Neetha; Cappuzzo, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    A 75-year-old patient comes to a community pharmacy to refill her blood pressure (BP) medications. She approached the pharmacist complaining of a headache and an unusually high BP reading that she had gotten from the automated machine. The patient was unaware of her usual BP, but knew that the reading was unusually high for her. Following evaluation of the patient and after obtaining several high systolic BP readings, the pharmacist appropriately calls for an ambulance. At the hospital, the patient is told she is in need of triple-bypass surgery. After her hospital stay, the patient is now diligent about refilling her BP medications on time and consistently monitors and records her BP at home. Isolated systolic hypertension is a growing concern in older adults, and a large percentage of adults are not appropriately managed. Pharmacists play an active role in educating patients on the importance of high BP monitoring and adherence to minimize the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:20534408

  19. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  20. IQ and Blood Lead from 2 to 7 Years of Age: Are the Effects in Older Children the Residual of High Blood Lead Concentrations in 2-Year-Olds?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ware, James H.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18–30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4–6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20–44 μg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  1. Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Blood Pressure and Glucose among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Aihua; Zhang, Guanrong; Liu, Zhiting; Gu, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Luo, Futian

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that lifestyle interventions can reduce blood pressure (BP) and glucose levels, there is little information about the feasibility of such interventions when implemented in community settings. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle intervention on BP and glucose in the middle-aged and older Chinese population. By using a cluster randomisation approach, 474 participants from two communities were assigned to the intervention group which received intensive health education and behavioural intervention, or the control group which received conventional education. Linear mixed models were used to compare between-group differences on change in BP and fasting glucose after 6, 12 and 24 months. At the 12-month follow-up, the intervention group experienced significantly reductions in systolic BP (−4.9 vs. 2.4 mmHg; mean difference [MD] −7.3 mmHg; p < 0.001), diastolic BP (−1.9 vs. 1.9 mmHg; MD −3.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−0.59 vs. 0.08 mmol/L; MD −0.67 mmol/L; p < 0.001). These differences were sustained at the 24-month follow-up. With only two communities, it was not possible to adjust for potential clustering by site. This approach of lifestyle interventions conducted through primary care services may be a potential solution for combating hypertension and diabetes in a resource-limited country context in China. PMID:25402562

  2. Bidiagonalization and symmetric tridiagonalization by systolic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert

    1988-01-01

    A systolic algorithm and an array for bidiagonalization of an nxn matrix in O(nlog(2)n) time, using O(n to the 2nd power) cells are given. Bandedness of the input matrix may be effectively exploited. If the matrix is banded, with p nonzero subdiagonals and q nonzero superdiagonals, then 4nln(p + q) + O(n) clocks and 2n(p + q) + O((p + q) to the 2nd power + n) cells are needed. This is faster than the best previously reported result by the factor log(2)e = 1.44.... Moreover, in contrast to earlier systolic designs, which require the matrix to be preloaded into the array and the result matrix extracted after bidiagonalization, the present arrays are pipelined.

  3. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases.

  4. Hardware description languages for systolic architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.

    1984-10-01

    Systolic principles can be used to construct special purpose computer systems that achieve high throughput by exploiting algorithmic properties. These principles of regularity, localized communications, and parallel/pipelined execution nicely match the capabilities of integrated circuit technology. Hence, systolic arrays are an attractive method for building high-speed special-purpose hardware to rapidly solve sophisticated problems. However, the use of special-purpose hardware limits the applications base, making fixed costs such as those associated with system design much more critical. Although design costs are in part reduced by the very nature of systolic systems, further reduction can result from the use of automated design and descriptive tools. The design process stretches from the conception of the algorithm and its mapping onto an architecture down to the electronic implementation. In general, a good set of design tools allows the designer to describe, test, and trade off only those factors that are important at that particular point in the design process. A principle requirement in automating the design process is a formal notational mechanism that is capable of providing complete and unambiguous descriptions of the concepts being explored. This notational mechanism then provides a common basis for comparisons between alternate methods and an input mechanism to automated design tools. This thesis identifies the notational features that are necessary for the description of highly parallel, regular architectures such as systolic arrays. A set of language criteria is developed. A number of the more popular HDLs are evaluated using these criteria and their shortcomings noted. 65 references.

  5. Optical systolic array processor using residue arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of residue arithmetic to increase the accuracy and reduce the dynamic range requirements of optical matrix-vector processors is evaluated. It is determined that matrix-vector operations and iterative algorithms can be performed totally in residue notation. A new parallel residue quantizer circuit is developed which significantly improves the performance of the systolic array feedback processor. Results are presented of a computer simulation of this system used to solve a set of three simultaneous equations.

  6. Blood pressure in children and adolescents with Cushing's syndrome before and after surgical care.

    PubMed

    Magiakou, M A; Mastorakos, G; Zachman, K; Chrousos, G P

    1997-06-01

    Approximately half of children and adolescents with Cushing's syndrome develop hypertension. To examine the role of hypercortisolism in the pathogenesis of hypertension in young patients and to establish its reversibility, we studied 31 hypertensive children and adolescents with Cushing's syndrome (systolic, diastolic, and/or mean blood pressure more than 2 SD U for age and sex) from a total of 63 patients before, and for a period of 1 yr after surgical cure. Preoperatively, 93.5%, 42%, and 45% of these patients presented with an increase of the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively. The systolic blood pressure remained increased in 30.7%, 15.8%, and 5.5% of patients at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgical cure, respectively. The diastolic and mean blood pressure completely normalized by 3 months after surgical cure. A significant, positive correlation was observed between the systolic blood pressure and the duration of the disease, but no correlation was seen with the 24-h urinary free cortisol values and/or the patients' body mass indices. The lack of correlation between 24-h urinary free cortisol values and blood pressure suggests that hypercortisolism influences blood pressure through multiple pathways. The positive correlation between the systolic blood pressure and the duration of the disease points towards the deleterious effects of prolonged hypercortisolism and the significance of early diagnosis and treatment. The fact that the blood pressure normalized within a year from the correction of hypercortisolism suggests that, as a rule, young patients with hypercortisolism do not develop essential hypertension. PMID:9177372

  7. [Frequency of phenotypes and genes of the polymorphic blood systems in a population as dependent on the age factor].

    PubMed

    Mozalevskiĭ, A F; Iushchenko, G K; Dudina, E A

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of blood groups ABO, Rh, MNS, P, haptoglobin as well as distribution of phenotypic combinations of two different loci are compared in groups of children and adults. The frequency of phenotype O, Rh-negative and P-positive people is revealed to increase in adults, that testifies to the influence of the age factor on the distribution of the human polymorphic blood systems.

  8. Reappraisal of the relation between blood lead concentration and blood pressure among the general population in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, N. F.; Liou, S. H.; Wu, T. N.; Chang, P. Y.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relation between blood lead concentration (PbB) and blood pressure was examined in a Taiwan nationwide population survey of PbB from July 1993 to June 1994. METHODS: After multistage sampling procedures, 2800 subjects (1471 males and 1329 females) with a mean (range) age of 44 (15-85) years were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors were measured during household visits. The PbB was measured with a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer and all specimens were analysed in triplicate. RESULTS: The mean (range) PbB among all study subjects was 6.5 (0.1-69.1) micrograms/dl; among males it was 7.3 (0.1-69.1) micrograms/dl and among females 5.7 (0.1-40.1) micrograms/dl). The mean (range) systolic blood pressure among all subjects was 123 (80-210) mm Hg, among males it was 127 (80-200) mm Hg and among females 119 (80- 210) mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure among all subjects was 78 (40- 150) mm Hg; among males it was 80 (40-130) mm Hg; and among females 75 (40-150) mm Hg. Age, body height, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure in both sexes. The PbB (or the natural logarithmic transformed PbB) was not significantly correlated with blood pressure among males or females. After adjustment for the potential confounders of age, age2, BMI, milk intake, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with PbB among males with a regression coefficient (beta) of 0.185 (p = 0.015). No significant association between PbB and blood pressure was found among females. CONCLUSIONS: From this study, only a weak association between systolic blood pressure and PbB was found among males. There was no strong evidence that PbB was a good predictor of blood pressure. However, the possibility that long term high body lead burden could cause high blood pressure could not be ruled out on the basis

  9. Association between perioperative blood transfusion and early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged patients following total hip replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Si-Hai; Ji, Mu-Huo; Gao, Da-Peng; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Blood transfusion can trigger an enhancement of acute inflammatory responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that perioperative blood transfusion is associated with a higher risk of POCD in aged patients following total hip replacement surgery. Material and methods Patients older than 65 years undergoing elective total hip replacement surgery were enrolled from October 2011 to December 2012. Neurocognitive tests were evaluated at baseline and at 7 d after surgery by a Mini-Mental State Test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with POCD. Results Fifty-six patients (27.3%) developed POCD 7 d postoperatively. Patients who developed POCD were older, had a lower education level and preoperative hemoglobin concentration, had more blood loss, and had a lower body weight (p < 0.05). Patients with POCD were more likely to receive red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion (51.8% versus 31.5%; p < 0.05). A multivariable logistic regression model identified older age, lower education level, and perioperative blood transfusion of more than 3 units as independent risk factors for POCD 7 d postoperatively. Conclusion Our data suggested that perioperative blood transfusion of more than 3 units of RBCs is an independent risk factor for POCD in aged patients following total hip replacement surgery. PMID:24345210

  10. Vascular calcification is not associated with increased ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure in prevalent dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Freercks, Robert J; Swanepoel, Charles R; Turest-Swartz, Kristy L; Rayner, Brian L; Carrara, Henri RO; Moosa, Sulaiman EI; Lachman, Anthony S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) strongly predicts cardiovascular outcomes. We undertook to measure ambulatory CASP in 74 prevalent dialysis patients using the BPro (HealthStats, Singapore) device. We also determined whether coronary or abdominal aortic calcification was associated with changes in CASP and whether interdialytic CASP predicted ambulatory measurement. Methods All patients underwent computed tomography for coronary calcium score, lateral abdominal radiography for aortic calcium score, echocardiography for left ventricular mass index and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using BPro calibrated to brachial blood pressure. HealthStats was able to convert standard BPro SOFT® data into ambulatory CASP. Results Ambulatory CASP was not different in those without and with coronary (137.6 vs 141.8 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.6) or aortic (136.6 vs 145.6 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.2) calcification. Furthermore, when expressed as a percentage of brachial systolic blood pressure to control for peripheral blood pressure, any difference in CASP was abolished: CASP: brachial systolic blood pressure ratio = 0.9 across all categories regardless of the presence of coronary or aortic calcification (p = 0.2 and 0.4, respectively). Supporting this finding, left ventricular mass index was also not different in those with or without vascular calcification (p = 0.7 and 0.8 for coronary and aortic calcification). Inter-dialytic office blood pressure and CASP correlated excellently with ambulatory measurements (r = 0.9 for both). Conclusion Vascular calcification was not associated with changes in ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure in this cohort of prevalent dialysis patients. Inter-dialytic blood pressure and CASP correlated very well with ambulatory measurement. PMID:24626513

  11. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Systolic Dysfunction: Clinical and Echocardiographic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Tasso Julio; Pachon, Carlos Thiene; Pachon, Jose Carlos; Pachon, Enrique Indalecio; Pachon, Maria Zelia; Pachon, Juan Carlos; Santillana, Tomas Guillermo; Zerpa, Juan Carlos; Albornoz, Remy Nelson; Jatene, Adib Domingos

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist in a deleterious cycle. Objective To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction and AF treated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Methods Patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction [ejection fraction (EF) <50%] and AF refractory to drug therapy underwent stepwise RF ablation in the same session with pulmonary vein isolation, ablation of AF nests and of residual atrial tachycardia, named "background tachycardia". Clinical (NYHA functional class) and echocardiographic (EF, left atrial diameter) data were compared (McNemar test and t test) before and after ablation. Results 31 patients (6 women, 25 men), aged 37 to 77 years (mean, 59.8±10.6), underwent RF ablation. The etiology was mainly idiopathic (19 p, 61%). During a mean follow-up of 20.3±17 months, 24 patients (77%) were in sinus rhythm, 11 (35%) being on amiodarone. Eight patients (26%) underwent more than one procedure (6 underwent 2 procedures, and 2 underwent 3 procedures). Significant NYHA functional class improvement was observed (pre-ablation: 2.23±0.56; postablation: 1.13±0.35; p<0.0001). The echocardiographic outcome also showed significant ventricular function improvement (EF pre: 44.68%±6.02%, post: 59%±13.2%, p=0.0005) and a significant left atrial diameter reduction (pre: 46.61±7.3 mm; post: 43.59±6.6 mm; p=0.026). No major complications occurred. Conclusion Our findings suggest that AF ablation in patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction is a safe and highly effective procedure. Arrhythmia control has a great impact on ventricular function recovery and functional class improvement. PMID:25387404

  12. Education, lifestyle and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1990-01-01

    Lower education is associated with higher blood pressure and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. It is hypothesized that education is most important as a risk factor for high blood pressure to the extent that an individual's style of life is incongruent with his or her education. Style of life is defined here on the basis of the accumulation of consumer goods and exposure to mass media. It was found, in a study of blood pressure in an African-American community, that lifestyle incongruity, or the degree to which style of life exceeded education, was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, adjusting for age, sex, Body Mass Index, income, chronic social stressors, and Type A behavior. It is argued that this incongruity leads to recurring frustrating social interactions, which in turn are related to higher blood pressure.

  13. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  14. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  15. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  16. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8–10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail. PMID:25243007

  17. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail.

  18. Impaired skeletal muscle blood flow control with advancing age in humans: attenuated ATP release and local vasodilation during erythrocyte deoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S.; Crecelius, Anne R.; Voyles, Wyatt F.; Dinenno, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Skeletal muscle blood flow is coupled with the oxygenation state of hemoglobin in young adults, whereby the erythrocyte functions as an oxygen sensor and releases ATP during deoxygenation to evoke vasodilation. Whether this function is impaired in humans of advanced age is unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that older adults demonstrate impaired muscle blood flow and lower intravascular ATP during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation. Methods and Results We show impaired forearm blood flow (FBF) responses during two conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation (systemic hypoxia and graded handgrip exercise) with age, and this is due to reduced local vasodilation. In young adults, both hypoxia and exercise significantly increased venous [ATP] and ATP effluent (FBF × [ATP]) draining skeletal muscle. In contrast, hypoxia and exercise did not increase [ATP]v in older adults, and both [ATP]v and ATP effluent were substantially reduced compared with young despite similar levels of deoxygenation. Next, we demonstrate that this cannot be explained by augmented extracellular ATP hydrolysis in whole blood with age. Finally, we found that deoxygenation-mediated ATP release from isolated erythrocytes is essentially non-existent in older adults. Conclusions Skeletal muscle blood flow during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation is markedly reduced in aging humans, and reductions in plasma ATP and erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may be a novel mechanism underlying impaired vasodilation and oxygen delivery during hypoxemia with advancing age. Because aging is associated with elevated risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and exercise intolerance, interventions targeting erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may offer therapeutic potential. PMID:22647875

  19. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  20. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  1. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-03-31

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D.

  2. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  3. Increasing body mass index, blood pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans abnormalities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A; Rodriguez, Melinda C; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with AN as the dependent variable, with year, gender, BMI, and BP as independent variables. The results indicate that the rate of children in each grade with three positive markers increased 2% during a 3-year period between 2008 and 2010. In the 5-year period between 2005 and 2010, a clear trend of significantly higher numbers of children with both AN and BMI markers was apparent. Gender played a significant role as females were more likely to have the AN marker than males. Further study is indicated based on the increasing trend of school-age children in Texas with positive markers for AN, increased BMI and BP.

  4. Comparison between continuous ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring and standard blood pressure measurements among patients of younger and older age group.

    PubMed

    Babić, Betty Korljan; Bagatin, Jugoslav; Kokić, Slaven; Ostojić, Sanja Barsić; Carević, Vedran; Berović, Nina

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between blood pressure measured in a physician's office and the average 24 hr continuous blood pressure monitored by hypertensive patients at home. If there is a difference between these two situations then is it possibly the result of a blood pressure response by the patient to the physician which is known as "white coat effect" or "white coat hypertension". We studied 80 hypertensive outpatients which were divided into two groups of 40 patients each--a younger patient group, with a mean age of 22.8 +/- 1.8 years, and an older patient group with a mean age of 50.3 +/- 5.7 years. They were selected because they had been diagnosed as essentially hypertension grade 1, according to 2007 ESH/ESC Guidelines, or the USA Joint National Committee Guidelines (JNC 7) (i.e., arterial blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg and < 160/100 mmHg) and 35 were not having any antihypertensive treatment. All participants in the study went through a two-week "wash-out" period without medication. At the beginning of the study blood pressure was measured using the Riva-Rocci-Korotkoff method (mercury sphygmomanometer) after 5 minutes of rest and with the patient in the sitting position. The average of the two last measurements by sphygmomanometer was used in the analysis. The subsequent measurement was made by continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207 device). Continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed that 17 patients of the younger age group (42.5%) who were diagnosed hypertonic, according to mercury sphygmomanometeric measurement, were in fact normotonic. In the older age group only 7 (17.5%) of participants were normotonic during 24 hr blood pressure monitoring. The proportion of miss-diagnosed normotonic younger patients was directly related to elevated clinic blood pressure, which could be referred to as office hypertension or isolated clinic hypertension (white coat hypertension

  5. Blood pressure trends and hypertension among rural and urban Jat women of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2012-03-01

    Hypertension is an important public health problem and the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among aged and elderly population in India. The present study is an attempt to assess age related trends of blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban women as well as correlation of blood pressure with obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHR). Data for present cross-sectional study were collected by purposive sampling method from six hundred Jat women (300 rural and 300 urban), aged 40 to 70 years. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was employed to find the relationship between blood pressure and obesity indicators. The results revealed an age associated increase in mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in rural and urban women. Urban women showed significantly higher overall mean value of systolic (mm of Hg) (133.93 vs. 130.79, p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (mm of Hg) (84.34 vs. 82.81, p < 0.01) and pulse rate (81.72 +/- 6.27 vs. 80.94 +/- 9.06, p > 0.05) as compared to rural women. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 9% in rural and 26.66% in urban women as per JNC VII criteria. Increased prominence of hypertension among urban Jat women may be attributed to their modern lifestyle having more stress, less manual work and faulty dietary habits. There was a very low awareness of hypertension in the rural subjects (37%) than their urban (72%) counterparts. Rural and urban women revealed a positive and significant association of systolic blood pressure with body mass index, whereas only urban women displayed positive correlation of waist circumference with systolic (r = 0.183**) and diastolic (r = 0.151**) blood pressure.

  6. Age-related changes in skin blood flow at four anatomic sites of the body in males studied by xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.

    1990-04-01

    The normal skin blood flow in healthy subjects consisting of 28 males whose ages ranged from 20 to 72 years was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method at four different sites of the body to determine the presence of any age-related changes. The following results were obtained: Significant age-related changes were observed in the skin blood flow of the deltoid region, anterior chest, dorsum of the hand, and dorsum of the foot. Normal skin blood flow was demonstrated to be highly dependent on age and to significantly decrease with age. Average skin blood flow at these four regions of those 70 years of age decreased by 30 to 40 percent when compared to that of those 20 years of age. The skin blood flow at the deltoid region of healthy subjects was higher by 6.3 ml/100 gm per minute than that of patients in poor condition with cancer of the head and neck.

  7. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  8. The influence of ageing and surface type on the odour profile of blood-detection dog training aids.

    PubMed

    Rust, LaTara; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Cadaver-detection dogs are a preferred search tool utilised by law enforcement agencies for the purposes of locating victim remains due to their efficiency and minimal disturbance to the crime scene. In Australia, a specific group of these canines are blood-detection dogs, which are trained to detect and locate blood evidence and search potential crime scenes in cases where a cadaver may not be present. Their role sometimes requires searches to be carried out after considerable time has passed since the crime occurred, and this is important for developing effective training protocols. This study aimed to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced from fresh and aged human blood on various surfaces. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract VOCs from the headspace of dried blood samples aged and sampled periodically over 12 months from a non-porous (i.e. aluminium) and porous (i.e. cotton) surface. Samples were analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Fresh blood produced distinctively different VOC patterns compared to blood aged longer than 1 week with the overall profile differing between the two surface types, and a large subset of the VOC profile found to be responsible for these differences. When analysing the various functional groups present in the samples, a common pattern between ages and surface types was observed with no specific chemical class dominating the overall profile. The results highlight the importance of evaluating training aids for scent-detection canines to ensure the greatest efficacy during training and subsequently at crime scene searches. PMID:27382970

  9. Prevalence of inter-arm blood pressure difference among clinical out-patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Balkishan; Ramawat, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives An increased inter-arm blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical finding, may use as an indicator of cardio vascular event and other sever diseases. Authors evaluated 477 patients to determine the prevalence and significance of inter-arm blood pressure difference. Methodology 477 routine outdoor patients selected to observe the inter-arm blood pressure difference. Age, height, weight, body mass index, history of disease and blood pressure recorded. Results The prevalence of ≥10 mmHg systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was 5.0% was more as compared to 3.8% had diastolic inter-arm blood pressure difference. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic inter-arm difference between 6 to 10 mmHg was 31.4% and 27.9% respectively. Mean systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was significantly higher among those patients had a multisystem disorder (10.57±0.98 mmHg) and followed by patients with cardiovascular disease (10.22±0.67 mmHg) as compared to healthy patients (2.71±0.96 mmHg). Various diseases highly influenced the increase in blood pressure irrespective of systolic or diastolic was confirmed strongly significant (p<0.001) at different inter arm blood pressure difference levels. Conclusion This study supports the view of inter-arm blood pressure difference as an alarming stage of increased disease risk that incorporated to investigate potential problems at an early diagnostic stage. A significant mean difference between left and right arm blood pressure recorded for many diseases. PMID:27103905

  10. Perinatal factors associated with blood pressure during childhood.

    PubMed

    Bergel, E; Haelterman, E; Belizán, J; Villar, J; Carroli, G

    2000-03-15

    This study aims to determine whether variables reflecting an adverse intrauterine environment are associated with childhood blood pressure. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort of children born to healthy, nulliparous women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 518 children were traced in 1995-1996 from 614 eligible children born in a clinic in Rosario, Argentina. The outcome was systolic blood pressure at 5-9 years. Hemoglobin during pregnancy was positively associated with children's pressure. Other maternal characteristics during pregnancy (blood pressure, smoking, weight gain, weight at 20 weeks' gestation, and glycemia) and size at birth (birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference/length ratio, and small for gestational age) were not associated with children's pressure. Among children in the upper quartile of body mass index, there was a weak inverse correlation between birth weight and systolic pressure, and systolic pressure was 14.8 mmHg (95 percent confidence interval: 3.3, 26.4) higher in low birth weight children than in others. The main predictors of childhood pressure were childhood body mass index and maternal pressure outside pregnancy. In this healthy population, the authors found weak support for an association between variables reflecting an adverse fetal environment and childhood blood pressure. Low birth weight was a risk factor for high blood pressure only in overweight children. PMID:10733041

  11. The Preoperative Patient With a Systolic Murmur

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with undifferentiated systolic murmurs present commonly during the perioperative period. Traditional bedside assessment and auscultation has not changed significantly in almost 200 years and relies on interpreting indirect acoustic events as a means of evaluating underlying cardiac pathology. This is notoriously inaccurate, even in expert cardiology hands, since many different valvular and cardiac diseases present with a similar auditory signal. Evidence Acquisition: The data on systolic murmurs, physical examination, perioperative valvular disease in the setting of non-cardiac surgery is reviewed. Results: Significant valvular heart disease increases perioperative risk in major non-cardiac surgery and increases long term patient morbidity and mortality. We propose a more modern approach to physical examination that incorporates the use of focused echocardiography to allow direct visualization of cardiac structure and function. This improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment, allows rational planning of surgery and anaesthesia technique, risk stratification, postoperative monitoring and appropriate referral to physicians and cardiologists. Conclusions: With a thorough preoperative assessment incorporating focused echocardiography, anaesthetists are in the unique position to enhance their role as perioperative physicians and influence short and long term outcomes of their patients. PMID:26705529

  12. Impaired subendocardial contractile myofiber function in asymptomatic aged humans, as detected using MRI.

    PubMed

    Lumens, Joost; Delhaas, Tammo; Arts, Theo; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A

    2006-10-01

    With aging, structural and functional changes occur in the myocardium without obvious impairment of systolic left ventricular (LV) function. Transmural differences in myocardial vulnerability for these changes may result in increase of transmural inhomogeneity in contractile myofiber function. Subendocardial fibrosis and impairment of subendocardial perfusion due to hypertension might change the transmural distribution of contractile myofiber function. The ratio of LV torsion to endocardial circumferential shortening (torsion-to-shortening ratio; TSR) during systole reflects the transmural distribution of contractile myofiber function. We investigated whether the transmural distribution of systolic contractile myofiber function changes with age. Magnetic resonance tissue tagging was performed to derive LV torsion and endocardial circumferential shortening. TSR was quantified in asymptomatic young [age 23.2 (SD 2.6) yr, n = 15] and aged volunteers [age 68.8 (SD 4.4) yr, n = 16]. TSR and its standard deviation were significantly elevated in the aged group [0.47 (SD 0.12) aged vs. 0.34 (SD 0.05) young; P = 0.0004]. In the aged group, blood pressure and the ratio of LV wall mass to end-diastolic volume were mildly elevated but could not be correlated to the increase in TSR. There were no significant differences in other indexes of systolic LV function such as end-systolic volume and ejection fraction. The elevated systolic TSR in the asymptomatic aged subjects suggests that aging is associated with local loss of contractile myofiber function in the subendocardium relative to the subepicardium potentially caused by subclinical pathological incidents.