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Sample records for age total body

  1. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  2. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  3. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  4. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

  5. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethy...

  6. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks123

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Results: Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. Conclusions: In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. PMID:26246322

  7. Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface area burned is an adequate quality indicator in burn care: An exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke

    2016-02-01

    Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. Burn-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with burns as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface area burned (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate burn centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine burn-specific models was tested by comparing values from the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National Burn Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in burn care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. PMID:26700877

  8. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  9. Total Testosterone and Calculated Estimates for Free and Bioavailable Testosterone: Influence of Age and Body Mass Index and Establishment of Sex-Specific Reference Ranges.

    PubMed

    Deutschbein, T; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of sex steroids is required to evaluate gonadal function, but normative data are lacking (especially for estimates of physiologically active testosterone). Using modern immunoassays, this study established sex-specific reference ranges (2.5% and 97.5% percentiles) for total testosterone (TOT), bioactive testosterone Vermeulen (BTV), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone Sartorius (FTS), free testosterone Vermeulen (FTV), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). In the comparative study, subjects were grouped by age (18-30; 31-50; >50 years), BMI (<25; 25-30; >30 kg/m(2)), and sex. Study participants were selected in such a way that each group comprised 12 subjects (e.g., 12 males between 18 and 30 years with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), and so on), resulting in a total of 216 controls (108 males, 108 females; age: 40.3 ± 1.0; BMI: 27.8 ± 0.4). Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed (covariates: age, BMI, sex), and sex-specific reference ranges were applied to 50 males (age: 46.1 ± 2.3; BMI: 27.4 ± 0.7) with suspected hypogonadism. Regression analysis identified the strongest predictor of each parameter apart from sex, resulting in age-specific (males: FAI, SHBG, BTV, FTV; females: TOT, FTS, SHBG), BMI-specific (males: TOT, FTS; females: FAI, BTV, FTV) and overall cutoffs for both sexes. In male patients, overall agreement between the results derived from the estimates (i.e., BTV, FTS, FTV) was high (with discordant results in only 4%). In summary, if both the endocrine workup and the clinical presentation were taken into account, the newly established reference ranges allowed reliable identification of hypogonadal males. PMID:25565093

  10. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  11. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-05-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. STBI was given when there was a reasonable likelihood that malignancy did not involve the shielded volumes. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term (up to 17 year--.permanent) remissions. There is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites. STBI and TBI are useful therapeutic modalities for many of these malignancies.

  12. In vivo determination of body fat by measuring total body carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kehayias, J.J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; LoMonte, A.F.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    Total body carbon (TBC) is measured in vivo by neutron inelastic scattering. The fast neutrons needed for the irradiation are produced by a miniature deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Body fat and protein are the main contributors to TBC. Bone ash and carbohydrates contribute less than 3%. Fat is calculated from TBC after the subtraction of the carbon contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. The technique was applied to 14 normal volunteers (8 females, 6 males) aged 24-94 y who underwent neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation measurements for body carbon, nitrogen, and calcium. The initial results agree with other techniques. Unlike models that evaluate body fat by subtracting lean body mass from body weight, the TBC technique is not sensitive to assumptions on the composition of lean body; therefore, it is appropriate for studies of adults of any age and health condition.

  13. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  14. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML.

  15. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  16. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  17. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references.

  18. Aging changes in body shape

    MedlinePlus

    ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ... lifetime. Your lifestyle choices affect how quickly the aging process takes place. Some things you can do ...

  19. Aging and the Body: A Review*

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Korotchenko, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the existing sociocultural research and theory concerned with the aging body. In particular, we review the body image and embodiment literatures and discuss what is known about how older adults perceive and experience their aging bodies. We analyse how body image is shaped by age, culture, ethnicity, gender, health status, sexual preference, and social class. Additionally, we critically elucidate the embodiment literature as it pertains to illness experiences, sexuality, the everyday management of the aging body, appearance work, and embodied identity. By outlining the key findings, theoretical debates, and substantive discrepancies within the body image and embodiment research and theory, we identify gaps in the literature and forecast future, much-needed avenues of investigation. PMID:24976674

  20. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  1. Body Type Attractiveness Preferences of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Enid J.

    A study explored the relationship between body types and four attraction dimensions (physical, social, task, and communication) as perceived by older adults (mean age 68). Subjects, 35 males and 73 females in private residences and senior citizen centers, were shown three same-sex body silhouettes representing the older ectomorph, mesomorph, and…

  2. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  3. A New Total Body Potassium Method to Estimate Total Body Skeletal Muscle Mass in Children12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chen, Zhao; Silva, Analiza M.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Wang, Jack; Gallager, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    A whole body skeletal muscle [(SM); kg] mass estimation model, based on total body potassium [(TBK); mmol] measured by whole body 40K counting (WBC) was developed (SM = 0.0082·TBK) and validated in adults in a previous study. It is unknown whether the adult TBK SM prediction model is applicable for pediatric use. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a pediatric TBK SM prediction equation. SM measured by MRI was used as the criterion and TBK was measured by WBC. The protocol was completed in 116 healthy children, 66 males and 50 females, 11.7 ± 3.5 y (mean ± SD, range = 5–17 y). A strong linear correlation was observed between TBK and SM (r = 0.984; P < 0.001). The SM:TBK ratio was 0.0071 ± 0.0008 kg/mmol in the children studied, much lower than the corresponding value of 0.0082 kg/mmol in adults. An empirical SM prediction equation was developed using TBK alone: SM = 0.0085·TBK − 2.83, r2 = 0.97, SEE = 1.39 kg. Bland-Altman analysis did not disclose a significant bias in the prediction of SM. When biological factors entered along with TBK in the general linear model, another prediction equation was developed: SM = 5.52 + 0.001·TBK (mmol) + 0.081·weight (kg) − 0.049·height (cm) + 0.00004·TBK · height + race (−0.60 for Caucasian, 0.49 for African-American, and 0 for Hispanic). Because the adult TBK SM prediction model is not applicable for pediatric use, this study provides new empirical TBK SM prediction equations that should prove useful for studies on nutrition, growth, and development in children. PMID:17634275

  4. The adult body: how age, gender, and body mass index are related to body image.

    PubMed

    Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women. PMID:19897779

  5. Total body phosphorus in healthy women and ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Arunabh, Sonia; Feuerman, Martin; Ma, Ruimei; Aloia, John F

    2002-02-01

    Total body phosphorus (TBP) levels were measured in 90 black and 143 white healthy women to determine ethnic differences. The measurements were performed by in vivo delayed gamma neutron activation (DGNA) analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Mean value of TBP in whites was 10.4% lower as compared with the black women (mean TBP in white women 401.4 +/- 57.5 g v. 447.7 +/- 57.7 g in black women). Both subgroups have a decrease in TBP with age with a rapid phase after the onset of menopause, which corresponds to bone loss. The decrease in TBP is similar in both ethnic groups with black women losing -1.59 g/yr (-0.33%/yr) and white women losing -2.08 g/yr (-0.45%/yr). PMID:11833045

  6. Measurement of total body potassium in premature infants by means of a whole-body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Spady, D.W.; Filipow, L.J.; Overton, T.R.; Szymanski, W.A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes a whole-body counter (WBC) specially designed to measured total body potassium (TBK) infants under 4500 g. The counter is a ''shadow shield'' design and consists of a single 10 cm X 10 cm X 45 cm NaI(Tl) crystal, positioned lengthwise and shielded from environmental background radiation by a minimum of 10 cm of lead. The standard error of counting for a 2000-s counting period is 19.9% for a 1000-g infant and 11.9% for a 2000-g infant. TBK of stillborn pigs, measured by the WBC, agreed to an average of 3% of TBK determined by carcass analysis in the same animals. A total of 118 measurements of TBK have been made in 50 premature infants ranging in weight between 1100 and 3600 g and in age between 2 and 75 days. The observed relationship of TBK with weight is described by the equation: TBK (mEq) = 0.0433Wt (g + 1.57 r = 0.92. Potassium retention per gram weight gain is estimated to be 0.043 mEq. The obtained TBK values agree well with values published by other workers but extend the range of measurement to 1100 g.

  7. Aging male bodies, health and the reproduction of age relations.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal; Calasanti, Toni

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the ways in which a group of male factory workers uses bodies as bases for hierarchical categorization of men by age in their talk of mundane aspects of their lives. Analysis of interviews about health (4 focus groups and 5 personal interviews) with Finnish working-class men under 40 years old shows that they portray age groups to which they do not belong as careless, even irresponsible toward health and its maintenance. As they categorize youth and old people by age, they leave themselves unmarked by it, providing no vocabulary to describe their own group. Despite their tendency to distance themselves particularly from old people, they also distinguish among older men by familiarity, providing relatively nuanced accounts of their fathers' aging. We discuss the marking of age groups in terms of social inequality and talk of fathers in terms of intergenerational relations. Even family ties among men of diverse ages involve ageism, which familiarity serves both to mitigate and to make less visible. This article documents the maintenance of age inequality in everyday, mundane behavior. PMID:23849422

  8. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  9. Calculation and prescription of dose for total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, J.M.

    1983-12-01

    The use of large total body fields creates a unique set of problems that stress the accuracy of techniques routinely used for dose calculation. This paper discusses an approach suggested by the Children's Cancer Study Group (CCSG) for both prescribing the total body irradiation (TBI) dose and calculating the beam-on time or meter set needed to deliver it. It is aimed at guaranteeing the accuracy of the calculation, while at the same time ensuring a high degree of compliance for various CCSG protocols using TBI. Data supporting the various CCSG recommendations are presented.

  10. [Estimation of normal body volumes in children by the measurement of total electrical impedance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Peyramond, D; Tholly, F; Bertoye, A

    1980-03-01

    The theoretical fluid volume of 41 normal children (mean age 8 years 9 months) was estimated from anthropometric data: height, weight, wrist circumference, and body surface. The correlation between this method and the conventional methods of determining total body water using tritiated water or of extracellular fluid volume using stable bromide or bromide 82 is very good. The real fluid volumes have been measured using total body electrical impedance at low frequency (Z5 kHz) and high frequency (Z1 MHz). The correlation of these results with those obtained by anthropometry is very satisfactory (r = 0.89; p < 0,001). PMID:7469697

  11. Three-Dimensional Dose Calculation for Total Body Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akira

    Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) therapy has been a big success in the treatment of leukemia and other haematopoietic diseases 1 . Prior to BMT, total body irradiation (TBI) is given to the patient for the purpose of (1) killing leukemia cells in bone marrow, as well as in the whole body, and (2) producing immuno-suppressive status in the patient so that the donor's marrow cells will be transplanted without rejection. TBI employs a very large field photon beam to irradiate the whole body of the patient. A uniform dose distribution over the entire body is the treatment goal. To prevent the occurrence of a serious side effect (interstitial pneumonia), the lung dose should not exceed a certain level. This novel technique poses various new radiological physics problems. The accurate assessment of dose and dose distribution in the patient is essential. Physical and dosimetric problems associated with TBI are reviewed elsewhere 2,3 .

  12. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  13. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  14. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation. [X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-05-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term emissions. There is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites.

  15. Prediction of body composition by total body electrical conductivity technique is affected by fat reserves of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Hyánková, L; Szebestová, Z

    2010-11-01

    The effect of fat accumulation on the prediction of in vivo body composition by a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technique was evaluated using Japanese quail at 2 life periods (0 to 21 d and 28 to 70 d of age) that differ significantly in the fatness of birds. In total, 119 quail of 14 age categories were weighed and scanned by the TOBEC analyzer, and their carcasses were subjected to chemical analysis. The prediction equations for chemical composition (percentage of water, lipids, and lean tissue) and body masses (weight of body, water, lipids, and lean tissue) were obtained by linear regression analysis. The equations involved the E-value as the independent variable. In both growth phases, a high accuracy of estimation was found for the total body, lean, and water masses (0.85 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.98), whereas a low accuracy of estimation was observed for percentages of lipids, lean tissue, and water (0.27 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.64). Most of the variables showed a worse estimation in the late than in the early growth phase; the maximum difference was observed for the lipid mass (R(2) = 0.35 vs. 0.90, respectively). The correlations between analyzed variables and the residual error distributions of regression models demonstrated that the lower power of the models in the late versus early growth phase may be attributed to an enhanced fat accumulation in sexually mature birds. Their high fat reserves considerably decrease body hydration, which negatively influences the estimation of body composition based upon the TOBEC procedure. PMID:20952716

  16. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  17. A simple dose calculation method for total body photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, W.J. Jr.; Galvin, J.M.; D'Angio, G.J.

    1989-07-01

    A simple technique for calculation of the prescribed dose for total body irradiation (TBI) is presented. The technique uses a standard calibration procedure and applies standard correction methods to account for variations in the field size, depth, and treatment distance. Since the scattering volume (the entire body) is smaller than the X ray field for this treatment, the change in output with field size is handled separately from changes due to scatter within the phantom. The latter is shown to be a function of the phantom size (corresponding to the frontal area of the trunk of the body for patient irradiation) rather than the size of the field opening. Dosimetric tests of this technique have been conducted and the errors determined. For these tests, three different phantom sizes were used to represent the upper body sizes of a 2-year old child, an 8-year old, and an adult, and three linear accelerator energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) were included. Calculations were performed using the technique and compared to measurements for the same phantom sizes. Differences of less than 1.3 were found.

  18. [Total body irradiation in France in the past twenty years].

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, S; Marchal, C; Bordigoni, P

    2003-06-01

    A review of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation (TBI) in France in the last 20 years is presented. In order to have on overall view of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation in France, the group of cancer centre radiation oncologists sent a questionnaire to all the cancer centres or public hospitals radiotherapy departments dealing with this treatment. Thirty-six questionnaires were sent and thirty-one departments answered. Three departments do not offer this treatment. Five departments did not answer. Results, therefore, concern the activity of the 28 departments that agreed to give detailed and clear answers. A total of 10 630 TBIs have been documented, 850 to 900 TBI have been done each year since 1995. Single fraction TBIs are used in only five centres and are being progressively abandoned. For multiple-fraction TBIs, the techniques described here are the ones used in 1999, at the time the questionnaires were sent. A majority (98%) of the teams used linear accelerators. The collected data are synthesised in tables. Nowadays, single fraction TBIs are only indicated in exceptional cases. Most of the TBIs are fractionated in six twice-daily fractions with pulmonary shielding to limit the dose between 6 and 11 Gy depending on departments' protocols and pathologies. PMID:12834771

  19. Body Mass Index and Its Role in Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shilpa; Agrawal, Pallavi; Singh, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate operative and perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy according to their body mass index. Method. A retrospective study was performed for patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy at a tertiary care center for a period of 4 years. Patients were divided into two groups: obese (BMI > 30 Kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI < 30 Kg/m2). Duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, successful laparoscopic completion, and intraoperative complications were compared in two groups. Result. A total of 253 patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy from January 2010 to December 2013. Out of them, 105 women (41.5%) had a BMI of more than 30 kg/m2. Overall, the mean blood loss was 85.79 ± 54.17 mL; the operative time was 54.17 ± 19.83 min. The surgery was completed laparoscopically in 244 (96.4%) women while laparotomy was done in 4 cases and vaginal suturing and closure of vault were done in 5 cases. Risk of vaginal assistance was higher in obese patients whereas out of the 4 conversions to laparotomy 3 had BMI < 30 kg/m2. The operative time was increased as the BMI of patient increased. Conclusions. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a safe and effective procedure for obese patients and can be performed with an efficacy similar to that in nonobese patients.

  20. On designing room sheilding for total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barish, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    When designing shielding for total-body irradiation as an additional modality of treatment in an ordinary radiation therapy room, the extended treatment distance used for these patients greatly increases the workload because of the inverse-square factor. In a seeming contradiction to logic, for a facility with an exterior wall in the path of one lateral primary beam, and a restricted area behind the other primary wall, the overall shielding requirements are lower if the TBI patients are treated with the machine oriented toward the occupied interior. 4 refs.

  1. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements.

    PubMed

    O'Hehir, S; Green, S; Beddoe, A H

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use. PMID:16912380

  2. A new method of body habitus correction for total body potassium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hehir, S.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes an accurate and time-efficient method for the determination of total body potassium via a combination of measurements in the Birmingham whole body counter and the use of the Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNP) simulation code. In developing this method, MCNP has also been used to derive values for some components of the total measurement uncertainty which are difficult to quantify experimentally. A method is proposed for MCNP-assessed body habitus corrections based on a simple generic anthropomorphic model, scaled for individual height and weight. The use of this model increases patient comfort by reducing the need for comprehensive anthropomorphic measurements. The analysis shows that the total uncertainty in potassium weight determination by this whole body counting methodology for water-filled phantoms with a known amount of potassium is 2.7% (SD). The uncertainty in the method of body habitus correction (applicable also to phantom-based methods) is 1.5% (SD). It is concluded that this new strategy provides a sufficiently accurate model for routine clinical use.

  3. Measuring partial body potassium in the arm versus total body potassium.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Ramirez, L M; Gallagher, D; Sarkar, S R; Zhu, F; Kaysen, G A; Levin, N W; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, Z M

    2006-09-01

    Skeletal muscle (SM), the body's main structural support, has been implicated in metabolic, physiological, and disease processes in humans. Despite being the largest tissue in the human body, its assessment remains difficult and indirect. However, being metabolically active it contains over 50% of the total body potassium (TBK) pool. We present our preliminary results from a new system for measuring partial body K (PBK) that presently are limited to the arm yet provide a direct and specific measure of the SM. This uniquely specific quantification of the SM mass in the arm, which is shielded from the body during measurement, allows us to simplify the assumptions used in deriving the total SM, thereby possibly improving the modeling of the human body compartments. Preliminary results show that PBK measurements are consistent with those from the TBK previously obtained from the same subjects, thus offering a simpler alternative to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging used for the same purposes. The PBK system, which can be set up in a physician's office or bedside in a hospital, is completely passive, safe, and inexpensive; it can be used on immobilized patients, children, pregnant women, or other at-risk populations. PMID:16741259

  4. Cyclic, low-dose total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angio, G.J.; Evans, A.E.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can be thought of as a systemic anticancer agent. It therefore might best be given like an adjuvant drug, i.e., in tolerable doses, cyclically. The therapeutic ratio between normal bone marrow stem cells and suitably sensitive cancer cells should be widened by these means. Fourteen children with advanced (Stage IV) neuroblastomas were given 100-150 rad TBI in 50 rad daily fractions along with each three-week cycle of standard triple-agent chemotherapy (vincristine, DTIC, cyclophosphamide). Two patients died of toxicity and one is still undergoing therapy. Four of the remaining 12 survive free of disease for 12+ to 31+ months. The regimen is well tolerated, but prolonged, pronounced bone marrow depression, especially thrombocytopenia, commonly occurs after doses of 300-450 rad.

  5. Total body irradiation with a sweeping {sup 60}Cobalt beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, S.; El-Khatib, E.

    1995-09-30

    This article describes the physical, technical, and dosimetric aspects of total body irradiation (TBI). The continuous head swivel motion of a standard {sup 60}Cobalt unit has been used to obtain a sweeping beam that encompases the entire length of the patient in TBI. A perspex beam flattener designed to remove the inverse square fall-off in beam intensity along the sweep axis provides a 90% field length of 200 cm in air at a treatment source-to-skin distance of 160 cm. The anterior-posterior parallel pair setup permits accurate placement of customized lead compensators to limit the dose to lungs. Measured beam profiles, dose buildup curves, and percentage depth dose for the technique are presented. With compensators in place, the variation in lung dose is shown to be within {plus_minus}5% of the prescribed tumor dose. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Total body water measurements using resonant cavity perturbation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Darren A.; Robinson, Martin P.

    2004-05-01

    A recent paper proposed a novel technique for determining the total body water (TBW) of patients suffering with abnormal hydration levels, using a resonant cavity perturbation method. Current techniques to measure TBW are limited by resolution and technical constraints. However, this new method involves measuring the dielectric properties of the body, by placing a subject in a large cavity resonator and measuring the subsequent change in its resonant frequency, fres and its Q-factor. Utilizing the relationship that water content correlates to these dielectric properties, it has been shown that the measured response of these parameters enables determination of TBW. Results are presented for a preliminary study using data estimated from anthropometric measurements, where volunteers were asked to lie and stand in an electromagnetic screened room, before and after drinking between 1 and 2 l of water, and in some cases, after voiding the bladder. Notable changes in the parameters were observed; fres showed a negative shift and Q was reduced. Preliminary calibration curves using estimated values of water content have been developed from these results, showing that for each subject the measured resonant frequency is a linear function of TBW. Because the gradients of these calibration curves correlate to the mass-to-height-ratio of the volunteers, it has proved that a system in which TBW can be unequivocally obtained is possible. Measured values of TBW have been determined using this new pilot-technique, and the values obtained correlate well with theoretical values of body water (r = 0.87) and resolution is very good (750 ml). The results obtained are measurable, repeatable and statistically significant. This leads to confidence in the integrity of the proposed technique.

  7. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  8. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population

    PubMed Central

    M. Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I. Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m2] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  9. Total Body Capacitance for Estimating Human Basal Metabolic Rate in an Egyptian Population.

    PubMed

    M Abdel-Mageed, Samir; I Mohamed, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Determining basal metabolic rate (BMR) is important for estimating total energy needs in the human being yet, concerns have been raised regarding the suitability of sex-specific equations based on age and weight for its calculation on an individual or population basis. It has been shown that body cell mass (BCM) is the body compartment responsible for BMR. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between total body capacitance (TBC), which is considered as an expression for BCM, and BMR and to develop a formula for calculating BMR in comparison with widely used equations. Fifty healthy nonsmoking male volunteers [mean age (± SD): 24.93 ± 4.15 year and body mass index (BMI): 25.63 ± 3.59 kg/m(2)] and an equal number of healthy nonsmoking females matched for age and BMI were recruited for the study. TBC and BMR were measured for all participants using octopolar bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry techniques, respectively. A significant regressing equation based on the covariates: sex, weight, and TBC for estimating BMR was derived (R=0.96, SEE=48.59 kcal, and P<0.0001), which will be useful for nutritional and health status assessment for both individuals and populations. PMID:27127453

  10. Total body bone mineral density in young children: influence of head bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Konrad, P T; Norman, M E; Harcke, H T

    1997-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy have made this technique particularly suitable for measuring total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in children. Other published reports have related TBMD to age in children 2-18 years of age. However, in young normal children aged 2-9 years (51 girls, 43 boys), we found that regression equations for TBMD with age as the predictor did not explain enough of the variance to warrant their use for predicting TBMD (adjusted R2 0.47, females; 0.41, males). Subtotal BMD (TBMD-head BMD) is predicted better by age because of a possibly invalid adult algorithm for head BMD (adjusted R2 0.73, females; 0.71, males). PMID:9101377

  11. [Clinical results and problems of total-body hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Maeta, M; Koga, S; Shimizu, N; Hamazoe, R; Murakami, A; Inoue, Y; Ikeda, Y

    1986-04-01

    The clinical results and problems of extracorporeally-induced total-body hyperthermia (TBHT) for recurrent cancer were presented. A total of 105 hyperthermic treatments were performed in 38 patients who had had unsuccessful conventional systemic anticancer chemotherapy. Partial response was observed in 10 of 29 evaluable patients (37%). In analysing the anticancer effects of TBHT according to cancer site, a high efficacy was observed in patients with their main tumor in the lung, liver and lymph nodes. The anticancer effects were most enhanced when TBHT was performed in combination with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and 5-fluorouracil. In order to augment the anticancer effects of TBHT, the choice of combined agent(s) and administration timing are important. A useful method for determining the thermochemosensitivity of individual cancer cells to agents selected for drug treatment is the human tumor stem cell assay. Further, the usefulness of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive chemotherapy during TBHT for augmenting selective drug delivery to cancer tissues is stressed. PMID:3729457

  12. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  13. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  14. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was developed through assessment of the biological effects data collected primarily from the rat. The consensus that a lack of hazardous biological effects occurred below a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg led to the proposition of a 0.4 W/kg guideline with a built-in safety factor of 10. This paper demonstrates that if the RFR absorption rate in the rat had been normalized with respect to total body surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/m2, which translates to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg for an adult human. It is further shown that a given RFR absorption rate, normalized as a fraction of a species' heat loss per unit of surface area, is independent of body mass over a range of 0.03-100 kg; however, a normalization of the RFR absorption rate to heat loss per unit of body mass is highly dependent on the species' mass. Normalizing the rate of RFR absorption to the surface area of the rat indicates that the current RFR exposure guideline of 0.4 W/kg may be too high.

  15. GFR Normalized to Total Body Water Allows Comparisons across Genders and Body Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D.; Jenssen, Trond G.; Solbu, Marit D.; Toft, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m2 impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. PMID:21784894

  16. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  17. Changes in the Body with Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... action, become more important as people age. Blood Production The amount of active bone marrow, where blood ... bone marrow is less able to increase its production of blood cells in response to the body’s ...

  18. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  19. Influence of body mass index in revision total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Santos, Diego Benone; Chammas, Victor; Arrebola, Lucas Simões; Colombo, Mauricio Lebre; Scalizi, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on the functional assessment of patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS : Thirty patients who un-derwent RTKA between January 2008 and January 2012 were retrospectively assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. The patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI ca-tegories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): Group I with normal BMI (18-24.9 Kg/m2), with eight patients; Group II, overweight (BMI 25-29.9 Kg/m2), with 15 patients, and Group III obesity with BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2, with seven patients. The post-ope-rative function scores obtained through the WOMAC questionnaire were compared with the BMI of each group. The statistical analysis between BMI and WOMAC scores was performed with the Spe-arman correlation test. RESULTS : The average functional WOMAC score for individuals in Group I was 16.7; in Group II it was 47.7; and in Group III it was 69.9, with a statistically significant differen-ce between groups I, II and III (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION : Patients with BMI > 25 Kg/m2 had a worse functional evaluation through WOMAC scores when compared to patients with normal BMI after RTKA. Level of Evidence III, Tranversal Retrospective Study. PMID:27057139

  20. Renal dysfunction after total body irradiation: Dose-effect relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kal, Henk B. . E-mail: H.B.Kal@UMCUtrecht.nl; Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Late complications related to total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been increasingly noted. We reviewed and compared the results of treatments with various TBI regimens and tried to derive a dose-effect relationship for the endpoint of late renal dysfunction. The aim was to find the tolerance dose for the kidney when TBI is performed. Methods and Materials: A literature search was performed using PubMed for articles reporting late renal dysfunction. For intercomparison, the various TBI regimens were normalized using the linear-quadratic model, and biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. Results: Eleven reports were found describing the frequency of renal dysfunction after TBI. The frequency of renal dysfunction as a function of the BED was obtained. For BED >16 Gy an increase in the frequency of dysfunction was observed. Conclusions: The tolerance BED for kidney tissue undergoing TBI is about 16 Gy. This BED can be realized with highly fractionated TBI (e.g., 6 x 1.7 Gy or 9 x 1.2 Gy at dose rates >5 cGy/min). To prevent late renal dysfunction, the TBI regimens with BED values >16 Gy (almost all found in published reports) should be applied with appropriate shielding of the kidneys.

  1. Verification of total body photon irradiation dosimetry techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, T.H.; Hanson, W.F.; Cates, D.A.

    1988-05-01

    A method of verifying the dosimetry of patients undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) with photon beams having energies from cobalt-60 to 25 MV is presented. A simple set of spot checks at the TBI axis has been used to verify data used for TBI dosimetry. Calculations to verify dose delivered to TBI patients are done in the same manner as those irradiated at standard treatment distances. A simple method of effective field size determination for various anatomical locations in a typical adult is presented. Measurements in an Alderson phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters and an ion chamber at several anatomical locations indicate that this calculational method can predict the dose along the patient axis to within 4% for /sup 60/Co and 18-MV photon beams, provided the dosimetry data are appropriate (as determined by the spot checks). Results of intercomparisons of TBI beam calibration, off-axis and depth-dose data at various institutions visited by the Radiological Physics Center are also presented.

  2. Eye shielding for patients treated with total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Reft, C; Rash, C; Dabrowski, J; Roeske, J C; Hallahan, D

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of cataracts in patients who have received total body irradiation (TBI) is about 20% and increases to 40% if the patient is treated for graft-versus-host disease. At our institution, all TBI patients are treated with two lateral opposed 24 MV photon fields. No attempt is usually made to shield the eyes during the TBI treatment because of the amount of lead required to adequately attenuate megavoltage photon beams, the difficulty in properly positioning an eye shield and the possibility of compromising the effectiveness of the treatment. However, we were asked to treat a TBI patient who is a professional pilot, and thus his livelihood is contingent upon maintaining perfect vision. A custom eye shield was constructed out of lead and ionization chamber and film measurements were performed under TBI conditions to determine the thickness and location of the eye block to optimize the competing effects of increased scatter and attenuation from the lead. Phantom data were also obtained for 6 MV irradiation for comparison with 24 MV. In-vivo patient and phantom measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters showed that with visual positioning of the eye block the dose was reduced from 16 to 20% across the orbits of both eyes. PMID:8807606

  3. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  4. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  5. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  6. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M. )

    1993-03-20

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing [sup 60]Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Kun; Ma, Guansheng; Greenfield, Heather; Fraser, David R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine association between body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical exercise with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) in 283 Chinese adolescent girls aged 15 years in Beijing, China. Body composition, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary intakes were assessed using standard validated protocols. Total body and forearm bone, lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass (FBM) were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out to examine the predictors of BMC and BA, after controlling for potential confounders. The subjects had a mean age of 15.0 (sd 0.9) years and 99.6 % of them had reached menarche. Multivariate analyses showed that LBM, FBM, handgrip muscle strength and milk intake were significant independent determinants of BMC and BA of the total body and/or forearm sites. LBM was found to be a stronger independent determinant than FBM of BMC and BA, whereas handgrip muscle strength was only found as significant determinant of BMC and BA at the forearm sites than in total body BMC and BA. Further, total physical activity level had a significant positive association with handgrip and LBM. This suggested that greater muscle strength and higher LBM may reflect higher levels of physical activity. Therefore, continuous healthy lifestyle practices such as adequate intake of milk and continuous participation in physical activity should be encouraged throughout adolescence to optimise bone growth during this period. PMID:17640423

  8. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  9. Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.

    PubMed

    Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

    2014-11-01

    Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34.5 ± 9.3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70.2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.78-0.95: P<0.0001) and at HA (r = 0.92; 0.89-0.94: P<0.0001), however, TBW readings were 0.2 l and 1.91 l lower, respectively, with the NICaS. There was a stronger correlation between TBW and body weight with the QuadScan (r = 0.91; P<0.0001) than with the NICaS (r = 0.83; P<0.0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA. PMID:24797153

  10. A new model for estimating total body water from bioelectrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Kear, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of total body water (T) from bioelectrical resistance (R) is commonly done by stepwise regression models with height squared over R, H(exp 2)/R, age, sex, and weight (W). Polynomials of H(exp 2)/R have not been included in these models. We examined the validity of a model with third order polynomials and W. Methods: T was measured with oxygen-18 labled water in 27 subjects. R at 50 kHz was obtained from electrodes placed on the hand and foot while subjects were in the supine position. A stepwise regression equation was developed with 13 subjects (age 31.5 plus or minus 6.2 years, T 38.2 plus or minus 6.6 L, W 65.2 plus or minus 12.0 kg). Correlations, standard error of estimates and mean differences were computed between T and estimated T's from the new (N) model and other models. Evaluations were completed with the remaining 14 subjects (age 32.4 plus or minus 6.3 years, T 40.3 plus or minus 8 L, W 70.2 plus or minus 12.3 kg) and two of its subgroups (high and low) Results: A regression equation was developed from the model. The only significant mean difference was between T and one of the earlier models. Conclusion: Third order polynomials in regression models may increase the accuracy of estimating total body water. Evaluating the model with a larger population is needed.

  11. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, A. E.; Broyles, S. T.; Gupta, A. K.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated ethnic and sex differences in the distribution of fat during childhood and adolescence. Design and Methods A cross-sectional sample (n=382), aged 5 to 18 years, included African American males (n=84), White males (n=96), African American females (n=118), and White females (n=84). Measures for total body fat (TBF) mass and abdominal adipose tissue (total volume and L4–L5 cross-sectional area) for both subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) depots were assessed by DXA and MRI, respectively. ANCOVAs were used to determine ethnic and sex differences in TBF (adjusted for age) and ethnic and sex differences in SAT and VAT (adjusted for both age and TBF). Results Age-adjusted TBF was greater in African Americans (p=0.017) and females (p<0.0001) compared to Whites and males, respectively. In age- and TBF-adjusted ANCOVAs, no differences were found in the SAT. The VAT volume was, however, greater in Whites (p<0.0001) and males (p<0.0001) compared to African Americans and females, respectively. Similar patterns were observed in SAT and VAT area at L4–L5. Conclusions The demonstrated ethnic and sex differences are important confounders in the prevalence of obesity and in the assignment of disease risk in children and adolescents. PMID:23670982

  12. Total-Body Irradiation Produces Late Degenerative Joint Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Ian D.; Olson, John; Lindburg, Carl A.; Payne, Valerie; Collins, Boyce; Smith, Thomas L.; Munley, Michael T.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Willey, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Premature musculoskeletal joint failure is a major source of morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. Radiation effects on synovial joint tissues of the skeleton are poorly understood. Our goal was to assess long-term changes in the knee joint from skeletally mature rats that received total-body irradiation while skeletal growth was ongoing. Materials and Methods 14 week-old rats were irradiated with 1, 3 or 7 Gy total-body doses of 18 MV x-rays. At 53 weeks of age, structural and compositional changes in knee joint tissues (articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone) were characterized using 7T MRI, nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and histology. Results T2 relaxation times of the articular cartilage were lower after exposure to all doses. Likewise, calcifications were observed in the articular cartilage. Trabecular bone microarchitecture was compromised in the tibial metaphysis at 7 Gy. Mild to moderate cartilage erosion was scored in the 3 and 7 Gy rats. Conclusions Late degenerative changes in articular cartilage and bone were observed after total body irradiation in adult rats exposed prior to skeletal maturity. 7T MRI, microCT, nanoCT, and histology identified potential prognostic indicators of late radiation-induced joint damage. PMID:24885745

  13. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  14. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  15. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  16. Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy in children and young adults undergoing stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Establishing Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy (HT) to gain better control over dose distribution and homogeneity and to individually spare organs at risk. Because of their limited body length the technique seems especially eligible in juvenile patients. Patients and methods The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 female and 4 male, aged 4 - 22 y with acute lymphoblastic- (ALL) or acute myeloic leukemia (AML). All patients presented with high risk disease features. Body length in treatment position ranged from 110–180 cm. Two Gy single dose was applied BID to a total dose of 12 Gy. Dose volume constraint for the PTV was 95% dose coverage for 95% of the volume. The lungs were spared to a mean dose of [less than or equal to] 10 Gy. Patients were positioned in a vac-loc bag in supine position with a 3-point head mask. Results Average D95 to the PTV was 11.7 Gy corresponding to a mean coverage of the PTV of 97.5%. Dmean for the lungs was 9.14 Gy. Grade 3–4 side effects were not observed. Conclusions TBI using HT is feasible and well tolerated. A benefit could be demonstrated with regard to dose distribution and homogeneity and the selective dose-reduction to organs at risk. PMID:23587349

  17. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model. PMID:27382380

  18. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40–50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. Methods The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60–90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20–25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. Results In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Conclusions Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae

  19. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  20. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  1. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-21

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation.

  2. Fractionated sublethal total body irradiation and donor bone marrow infusion for induction of specific allograft tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Kimler, B.F.; Thomas, J.H.; Watts, L.M.; Kinnaman, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FT-lymphoid-I) plus donor bone marrow (BM) can induce tolerance to skin allografts. In the present study, fractionated total body irradiation (FT-body-I) was studied as an alternative to FT-lymphoid-I. FT-body-I produces less pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury than does single exposure total body irradiation, but because of the decreased capacity of lymphoid tissues to recover from the effects of irradiation between fractions, the effect of FT-body-I on lymphoid cells, when delivered within 24 h, is approximately the same as an equivalent single exposure of total body irradiation. Therefore, FT-body-I, like FT-lymphoid-I, has some selectivity for lymphoid tissues and has the advantage that it can be delivered within the time constraints of ex vivo organ preservation.

  3. Embodying positive aging and neoliberal rationality: Talking about the aging body within narratives of retirement.

    PubMed

    Laliberte Rudman, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Within contemporary Western contexts, positive aging discourses are a key aspect of structured mandates for how to think about and act toward aging bodies. This study adds to previous work on embodiment that has situated how aging bodies are managed by focusing on the body as an aspect of retirement preparation, and critically considering how the imperative to govern the aging body in ways consistent with being a 'good' neoliberal citizen circulated through positive aging discourses is negotiated by aging individuals. Utilizing narrative data from a study addressing the discursive re-shaping and narrative negotiation of retirement within the Canadian context conducted with 30 informants aged 45 to 83, this paper draws upon a governmentality perspective to critically analyze ways informants talked about their aging bodies as part of preparing for and moving into retirement. Overall, the findings illustrate how informants embodied positive aging discourses and, in turn, embodied neoliberal rationality particularly in taking up the call to attend to the body as part of the broadening of retirement planning within a neoliberal context in which health, social, financial and other responsibilities are increasingly shifted toward individuals. Although informants described realizing some of the promises offered up with positive aging discourses, such as a sense of youthfulness and bodily control, their narratives also point to detrimental individual and social implications that can arise out of the limits of bodily practices, the need for perpetual risk management, an aversion to oldness, and attributions of failure. As such, this study raises concerns about the implications of the intersections of positive aging discourses and the neoliberal agenda of activation, responsibilization and individualization. PMID:26162721

  4. Psammoma bodies - friends or foes of the aging choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Petrović, Dragan; Cekić, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    Psammoma bodies are structures classified in the group of dystrophic calcifications, which occur in some kind of tumors and in choroid plexus during the aging process. Despite early discovery of their presence in choroid plexus stroma, mechanisms responsible for their formation remained unclear. Their presence in some kind of tumors was even more extensively studied, but significant breakthrough in the field of their etiology was not attained, too. However, till today correlation between their presence in tumors and aging is not established. Also, there are not any data about structural differences between ones found in tumors and ones found in choroid plexus. This might points to the assumption that besides the aging, some other causes might be involved in their formation in choroid plexus. Furthermore, it is contradictory that forms, like psammoma bodies, present in such malignant formations as tumors, represent quite benign phenomenon in choroid plexus. Literature data and the results of our previous researches revealed that there might be connections between, these, on the first sight quite different processes. Firstly, psammoma bodies are present in stroma of tumors with predominantly papillomatous morphology, which is present in choroid plexus, too. Initial forms of psammoma bodies might be formed in fibrovascular core of choroid plexus villi, similarly like in tumors papillae of papillary thyroid cancer. Their further growth leads to the progressive destruction of both tumors papillae and choroidal villi. Choroid plexus stroma is characterized by the fenestrated blood vessels presence, which are similar to newly formed vessels in tumors. This makes it vulnerable to the noxious agents from circulation. It can contain lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and myofibroblasts in cases with psammoma bodies, similarly to tumors stroma which is in activated, proinflammatory state. So, all these facts can suggest that similar processes can lead to psammoma

  5. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  6. Successful pregnancy after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Giri, N; Vowels, M R; Barr, A L; Mameghan, H

    1992-07-01

    We report successful pregnancies in two young women (aged 24 and 20 years) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia. Conditioning therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (TBI, 12 Gy) in 2 Gy fractions once daily for 6 days or twice daily for 3 days. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was with methotrexate alone. Both women were amenorrhoeic after BMT and gonadal testing indicated hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Both women had normal pregnancies (2 years and 5 years after BMT) resulting in normal healthy infants. Previously successful pregnancy has been reported after TBI in three women in whom the TBI dose was less than 8 Gy. Our cases illustrate that normal outcome of pregnancy is possible at even higher doses of TBI. PMID:1515886

  7. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlloef, G.B.; Barr, M.; Bolme, P.; Modeer, T.; Loennqvist, B.R.; Ringden, O.; Heimdahl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dental status of 16 children who had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for serious bone marrow diseases was followed for up to 6 years. Several types of disturbances in dental development were observed in children who had been conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI) at 10 Gy before BMT. Thus, impaired root development that caused short V-shaped roots was found in all patients, a complete failure of root development and premature apical closure were found in five patients, enamel hypoplasia was observed in four patients, and microdontia was observed in three patients conditioned with TBI. Patients younger than 6 years of age at BMT exhibited the most severe and extensive dental aberrations. The TBI at 10 Gy appeared to be the major cause of the disturbances found.

  8. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  9. Tumorigenesis in high-dose total body irradiated rhesus monkeys--a life span study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Carel F; Zurcher, Chris; Broerse, Johan J

    2003-01-01

    In the early sixties, studies have been performed at the TNO-Institutes for Health Research on acute effects of high dose total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays and fission neutrons in Rhesus monkeys and the protective effect of autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The surviving animals of this study were kept to investigate late radiation effects, ie, tumorigenesis. TBI in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with BMT is increasingly used for the treatment of hematological malignancies and refractory autoimmune disease. The risk of radiation carcinogenesis after this treatment is of growing concern in man. Studies on tumor induction in nonhuman primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. The group of long-term surviving monkeys comprised nine neutron irradiated animals (average total body dose 3A Gy, range 2.3-4.4 Gy) and 20 X-irradiated monkeys (average total body dose 7.1 Gy, range 2.8-8.6 Gy). A number of 21 age-matched nonirradiated Rhesus monkeys served as a control-group. All animals wereregularly screened for the occurrence of tumors. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At postirradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of malignant tumors was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with 1 or more malignant tumors. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumors in the control group, in seven out of 21 animals, appeared at much older age compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the malignant tumors was diverse, as was the case for benign tumors. The observed shortening of latency periods and life span, as well as, the increase of mean number of tumors per tumor bearing animal for benign neoplasms parallels the trend observed for malignant tumors. The results of this study were compared to other radiation late effects after

  10. A middle-aged man with increasing body fat.

    PubMed

    Lam, J K Y; Lam, K S L; Chow, W S; Tan, K C B

    2014-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred for evaluation of gradual increase in body fat over bilateral arms, chest and abdomen for 6 months. He was a non-smoker and he drank at least four bottles of beer daily since the age of 18. There was no significant past medical history or any family history of obesity or endocrine diseases. Physical examination showed localized large bulk of fat over the neck, both arms and mammary regions, abdomen, and back (Figs  and ). The lower limbs and buttock were relatively spared. There was telangiectasia over the face and chest wall, but no palmar erythema nor finger clubbing. The liver span was normal, and the spleen tip was palpated 2 cm below the costal margin. Examination of the cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological system was normal. [Figure: see text] [Figure: see text] Blood tests showed thrombocytopenia (platelet 140 × 10(9)  L(-1) [normal: 170-380 × 10(9)  L(-1) ]) and liver function derangement (bilirubin 27 μmol L(-1) , ALP 298 U L(-1) , ALT 127 U L(-1) , AST 165 U L(-1) , GGT 1353 U L(-1) , albumin 33 g L(-1) and globulin 42 g L(-1) ). His clotting profile and renal functions were normal. His hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, but his HBV DNA was <60 copies per mL. Fasting glucose was 5.0 mmol L(-1) . HbA1c was 5.6%. His lipid profile was satisfactory with total cholesterol of 2.9 mmol L(-1) , triglycerides 1.0 mmol L(-1) , HDL-C 1.37 mmol L(-1) and LDL-C 1.1 mmol L(-1) . Ultrasound of the abdomen showed normal-sized liver with coarsened liver parenchymal echogenicity. The spleen was enlarged to 14 cm. This middle-aged man suffered from multiple symmetric lipomatosis and alcoholic liver disease. Dual-energy X-ray showed 1746 gm (40.1%), 1498 gm (32.8%) and 8322 gm (26.8%) fat over the left arm, right arm and trunk, respectively. The legs were unaffected with 1703 gm (19.4%) and 1627 gm (17.7%) fat over the left and right sides

  11. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  12. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  13. Heart Rates in Hospitalized Children by Age and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bonafide, Christopher P.; Brady, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient’s severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. METHODS: Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients <18 years of age at 2 large freestanding children’s hospitals from July 2011 to June 2012. We selected up to 10 HR-temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. RESULTS: We used 60 863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. PMID:25917984

  14. NORMALIZING THE THERMAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: BODY MASS VERSUS TOTAL BODY SURFACE AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set to high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg ...

  15. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  16. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  17. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  18. Total body phylloquinone and its turnover in human subjects at two levels of vitamin K intake.

    PubMed

    Olson, Robert E; Chao, Jean; Graham, Donna; Bates, Margaret W; Lewis, Jessica H

    2002-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total body phylloquinone and its metabolic turnover in human subjects using a tracer dose of [5-H3]phylloquinone containing 4 MBq/mmol. Seven subjects aged 22 to 49 years were given 0.3 microg isotopic phylloquinone intravenously on a control diet (75 microg phylloquinone/d) and blood, urine and faeces were sampled periodically for 6 d. Five of these subjects were studied a second time after 3-8 weeks on a low-vitamin K diet (8 microg/d). The changes in the radioactivity of plasma phylloquinone with time were analysed by the method of residuals and fitted to a curve composed of two exponential components. The size of the exchangeable body pool was calculated by isotope dilution. Plasma phylloquinone levels fell during vitamin K restriction but the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors did not change. After injection the first exponential decay curve t1/2 was 1.0 (sd 0.47) h in the subjects on the control diet and 0.49 (sd 0.27) h after vitamin K restriction. On the control diet, the second exponential t1/2 was 27.6 (sd 124) h that did not change on the low-vitamin K diet ( (sd 13.5) h). These results indicate that the turnover time for phylloquinone in human subjects is about 1.5 d. Urinary excretion of 3H-metabolites ranged from 30 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 38 % on the restricted diet and had the same turnover rate as the second component of the plasma decay curves. The exchangeable body pool of phylloquinone declined from about 1.0 microg/kg before restriction to lower values after vitamin K restriction. The faecal excretion of phylloquinone and its metabolites fell from 32 % of the administered dose on the control diet to 13 % on the restricted diet. PMID:12067424

  19. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

  20. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. A.; Blake-James, M.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing.

  1. Total body and exchangeable potassium in chronic airways obstruction: a controversial area?

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, K; Davies, D L; Howie, A D; Madkour, M M; Mahaffy, M E; Pack, A I

    1978-01-01

    Potassium deficiency is an important complication in the treatment of heart disease. However, there is a serious dichotomy in the literature. Severe potassium depletion has been reported in this condition when exchangeable potassium was measured whereas normal levels or marginal depletion were found in measurements of total body potassium. To clarify this situation, simultaneous measurements of total body potassium by whole-body counting, and of exchangeable potassium by isotope dilution using 43K, were made in 10 male subjects with established airways obstruction. Sequential determinations showed that exchangeable potassium increased up to 68 hours after administration, and values obtained at only 24 hours would have been a substantial underestimate. In this group of subjects neither total body nor exchangeable potassium at 48 hours was significantly different from the expected normal value. PMID:417419

  2. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  3. Total-body calcium estimated by delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Ma, R; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M

    1999-01-01

    Total body calcium (TBCa) in 270 black and white women age 21-79 years was measured concurrently by delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (DGNA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean value for TBCa calculated from DXA was 933 g compared with 730 g for DGNA. By regression, TBCa(DXA(g)) = 1.35 x TBCa(DGNA(g)) -54 (r = 0. 90, r(2) = 81.4%, SEE = 66.9 g). This remarkable difference of 203 g suggests that one or both these methods is not accurate. Adjustment of the regression of DXA versus DGNA for body mass index or trunk thickness explained 8.5-10% of the variability between methods. The unadjusted slope for the DXA values regressed against the DGNA values was 1.35, indicating significant discordance between the methods. There is greater agreement between the two DGNA facilities (Brookhaven National Laboratory and Baylor College of Medicine) and between the various DXA instruments. Either DGNA underestimates TBCa or DXA overestimates total-body bone mineral content. Resolution of these disparate results may possibly be achieved by concurrent measurement of whole human cadavers of different sizes with chemical determination of the calcium content of the ash. In the interim, cross-calibration equations between DGNA and standardized values for DXA for total-body bone mineral content may be used, which will permit reporting of consistent values for TBCa from the two technologies. PMID:10663353

  4. Cell survival kinetics in peripheral blood and bone marrow during total body irradiation for marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Andreeff, M.; Li, D.

    1983-11-01

    Cell survival kinetics in both peripheral blood and in bone marrow have been studied over the time course of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Our unique TBI regimen allows the study of the in vivo radiation effect uncomplicated by prior cyclophosphamide, since this agent is given after TBI in our cytoreduction scheme. Peripheral blood cell concentrations were monitored with conventional laboratory cell counts and differentials. Absolute bone marrow cell concentrations were monitored by measuring cell concentrations in an aspirate sample and correcting for dilution with blood by a cell cycle kinetic method using cytofluorometry. For lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients in remission, the effective D/sub 0/ ranged from 373 rad in 10 children less than or equal to 10 y old, to 536 rad in the four patients between 11 to 17 y old, while n = 1.0 in all groups. There was no trend observed according to age. Granulocytes had a much higher effective D/sub 0/, approximately 1000 rad in vivo. Absolute nucleated cell concentration in marrow dropped slowly initially, due to an increased lymphocyte concentration in marrow during a concurrent drop in lymphocyte concentration in peripheral blood, but eventually fell on the last day of TBI ranging from 7 to 44% of the initial marrow nucleated cell concentration. Marrow myeloid elements, however, dropped continuously throughout the course of TBI.

  5. Late ophthalmological complications after total body irradiation in non-human primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemer-Tucker, M. M.; Sterk, C. C.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D.; Lee, A. C.; Lett, J. T.; Cox, A.; Emmanouilidis-van der Spek, K.; Davelaar, J.; Lambooy, A. C.; Mooy, C. M.; Broerse, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term effects of total body irradiation (TBI) on the incidence and time course of ocular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkeys treated with TBI photon doses up to 8.5 Gy and proton doses up to 7.5 Gy were studied at intervals up to 25 years post-irradiation. They were compared with control groups with a similar age distribution. Cataract formation and ocular fundus lesions were scored according to a standardized protocol. Fluorescein angiography and histopathology was performed in selected animals. RESULTS: Cataract formation occurred after a latent period of 3-5 years. Significant cataract induction was observed for photon-doses of 8 and 8.5 Gy and beyond 20 years after proton irradiation. The severity of the lesions represents significant impairment of vision and would require cataract surgery if similar results occurred in human bone marrow transplant patients. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a normal pattern of retinal vessels in 13 out of 14 animals (93%) from the irradiated group and in eight out of nine animals (89%) from the control group. No additional lesions apart from age-related degenerative changes could be demonstrated. Histological evaluation revealed no radiation-associated vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation alone for doses up to 8.5 Gy of photons does not carry a potential risk for fundus pathology, whereas clinically important cataract induction should be anticipated within 5 years after photon doses of 8.0 and 8.5 Gy and proton doses in excess of 2.5 Gy.

  6. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  7. Association between body mass index and risk of total knee replacement, the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Allen, John Carson; Noviani, Maria; Ang, Li-Wei; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Data on the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) are sparse for Asian populations who are leaner than Western populations. We evaluated the association between BMI and risk of total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe KOA among Chinese in Singapore. Methods We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population based prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women, aged 45–74 years at enrollment from 1993 to 1998. Information on height, weight, diet and lifestyle factors were obtained via in-person interviews. TKR cases for severe KOA were identified via linkage with the nationwide hospital discharge database through 2011. Cox regression and weighted least squares regression were used in the analysis. Results The mean BMI among cohort participants was 23.1 kg/m2, and more than two-thirds had BMI below 25 kg/m2. A total of 1,649 had TKR attributable to severe KOA. Risk of TKR increased in a strong dose-dependent manner with increasing BMI throughout the 15–32 kg/m2 range and became less clear at BMI > 32 kg/m2. In the BMI range 16–27 kg/m2, there was a 27% increase in TKR risk for each unit increase in BMI (p for trend < 0.001). Compared to BMI 19–20 kg/m2, the risk estimates of TKR were all statistically significant with increasing unit of BMI ≥ 21 kg/m2. Results were similar for men and women. Conclusion Our results provided evidence for a constant mechanical mechanism underlying BMI and KOA initiation and/or progression. PMID:25450848

  8. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  9. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  10. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be

  11. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Elaine W.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D.; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A.; Giles, Graham G.; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Guymer, Robyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003–2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001–2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25–12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur

  12. Total Body Photography as an Aid to Skin Self-examination: A Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Secker, Lisanne J; Bergman, Wilma; Kukutsch, Nicole A

    2016-03-01

    Skin self-examination can help patients who are at high risk for developing melanoma to become more involved in their own surveillance and treatment. This study examined the use of total body photography as an aid to skin self-examination from the patients' perspective. A total of 179 individuals at high risk for developing melanoma who had undergone total body photography (60.5% response rate) completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing the frequency of skin self-examination, perceived usefulness of total body photography, and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychological factors. Only approximately half of the participants indicated skin self-examination as useful and 78.9% preferred clinical skin examination by a specialist. Finding total body photography useful was associated with having received instructions on how to perform skin self-examination, the use of a (hand)mirror, and confidence to detect changing moles. These findings allow us to develop strategies to further improve patients' self-screening behaviours. PMID:26315708

  13. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  14. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  15. Post-laryngectomy localization of I-131 at tracheostomy site on a total body scan

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, G.A.; Schulz, E.E.

    1984-07-01

    A post-thyroidectomy, post-I-131-therapy patient had a laryngectomy and neck dissection for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. A subsequent I-131 total body scan revealed persistent anterior neck activity, which disappeared upon removal of the tracheostomy tube and dressings.

  16. Variation in body weight and total length among families of fingerling white bass after communal rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in body weight and total length among 15 families of Phase I white bass Morone chrysops was evaluated in a communal pond. Family pedigrees were determined a posteriori using microsatellite molecular markers and trait heritabilities (h2) were estimated. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (+ or - 2...

  17. Total body calcium analysis using the Ca-12(n, alpha) Ar-37 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A low dose neutron activation technique was developed to measure total body calcium in vivo. The effort had included development of irradiation and processing facilities and conduction of human studies to determine the accuracy and precision of measurement attainable with the systems.

  18. Dosimetry of single fraction high dose total body irradiation as measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C.; Bacza, E.T.; Findley, D.O.; Forell, B.W.

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five patients with acute myelogenous or acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated at the Cit of Hope National Medicine Center with chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and bone marrow transplant. The average mid-line dose to these patients was 1002 rad with a uniformity of 8%.

  19. Metabolic changes in humans following total body irradiation. Report for February 1960-October 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-29

    These studies are designed to obtain new information about the metabolic effects of total body and partial body irradiation so as to have a better understanding of the acute and subacute effects of irradiation in the human. The initial studies are pointed toward the elucidation of biological indicators of radiation effects in humans. The major parameters being investigated at present are urinary amino aciduria and alterations in immunological patterns. Certain other parameters such as creatine and creatinine excretion and hematological effects are also being followed. The long-term program envisions carrying out the various observations at dose levels of 100 rad and gradually increasing the dose to 150, 200, 250 and 300 rad. Eventually doses up to 600 rad are anticipated. Also comparison of effects of radiomimetic drugs with total body radiation will be studied.

  20. Effects of Hypergravity and Adrenalectomy on Total Body Bone Mineral Content in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, Beverly; Moran, Megan; Baer, Lisa; Pruitt, Sean; O'Brien, Cheryl; Arnaud, Sara; Wade, Charles; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of 14 days of increased gravitational load, and the absence of adrenal stress hormones on total body bone mineral content (BMC) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Centrifugation at 2 Gs (2G) was used to increase the gravitational load, and bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) was used to eliminate the production of adrenal stress hormones. Stationary groups at 1 G (1G) and sham operated (SHAM) animals served as controls. Thirty rats (n=6 or 8) made up the four experimental groups (1G SHAM, 1G ADX, 2G SHAM and 2G ADX). BMC was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and activity was determined through biotelemetry. Body mass and food intake were also measured. Multi-factorial analysis of variance (MANCOVA) and Newman Keuls post hoc tests were used to analyze significant effects (p less than 0.05) for the primary variables. Results indicated that BMC decreased significantly with increased G for both the SHAM and ADX groups. The BMC for the 1 G ADX group was also significantly lower than the 1G SHAM group, however the 2G SHAM and ADX groups were not significantly different. There was a significant decrease in body mass with increased G and there was no ADX effect on body mass. When BMC was normalized for body mass changes, there were no significant group differences. Activity level decreased with body mass, and food intake data showed there was significant hypophagia during the first few days of centrifugation. These results suggest that the decrease in total body BMC seen with hypergravity may be based to a large extent on the differences in body mass induced by the 2 G load.

  1. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods - We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). Results - 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35-39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). Interpretation - BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics. PMID:26731633

  2. "If I Had Lots of Money...I'd Have a Body Makeover:" Managing the Aging Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevin, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a feminist framework to explore embodied aging by analyzing indepth formal interviews with 57 men and women in their 60s, 70s and 80s. Emphasizing intersectionality, I focus on the interpretations and strategies these men and women use to make sense of their aging bodies. Their aging corporeal experiences allow me to examine…

  3. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-11-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using /sup 153/Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation.

  4. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  5. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved." PMID:25222947

  6. Technical modifications in hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.A.; Barber-Derus, S.; Murray, K.J.; Casper, J.T.; Ash, R.C.; Gillin, M.T.; Wilson, J.F. )

    1989-08-01

    The Medical College of Wisconsin implemented a major bone marrow transplant (BMT) program in July 1985. The type of transplants to be focused on were allogeneic T-lymphocyte deplete. Total body irradiation (TBI) was initially patterned after the Memorial method. Patients received total body irradiation in a sitting position at a dose rate of 20-25 cGy/minute with 50% attenuation lung blocks used both anterior/posterior and posterior/anterior. Electron boosting was utilized for the ribs beneath the lung blocks. Occasionally, lower extremity boosting was required because of the sitting position. A dose of 14 Gy was chosen since T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant data suggest the need for higher total doses to consistently obtain engraftment. This dose was given in 3 equal daily fractions over 3 days following conditioning chemotherapy. Six of 11 patients treated in this manner developed lethal pulmonary events. In response to the pulmonary toxicity, partial lung shielding was increased to 60% attenuation. In the next 107 patients receiving this program of total body irradiation there was a reduced incidence of fatal pulmonary events (10 cases of fatal idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and 12 cases of fatal pulmonary infections) after a median follow-up of 9 months. This was an obvious improvement over the initial group. A significant level of hepato-renal toxicity was also observed with 14 Gy total body irradiation when no liver or kidney blocking was used. Of the first 20 patients treated, three cases of fatal veno-occlusive disease resulted. Subsequently, a 10% attenuation right sided liver block was added. Five of 98 patients treated with this block have developed fatal hepatic dysfunction, (median follow-up of 7.2 months).

  7. Immunologic changes after loco-regional radiotherapy and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) in mice

    SciTech Connect

    De Ruysscher, D.; Waer, M.; Vandeputte, M.; van der Schueren, E. )

    1989-12-01

    The immunologic effects of fractionated irradiation to both hind limbs and the tail of adult mice were investigated. A dose of 34 Gy given in 17 fractions of 2 Gy, 1 fraction per day, 5 days per week, was delivered with a 60Co source. A significant decrease of the total splenocyte count and of the PHA(phytohemagglutinin)-induced proliferation of T cells was found immediately after irradiation. Both parameters normalized within 30 days after irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, the MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture) was supranormal, dropped to 45% 1 week later, and normalized within 1 month after radiotherapy. The NK (natural killer) activity was significantly decreased only the first week after loco-regional irradiation, while the LAK (lymphokine activated killer) activity was not altered at all. The percentage of goat-anti-mouse+ cells (mainly B lymphocytes) was not changed immediately after loco-regional irradiation, but rose to supranormal values (175% of control level) 3 months after irradiation. A persistent decrease of the percentage and the absolute numbers of the Lyt2+ cells (= CD8+ cells, suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype) was observed up to 3 months after irradiation, while the percentage of L3T4+ cells (= CD4+ cells, helper phenotype) remained normal for the total follow-up. No differences in allogeneic skin graft survival could be demonstrated between irradiated and control animals. The observed immunological effects could not be explained by the scatter irradiation to the whole body as total body irradiation (TBI) administered in a dose and dose rate similar to the scatter dose did not result in persistent immunologic changes. No dose-rate effect could be demonstrated in a low dose fractionated total body irradiation schedule. A total body irradiation similar to the scatter dose in humans did not result in significant immunologic changes.

  8. Influence of Resistance Exercise on Lean Body Mass in Aging Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Sen, Ananda; Gordon, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Sarcopenia plays a principal role in the pathogenesis of frailty and functional impairment that occurs with aging. There are few published accounts which examine the overall benefit of resistance exercise (RE) for lean body mass (LBM), while considering a continuum of dosage schemes and/or age ranges. Therefore the purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of RE on LBM in older men and women, while taking these factors into consideration. Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Randomized controlled trials and randomized or non-randomized studies among adults ≥ 50 years, were included. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I2 statistics, and publication bias was evaluated through physical inspection of funnel plots as well as formal rank-correlation statistics. Mixed-effects meta-regression was incorporated to assess the relationship between RE dosage and changes in LBM. Results Data from forty-nine studies, representing a total of 1328 participants were pooled using random-effect models. Results demonstrated a positive effect for lean body mass and there was no evidence of publication bias. The Cochran Q statistic for heterogeneity was 497.8, which was significant (p < 0.01). Likewise, I2 was equal to 84%, representing rejection of the null hypothesis of homogeneity. The weighted pooled estimate of mean lean body mass change was 1.1 kg (95% CI, 0.9 kg to 1.2 kg). Meta-regression revealed that higher volume interventions were associated (β = 0.05, p < 0.01) with significantly greater increases in lean body mass, whereas older individuals experienced less increase (β = -0.03, p = 0.01). Conclusions RE is effective for eliciting gains in lean body mass among aging adults, particularly with higher volume programs. Findings suggest that RE participation earlier in life may provide superior effectiveness. PMID:20543750

  9. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  10. SU-E-T-600: In Vivo Dosimetry for Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations with Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Niedbala, M; Save, C; Cygler, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for in-vivo dosimetry of patients undergoing Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations (TBI and TMI). Methods: TBI treatments of 12 Gy were delivered in 6 BID fractions with the patient on a moving couch under a static 10 MV beam (Synergy, Elekta). TMI treatments of 18 Gy in 9 BID fractions were planned and delivered using a 6 MV TomoTherapy unit (Accuray). To provide a uniform dose to the entire patient length, the treatment was split into 2 adjacent fields junctioned in the thigh region. Our standard clinical practice involves in vivo dosimetry with MOSFETs for each TBI fraction and TLDs for at least one fraction of the TMI treatment for dose verification. In this study we also used OSLDs. Individual calibration coefficients were obtained for the OSLDs based on irradiations in a solid water phantom to the dose of 50 cGy from Elekta Synergy 10 MV (TBI) and 6 MV (TMI) beams. Calibration coefficients were calculated based on the OSLDs readings taken 2 hrs post-irradiation. For in vivo dosimetry OSLDs were placed alongside MOSFETs for TBI patients and in approximately the same locations as the TLDs for TMI patients. OSLDs were read 2 hours post treatment and compared to the MOSFET and TLD results. Results: OSLD measured doses agreed within 5% with MOSFET and TLD results, with the exception of the junction region in the TMI patient due to very high dose gradient and difficulty of precise and reproducible detector placement. Conclusion: OSLDs are useful for in vivo dosimetry of TBI and TMI patients. The quick post-treatment readout is an advantage over TLDs, allowing the results to be obtained between BID fractions, while wireless detectors are advantageous over MOSFETs for treatments involving a moving couch.

  11. Perceived Fashionability of a Garment as Inferred from the Age and Body Type of the Wearer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Ruth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Ninety college-aged females rated the fashionability of six garments worn by nine models representing three age levels and three body types. Results show respondents used age and body type cues as well as fashion detail to judge garment fashionability. (Author/CH)

  12. Influence of nandrolone decanoate on the repopulation of the thymus after total body irradiation of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, J.; Huys, J.; De Scheerder, Y.; Dhont, E.; De Smedt, M.

    1982-10-01

    It has been reported that nandrolone decanoate is helpful in overcoming the neutropenic phase following irradiation. In the present study the influence of nandrolone decanoate on the thymus' cellularity after total body irradiation was investigated. In comparison with a placebo-treated group, mice receiving nandrolone decanoate showed a similar pattern of thymus repopulation, but a significantly lower number of thymocytes over the whole period of treatment was found. Nonirradiated mice also had a significantly lower number of thymocytes when treated with nandrolone decanoate. In addition, the number of circulating leukocytes was also evaluated over a period of 1 month after total body irradiation. On 11 of the 21 days investigated, a significantly higher number of leukocytes was found in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. We conclude that the action of nandrolone decanoate was not clearly distinct from that of testosterone regarding either granulopoiesis or thymic involution.

  13. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report.

  14. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  15. The physiology and biochemistry of total body immobilization in animals: A compendium of research. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Major studies that describe the physiological and biochemical mechanisms which operate during total body restraint (confinement in cages for example) are presented. The metabolism and behavior of various animals used in medical research (dogs, monkeys, rats, fowl) was investigated and wherever possible a detailed annotation for each study is provided under the subheadings: (a) purposes, (b) procedures and methods, (c) results, and (d) conclusions. Selected references are also included.

  16. Total Hg and methyl Hg distribution in sediments of selected Louisiana water bodies.

    PubMed

    Delaune, Ronald D; Gambrell, Robert P; Devai, Istvan; Jugsujinda, Aroon; Kongchum, Manoch

    2009-05-01

    Sediment samples (543) collected from selected Louisiana streams and lakes were analyzed for total Hg and methyl Hg content. The average total Hg content among 543 samples was 92.3 +/- 95.1 microg kg(-1). The average methyl Hg content in the samples was 0.68 +/- 0.80 microg kg(-1). Methyl Hg accounted for an average of 0.73% of the total Hg in sediment. Linear regression analysis of total Hg versus methyl Hg content of the sediment showed methyl Hg content was significantly correlated to total Hg content of sediment (P > 0.01, n = 537) and sediment organic matter content. (P > 0.01, n = 536) Methyl Hg was also positively correlated to clay (P > 0.01, n = 537) and inversely correlated to sand content of sediment (P > 0.01, n = 537). Total Hg and methyl Hg content in these sediments was within the normal range reported elsewhere indicating no significant industrial or municipal Hg contamination. A comparison of selected water bodies with fishing advisories showed no relationship to total Hg and methyl Hg in sediment. PMID:19337918

  17. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  18. Effects of age, maturity and body dimensions on match running performance in highly trained under-15 soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare, in 36 highly trained under-15 soccer players, the respective effects of age, maturity and body dimensions on match running performance. Maximal sprinting (MSS) and aerobic speeds were estimated. Match running performance was analysed with GPS (GPSport, 1 Hz) during 19 international friendly games (n = 115 player-files). Total distance and distance covered >16 km h(-1) (D > 16 km h(-1)) were collected. Players advanced in age and/or maturation, or having larger body dimensions presented greater locomotor (Cohen's d for MSS: 0.5-1.0, likely to almost certain) and match running performances (D > 16 km h(-1): 0.2-0.5, possibly to likely) than their younger, less mature and/or smaller teammates. These age-, maturation- and body size-related differences were of larger magnitude for field test measures versus match running performance. Compared with age and body size (unclear to likely), maturation (likely to almost certainly for all match variables) had the greatest impact on match running performance. The magnitude of the relationships between age, maturation and body dimensions and match running performance were position-dependent. Within a single age-group in the present player sample, maturation had a substantial impact on match running performance, especially in attacking players. Coaches may need to consider players' maturity status when assessing their on-field playing performance. PMID:24786981

  19. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  20. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  1. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods — We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60–79, 80–99, 100–119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5–18 years). Results — 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35–39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8–9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6). Interpretation — BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics. PMID:26731633

  2. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  3. Evaluation of dose homogenization and radiation carcinogenesis risk in total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oysul, K; Dirican, B; Beyzadeoglu, M; Sürenkok, S; Arpaci, F; Pak, Y

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the dose homogeneity in total body irradiated patients undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT), and carcinogenic risk in surviving patients. Between 1987 and 2001, 105 patients received hyperfractionated (6 fractions in 3 days) 12 Gy Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in our institution with lateral opposed fields. All the patients had measurements with thermoluminiscence dosimetry (TLD100) placed on seven bilateral body sites in vivo, controlled by the randophantom measurements to verify reasonable dose homogeneity achievement. The comorbid effects in the whole TBI conditioning group with at least three months post BMT follow-up were noted and surviving patients who had a minimum 5-year and maximum 14-year follow-up (median 7.8 years) have been evaluated for carcinogenic radiation risk on the basis of tissue weighting factors as defined by ICRP 60. Reasonable dose homogeneity by lateral opposed beam TBI has been obtained in all 105 patients in whom lateral TLD100 measurement means were within +5% of the planned doses. Calculated carcinogenesis risk factor was 11.34% for males and 12.40% for females, and no second-cancer has been detected whilst radiation-induced 5 cataracts and 10 interstitial pneumonia comorbidities were noted. Dose homogenization can be well achieved for hyperfractionated lateral-beam TBI with acceptable comorbidities and estimated second-cancer risk is significant but relatively low compared to the risk from the clinical indications for TBI. PMID:14628091

  4. Combined effects of body composition and ageing on joint torque, muscle activation and co-contraction in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, G L

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the interplay between body mass, adiposity, ageing and determinants of skeletal muscle strength. One hundred and two untrained healthy women categorised by age into young (Y) (mean ± SD, 26.7 ± 9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1 ± 7.2 years) were assessed for body fat, lean mass, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, muscle activation capacity and antagonist muscle co-contraction. MVC torque normalised to body mass in the obese group was 35 and 29 % lower (p < 0.05) in Y and 34 and 31 % lower (p < 0.05) in O, compared with underweight and normal weight individuals, respectively. Y with ≥40 % body fat had significantly lower activation than Y with <40 % body fat (88.3 vs. 94.4 %, p < 0.05), but O did not exhibit this effect. Co-contraction was affected by ageing (16.1 % in O vs. 13.8 % in Y, p < 0.05) but not body composition. There were significant associations between markers of body composition, age, strength and activation capacity, with the strongest correlation between muscle strength and total body mass (r (2) = 0.508 in Y, p < 0.001, vs. r (2) = 0.204 in O, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the age-related loss in plantar flexion (PF) MVC torque was exacerbated in obese compared to underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals (-0.96 vs. -0.54, -0.57 and -0.57 % per year, p < 0.05). The negative impact of adiposity on muscle performance is associated with not only muscular but also neural factors. Overall, the effects of ageing and obesity on this system are somewhat cumulative. PMID:24744050

  5. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis.

  6. Technical modifications in hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Lawton, C A; Barber-Derus, S; Murray, K J; Casper, J T; Ash, R C; Gillin, M T; Wilson, J F

    1989-08-01

    The Medical College of Wisconsin implemented a major bone marrow transplant (BMT) program in July 1985. The type of transplants to be focused on were allogeneic T-lymphocyte deplete. Total body irradiation (TBI) was initially patterned after the Memorial method. Patients received total body irradiation in a sitting position at a dose rate of 20-25 cGy/minute with 50% attenuation lung blocks used both anterior/posterior and posterior/anterior. Electron boosting was utilized for the ribs beneath the lung blocks. Occasionally, lower extremity boosting was required because of the sitting position. A dose of 14 Gy was chosen since T-lymphocyte deplete bone marrow transplant data suggest the need for higher total doses to consistently obtain engraftment. This dose was given in 3 equal daily fractions over 3 days following conditioning chemotherapy. Six of 11 patients treated in this manner developed lethal pulmonary events. In response to the pulmonary toxicity, partial lung shielding was increased to 60% attenuation. In the next 107 patients receiving this program of total body irradiation there was a reduced incidence of fatal pulmonary events (10 cases of fatal idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and 12 cases of fatal pulmonary infections) after a median follow-up of 9 months. This was an obvious improvement over the initial group. A significant level of hepato-renal toxicity was also observed with 14 Gy total body irradiation when no liver or kidney blocking was used. Of the first 20 patients treated, three cases of fatal veno-occlusive disease resulted. Subsequently, a 10% attenuation right sided liver block was added. Five of 98 patients treated with this block have developed fatal hepatic dysfunction, (median follow-up of 7.2 months). This incidence is not statistically different from the initial group but favors the use of the liver block. Some renal toxicity was also detected with the earlier regimen, especially in pediatric patients. Partial kidney blocking has

  7. Body Mass Index at Age 20 and Subsequent Childbearing: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Synnøve F.; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Some epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies suggest that underweight and obesity impact fertility. Methods This is cross-sectional study of 33,159 North American Adventist women, who were nulliparous at age 20 years and who, as a group, have a healthy lifestyle. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess how body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) at age 20 was related to never becoming pregnant, never giving birth to a living child, or not giving birth to a second or third child. Results A total of 4954 (15%) of the women reported never becoming pregnant (nulligravidity) and 7461 (23%) women remained nulliparous. Underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) at age 20 was associated with approximately 13% increased risk of nulligravidity or nulliparity. Women with BMI≥32.5 kg/m2 when aged 20 had 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0, 3.1) times increased odds of nulliparity compared to women with BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2. Increased risk was found for all groups of overweight women (BMI≥25 kg/m2). However, if the women gave birth to one live child after age 20, BMI≥32.5 kg/m2 at age 20 had less impact (OR 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2, 2.2]) on the likelihood of not delivering a second child. In women who delivered two living children, obesity at age 20 had no bearing on the odds of having a third child. Conclusions Obesity and, to a lesser extent, underweight at age 20 increases the nulliparity rate. The results underscore the importance of a healthy weight in young women. PMID:23611121

  8. Inter-Rater Reliability of Total Body Score-A Scale for Quantification of Corpse Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Marta; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-05-01

    The degree of body decomposition can be quantified using Total Body Score (TBS), a scale frequently used in taphonomic or entomological studies of decomposition. Here, the inter-rater reliability of the scale is analyzed. The study was made on 120 laymen, which were trained in the use of the scale. Participants scored decomposition of pig carcasses from photographs. It was found that the scale, when used by different people, gives homogeneous results irrespective of the user qualifications (the Krippendorff's alfa for all participants was 0.818). The study also indicated that carcasses in advanced decomposition receive significantly less accurate scores. Moreover, it was found that scores for cadavers in mosaic decomposition (i.e., representing signs of at least two stages of decomposition) are less accurate. These results demonstrate that the scale may be regarded as inter-rater reliable. Some propositions for refinement of the scale were also discussed. PMID:27093214

  9. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  10. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  11. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  12. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Marco; Denis, Josiane; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Foucher, Barbara; Desangles, François; Martigne, Patrick; Chaussard, Hervé; Drouet, Michel; Abend, Michael; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI) and partial-body irradiation (PBI) to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims). To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18) were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI) or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI). More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6) and PBI (n = 12), for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI. PMID:26177207

  13. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.I.; Bennett, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should combine TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  14. Thrombotic Microangiopathy In Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Adoptive Cell Therapy and Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jennifer; Citrin, Deborah E.; Waldman, Meryl; White, Donald E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thrombotic microangioapathy (TMA) is a complication that developed in some patients receiving 12 Gy total body irradiation in addition to lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy prior to infusion of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with high-dose aldesleukin (IL-2). This paper describes the incidence, presentation and course of radiation-associated TMA. Methods The data for patients with metastatic melanoma who received ACT with TIL plus aldesleukin following myeloablative chemotherapy and 12 Gy total body irradiation was examined, looking at patient characteristics and the natural history of TMA. Results The median time to presentation was approximately 8 months after completing TBI. The estimated cumulative incidence of TMA was 31.2% (median follow-up of 24 months). Noninvasive criteria for diagnosis included newly elevated creatinine levels, new-onset hypertension, new-onset anemia, microscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, low haptoglobin and elevated lactate dehydrogenase values. Once diagnosed, patients were managed with control of their hypertension with multiple agents and supportive red blood cell transfusions. TMA typically stabilized or improved and no patient progressed to dialysis. TMA was associated with a higher probability of an anti-tumor response. Conclusions Thrombotic microangiopathy occurs in approximately a third of patients treated with a lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy regimen with total body irradiation prior to autologous T-cell therapy. The disease has a variable natural history, however no patient developed end-stage renal failure. Successful management with supportive care and aggressive hypertension control is vital to the safe application of a systemic therapy that has shown curative potential for patients with disseminated melanoma. PMID:24474396

  15. Changes in total body calcium and diet of breeding house sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Ankney, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    We collected House Sparrows Passer domesticus around London, Ontario, estimated their total body calcium masses, food habits and egg production to test for the effects of endogenous calcium levels on control of clutch size. Before egg production began, calcium levels increased significantly and remained high through the end of egg laying, and then declined significantly after egg laying. We found no evidence that clutch size was related to endogenous calcium levels. Upon first ovulation, House Sparrows greatly increased consumption of calciferous materials such as snail shells, bird eggshells and calciferous grit. Their diet returned to normal after the final egg was ovulated. Daily calcium intake was sufficient to meet eggshell calcium needs.

  16. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: the relationship with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, T.J.; Van Dyk, J.; Rider, W.D.

    1981-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is a frequent and often fatal complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Thirty to 40 percent of such cases are of unknown etiology and have been labelled as cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Idiopathic cases are more commonly associated with the use of total body irradiation; their occurrence appears to be independent of immunosupression or graft versus host disease. Evidence is presented from the literature suggesting that the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is related to the absolute absorbed dose of radiation to lung. The similarity of idiopathic pneumonia to radiation pneumonitis seen in a different clinical setting is described.

  17. Uniformity and standardization of single and opposing cobalt 60 sources for total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.; Thomas, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    The use of total body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the management of relapsing leukemia has been established with dual source cobalt irradiation. In many facilities in order to reproduce the clinical results with single source irradiation, dosimetry must be compared under situations of varying configurations in order to standardize TBI techniques. Once intercomparison is achieved by on site dosimetric evaluation, recommendations are made for patient position, length of exposure in different positions and average thickness and beam data used to calculate absorbed dose. Homogeneity of single and opposing cobalt sources is also compared.

  18. Comparison of total and regional body composition in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa and pair-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P; Biko, J; Schlamp, D; Trott, G E; Badura, F; Warnke, A; Reiners, C

    1998-12-01

    Body composition in 31 adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) was measured at the time of hospitalization in order to assess the muscle/bone relationship as a potential source of the development of osteopenia. Differences in lean tissue, fat and bone mass in total body, weight bearing and non weight bearing limbs were estimated in AN and pair-matched controls aged 14.2 +/- 1.8 years (range: 9-17 years). Further, it was investigated if bone mineral density (BMD) better reflects the muscle/bone relationship than bone mineral content (BMC). At the distal radius parameters measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were used to estimate the association of volumetric bone density to bone strength and lean body mass. The correspondence to the same and different body regions was assessed. Total lean mass in the controls was closely related to total body bone mineral content (TBBMC), as was lean tissue and bone mass of the limb subregions (r = 0.82 to 0.93). In contrast, the correlation was significantly lower in AN (r = 0.33 to 0.77). In the controls, the pQCT-derived bone strength was correlated with muscle mass of the forearm (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), but only moderately in AN (r = 0.47, n.s.). Regional lean tissue was 11-20% and fat mass was 56-66% lower in AN (p < 0.01). After adjustment for height, TBBMC was different at p = 0.01. Within the limbs subregions, BMC (but not BMD) was different in both groups only in the upper arm and the thigh. BMC reflected the bone/muscle relationship better than BMD. Intra- and between group regressions gave no significant differences between weight bearing and non weight bearing limbs. In conclusion, the assessment of musculoskeletal factors may be a useful tool to develop individual preventive measures for therapy after recovery of our patients. PMID:10728169

  19. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (P<0.0001) but then stabilized. Longnose dace and green sunfish TL reduction was less for 5% formalin than for either 70% or 95% ethanol (both P<0.0001), whereas the fixative solution had no effect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  20. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Total Hip Arthroplasty Stratified by Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Wu, Eddie S; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Jauregui, Julio J; Robinson, Kristin; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Obese patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty have been shown to have less functional recovery. This study prospectively compared temporal trends in patient-reported outcomes and activity levels between patients with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 30, 30 to 35, and 35 to 40 kg/m(2) after total hip arthroplasty. Patients were evaluated via the Harris Hip Score, Lower Extremity Activity Scale, and Short Form-12 physical and mental components. The results suggest that patients with BMIs of 35 to 40 kg/m(2) might have poorer functional outcomes preoperatively, with function returning more slowly or poor function being sustained and their not reaching other cohorts' levels. Surgeons must counsel these patients regarding functional expectations and the potential for slower functional returns. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e572-e577.]. PMID:27064775

  1. The Thin-Youth Ideal: Should We Talk About Aging Anxiety in Relation to Body Image?

    PubMed

    Gendron, Tracey L; Lydecker, Janet

    2016-04-01

    College students' attitudes about the pervasive thin ideal have been well-studied, but the relationship between the thin ideal and youth ideal in young adults forming life-long health attitudes is understudied. This cross-sectional study examined body image, aging anxiety, ageism, and gender in a sample of 485 undergraduate students. Results from this study demonstrate associations among components of objectified body consciousness (surveillance, shame, and control), body image avoidance, aging anxiety (fear of older people, psychological concerns, physical appearance, and fear of losses), ageism, and gender. Educational efforts that address body image in relation to aging anxiety and ageism are discussed. PMID:27076487

  2. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  3. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  4. Lymphoid and Myeloid Recovery in Rhesus Macaques Following Total Body X-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Farese, Ann M; Hankey, Kim G; Cohen, Melanie Veirs; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Recovery from severe immunosuppression requires hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution and effective thymopoiesis to restore a functional immune cell repertoire. Herein, a model of immune cell reconstitution consequent to potentially lethal doses of irradiation is described, which may be valuable in evaluating potential medical countermeasures. Male rhesus macaques were total body irradiated by exposure to 6.00 Gy 250 kVp x-radiation (midline tissue dose, 0.13 Gy min), resulting in an approximate LD10/60 (n = 5/59). Animals received medical management, and hematopoietic and immune cell recovery was assessed (n ≤ 14) through 370 d post exposure. A subset of animals (n ≤ 8) was examined through 700 d. Myeloid recovery was assessed by neutrophil and platelet-related parameters. Lymphoid recovery was assessed by the absolute lymphocyte count and FACS-based phenotyping of B- and T-cell subsets. Recent thymic emigrants were identified by T cell receptor excision circle quantification. Severe neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia resolved within 30 d. Total CD3+ cells μL required 60 d to reach values 60% of normal, followed by subsequent slow recovery to approximately normal by 180 d post irradiation. Recovery of CD3+4+ and CD3+8+ cell memory and naïve subsets were markedly different. Memory populations were ≥ 100% of normal by day 60, whereas naïve populations were only 57% normal at 180 d and never fully recovered to baseline post irradiation. Total (CD20+) B cells μL were within normal levels by 77 d post exposure. This animal model elucidates the variable T- and B-cell subset recovery kinetics after a potentially lethal dose of total-body irradiation that are dependent on marrow-derived stem and progenitor cell recovery, peripheral homeostatic expansion, and thymopoiesis. PMID:26425902

  5. Cosmic-Ray-Exposure Ages of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-exposure ages of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The exposure-age distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The exposure-age distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the exposure-age clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with ages <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-exposure ages of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.

  6. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed. PMID:24960422

  7. Why do total-body decay curves of iodine-labeled proteins begin with a delay

    SciTech Connect

    Regoeczi, E.

    1987-09-01

    The initial delay that occurs in total-body radiation curves reaching their single-exponential slopes was analyzed from 106 experiments involving several mammalian species (guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat) and plasma proteins (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, antithrombin III, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, and transferrin) in 14 different combinations. The time interval (Td) between injection and the intercept of the slope with the full-dose value was adopted as a measure of curve nonideality. The overall mean Td was 6.6 h, but individual values showed a significant correlation to protein half-lives, whereby proteins of unequal metabolic properties exhibited different mean Td values. Targeting protein to the liver abolished delay. Choice of the isotope (/sup 125/I or /sup 131/I) and size of the labeled protein had no influence on the magnitude of delay. Whole-body radiation curves of animals that received (/sup 125/I)iodotyrosines, Na/sup 131/I, or /sup 131/I-polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibited no initial delays. These results do not support the earlier notion that delay is caused by a redistribution of the labeled protein in the body to radiometrically more favorable sites. However, they are compatible with the assumption that delayed passage of a protein dose through the extracellular matrix and/or retarded transfer of proteolytic products from extravascular catabolic sites to plasma may be responsible for the phenomenon.

  8. Patient dose analysis in total body irradiation through in vivo dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Kurup, P G G; Murali, V; Muthukumaran, M; Bhuvaneshwari, N; Velmurugan, J

    2012-10-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a special radiotherapy technique, administered prior to bone marrow transplantation. Due to the complex nature of the treatment setup, in vivo dosimetry for TBI is mandatory to ensure proper delivery of the intended radiation dose throughout the body. Lithium fluoride (LiF) TLD-100 chips are used for the TBI in vivo dosimetry. Results obtained from the in vivo dosimetry of 20 patients are analyzed. Results obtained from forehead, abdomen, pelvis, and mediastinum showed a similar pattern with the average measured dose from 96 to 97% of the prescription dose. Extremities and chest received a dose greater than the prescription dose in many instances (more than 20% of measurements). Homogeneous dose delivery to the whole body is checked by calculating the mean dose with standard deviation for each fraction. Reasons for the difference between prescription dose and measured dose for each site are discussed. Dose homogeneity within ±10% is achieved using our in-house TBI protocol. PMID:23293453

  9. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given eigher as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to 4 x 10(8) cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis. In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after i vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  10. A simplified technique for delivering total body irradiation (TBI) with improved dose homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Rui; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.; Sensakovic, William; Fung, Henry C.; Chu, James C. H.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) with megavoltage photon beams has been accepted as an important component of management for a number of hematologic malignancies, generally as part of bone marrow conditioning regimens. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the authors' TBI technique, which both simplifies the treatment process and improves the treatment quality. Methods: An AP/PA TBI treatment technique to produce uniform dose distributions using sequential collimator reductions during each fraction was implemented, and a sample calculation worksheet is presented. Using this methodology, the dosimetric characteristics of both 6 and 18 MV photon beams, including lung dose under cerrobend blocks was investigated. A method of estimating midplane lung doses based on measured entrance and exit doses was proposed, and the estimated results were compared with measurements. Results: Whole body midplane dose uniformity of {+-}10% was achieved with no more than two collimator-based beam modulations. The proposed model predicted midplane lung doses 5% to 10% higher than the measured doses for 6 and 18 MV beams. The estimated total midplane doses were within {+-}5% of the prescribed midplane dose on average except for the lungs where the doses were 6% to 10% lower than the prescribed dose on average. Conclusions: The proposed TBI technique can achieve dose uniformity within {+-}10%. This technique is easy to implement and does not require complicated dosimetry and/or compensators.

  11. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given either as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to to 4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single-dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis.In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after in vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  12. Role of the lung in total body clearance of circulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Roth, R A; Wiersma, D A

    1979-01-01

    Attention in recent years has focused upon the ability of lung to accumulate and/or to metabolise circulating hormones, drugs and other xenobiotic agents. Although often studied in broken cell preparations, such functions must be examined in intact lung before extrapolation to the situation in vivo is possible. The role of lung in total body clearance of xenobiotic agents is often considered to be small, as compared with the liver it usually has much lower concentrations of degradative enzymes and a smaller mass. However, consideration of such factors as organ blood flow or stimulation of drug metabolising enzymes suggests that the contribution of the lung to total body clearance of some drugs is greater than previously recognised. This may explain some of the alterations in drug clearance seen clinically. For example, cigarette smoking may increase the clearance of certain xenobiotic compounds by stimulating pulmonary drug metabolising enzymes. Pulmonary drug disposition may also be altered by conditions affecting cardiac output, such as exercise, hypoxia, and circulatory shock, or those affecting acid-base balance, such as hyperventilation. In addition, pneumotoxicants may affect pulmonary clearance of circulating drugs and xenobiotics. PMID:41661

  13. Feasibility of total body irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Roncadin, M; Arcicasa, M; Bortolus, R; Trovó, M G; Carbone, A; Tirelli, U; De Paoli, A; Franchin, G; Grigoletto, E

    1991-01-01

    Combined total body irradiation (TBI) and Prednimustine were prospectively evaluated in 30 patients affected either with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) eleven patients were previously treated. Between January 1984 and May 1987, 20 evaluable patients with CLL, median age 66 years (range 43-82), classified according to Rai (4 in stage I, 10 in stage II, 4 in stage III, 2 in stage IV) and 10 evaluable patients with NHL low-grade malignancy according to the Working Formulation, Stages III and IV, median age 54 years (range 32-71) were treated using a 6 MeV Linear Accelerator, applying two opposite alternating fields including total body, with a fraction of 15 cGy, 2 fractions weekly (3-day interval) for a total dose of 150 cGy given over 5 weeks. Prednimustine (100 mg/m2, orally, for 5 consecutive days, every 3-4 weeks, for 6-9 courses) was administered 2 months after TBI treatment, as consolidation therapy. By May 1989, a total of 85% hematological responses (defined as normalization of the differential white cell count, of the total blood cell count and of bone marrow infiltration) were obtained after combined treatment in CLL patients; moreover 3 CR (according to the WHO criteria), 75% with splenomegaly reduction and 40% with lymphadenopathy reduction were seen. Ninety percent objective responses (5 CR and 4 PR) were observed in the NHL patients, with 50% having splenomegaly reduction and 67% lymphadenopathy reduction. The median response time in the two groups was, respectively, 14 and 23 months. The overall toxicity (WHO grades 1,2,3,4) after combined treatment was 65% and 70% in the two patient groups. WHO grade III toxicity, completely reversible, was verified in only 16.6% of the cases; all cases, except one, were previously treated. Additionally, 1 toxic death (grade IV thrombocytopenia and leukopenia) was observed in a heavily pretreated patient affected with CLL after TBI alone. Prednimustine regimen was

  14. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H. W.; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths. PMID:26509531

  16. Effect of aging on body systems of the dog.

    PubMed

    Mosier, J E

    1989-01-01

    A common property of all aging systems is that of progressive and irreversible change, which may be hastened by the effects of disease, stress, nutrition, exercise, genetics, and environment. Current knowledge and technology provide increasing opportunity to effect change and improvement in the pursuit of health, longevity, and enhanced quality of animal life. Older animals seldom have a single disease, but rather each one represents a unique combination of varying levels of loss of function at both the cellular and systems level. Veterinarians should not accept that poor health and old age are inevitable companions. Knowledge of the common pathologic changes associated with age and their effect on function allows the clinician to plan more effectively and manage health care programs. PMID:2646811

  17. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Validation of Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy to Measure Total Body Water in Resistance-Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary; Byrne, Nuala; Chaseling, Janet

    2015-10-01

    The three-compartment (3-C) model of physique assessment (fat mass, fat-free mass, water) incorporates total body water (TBW) whereas the two-compartment model (2-C) assumes a TBW of 73.72%. Deuterium dilution (D2O) is the reference method for measuring TBW but is expensive and time consuming. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS SFB7) estimates TBW instantaneously and claims high precision. Our aim was to compare SFB7 with D2O for estimating TBW in resistance trained males (BMI >25kg/m2). We included TBWBIS estimates in a 3-C model and contrasted this and the 2-C model against the reference 3-C model using TBWD2O. TBW of 29 males (32.4 ± 8.5 years; 183.4 ± 7.2 cm; 92.5 ± 9.9 kg; 27.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) was measured using SFB7 and D2O. Body density was measured by BODPOD, with body composition calculated using the Siri equation. TBWBIS values were consistent with TBWD2O (SEE = 2.65L; TE = 2.6L) as were %BF values from the 3-C model (BODPOD + TBWBIS) with the 3-C reference model (SEE = 2.20%; TE = 2.20%). For subjects with TBW more than 1% from the assumed 73.72% (n = 16), %BF from the 2-C model differed significantly from the reference 3-C model (Slope 0.6888; Intercept 5.093). The BIS SFB7 measured TBW accurately compared with D2O. The 2C model with an assumed TBW of 73.72% introduces error in the estimation of body composition. We recommend TBW should be measured, either via the traditional D2O method or when resources are limited, with BIS, so that body composition estimates are enhanced. The BIS can be accurately used in 3C equations to better predict TBW and BF% in resistance trained males compared with a 2C model. PMID:26011918

  19. Simple technique for fabrication of shielding blocks for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J. P.; Davis, C. A.; Zahid, A. M.; Rajan, B.

    2009-01-01

    Techniques are being standardized in our department for total body irradiation (TBI) with six MV photons in linear accelerator for preconditioning to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Individualized shields with low melting point alloy are to be fabricated for shielding critical organs such as lungs, kidneys etc. A method to mount diminished dimension of shields in a tray at 3.75m is designed in the department for a teletreatment distance of four meters with magna field with A simulator image taken with the patient's midplane (MP) at one meter distance is used to mark the dimensions of lung, scaled down by a factor of 3.75/4.0. These lung dimensions are reprinted from the digital simulator image for making the shield. The methodology of the technique using digitized minification in radiography is the first of its kind to be used for shield cutting in magna field radiotherapy. PMID:20098553

  20. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45/sup 0/ above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented.

  1. Modification of a standard cobalt-60 unit for total body irradiation at 150 cm SSD

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, V.G.; Herer, A.S.

    1984-06-01

    A cobalt-60 teletherapy unit has been modified to permit total body irradiation (TBI) with a vertical beam in a conventional treatment room. This technique has been implemented at low cost using a few easily made accessories. Removal of the adjustable collimator assembly provides a field 2.3 meters in diameter at 150 cm SSD. A copper flattening filter has been constructed to improve beam uniformity and remove electron contamination. Machine set up time for TBI requires less than 15 minutes and does not affect the routine clinical use of the unit. A dose rate of 32 cGy per minute (midplane) is attainable in a 20 cm thick patient. The dosimetry and technical aspects are presented in this paper.

  2. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  3. Calibration of a total body potassium monitor with an anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. D.; Allen, B. J.

    1996-11-01

    An anthropomorphic phantom was used to calibrate a supine geometry sodium iodide total body potassium monitor. Correction factors accommodating variability in subject size were empirically determined. Measurements on 12 males of weight 45 - 96 kg, height 161 - 184 cm and 18 females of weight 48 - 89 kg, height 153 - 175 cm, showed that the calibration factor was significantly correlated (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001) to subject , indicating comparable accuracy to -based calibration procedures. Fat-free mass determined from the potassium measurements of 16 subjects correlated significantly with fat-free mass estimated from skinfold thickness (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001) and bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001). These data, together with the precision (coefficient of variation, CV = 1.5%) and accuracy (CV = 4.5%) of the system, indicate that this calibration procedure represents a relatively low-cost, non-invasive alternative to -based methods of calibrating total body potassium monitors.

  4. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  5. Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, Wrist and Waist Circumferences to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Severity

    PubMed Central

    KOMURCU, Hatice Ferhan; KILIC, Selim; ANLAR, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18–35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36–64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  6. Development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The development of spasticity with age in children with cerebral palsy (CP) has, to our knowledge, not been studied before. In 1994, a register and a health care program for children with CP in southern Sweden were initiated. In the programme the child's muscle tone according to the modified Ashworth scale is measured twice a year until six years of age, then once a year. We have used this data to analyse the development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods All measurements of muscle tone in the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle in all children with CP from 0 to 15 years during the period 1995–2006 were analysed. The CP subtypes were classified according to the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe network system. Using these criteria, the study was based on 6218 examinations in 547 children. For the statistical analysis the Ashworth scale was dichotomized. The levels 0–1 were gathered in one category and levels 2–4 in the other. The pattern of development with age was evaluated using piecewise logistic regression in combination with Akaike's An Information Criterion. Results In the total sample the degree of muscle tone increased up to 4 years of age. After 4 years of age the muscle tone decreased each year up to 12 years of age. A similar development was seen when excluding the children operated with selective dorsal rhizotomy, intrathecal baclofen pump or tendo Achilles lengthening. At 4 years of age about 47% of the children had spasticity in their gastro-soleus muscle graded as Ashworth 2–4. After 12 years of age 23% of the children had that level of spasticity. The CP subtypes spastic bilateral and spastic unilateral CP showed the same pattern as the total sample. Children with dyskinetic type of CP showed an increasing muscle tone up to age 6, followed by a decreasing pattern up to age 15. Conclusion In children with CP, the muscle tone as measured with the Ashworth scale increases up to 4

  7. Hospitalization for total hip replacement among inpatients aged 45 and over: United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Monica L; Palso, Kathleen; Bercovitz, Anita

    2015-02-01

     Total hip replacement, in which both the head of the femur and its socket are replaced, is done to restore movement to hips damaged by osteoarthritis, late-stage degenerative bone and cartilage disease, or other injuries and disease (1). The number of total hip replacements is expected to increase over the next few decades (2). National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data show trends and estimates of the number and rate of total hip replacements and average length of stay among inpatients aged 45 and over. PMID:25714040

  8. Dosimetric aspects of inverse-planned modulated-arc total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Mareike; Kirby, Neil; Morin, Olivier; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To develop optimal beam parameters and to verify the dosimetric aspects of the recently developed modulated-arc total-body irradiation (MATBI) technique, which delivers an inverse-planned dose to the entire body using gantry rotation. Methods: The patient is positioned prone and supine underneath the gantry at about 2 m source-to-surface distance (SSD). Then, up to 28 beams irradiate the patient from different gantry angles. Based on full-body computed-tomography (CT) images of the patient, the weight of each beam is optimized, using inverse planning, to create a uniform body dose. This study investigates how to best simulate patients and the ideal beam setup parameters, such as field size, number of beams, and beam geometry, for treatment time and dose homogeneity. In addition, three anthropomorphic water phantoms were constructed and utilized to verify the accuracy of dose delivery, with both diode array and ion chamber measurements. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of the new technique, a beam model is created specifically for the extended-SSD positioning for MATBI. Results: Low dose CT scans can be utilized for dose calculations without affecting the accuracy. The largest field size of 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was found to deliver the most uniform dose in the least amount of time. Moreover, a higher number of beams improves dose homogeneity. The average dose discrepancy between ion chamber measurements and extended-SSD beam model calculations was 1.2%, with the largest discrepancy being 3.2%. This average dose discrepancy was 1.4% with the standard beam model for delivery at isocenter. Conclusions: The optimum beam setup parameters, regarding dose uniformity and treatment duration, are laid out for modulated-arc TBI. In addition, the presented dose measurements show that these treatments can be delivered accurately. These measurements also indicated that a new beam model did not significantly improve the accuracy of dose calculations

  9. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, David J.; Warry, Alison J.; Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  10. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. . E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao; Chan, Ka Wah; Antolak, John; Ha, Chul S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  11. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Eaton, David J; Warry, Alison J; Trimble, Rachel E; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J; Collis, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources. PMID:25151596

  12. Comparison of Total Body Irradiation Before and After Chemotherapy in Pretreatment for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Zhi; Kong, Pei-Yan; Wang, Xin-Xin; Li, Guang-Hui; Zhou, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zheng-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the best time to carry out total body irradiation (TBI) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) pretreatment. Methods Retrospective analysis was applied in 88 cases of HSCT using TBI as pretreatment from March 2001 to June 2009 in our hospital. Using 8 MV X-ray, all the patients were irradiated by linear accelerator in 2 consecutive days, with a total dose of 7–11 Gy and an instantaneous dose rate ranging between 4.0 and 5.0 cGy/min. Of the 88 cases, 40 cases were given traditional high-dose chemotherapy before TBI (Group CT/TBI), and 48 cases were given TBI before chemotherapy (Group TBI/CT) instead. Results Eighty-seven cases of transplantation were successful, with no serious complications, including radiation pneumonia. Compared with Group CT/TBI, Group TBI/CT showed similar incidence of complications (p=0.08), similar recent chemotherapy toxicity (p=0.833), and significantly lower recent radiation toxicity (p=0.000). Conclusions TBI in the pretreatment of HSCT is safe and effective. Using TBI before the high-dose chemotherapy can maintain the same pretreatment effect, effectively reduce apparent immediate reaction/discomfort during TBI, reduce preparation workload of radiotherapy, and lower radiation side-effects. Further research is needed to expand its clinical application. PMID:22149642

  13. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  14. Low-dose total body irradiation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Short- and long-term toxicity and prognostic factor

    SciTech Connect

    De Neve, W.J.; Lybeert, M.L.; Meerwaldt, J.H. )

    1990-08-01

    The toxicity of low-dose total body irradiation (LTBI), the prognostic factors related to survival and relapse-free survival, and the efficacy of treatment given for relapse after LTBI were analyzed in 68 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated at the Rotterdamsch Radiotherapeutisch Instituut. All patients received LTBI between 1973 and 1979. The patient material was heterogeneous with respect to malignancy grade, stage, age, and therapy given before or after LTBI; the unifying principle was that all patients received LTBI and had symptomatic NHL. Analysis of prognostic variables with Cox's model revealed grade (p less than 0.001) and age (p = 0.004) as predictors for survival and grade (p less than 0.001) and dose of LTBI (p = 0.056) as predictors for relapse-free survival after LTBI. No subjective toxicity was observed during or after LTBI treatment. Hematologic toxicity was dose-limiting and was increased if patients had received cytotoxic treatment before LTBI. LTBI-related hematologic toxicity was lower in patients with low-grade NHL than in those with intermediate or high-grade NHL, was limited in time, and recovered in all patients. Patients relapsing after LTBI received a variety of therapies. Response rates were high, but of short duration, especially in intermediate or high-grade NHL. Duration of response was progressively shorter after multiple relapses.

  15. Secondary osteosarcoma arising from osteochondroma following autologous stem cell transplantation with total-body irradiation for neuroblastoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, HIROYUKI; OGOSE, AKIRA; HOTTA, TETSUO; IMAI, CHIHAYA; IMAMURA, MASAHARU; ENDO, NAOTO

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the first case of malignant transformation to osteosarcoma arising from osteochondroma following childhood total-body irradiation (TBI). The association between TBI and later development of osteochondroma is well-known; however, malignant degeneration arising from radiation-induced osteochondroma is rare. The current study describes the case of a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma arising from osteochondroma of the left distal humerus, which developed following TBI. TBI was administered as part of a conditioning regimen received prior to autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the age of 6 years, following an initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma at the age of 5 years. The patient subsequently underwent preoperative chemotherapy followed by wide local excision and reconstruction with an extracorporeally irradiated autograft. Postoperative chemotherapy was administered, and the patient demonstrated no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence after 40 months of follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of malignant degeneration of osteochondroma following childhood TBI, and the first reported case of transformation to osteosarcoma. The current case highlights the importance of close observation for secondary malignancies in this patient population. PMID:26622619

  16. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  17. Late Effects of Total-Body Gamma Irradiation on Cardiac Structure and Function in Male Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    DeBo, Ryne J; Lees, Cynthia J; Dugan, Greg O; Caudell, David L; Michalson, Kris T; Hanbury, David B; Kavanagh, Kylie; Cline, J Mark; Register, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease is an increasingly recognized, serious late effect of radiation exposure, most notably among breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease survivors, as well as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the late effects of total-body irradiation (TBI) on cardiac morphology, function and selected circulating biomarkers in a well-established nonhuman primate model. For this study we used male rhesus macaques that were exposed to a single total-body dose of ionizing gamma radiation (6.5-8.4 Gy) 5.6-9.7 years earlier at ages ranging from ∼3-10 years old and a cohort of nonirradiated controls. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed annually for 3 years on 20 irradiated and 11 control animals. Myocardium was examined grossly and histologically, and myocardial fibrosis/collagen was assessed microscopically and by morphometric analysis of Masson's trichrome-stained sections. Serum/plasma from 27 irradiated and 13 control animals was evaluated for circulating biomarkers of cardiac damage [N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic protein (nt-proBNP) and troponin-I], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM) and microbial translocation [LPS-binding protein (LBP) and sCD14]. A higher prevalence of histological myocardial fibrosis was observed in the hearts obtained from the irradiated animals (9/14) relative to controls (0/3) (P = 0.04, χ(2)). Echocardiographically determined left ventricular end diastolic and systolic diameters were significantly smaller in irradiated animals (repeated measures ANOVA, P < 0.001 and P < 0.008, respectively). Histomorphometric analysis of trichrome-stained sections of heart tissue demonstrated ∼14.9 ± 1.4% (mean ± SEM) of myocardial area staining for collagen in irradiated animals compared to 9.1 ± 0.9 % in control animals. Circulating levels of MCP-1 and LBP were significantly higher in irradiated animals (P < 0.05). A high incidence of diabetes in the irradiated animals was associated

  18. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-10-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung.

  19. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  20. Age-related changes in total protein and collagen metabolism in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mays, P K; McAnulty, R; Laurent, G J

    1991-12-01

    Liver collagen levels are determined by a balance between synthesis and degradation, processes known to have rapid rates in growing animals. We report age-related changes in liver collagen synthesis and degradation rates, as well as protein synthesis rates, in rats at five ages from 1 to 24 mo. Fractional collagen synthesis rates were determined after injection of [14C]proline with a flooding dose of unlabeled proline and its incorporation as hydroxy-[14C]proline into proteins. Fractional protein synthesis rates were based on the uptake of [14C]proline into proteins. Fractional collagen degradation rates were calculated from the difference between collagen fractional synthesis and deposition rates. Fractional rates of collagen synthesis were similar between 1 mo (23.0% +/- 4.6%/day) and 24 mo (19.6% +/- 3.4%/day) of age. Collagen deposition into the extracellular matrix was extremely low at every age studied; therefore degradation pathways accounted for the bulk of the collagen synthesized. The mean fractional synthesis rate for the total protein pool was unaltered between 1 mo (105.0% +/- 7.2%/day) and 15 mo (89.9% +/- 6.0%/day) of age, after which it increased to 234.9% +/- 33.0%/day (p less than 0.05) by 24 mo of age. These results indicate that liver collagen and total protein synthesis rates were maintained at relatively high levels during development and maturity but that protein synthesis rates were highest in senescent animals. PMID:1959872

  1. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly: Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and dietary protein enhanced mating success and had no effect on survival in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). .The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of methoprene and protein on body lipids and protein tu...

  2. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  3. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  4. Associations of Candidate SNP on Age, Leptin Concentration, Backfat, and Body Weight at Puberty in Gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF), and leptin play important roles in livestock reproduction. The objective of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), PAX5, and POMC genes were associated with age, leptin concentration, body condition as ...

  5. Age-related body mass and reproductive measurements of gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Based on 65 free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) of known age and 25 of estimated age examined during summers of 1970-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, body mass of both males and females peaked at 5 or 6 years of age, with mean masses of 40.8 kg and 31.2 kg, respectively. Testis size varied as a function of age and month through at least 8 years of age, with length plus width ranging from 1.9 to 7.8 cm. Most females aged 4-9 years bred based on assessment of nipple sizes; those that had not bred had average lower body mass than those that had. This is the 1st report of such data from known-aged wolves.

  6. Translating bed total body irradiation lung shielding and dose optimization using asymmetric MLC apertures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahbaz; Brown, Derek; Ahmed, Saad B S; Kakakhel, Muhammad B; Muhammad, Wazir; Hussain, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    A revised translating bed total body irradiation (TBI) technique is developed for shielding organs at risk (lungs) to tolerance dose limits, and optimizing dose distribution in three dimensions (3D) using an asymmetrically-adjusted, dynamic multileaf collimator. We present a dosimetric comparison of this technique with a previously developed symmetric MLC-based TBI technique. An anthropomor-phic RANDO phantom is CT scanned with 3 mm slice thickness. Radiological depths (RD) are calculated on individual CT slices along the divergent ray lines. Asymmetric MLC apertures are defined every 9 mm over the phantom length in the craniocaudal direction. Individual asymmetric MLC leaf positions are optimized based on RD values of all slices for uniform dose distributions. Dose calculations are performed in the Eclipse treatment planning system over these optimized MLC apertures. Dose uniformity along midline of the RANDO phantom is within the confidence limit (CL) of 2.1% (with a confidence probability p = 0.065). The issue of over- and underdose at the interfaces that is observed when symmetric MLC apertures are used is reduced from more than ± 4% to less than ± 1.5% with asymmetric MLC apertures. Lungs are shielded by 20%, 30%, and 40% of the prescribed dose by adjusting the MLC apertures. Dose-volume histogram analysis confirms that the revised technique provides effective lung shielding, as well as a homogeneous dose coverage to the whole body. The asymmetric technique also reduces hot and cold spots at lung-tissue interfaces compared to previous symmetric MLC-based TBI technique. MLC-based shielding of OARs eliminates the need to fabricate and setup cumbersome patient-specific physical blocks. PMID:27074477

  7. Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem; Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

  8. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Yamaçake, K. G. R.; Cocuzza, M.; Torricelli, F. C. M.; Tiseo, B. C.; Frati, R.; Freire, G. C.; Antunes, A. A.; Srougi, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001) compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113), FSH serum levels (p=0.863) and LH serum levels (p=0.218) between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05). There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120) among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  9. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  10. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures. PMID:26910032

  11. Body Fat Percentage Is a Major Determinant of Total Bilirubin Independently of UGT1A1*28 Polymorphism in Young Obese

    PubMed Central

    Kohlova, Michaela; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Fernandes, João; Costa, Elísio; Catarino, Cristina; Aires, Luísa; Mansilha, Helena Ferreira; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Rêgo, Carla; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bilirubin has potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism (TA repeats in the promoter region) is a major determinant of bilirubin levels and recent evidence suggests that raised adiposity may also be a contributing factor. We aimed to study the interaction between UGT1A1 polymorphism, hematological and anthropometric variables with total bilirubin levels in young individuals. Methods 350 obese (mean age of 11.6 years; 52% females) and 79 controls (mean age of 10.5 years; 59% females) were included. Total bilirubin and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, hemogram, anthropometric data and UGT1A1 polymorphism were determined. In a subgroup of 74 obese and 40 controls body composition was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies were 49.9%, 42.7% and 7.5% for 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Patients with 7/7 genotype presented the highest total bilirubin levels, followed by 6/7 and 6/6 genotypes. Compared to controls, obese patients presented higher erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin and CRP levels, but no differences in bilirubin or in UGT1A1 genotype distribution. Body fat percentage was inversely correlated with bilirubin in obese patients but not in controls. This inverse association was observed either in 6/7 or 6/6 genotype obese patients. UGT1A1 polymorphism and body fat percentage were the main factors affecting bilirubin levels within obese patients (linear regression analysis). Conclusion In obese children and adolescents, body fat composition and UGT1A1 polymorphism are independent determinants of total bilirubin levels. Obese individuals with 6/6 UGT1A1 genotype and higher body fat mass may benefit from a closer clinical follow-up. PMID:24901842

  12. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs.

  13. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mengmeng; Gu, Zhaoyan; Pei, Yu; Meng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI) are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD). Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years. Methods The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50–59 (n = 35), 60–69 (n = 123), 70–79 (n = 93), and 80–89 (n = 107) years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21), medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118), overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178), and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), lumbar spine (L1-L4) BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2), LM index (LMI; LM/height2), FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2), percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%), percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%), and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM) × 100%) were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization. Results Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001) whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145). Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined

  14. Protein nutrition mediates lean body mass homeostasis in the aging warfighter1–3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demographics shift of the average age in the United States and worldwide mandates that careful attention should be paid to the nutritional and health needs of all segments of our older adult population. Well defined changes in body composition occur in aging animals and humans. Characteristic of...

  15. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  16. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  17. Comparisons among Equations Used for Retinol Isotope Dilution in the Assessment of Total Body Stores and Total Liver Reserves.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Bryan M; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in animal biology and has negative effects associated with both hypo- and hypervitaminosis A. Many notable interventions are being done globally to eliminate vitamin A deficiency, including supplementation, fortification, and biofortification. At the same time, it is important to monitor vitamin A status in nations where preformed vitamin A intake is high because of consumption of animal source foods (e.g., liver, dairy, eggs), fortified foods (e.g., milk, cereals, oil, sugar, margarine), or vitamin supplements (e.g., one-a-day multivitamins) to ensure the population does not reach hypervitaminosis A. To accurately assess population status and evaluate interventions aimed at improving vitamin A status, accurate assessment methods are needed. The primary storage site of vitamin A is the liver; however, routinely obtaining liver samples from humans is impractical and unethical. Isotope dilution using deuterium- or (13)C-labeled retinol is currently the most sensitive indirect biomarker of vitamin A status across a wide range of liver reserves. The major drawback to its application is the increased technicality in sample analysis and data calculations when compared to less sensitive methodology, such as serum retinol concentrations and dose response tests. Two main equations have emerged for calculating vitamin A body pool size or liver concentrations from isotope dilution data: the "Olson equation" and the "mass balance equation." Different applications of these equations can lead to confusion and lack of consistency if the underlying principles and assumptions used are not clarified. The purpose of this focused review is to describe the evolution of the equations used in retinol stable-isotope work and the assumptions appropriate to different applications of the test. Ultimately, the 2 main equations are shown to be fundamentally the same and differ only in assumptions made for each specific research application. PMID:25809683

  18. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  20. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  1. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 {mu}M) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  2. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5–10 μM) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation. PMID:19303399

  3. Effects of supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon immunologic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, N.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Sato, T.; Rapaport, F.T.

    1981-03-01

    The transplantation of bone marrow from prospectively selected genotypically and pedigree DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated littermate and nonlittermate recipients within the Copperstown beagle colony has regularly resulted in the establishment of long-term chimerism, with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in the recipients. It has been demonstrated that irradiated recipients exhibit significant decreases in their ability to muster primary immunological responses during the first months after reconstitution with bone marrow. Beyond the documented capacity of preirradiation blood transfusions to interfere with subsequent engraftment of allogeneic marrow, however, there have been no systematic studies of the possible effects of irradiation and bone marrow transplantation upon immunologic memory. The present study was designed in order to assess this question in greater detail, with particular regard to the effects of irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon host sensitization to skin allografts. The results indicate that, within the experimental limitations described, the state of sensitivity produced by first set skin allograft rejection is not affected significantly by supralethal total body irradiation and reconstitution of the recipient with allogeneic bone marrow.

  4. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

  5. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT.

  6. Oral Interleukin 11 as a Countermeasure to Lethal Total-Body Irradiation in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Alexander F.; Biju, Prabath G.; Lui, Huanli; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures against radiation are critically needed. Ideally, these measures would be easy to store, easy to administer and have minimal toxicity. We used oral delivery of interleukin 11 (IL11) in mice exposed to lethal doses of total-body irradiation (TBI). Animals were given IL11 by gavage at various daily doses beginning 24 h after TBI, which continued for 5 days. At a TBI of 9.0 Gy, mice treated with IL11 had a 70% survival at 30 days compared with control group survival of 25% (P = 0.035). At 10.0 Gy, treated animals had 50% survival at 30 days compared with no survivors in the control group. Treated animals had significant improvement in intestinal mucosal surface area and crypt survival. In addition bacterial translocation of coliform bacteria was significantly less in the treated animals. Systemic absorption of IL11 was low in treated animals and effects on the hematopoietic cells were not seen. Serum citrulline levels rebounded significantly faster after irradiation in the IL11 treated animals, indicating quicker recovery of small intestine health. These data suggest that IL11 given orally protects the intestinal mucosa from radiation damage and that this compound is beneficial as a mitigating agent even when started 24 h after radiation exposure. PMID:24219324

  7. Anticarcinogenic effect of tetrachlorodecaoxide after total-body gamma irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, S.R.; Port, R.E.; Ivankovic, S.

    1994-08-01

    Tetrachlorodecaoxygen (TCDO) therapy of acute radiation syndrome was tested for a possible influence on the development of X-ray-induced malignancies. BD IX rats were exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI, {gamma} rays, 9 or 11 Gy) and received daily intravenous injections of either TCDO or physiological saline solution from days 4 through 11 after TBI. The short-term TCDO therapy reduced the acute death rate markedly, but survival rates after 4 months were similar with and without TCDO. The first malignancy after TBI occurred on day 103, and over the lifetime of the animals the tumor incidence in the group given TBI (11 Gy) without TCDO treatment was 73% vs 20% in animals with short-term TCDO therapy after TBI. In particular, there was a highly significant prevention of radiation-induced leukemia [P (one-sided) < 0.001] by TCDO, and a significantly reduced incidence of malignant epithelial tumors [P (one-sided) < 0.05]. The development of sarcomas was not affected by TCDO. Long-term survival was not enhanced by TCDO due to the occurrence of bronchopneumonial infections about 1 year after TBI. In conclusion, TCDO is not only a potent therapeutic agent in acute radiation syndrome, but it also significantly reduced the carcinogenic risk in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The fate of cells with chromosome aberrations after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F.; Ganser, A.; Fliedner, T.M.; Arnold, R.; Kubanek, B.

    1983-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies were done on bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes of four patients (three with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, one with aplastic anemia) at various intervals up to 861 days after total-body X irradiation (TBI) at doses between 4.5 and 10 Gy (450-1000 rad) followed by syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Whereas no radiation-induced aberrations could be found in the bone marrow, apart from a transient finding in the patient with the lowest radiation dose, aberrant metaphases were seen in the peripheral lymphocytes of three patients in the range from 2.5 to 46% even at 861 days after the exposure. There were no demonstrable aberrations related to TBI in the only patient developing graft-versus-host disease. The dicentric yield as determined in the aberrant metaphases with 46 centromeres ranged between 3.4 +/- 1.3 and 4.9 +/- 0.4. In one patient it was demonstrated by BUdR-labeling that after 10 Gy (1000 rad) TBI the surviving and heavily damaged lymphocytes can go into cell cycle and reach at least the third mitosis. The percentage of aberrant cells diminished by about 25% at each mitotic division.

  9. Interstitial pneumonitis following bone marrow transplantation after low dose rate total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.; Depledge, M.H.; Powles, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    Idiopathic and infective interstitial pneumonitis (IPn) is a common complication after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in many centers and carries a high mortality. We report here a series of 107 patients with acute leukemia grafted at the Royal Marsden Hospital in which only 11 (10.3%) developed IPn and only 5 died (5%). Only one case of idiopathic IPn was seen. Factors which may account for this low incidence are discussed. Sixty of 107 patients were transplanted in first remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and were therefore in good general condition. Lung radiation doses were carefully monitored and doses of 10.5 Gy were not exceeded except in a group of 16 patients in whom a study of escalating doses of TBI (up to 13 Gy) was undertaken. The dose rate used for total body irradiation (TBI) was lower than that used in other centers and as demonstrated elsewhere by ourselves and others, reduction of dose rate to <0.05 Gy/min may be expected to lead to substantial reduction in lung damage. Threshold doses of approximately 8 Gy for IPn have been reported, but within the dose range of 8 to 10.5 Gy we suggest that dose rate may significantly affect the incidence. Data so far available suggest a true improvement in therapeutic ratio for low dose rate single fraction TBI compared with high dose rate.

  10. Cataracts after total body irradiation and marrow transplantation: a sparing effect of dose fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Flournoy, N.; Sullivan, K.M.; Sheehan, K.; Buckner, C.D.; Sanders, J.E.; Storb, R.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Thomas, E.D.

    1984-07-01

    Two hundred seventy-seven patients, who have been followed for 1 to 12 years after marrow transplantation, have been examined for cataract development. In preparation for transplantation, 96 patients with aplastic anemia were conditioned with chemotherapy only, while 181 patients (two with aplastic anemia and 179 with a hematologic malignancy) were conditioned with a regimen of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy. TBI was delivered from two opposing /sup 60/Co sources at an exposure rate of 4 to 8 cGy/min, either as a single dose of 10 Gy (105 patients) or in fractions (76 patients). To date, 86 patients have developed cataracts. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates of the incidence of cataracts for patients given chemotherapy only and no TBI, single-dose TBI, and fractionated TBI are 19, 80, 18%, respectively. On the basis of proportional hazards regression analyses, patients given single-dose TBI had a relative risk of developing cataracts that was 4.7-fold higher than in patients given fractionated TBI or chemotherapy only, suggesting a significant sparing effect with use of TBI dose fractionation.

  11. Monte Carlo optimization of total body irradiation in a phantom and patient geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, R.; Müntzing, K.; Krantz, M.; Hedin, E.; Hertzman, S.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this work is to apply a Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator model, validated by experimental data at isocentre distances, to a large-field total body irradiation (TBI) technique and to develop a strategy for individual patient treatment on the basis of MC dose distributions. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages for a 15 MV Varian accelerator. Acceptable agreement is obtained between MC data and measurements in a large water phantom behind a spoiler at source-skin distances (SSD) = 460 cm as well as in a CIRS® thorax phantom. Dose distributions in patients are studied when simulating bilateral beam delivery at a distance of 480 cm to the patient central sagittal plane. A procedure for individual improvement of the dose uniformity is suggested including the design of compensators in a conventional treatment planning system (TPS) and a subsequent update of the dose distribution. It is demonstrated that the dose uniformity for the simple TBI technique can be considerably improved. The optimization strategy developed is straightforward and suitable for clinics where the TPS available is deficient to calculate 3D dose distributions at extended SSD.

  12. The enhanced total body wrap--the new frontier in dressing care for burns.

    PubMed

    Low, O-Wern; Chong, Si Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2013-11-01

    The management of extensive burns with their associated high fluid exudate following burn excision and skin grafting has always posed a challenge in burn wound care. The ideal dressing should protect the wound from physical damage and micro-organisms; be comfortable and durable; allow high humidity at the wound; and be able to allow maximal activity for wound healing without retarding or inhibiting any stage of the process. The dressing technique described in this paper fulfils all the criteria above and at the same time provides an efficient channel to effectively clear the excessive exudate produced while keeping the wounds moist. Advantages conferred include accurate charting of wound exudate; reduced frequency of dressing changes; lower infection rates through prevention of strike-through; and securing and improving the viability of skin grafts. An enhancement to a technique previously described by us through the use of long thin strips of VAC sponges to transmit negative pressure, the enhanced Total Body Wrap aims to provide ideal conditions to promote healing in burns. Using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), this technique is simple and straightforward enough to be applied in majority of tertiary centres around the world. PMID:23742730

  13. Total body irradiation, fludarabine, melphalan, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced pediatric hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, D; Worth, L L; Mullen, C A; Madden, R; Mahajan, A; Choroszy, M; Ha, C S; Champlin, R C; Chan, K W

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding 9 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI), in three single daily fractions of 3 Gy, to the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine 30 mg/m2 i.v. x 4 days and melphalan 140 mg/m2 i.v. x 1 day in advanced pediatric hematologic malignancies. Twenty-two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), six acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and one non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients were transplanted. Of these, 13 were beyond second remission, and five had prior hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Twenty-one donors were unrelated, of which 19 were from cord blood (CB) units. Three of the eight related donors were genotypically disparate. Oral mucositis and diarrhea were the most common toxicities. Twenty-seven patients achieved neutrophil engraftment (median 16 days), and 23 had platelet engraftment (median 42 days). One patient had primary graft failure. Seven patients died of non-relapse causes in the first 100 days. With a median follow-up of 52 months, seven of 22 ALL, five of six AML, and one of one lymphoma patients are alive and in remission. The regimen of TBI, fludarabine, and melphalan allows the engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (including mismatched CB). It was fairly well tolerated in pediatric patients, even for second transplants. Its efficacy requires further evaluation. PMID:16435013

  14. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    PubMed

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

  15. Age and Embodied Masculinities: Mid-Life Gay and Heterosexual Men Talk about their Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Amy C.; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40–60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women’s, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men’s embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men’s well-being. PMID:23849420

  16. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  17. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  18. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  19. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 9 (Simian Varicella Virus) Infection after Total-Body Irradiation in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Chappell, Mark G; Christensen, Christine L; Facemire, Paul; Singh, Vijay K; Ossetrova, Natalia I; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Holt, Rebecca K

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy ((60)Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6.2 × 10(6)/μL, platelet count of 44 × 10(3)/μL, and WBC count of 25 × 10(3)/μL of WBC. The macaque was euthanized in light of a grave prognosis. Gross examination revealed white foci on the liver, multifocal generalized petechiation on serosal and mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity. Microscopic examination revealed cutaneous vesicular lesions with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions within the epithelial cells, consistent with herpesvirus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpesvirus. The serum sample was negative for antibodies against Macacine herpesvirus 1 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (simian varicella virus, SVV). Samples submitted for PCR-based identification of the etiologic agent confirmed the presence of SVV DNA. PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, and histology confirmed that lesions were attributed to an active SVV infection in this macaque. This case illustrates the importance of screening for SVV in rhesus macaques, especially those used in studies that involve immunosuppressive procedures. PMID:27053570

  20. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  1. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than {+-}10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  2. Total body irradiation for stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: ten-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Noyes, W.D.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1972 and 1977, a prospective study was conducted at the University of Florida on the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in the management of stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty-four consecutive de novo (DN) patients (including ten stage II, 18 stage III, and 16 stage IV), as well as 16 previously treated (PT) patients, were accrued. Twenty of the 44 DN patients were symptomatic at presentation. Complete clinical responses were obtained in 20 of the 27 DN patients with favorable histologies (FH), and six of the 17 with unfavorable histologies (UH). Partial responses were obtained in six patients with FH and 11 patients with UH; only one patient showed no response to TBI. By univariate analysis, PT patients showed a trend for decreased relapse-free survival (P = .066) and decreased survival (P = .093). Multivariate analysis identified the best predictors of response rate to be histology (P = .0146) and marrow involvement (P = .0854); of relapse-free survival, histology (P = .0035), and TBI dose (P = .002); and of absolute survival, age (P = .0012), histology (P = .012), and TBI dose (P = .029). Thirty of the 41 patients who relapsed underwent salvage treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation. Twenty-three of the 30 undergoing salvage therapy obtained a second complete clinical response. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common complication was thrombocytopenia. The major late complications were myeloproliferative disorders in four patients, which occurred only after cumulative TBI doses in excess of 200 cGy.

  3. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Artz, Andrew S; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Epstein, Robert B; Lazarus, Hillard M; Olsson, Richard F; Selby, George B; Williams, Kirsten M; Cooke, Kenneth R; Pasquini, Marcelo C; McCarthy, Philip L

    2015-07-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n = 948; TBICy, n = 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLA-matched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P = .67; relative risk, 1.01; P = .91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P = .34; relative risk, .89, P = .18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P = .27; relative risk, .93; P = .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P = .39; relative risk, .9; P = .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P = .62; relative risk, .96; P = .57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P = .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning. PMID:25840335

  4. Modulation of Total Body Irradiation Induced Life Shortening by Systemic Intravenous MnSOD-Plasmid Liposome Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Epperly, Michael W.; Smith, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Schlesselman, James; Franicola, Darcy; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether systemic administration of MnSOD-PL protected mice from the acute hematopoietic syndrome as well as delayed death following total body irradiation (TBI), C57BL/6J mice received intravenously 100μl liposomes containing 100μg of human MnSOD-transgene plasmid 24 hours prior to 9.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. The dose of 9.5 Gy was lethal to 42% of irradiated control female and 74% of irradiated control male mice respectively at 30 days with bone marrow hypocellularity consistent with the hematopoietic syndrome. A statistically significant increase in survival was detected in MnSOD-PL treated compared to 9.5 Gy irradiated control female mice out to 400 days, and in male mice out to 340 days. The incidence of tumors was similar between surviving groups. Between 350 to 600 days, outcome was similar for both MnSOD-PL treated and control irradiated groups consistent with aging with no difference in gross or microscopic pathologic evidence of tumors. Male and female mice receiving 1.0 Gy TBI showed irradiation induced life shortening after 120 days that was decreased by MnSOD-PL administration, and was associated with no increase in rate of tumor associated death. Therefore, systemic MnSOD-PL radioprotective gene therapy is not associated with a detectably higher incidence of late carcinogenesis. PMID:19024650

  5. Total Body Irradiation Is Permissive for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated New Bone Formation Following Local Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Herberg, Samuel; Kondrikova, Galina; Hussein, Khaled A.; Periyasamy-Thandavan, Sudharsan; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Shi, Xingming; Hamrick, Mark W.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal injury is a major clinical challenge accentuated by the decrease of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) with age or disease. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have revealed that BMSCs hold great promise for regenerative therapies due to their direct osteogenic potential and indirect trophic/paracrine actions. Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is involved in modulating the host response to the injury. Common problems with BMSC therapy include poor cell engraftment, which can be addressed by total body irradiation (TBI) prior to transplantation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that direct tibial transplantation of BMSCs drives endogenous bone formation in a dose-dependent manner, which is enhanced by TBI, and investigated the potential role of SDF-1 in facilitating these events. We found that TBI is permissive for transplanted BMSCs to engraft and contribute to new bone formation. Bone marrow (BM) interstitial fluid analysis revealed no differences of SDF-1 splice variants in irradiated animals compared to controls, despite the increased mRNA and protein levels expressed in whole BM cells. This correlated with increased dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and the failure to induce chemotaxis of BMSCs in vitro. We found increased mRNA expression levels of the major SDF-1-cleaving proteases in whole BM cells from irradiated animals suggesting distinct spatial differences within the BM in which SDF-1 may play different autocrine and paracrine signaling roles beyond the immediate cell surface microenvironment. PMID:24914464

  6. [Structure and function of the heart according to body weight in men of working age].

    PubMed

    Dudar, L V; Honcharenko, L I; Ovdiĭ, M O

    2014-01-01

    The scientific structure and function heart in 65 working age men according to weight and body composition. The shown that the excess body weight observed a significant increase in the size and volume left ventricle of the heart and myocardial mass. The percentage of muscle mass in the body of the patients positively correlated with systolic function of the heart, while the percentage of body fat had a negative correlation with this index. The shown that the individualization of health exercise should take into account the percentage of the active body weight and fat mass in the body, since the high content of fat intense exercise can lead to heart and remodeling worsening left ventricular systolic function heart, while increasing BMI due to muscle does not contribute to the structural and functional reorganization of the heart. PMID:24908966

  7. Procalcitonin as a predictive biomarker for total body irradiation induced bacterial load and lethality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Biju, Prabath G.; Garg, Sarita; Wang, Wenze; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Fink, Louis M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early detection and intervention are critical to prevent death. The acute radiation syndrome is characterized by damage of the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic systems. Translocation of intestinal microflora combined with immune system compromise may lead to septicemia and death. This work examined the utility of procalcitonin, a clinical sepsis biomarker, in a mouse model of radiation toxicity. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI). Intestinal mucosal permeability was measured in vivo, and liver bacterial load and plasma levels of procalcitonin (PCT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) were measured at baseline and 3.5, 7, and 10 days after TBI. The value of early PCT in predicting subsequent lethality was determined by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis. Four days after TBI a dose-dependent increase in permeability of the intestinal mucosa was observed, while bacterial translocation was present from day 7 onward. There was a high positive correlation between bacterial translocation and all sepsis biomarkers, with PCT exhibiting the strongest correlation. Moreover, plasma PCT levels were elevated already from day 3.5 onwards, whereas, LPS was elevated from day 7 and LBP only 10 days after TBI. ROC analysis revealed that PCT levels measured 3.5 days after TBI predicted lethality at 10 days. These data demonstrate the value of PCT as an early biomarker in radiation-induced bacteremia for mouse studies and suggest that clinical results from other septic conditions may apply to post-radiation septicemia in humans. PMID:22576002

  8. Voxel-Based Dose Reconstruction for Total Body Irradiation With Helical TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao Ming; Penagaricano, Jose; Yan Yulong; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have developed a megavoltage CT (MVCT)-based dose reconstruction strategy for total body irradiation (TBI) with helical TomoTherapy (HT) using a deformable registration model to account for the patient's interfraction changes. The proposed technique serves as an efficient tool for delivered dose verification and, potentially, plan adaptation. Methods and Materials: Four patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with TBI using HT were selected for this study. The prescription was 12 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction, twice per day, given at least 6 h apart. The original plan achieved coverage of 80% of the clinical target volume (CTV) by the 12 Gy isodose surface. MVCTs were acquired prior to each treatment. Regions of interest were contoured on each MVCT. The dose for each fraction was calculated based on the MVCT using the HT planned adaptive station. B-spline deformable registration was conducted to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the MVCT and the planning CT. The resultant deformation vector was employed to map the reconstructed dose from each fraction to the same point as the plan dose, and a voxel-to-voxel summed dose from all six fractions was obtained. The reconstructed dose distribution and its dosimetric parameters were compared with those of the original treatment plan. Results: While changes in CTV contours occurred in all patients, the reconstructed dose distribution showed that the dose-volume histogram for CTV coverage was close (<1.5%) to that of the original plan. For sensitive structures, the differences between the reconstructed and the planned doses were less than 3.0%. Conclusion: Voxel-based dose reconstruction strategy that takes into account interfraction anatomical changes using MVCTs is a powerful tool for treatment verification of the delivered doses. This proposed technique can also be applied to adaptive TBI therapy using HT.

  9. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  10. Vitamin A-fortified milk increases total body vitamin A stores in Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O; Grijalva-Haro, Maria I; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E; Green, Michael H; Tang, Guangwen; Pacheco-Moreno, Bertha I; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) continues to be a major nutritional problem in developing countries, including Central America. In Mexico, milk is a well-accepted vehicle for the administration of micronutrients, including VA, to preschoolers. Thus, we conducted a randomized, controlled, clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption of 250 mL of VA-fortified milk (which provided 196 retinol equivalents/d) for 3 mo on VA stores in mildly to moderately VAD (serum retinol concentration 0.35-0.7 μmol/L) preschoolers who were not enrolled in a food assistance program. Twenty-seven mildly to moderately VAD children were randomly assigned based on screening measurements to either the intervention (n = 14) or control group (n = 13) (children in the control group did not receive placebo). All children in the control group and 79% (n = 11) of the children in the intervention group completed the study. The total body VA (TBVA) pool size was estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after the intervention. After 3 mo, median changes in the serum retinol concentration for the intervention and control groups were 0.13 and -0.21 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.009). Median changes in the TBVA stores were 0.06 and 0.01 mmol, respectively (P = 0.006) and estimated median changes in the liver VA concentration were 0.09 and 0.01 μmol/g, respectively (P = 0.002). The VA-fortified milk was well accepted among preschoolers and significantly increased TBVA stores, liver VA stores, and serum retinol concentration, indicating that it may be an effective means to ameliorate VAD in young Mexican children. PMID:23256139

  11. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83–90% (93–97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm2. As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  13. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  14. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. Results in seventy leukemia patients with allogeneic transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Chu, F.C.H.; Dinsmore, R.; Kapoor, N.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Teitelbaum, H.; Reid, A.; Bonfiglio, P.; Simpson, L.; O'Reilly, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    From May, 1979 to March, 1981, 76 leukemia patients were prepared for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with a new hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) regimen (1320 cGy in 11 fractions, 3x/day), followed by cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, for two days. Partial lung shielding was done on each treatment, with supplemental electron beam treatments of the chest wall to compensate, and of the testes, a sanctuary site. This regimen was initiated to potentially reduce fatal interstitial pneumonitis as well as decrease leukemic relapse. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) patients is 63%, while relapse-free survival at 1 year is 53%. On the other hand, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients, there is no significant difference between relapse or remission patients with regard to overall survival or relapse-free survival, when relapse is defined as > 5% blasts in the marrow at the time of cytoreduction. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for ALL is 61% and relapse-free survival is 45% at 1 year. Fatal interstitial pneumonitis has dropped to 18% compared with 50% in our previous single-dose TBI regimen (1000 cGy), in which the same doses of cyclophosphamide were given prior to TBI. In conclusion, not only has fatal interstitial pneumonitis been reduced by hyperfractionation and partial lung blocking, but there may be a survival advantage in ALL patients in relapse, who have a survival equal to that of remission patients. This may indicate a greater cell kill with the higher dose (1320 cGy) attained with this regimen, in these patients with a higher leukemic cell burden.

  15. Attenuator design for organs at risk in total body irradiation using a translation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lavallee, Marie-Claude; Aubin, Sylviane; Chretien, Mario; Larochelle, Marie; Beaulieu, Luc

    2008-05-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is an efficient part of the treatment for malignant hematological diseases. Dynamic TBI techniques provide great advantages (e.g., dose homogeneity, patient comfort) while overcoming treatment room space restrictions. However, with dynamic techniques come additional organs at risk (OAR) protection challenges. In most dynamic TBI techniques, lead attenuators are used to diminish the dose received by the OARs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the dose deposition under various shapes of attenuators in static and dynamic treatments. This characterization allows for the development of a correction method to improve attenuator design in dynamic treatments. The dose deposition under attenuators at different depths in dynamic treatment was compared with the static situation based on two definitions: the coverage areas and the penumbra regions. The coverage area decreases with depth in dynamic treatment while it is stable for the static situation. The penumbra increases with depth in both treatment modes, but the increasing rate is higher in the dynamic situation. Since the attenuator coverage is deficient in the dynamic treatment mode, a correction method was developed to modify the attenuator design in order to improve the OAR protection. The correction method is divided in two steps. The first step is based on the use of elongation charts, which provide appropriate attenuator coverage and acceptable penumbra for a specific depth. The second point is a correction method for the thoracic inclination, which can introduce an orientation problem in both static and dynamic treatments. This two steps correction method is simple to use and personalized to each patient's anatomy. It can easily be adapted to any dynamic TBI techniques.

  16. Patient dosimetry for total body irradiation using single-use MOSFET detectors.

    PubMed

    Briere, Tina Marie; Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Prado, Karl; Lane, Richard; Woo, Shiao; Ha, Chul; Gillin, Michael T; Beddar, A Sam

    2008-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of a new type of solid-state detector, the OneDose single-use MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). The factory calibration factors supplied by the manufacturer are applicable to conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements and therefore may not be expected to be valid for TBI dosimetry because of the large field sizes and extended source-to-axis distances used. OneDose detectors were placed under a 1-cm thick bolus at the head, neck, and umbilicus of 9 patients undergoing TBI procedures. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed beside the detectors. We found that the OneDose readings differed from the TLD readings by 4.6% at the head, 1.7% at the neck, and 3.9% at the umbilicus, with corresponding standard deviations of 3.9%, 2.2%, and 2.7%. For all patient measurements, 95% of the OneDose readings fell within 3.3% +/- 6.0% of the TLD readings. Anthropomorphic phantom measurements showed differences of -0.1% at the neck and -1.2% midway between the phantom's carina and umbilicus. Our results suggest that these detectors could be used for TBI quality assurance monitoring, although TLDs should remain the standard when critical dose measurements are performed. If OneDose detectors are to be used for TBI, the use of more than one at each location is strongly recommended. Because the detectors are designed for single use, they cannot be individually calibrated. However, to obtain institution-specific correction factors for better applicability to TBI dosimetry, measurements of several detectors taken from a particular lot could also be obtained in phantom with the TBI geometry configurations used for patient treatment. PMID:19020482

  17. A system for measuring total body calcium in man using the 40Ca(n, alpha)37 Ar reaction.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, T K; Nelp, W B; Murano, R; Palmer, H E; Hinn, G M

    1979-01-01

    A technique to measure total body calcium using the 40Ca(n, alpha)37 Ar reaction has been developed. The technique is based on collecting 37Ar exhaled in the breath following a 10 mrad uniform total body irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. The 37Ar in the exhaled breath is extracted by selective absorption and its radioactivity is measured inside a low-background proportional detector. The facilities developed include an activation facility providing a +/-2.7% activation uniformity, a closed circuit rebreathing and gas collection system, and a gas purification and counting system. The technique provides a precision of +/-2.4% as determined by repetitive measurements of human volunteers and has an accuracy for determination of total body calcium in grams of +/-5%. PMID:432261

  18. Thyroglobulin measurement vs iodine 131 total-body scan for follow-up of well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, D.P.; Manni, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Measurement of the serum thyroglobulin level may be more sensitive than total-body scan using sodium iodide 131 for detecting recurrences from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We have evaluated the merit of these two methods through a retrospective chart review of patients followed up at the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pa. We found that in 17 (45%) of 38 follow-up visits, the presence of interfering antibodies prevented the measurement of serum thyroglobulin levels. Furthermore, such determination was less sensitive than iodine 131 total-body scan in detecting residual thyroid tissue and/or cancer in the neck area. We concluded that iodine 131 total-body scan is the preferable method of follow-up, particularly when the goal of therapy is complete ablation of thyroid tissue.

  19. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  20. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  1. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  2. Lu-Hf total-rock age for the Amitsoq gneisses, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettingill, H. S.; Patchett, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lu-Hf total-rock data for the Amitsoq gneisses of West Greenland yield an age of 3.55 + or - 0.22 billion years, based on the decay constant for Lu-176 of 1.96 x 10 to the -11th/year, and an initial Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.280482 + or - 33. The result is in good agreement with Rb-Sr total-rock and U-Pb zircon ages. In spite of severe metamorphism of the area at 2.9 billion years, zircons from two of the samples have remained on the total-rock line, and define points close to the initial Hf ratio. The initial Hf-176/Hf-177 lies close to a chondritic Hf isotopic evolution curve from 4.55 billion years to present. This is consistent with the igneous precursors to the Amitsoq gneisses having been derived from the mantle at or shortly before 3.6 billion years. Anomalous relationships between Hf concentration and the Lu-176/Hf-177 ratio may suggest that trace element abundances in the Amitsoq gneisses are partly controlled by processes related to metamorphism.

  3. Lu-Hf total-rock age for the Amîtsoq gneisses, West Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettingill, H.S.; Patchett, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Lu-Hf total-rock data for the Amîtsoq gneisses of West Greenland yield an age of 3.55±0.22Gy(2σ), based on the decay constant λ176Lu=1.96×10−11y−1, and an initial176Hf/177Hf ratio of 0.280482±33. The result is in good agreement with Rb-Sr total-rock and U-Pb zircon ages. In spite of severe metamorphism of the area at 2.9 Gy, zircons from two of the samples have remained on the total-rock line, and define points close to the initial Hf ratio. The initial176Hf/177Hf lies close to a chondritic Hf isotopic evolution curve from 4.55 Gy to present. This is consistent with the igneous precursors to the Amîtsoq gneisses having been derived from the mantle at or shortly before 3.6 Gy. Anomalous relationships between Hf concentration and the176Lu/177Hf ratio may suggest that trace element abundances in the Amîtsoq gneisses are partly controlled by processes related to metamorphism.

  4. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A. )

    1990-09-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% (day 3 following depletion) vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression.

  5. Body protein and lipid deficit in tumour-bearing rats in relation to age.

    PubMed Central

    Oudart, H.; Heitz, A.; Bnouham, M.; Malan, A.; Le Maho, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is among the most dramatic situations of depletion in body energy reserves. To ascertain whether the pattern of body composition alteration during tumour development is influenced by aging as in uncomplicated starvation, we compared the difference of body composition between Yoshida sarcoma bearing rats and young (200 g, 7 weeks) and adult (400 g, 13 weeks) control rats. After the same duration of tumour bearing, mass and composition of tumours were similar in adult and young rats, indicating that they are independent of host age. Food intake decreased to a remarkably similar value in both young and adults. Body water content was elevated in hosts of both ages. The relative deficit of body lipid vs controls was similar for both, the absolute lipid deficit being therefore larger in adult than in young tumour-bearing rats (14.3 +/- 4.4 g vs 6.8 +/- 0.9 g; P < 0.01). In contrast, there was a relatively larger deficit of body protein in young rats. Paradoxically, these rats still maintained a positive nitrogen balance whereas this balance was negative in adult tumour-bearing rats. In conclusion, as previously shown in uncomplicated undernutrition, the anorexia induced by Yoshida sarcoma development is still associated with some protein accretion in young rats whereas cachexia develops in adults. PMID:8217604

  6. A study analysis of cable-body systems totally immersed in a fluid stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaurier, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A general stability analysis of a cable-body system immersed in a fluid stream is presented. The analytical portion of this analysis treats the system as being essentially a cable problem, with the body dynamics giving the end conditions. The mathematical form of the analysis consists of partial differential wave equations, with the end and auxiliary conditions being determined from the body equations of motion. The equations uncouple to give a lateral problem and a longitudinal problem as in first order airplane dynamics. A series of tests on a tethered wind tunnel model provide a comparison of the theory with experiment.

  7. Compact modeling of total ionizing dose and aging effects in MOS technologies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Esqueda, Ivan S.; Barnaby, Hugh J.; King, Michael Patrick

    2015-06-18

    This paper presents a physics-based compact modeling approach that incorporates the impact of total ionizing dose (TID) and stress-induced defects into simulations of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices and integrated circuits (ICs). This approach utilizes calculations of surface potential (ψs) to capture the charge contribution from oxide trapped charge and interface traps and to describe their impact on MOS electrostatics and device operating characteristics as a function of ionizing radiation exposure and aging effects. The modeling approach is demonstrated for bulk and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOS device. The formulation is verified using TCAD simulations and through the comparison of model calculations and experimentalmore » I-V characteristics from irradiated devices. The presented approach is suitable for modeling TID and aging effects in advanced MOS devices and ICs.« less

  8. Compact modeling of total ionizing dose and aging effects in MOS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Esqueda, Ivan S.; Barnaby, Hugh J.; King, Michael Patrick

    2015-06-18

    This paper presents a physics-based compact modeling approach that incorporates the impact of total ionizing dose (TID) and stress-induced defects into simulations of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices and integrated circuits (ICs). This approach utilizes calculations of surface potential (ψs) to capture the charge contribution from oxide trapped charge and interface traps and to describe their impact on MOS electrostatics and device operating characteristics as a function of ionizing radiation exposure and aging effects. The modeling approach is demonstrated for bulk and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOS device. The formulation is verified using TCAD simulations and through the comparison of model calculations and experimental I-V characteristics from irradiated devices. The presented approach is suitable for modeling TID and aging effects in advanced MOS devices and ICs.

  9. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  10. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  11. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  12. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07–8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  13. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  14. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  15. Relationships between age, body weight, physical fitness and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity.

    PubMed

    Semmens, J B; Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Masarei, J R

    1983-10-14

    The associations between sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity (SHBG), age, body mass index (BMI), and physical fitness have been studied in 34 men and 36 women. Multivariate analysis was used to look for independent associations with SHBG. The data indicate that when controlled for a number of other factors SHBG levels are related, in men but not in women, to age (positively, p less than 0.001) and BMI (negatively, p less than 0.001). PMID:6685004

  16. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  17. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) < 16 %; and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity. PMID:22088365

  18. Body Fatness at Young Ages and Risk of Breast Cancer Throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Heather J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Body fatness at young ages may be related to breast cancer risk independently of adult adiposity. The authors conducted a prospective analysis among 188,860 women (7,582 breast cancer cases) in the Nurses’ Health Study (1988–2004) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1989–2005) who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean; level 9: most overweight). Body fatness at young ages was inversely associated with risk of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (per 1-unit increase in adolescent body fatness, relative risk (RR) = 0.88 and RR = 0.91, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among all women, the RR for adolescent body fatness of level 6.5 or higher versus level 1 was 0.57 (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.90; Ptrend < 0.0001) and was unaffected by adjustment for current body mass index. The association was stronger for women with birth weights under 8.5 pounds (<3.9 kg) than for women with birth weights of 8.5 pounds or more (≥3.9 kg) (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.89 and RR = 0.94, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.04) and stronger for estrogen receptor-negative tumors than for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.86 and RR = 0.92, respectively; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). Body fatness at young ages has a strong and independent inverse relation to breast cancer risk throughout life. PMID:20460303

  19. Photometric investigation of the totally eclipsing contact binary V12 in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 7789

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Essam, A.; Ali, G. B.; Haroon, A.-A.

    2015-02-01

    NGC 7789 is an intermediate-age open cluster with an age similar to the mean age of contact binary stars. V12 is a bright W UMa-type binary star with an orbital period of 0.3917 days. The first complete light curves of V12 in the V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney (W-D) method. The results show that V12 is an intermediate-contact binary (f=43.0(±2.2)%) with a mass ratio of 3.848, and it is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is slightly hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetry of the light curves is explained by the presence of a dark spot on the more massive component. The derived orbital inclination (i=83{sub .}{sup ∘}6) indicates that it is a totally eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. The orbital period may show a long-term increase at a rate of P-dot =+2.48(±0.17)×10{sup −6} days yr{sup −1} that reveals a rapid mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. However, more observations are needed to confirm this conclusion. The presence of an intermediate-contact binary in an intermediate-age open cluster may suggest that some contact binaries have a very short pre-contact timescale. The presence of a third body and/or stellar collision may help to shorten the pre-contact evolution.

  20. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress. PMID:16243367

  1. In-vivo assessment of total body protein in rats by prompt-γ neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Boozer, Carol N.; Ma, Ruimei; Yasumura, Seiichi

    1997-02-01

    A prompt-(gamma) neutron activation analysis facility for in vivo determination of total body protein (TBP) in rats has been designed. TBP is determined in vivo by assessment of total body nitrogen. The facility is based on a 252Cf radionuclide neutron source within a heavy water moderator assembly and two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The in vivo precision of the technique, as estimated by three repeated measurements of 15 rats is 6 percent, for a radiation dose equivalent of 60 mSv. The radiation dose per measurement is sufficiently low to enable serial measurements on the same animal. MCNP-4A Monte Carlo transport code was utilized to calculate thermal neutron flux correction factors to account for differences in size and shape of the rats and calibration phantoms. Good agrement was observed in comparing body nitrogen assessment by prompt-(gamma) neutron activation and chemical carcass analysis.

  2. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  3. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual. 4.17 Section 4.17 Pensions, Bonuses... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the...

  4. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual. 4.17 Section 4.17 Pensions, Bonuses... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the...

  5. Can clade age alone explain the relationship between body size and diversity?

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S; de Visser, Sara N; Janzen, Thijs; Olsen, Jeanine L; Olff, Han; Rosindell, James

    2012-04-01

    One of the most striking patterns observed among animals is that smaller-bodied taxa are generally much more diverse than larger-bodied taxa. This observation seems to be explained by the mere fact that smaller-bodied taxa tend to have an older evolutionary origin and have therefore had more time to diversify. A few studies, based on the prevailing null model of diversification (i.e. the stochastic constant-rate birth-death model), have suggested that this is indeed the correct explanation, and body-size dependence of speciation and extinction rates does not play a role. However, there are several potential shortcomings to these studies: a suboptimal statistical procedure and a relatively narrow range of body sizes in the analysed data. Here, we present a more coherent statistical approach, maximizing the likelihood of the constant-rate birth-death model with allometric scaling of speciation and extinction rates, given data on extant diversity, clade age and average body size in each clade. We applied our method to a dataset compiled from the literature that includes a wide range of Metazoan taxa (range from midges to elephants). We find that the higher diversity among small animals is indeed, partly, caused by higher clade age. However, it is also partly caused by the body-size dependence of speciation and extinction rates. We find that both the speciation rate and extinction rate decrease with body size such that the net diversification rate is close to 0. Even more interestingly, the allometric scaling exponent of speciation and extinction rates is approximately -0.25, which implies that the per generation speciation and extinction rates are independent of body size. This suggests that the observed relationship between diversity and body size pattern can be explained by clade age alone, but only if clade age is measured in generations rather than years. Thus, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for the observation that smaller-bodied taxa are more

  6. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. PMID:25100693

  7. Refinements in the Method of Total Body Nitrogen Determination Based on Measurement of Gamma Radiation Following Thermal Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamen, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    While measurements of Total Body Nitrogen (TBN) based on observation of capture radiation from ^{14}N(n,gamma)^ {15}N have been made for over a decade, the basis on which they were analyzed did not properly account for the effects of body size on the results obtained. This research investigates that dependence and thus removes a significant systematic error which otherwise limits the accuracy attainable to an undesirable level. These studies were carried out using two Monte Carlo codes, MCNP and EGS4, to calculate neutron transport in the body and gamma transport in the detector respectively. The results of each of the calculations were verified by comparison with measurement and proved satisfactory. The detector responses to neutron capture at various portions of the body were determined. These were combined with calculations of the spatial distribution of neutron capture in the body and, by integration, the response to a body of given size was determined. Comparisons of simulation and measurements for several phantoms of different sizes and shapes showed excellent agreement. Simulation studies were made for a very wide range of phantoms and the results used to permit the correction of analyzed data for body size and shape. At the same time, studies were made to guide a modified design of the TBN facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Improvements made in source shielding, material choices, collimator and premoderator sizes and detector shielding have led to improvements in the systematic error previously attainable.

  8. Calibration of the Brookhaven National Laboratory delayed gamma neutron activation facility to measure total body calcium.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Stamatelatos, I E; Yasumura, S

    2000-05-01

    Differences in body size and shape can cause large variances in the in vivo results of neutron activation analysis. To introduce corrections for body size for the delayed gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, "reference man"-sized and "reference woman"-sized phantoms were constructed. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code also provided correction factors for people of different sizes. For individuals with a body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)2) between 20 and 30, no correction was required. At BMIs greater than 30, the effects of neutron attenuation were significant and a correction factor of CF = -0.0192 x BMI + 1.5635 can be applied. PMID:10865727

  9. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  10. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  11. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  12. Relationship between changes in total-body water and fluid distribution with maximal forearm strength in elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analiza M; Fields, David A; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2011-09-01

    Among judo athletes, strong grip strength is crucial for performing offensive and defensive maneuvers that rely predominantly on forearm maximal strength (FMS). The study aims were to evaluate changes in total-body water (TBW) and its compartments (extracellular water [ECW] and intracellular water [ICW]) and their relationship with loss of FMS in elite judo athletes. At baseline (weight stability), 27 male elite athletes were evaluated (age: 23.2 ± 2.8 years) and again evaluated 1-3 days before competition. Athletes were free to gain or lose weight based upon their specific competition needs. Using dilution techniques (deuterium and bromide), TBW and ECW were estimated, and ICW was calculated (ICW = TBW - ECW). Fat, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue (LST) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Handgrip was used to assess FMS. Using a reduction of 2% as a representative outcome for decreased FMS, 10 athletes were identified as having lost FMS, whereas 17 changed <2% or gained. Comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results from baseline to before competition indicated that those who lost ≥2% of FMS significantly decreased TBW and ICW by -2.7 ± 3.0 and -4.4 ± 4.2%, respectively. The groups differed in ICW changes (-4.4 ± 4.2 vs. 1.9 ± 6.1%), respectively, for those who lost FMS by ≥2%. The ICW changes, but not in TBW or ECW, significantly predicted the risk of losing FMS (β = 0.206; p = 0.027), even adjusting for weight and arm LST changes. These findings indicated that reductions in ICW increased the risk of losing grip strength in elite judo athletes. PMID:21869630

  13. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Li, De-Guan; Meng, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK) on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of (137)Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC) counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. PMID:27338355

  14. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Li, De-Guan; Meng, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK) on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC) counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. PMID:27338355

  15. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. PMID:25306088

  16. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L.; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Artz, Andrew S.; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Epstein, Robert B.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Olsson, Richard F.; Selby, George B.; Williams, Kirsten M.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; McCarthy, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI N=948, TBICy N=821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who received TBI (1200-1500cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The two cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Ph+ ALL, HLA matched siblings, stem cell source, anti-thymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect TRM (24% vs. 23% at 3y, p=0.67; relative risk [RR] 1.01, p=0.91), leukemia relapse (27% vs. 29% at 3y, p=0.34; RR 0.89, p=0.18), leukemia-free survival (49% vs. 48% at3y, p=0.27; RR 0.93, p=0.29), chronic GVHD (45% vs. 47% at 1y, p=0.39; RR 0.9, p=0.11) or overall survival (53% vs. 52% at 3y, p=0.62; RR 0.96, p=0.57) for CyTBI and TBICy respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (p=0.08). This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplant outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing HCT with myeloablative conditioning. PMID:25840335

  17. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  18. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  19. Total Brain Death and the Integration of the Body Required of a Human Being.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    I develop and refine an argument for the total brain death criterion of death previously advanced by Germain Grisez and me: A human being is essentially a rational animal, and so must have a radical capacity for rational operations. For rational animals, conscious sensation is a pre-requisite for rational operation. But total brain death results in the loss of the radical capacity for conscious sensation, and so also for rational operations. Hence, total brain death constitutes a substantial change-the ceasing to be of the human being. Objections are considered, including the objection that total brain death need not result in the loss of capacity for sensation, and that damage to the brain less than total brain death can result in loss of capacity for rational operations. PMID:27097647

  20. Analysis of Lower Body Kinematic and Kinetic: Differences Between Age and Handicap in Golfers of Various Ages and Skill Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilensky, Alexander

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a preliminary analysis of lower body golf swing biomechanics. Fourteen golfers of various ages and handicaps performed 10 swings off a tee with their driver. This study focused on a number of dependent variables including lead knee joint flexion angles, internal/external rotations, valgus/varus angles, as well as ground reaction forces normalized to body weight (%BW), X-Factor angle and club head velocity. Dependent variables were analyzed at four specifically defined events (start, initiation of downswing, contact and swing termination). Simple linear regressions were performed using age and handicap as independent variables to see if patterns could be determined at any of the events. No significant trends or results were reported within our sample. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then used to examine the effect of event on specific dependent variables. A number of differences were reported within each of the variables across the four events. This study hoped to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the movement patterns occurring at the lower body with special focus on the lead knee.

  1. [Evaluation of a complex trace element composition and bioutilization using isotope technics and total body measurement].

    PubMed

    Balogh, L; Kerekes, A; Bodó, K; Körösi, L; Jánoki, G A

    1998-05-24

    Modified mineral and trace element solutions were prepared containing Zn-65, Co-57, Mn-54, Fe-59, Mo-99 and Ni-63 isotopes which were physico-chemically identical to the original solution. Bioutilization examinations were carried out on animals receiving their normal feeding, after p. os application of complex trace element composition (CTEC) namely whole-body retention studies, bioassays, scintigraphic and excretion examinations in altogether 180 Wistar rats, 6 Beagle and 2 mongrel dogs using whole body counter, gamma and beta counters, gamma camera and metabolic cages. Extremely high whole body retention was measured in case of iron (8-30%), high utilizations in case of zinc (4-5%), cobalt (4-6%), molybdenum (3-4%) and manganese (2-4%) and a lower value in case of nickel. Bioassay and scintigraphic evaluations showed marked liver-, kidney-, and muscle and moderated blood uptakes. The way of excretion was mainly (more than 90%) via the faeces in case of zinc, manganese, iron and nickel, although cobalt excreted in 8% and molybdenum in 52% via the urinary tract. Our results show, that isotope technique combined with whole body counting and excretion studies in an available method for trace element bioutilization studies. PMID:9632924

  2. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  3. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  4. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Total disability ratings... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual... a permanent nature, a rating of permanent and total disability will be assigned if the veteran...

  5. Total-body digital X-ray in trauma. An experience report on the first operational full body scanner in Europe and its possible role in ATLS.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, A K; Benneker, L M; Jeger, V; Martinolli, L; Bonel, H M; Eggli, S; Potgieter, H; Zimmermann, H

    2008-05-01

    When patients enter our emergency room with suspected multiple injuries, Statscan provides a full body anterior and lateral image for initial diagnosis, and then zooms in on specific smaller areas for a more detailed evaluation. In order to examine the possible role of Statscan in the management of multiply injured patients we implemented a modified ATLS((R)) algorithm, where X-ray of C-spine, chest and pelvis have been replaced by single-total a.p./lat. body radiograph. Between 15 October 2006 and 1 February 2007 143 trauma patients (mean ISS 15+/-14 (3-75)) were included. We compared the time in resuscitation room to 650 patients (mean ISS 14+/-14 (3-75)) which were treated between 1 January 2002 and 1 January 2004 according to conventional ATLS protocol. The total-body scanning time was 3.5 min (3-6 min) compared to 25.7 (8-48 min) for conventional X-rays, The total ER time was unchanged 28.7 min (13-58 min) compared to 29.1 min (15-65 min) using conventional plain radiography. In 116/143 patients additional CT scans were necessary. In 98/116 full body trauma CT scans were performed. In 18/116 patients selective CT scans were ordered based on Statscan findings. In 43/143 additional conventional X-rays had to be performed, mainly due to inadequate a.p. views of fractured bones. All radiographs were transmitted over the hospital network (Picture Archiving and Communication System, PACS) for immediate simultaneous viewing at different places. The rapid availability of images for interpretation because of their digital nature and the reduced need for repeat exposures because of faulty radiography are also felt to be strengths. PMID:18321506

  6. Vertical split fracture of the vertebral body following total disc replacement using ProDisc: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Seungcheol; Maeng, Dae Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2005-10-01

    As ProDisc has a tall keel on the plates, it has the potential to cause a vertical fracture of the vertebral body. However, to our knowledge, there is no previously reported case of a vertical split fracture of the vertebral body after ProDisc disc arthroplasty that was attributed to the keel design of the ProDisc. We report two cases of vertical split fracture of the vertebral body after total disc replacement (TDR) with ProDisc and discuss the issue of the height of the keel of the prosthesis. Even though there was no serious clinical consequence as a result of the fracture in our cases, except the fact that the patients were dissatisfied with the surgery at 3-month follow-up because of the prolonged back pain, the potential of the fracture to cause other serious complications such as hematoma, device migration, or surgical failure cannot be ignored. The keel design of the ProDisc has the disadvantage that it can cause a vertebral body fracture in some patients. Therefore, care should be exercised not to fracture the vertebral body when TDR is done with the ProDisc, especially in a patient with small vertebral body height or when it is done at multiple levels. PMID:16189463

  7. [Effects of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" and "badminton" on total-body coordination in older dyslexic boys].

    PubMed

    Schneider, F J

    1984-11-01

    Reported previously from a U.S. empirical study of 7th grade high-school students (102 male and 84 female) where statistically significant results had been found relative to total body coordination and body image (Schneider, 1978), the effectiveness of a series of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" was verified in a 7.5-week longitudinal study of 7th grade male students (N = 20) attending remedial education at a special school for dyslexic students in Massachusetts, U.S.A. It has been possible to demonstrate that these classes had achieved statistically significant improvements in overall body coordination of Ss, measured with the body coordination test KTK - Körper-Koordinationstest für Kinder (Schilling, Kiphart, 1974). Findings obtained from the control group (N = 20) who, during that same period, had been taught, and practising, "Badminton" in the regular sports classes, elicited the same specific, statistically significant gains in overall body coordination. These improvements are considered attributable to the additional, specific stimuli for development provided to the dyslexic students by "creative movement and pantomime" classes and the racket sport "Badminton" alike. The findings support the thesis that delayed formation of hemispheric linkage is present in dyslexic persons, and that specific movement programmes provide developmental stimuli that influence overall body coordination. PMID:6515105

  8. Contribution of body fatness and adipose tissue distribution to the age variation in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C; Gagnon, J; Bergeron, J; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2000-03-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men. Older men present an altered steroid hormone profile compared to younger individuals, and an increase in body fatness and changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution are noted with advancing age. Thus, there is a need to examine the relative importance of increased body fatness and changes in AT distribution with advancing age to plasma steroid hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in men. We, therefore, investigated the relationships among age, body fatness, AT distribution, and the plasma steroid hormone profile in a group of 217 Caucasian men (mean age +/- SD, 36.2 +/- 14.9 yr) who covered a wide age range (17-64 yr). Compared to young adult men, older men were characterized by increased adiposity (P < 0.0001) expressed either as body mass index or total body fat mass assessed by underwater weighing. Differences in AT distribution were also noted with a preferential accumulation of abdominal fat as indicated by a larger waist girth (P < 0.0001) and higher visceral AT accumulation (P < 0.0001), measured by computed tomography, in older subjects. Age was associated with decreases (P < 0.0001) in C19 adrenal steroid levels, namely reduced dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA fatty acid ester, DHEA sulfate, as well as androstenedione levels. Androgens, i.e. dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, were also affected by age, with lower levels of both steroids being found in older individuals (P < 0.0005). When statistical adjustment for body fatness and AT distribution was performed, differences in C19 adrenal steroids between the age groups remained significant, whereas differences in androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were no longer significant. The present study suggests that age-related differences in plasma steroid hormone levels, especially androgens, are partly mediated by concomitant variation in adiposity in men. PMID:10720034

  9. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of the ordinary chondrites and their significance for parent body stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabb, J.; Schultz, L.

    1981-01-01

    Improved exposure ages are derived for 201 H, 203 L, and 38 LL chondrites in an effort to understand the characteristics of the chondrite parent body. The Ne-21 exposure ages were calculated from literature values taking into account shielding differences, a trapped component and radiogenic He. The exposure age distributions show clear peaks at 4.5 and 20 million years for the H chondrites, while the Ls and LLs appear more as a continuous series of intermediate peaks which may be modeled by at least six peaks between 1 and 35 million years in the case of L chondrites. The observations that every petrological type occurs in each large peak and contain solar wind gases suggest that the parent bodies have been fragmented and reassembled into a megabreccia. The H meteorites are proposed to represent the surface layer of a body with a substantial, active regolith as indicated by the relatively high abundances of solar gases. The L chondrites, on the other hand, are attributed to a parent body that was fragmented by collision about 500 million years ago.

  10. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  11. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

  12. Body weight and some biometrical traits of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin T; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Although the growth of pheasants is an important issue, there are few publications providing information on body weight and morphometrics of pheasants at different ages. The aim of this study was to investigate body weight, tarsus length, wing length and wingspan in farmed pheasants aged 3-16 weeks. The study was carried out on 50 pheasants (31 females and 19 males). All one-day old birds were marked and kept until the 16th week of life. In the 3rd 8 h 12th and 16th weeks of life all pheasants were weighted and tarsus length, wing length and wingspan were measured. Male chicks appeared to be significantly heavier than females (P< or = 0.01) already in the third week of life. Also their wings were longer and their wingspan attained higher values (P < or = 0.05). Absolute gains of the majority of traits also differed between sexes (being larger in males) in all studied periods. Values of body weight, tarsus length and wingspan noted in the third week of life were significantly correlated with all later measurements. Thus body weight and some biometrical traits of pheasant chicks measured already at the 3rd week of life could be applied as predictors of future body weight and size. PMID:22428312

  13. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    PubMed

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  14. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  15. Correlation between patient age at total hip replacement surgery and lifeexpectancy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann1, Carlos Roberto; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; Crestani, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Marcelo Faria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most cost-effective hip surgeries among orthopedic procedures. We conducted an extensive literature review with 5,394 papers regarding survival rates after THA. We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library from January 1st, 1970 to July 31th, 2014 looking for all citations about total hip arthroplasty with a long term follow-up (longer than 10 years). The criteria were rigorous: no loss of follow-up, and follow-up more than 10 years. The authors should have known the complete history of patients (whether the patient is alive or dead). Considering the criteria, we found only 15 papers. To evaluate the relationship between follow-up and survival, a linear regression analysis was applied. Considering the papers analysed, and applying the search criteria, we obtained a mean age for the patients above 57.5 years. The chance of survival at 15 years was 57.6%, at 20 years it was 34.6% and at 25 years it is only 11.6%. The relationship between follow-up and survival was significantly linear (p <0.001). Only 11.6% of patients undergoing THA will be still alive 25 years after the surgical procedure. Level of Evidence I, Prognostic Study. PMID:27057147

  16. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Giulio; Bonomi, Alberto G.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population. Methods 35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2) walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph), positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg). Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin. Results On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, p<0.01) and regularity along the frontal (anteroposterior) and lateral (mediolateral) axes (r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively). Together, the three variables explained 46% of the inter-subject variance (p<0.001) with a standard error of estimate of 0.30 J/m/kg. WCostmin and regularity along the frontal and lateral axes were related to age (WCostmin: r2 = 0.44, p<0.001; regularity: r2 = 0.16, p<0.05 and r2 = 0.12, p<0.05 respectively frontal and lateral). Conclusions The age associated decline in walking economy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane. PMID:26512982

  17. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  18. Effect of body mass index and age on in vitro fertilization in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Kalem, Ziya; Sarı, Tamer; Ateş, Can; Gürgan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate age-related variations in the effect of body mass index (BMI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Material and Methods This was a cohort study conducted by retrospectively investigating the IVF cycles of 653 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients under the age of 40 years who were diagnosed based on the Rotterdam criteria in a private IVF clinic between 2005 and 2015. The study included data from 653 IVF cycles of PCOS patients. The patients were classified into three groups based on their BMI, i.e., normal weight (n=299), overweight (n=208), and obese (n=146). The patients were also grouped by age: 562 patients were under the age of 35 years and 91 patients were above the age of 35 years. Then, BMI- and age-related variations in the IVF cycle parameters and clinical pregnancy rates of patients with PCOS were investigated. The Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square statistical assessment method was used to determine whether the effect of BMI on IVF outcomes varies with age. Results Variations in cycle variables with BMI and age showed that IVF cycles were negatively affected by increases in obesity and age. Clinical pregnancy rates were found to be lower in the obese group than in the other groups, particularly in the age group above 35 years; however, this difference could not be proven statistically. Conclusion The present study evaluated obesity and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF cycles in PCOS patients according to age groups, and particularly in the obese group, the clinical pregnancy rates were observed to be lower in the age group ≥35 years than in the other BMI groups; however, this difference was found to be statistically insignificant. PMID:27403074

  19. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534019

  20. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  1. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-07-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier.

  2. Change in the width of the mandibular body from 6 to 23 years of age: an implant study.

    PubMed

    Işeri, H; Solow, B

    2000-06-01

    After the ossification of the mandibular symphysis, shortly after birth, changes in mandibular width would be expected to occur only by surface apposition or resorption on the buccal surfaces of the left and right mandibular halves. However, evidence for an opening hinge movement of the two mandibular halves around a vertical axis located in the region of the mandibular symphysis was recently found in longitudinal studies of 29 subjects with unilateral implant markers in the mandible. These subjects were followed from 8.5 to 15.5 years of age (Korn and Baumrind, 1990; Baumrind and Korn, 1992). The aim of the present investigation was to examine whether the presence of such an age-related increase in mandibular body width could be confirmed in a sample with bilateral implant markers in the mandible. The sample comprised 10 subjects (3F, 7M) from the files of another longitudinal study with implant markers (Björk, 1968). A total of 122 pairs of annual lateral and postero-anterior (p-a) cephalometric records were available, covering longitudinal observation periods ranging from 8 to 16 years within an age interval of between 6 and 23 years. The width between a right and left side mandibular implant marker was measured with digital callipers on all p-a radiographs. Each measurement was corrected mathematically for various sources of radiographic enlargement. A small, but statistically significant increase in the distance between the right and left implant markers, i.e. in the bilateral width of the mandibular body, was observed in all subjects. The total increase in width in each subject ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 mm for the various periods of observation (P < or = 0.01). For the 12-year period from 6 to 18 years, the average total increase was 1.6 mm (P < or = 0.001, SD = 0.42), i.e. 0.13 mm/year. After this age there was no systematic trend. The mechanism for this increase in width is unknown. It is suggested that during postnatal growth, an increasing load from the

  3. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  4. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Mahrose, Kh.M.; Attia, A.I.; Ismail, I.E.; Abou-Kassem, D.E.; El-Hack, M.E. Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  5. Reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin increasingly relies on Rho kinase-dependent mechanisms during whole body cooling

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, John D.; Holowatz, Lacy A.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2009-01-01

    Primary human aging may be associated with augmented Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle and ROCK-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that the contribution of ROCK to reflex vasoconstriction (VC) is greater in aged skin. Cutaneous VC was elicited by 1) whole body cooling [mean skin temperature (Tsk) = 30.5°C] and 2) local norepinephrine (NE) infusion (1 × 10−6 M). Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin of eight young (Y) and eight older (O) subjects for infusion of 1) Ringer solution (control), 2) 3 mM fasudil (ROCK inhibition), 3) 20 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (NOS inhibition), and 4) both ROCK + NOS inhibitors. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline CVC (%ΔCVCbaseline). VC was reduced at the control site in O during cooling (Y, −34 ± 3; and O, −18 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.001) and NE infusion (Y, −53 ± 4, and O, −41 ± 9%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.006). Fasudil attenuated VC in both age groups during mild cooling; however, this reduction remained only in O but not in Y skin during moderate cooling (Y, −30 ± 5; and O, −7 ± 1%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.016) and was not altered by NOS inhibition. Fasudil blunted NE-mediated VC in both age groups (Y, −23 ± 4; and O, −7 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.01). Cumulatively, these data indicate that reflex VC is more reliant on ROCK in aged skin such that approximately half of the total VC response to whole body cooling is ROCK dependent. PMID:19717729

  6. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  7. Multifactorial analysis of human blood cell responses to clinical total body irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, J. M.; Stokes, T. R.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis techniques are used to study the effects of therapeutic radiation exposure, number of fractions, and time on such quantal responses as tumor control and skin injury. The potential of these methods for the analysis of human blood cell responses is demonstrated and estimates are given of the effects of total amount of exposure and time of protraction in determining the minimum white blood cell concentration observed after exposure of patients from four disease groups.

  8. Lymphoscintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma: a total body atlas of sentinel node mapping.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Kim, Sung M; Patel, Jayant I; Lin, Henry C; Kairys, John C

    2002-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy of malignant melanoma has been a reliable method of identifying regional lymph nodes at risk for metastases and is now considered part of the standard of care in patients with melanoma. The status of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is predictive of the metastatic status of the corresponding regional lymph node group. Lymphatic channel mapping allows identification of the SLN, thereby making selective lymph node sampling possible. Consequently, SLN identification with lymphoscintigraphy results in both less extensive surgery and more efficient pathologic examination of the lymph node specimens. Therefore, it is imperative that radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians know which radiopharmaceuticals to use, recognize different lymphatic drainage patterns from various primary tumor sites throughout the body, use proper imaging techniques, and recognize potential pitfalls in image interpretation. PMID:12006683

  9. Assessment of contribution of other users to own total whole-body RF absorption in train environment.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vermeeren, Günter; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, the contribution of radio-frequent radiation originating from other people's devices to total own whole-body absorption is assessed in a simulation study. Absorption in a train environment due to base station's downlink is compared with absorption due to uplink (UL) of the user's own mobile device and absorption due to the UL of 0, 1, 5, or 15 other nearby active users. In a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) macro cell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users can cause up to 19% of total absorption when calling yourself and up to 100% when not calling yourself. In a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) femtocell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users contributes to total absorption of a non-calling user for no more than 1.5%. For five other users in the train besides the considered person, median total whole-body Specific Absorption Rate is reduced by a factor of about 400000 when deploying a UMTS femtocell base station instead of relying on the GSM macrocell. PMID:26511787

  10. The effect of patient age, gender, and tibial component fixation on pain relief after cementless total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, L A

    1991-10-01

    Cementless total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) were prospectively evaluated for pain relief in 1110 knees. The effect of screws in the tibial component, the age of the patients, and the gender of the patients were studied to determine the effect of these parameters on pain relief one and two years postsurgery. The group with screws in the tibial component (Ortholoc II) had a significantly higher percentage of pain-free knees at one year than at two years postsurgery, and the older patients had a significantly higher rate of pain-free knees at one- and two years postsurgery than the younger patients. Older female patients with Ortholoc I TKAs had a significantly higher percentage of pain-free knees than did older male patients at one-year postsurgery, but not at two years. The group with screws in the tibial components (Ortholoc II) had a higher percentage of pain-free knees at one-year postsurgery than did the Ortholoc I knees, but there was no difference between Ortholoc I and II at two-years postsurgery. In the Ortholoc II group, there was also no difference in results among sexes or between patients older and younger than 65 years old. The correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relationship between body weight and the degree of pain after TKA. No significant correlation could be found at one and two years after surgery. PMID:1914298

  11. Everybody Has a Body: Science from Head to Toe. Activities Book for Teachers of Children Ages 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

    This science activity book contains age-appropriate activities that will enable children ages 3-6 to explore one of the first environments they encounter, their own body. The knowledge gained in these activities can be interspersed with pre-science skills, health information, literature, self-concept development, and body awareness. Each chapter…

  12. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of middle-aged men's health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Hyun; Cho, In-Chang; Kim, Yoo Seok; Kim, Soon Ki; Min, Seung Ki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is no reported evidence for an anthropometric index that might link obesity to men's sexual health. We evaluated the ability of an anthropometric index and the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires to detect men's health problems. We determined the predictive abilities of two obesity indexes and other clinical parameters for screening for lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods A total of 1,910 middle-aged men were included in the study. Participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires. The participants' body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were determined. Serum prostate-specific antigen, urinalysis, testosterone, estimated glomerular filtration rate, evaluation of metabolic syndrome, and transrectal ultrasonography were assessed. Results By use of logistic regression analysis, age and total prostate volume were independent predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis symptoms. Age and metabolic syndrome were independent predictive factors for erectile dysfunction. Waist-to-hip ratio had a statistically significant value for predicting erectile dysfunction. Conclusions Our data showed that total prostate volume is a significant predictor of lower urinary tract symptoms, and central obesity has predictive ability for erectile dysfunction. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The management of correctable factors such as waist-to-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome may be considered preventive modalities against the development of men's health problems. PMID:25964840

  13. Effects of aging on whole body and segmental control while obstacle crossing under impaired sensory conditions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Alison C; Deshpande, Nandini

    2014-06-01

    The ability to safely negotiate obstacles is an important component of independent mobility, requiring adaptive locomotor responses to maintain dynamic balance. This study examined the effects of aging and visual-vestibular interactions on whole-body and segmental control during obstacle crossing. Twelve young and 15 older adults walked along a straight pathway and stepped over one obstacle placed in their path. The task was completed under 4 conditions which included intact or blurred vision, and intact or perturbed vestibular information using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Global task performance significantly increased under suboptimal vision conditions. Vision also significantly influenced medial-lateral center of mass displacement, irrespective of age and GVS. Older adults demonstrated significantly greater trunk pitch and head roll angles under suboptimal vision conditions. Similar to whole-body control, no GVS effect was found for any measures of segmental control. The results indicate a significant reliance on visual but not vestibular information for locomotor control during obstacle crossing. The lack of differences in GVS effects suggests that vestibular information is not up-regulated for obstacle avoidance. This is not differentially affected by aging. In older adults, insufficient visual input appears to affect ability to minimize anterior-posterior trunk movement despite a slower obstacle crossing time and walking speed. Combined with larger medial-lateral deviation of the body COM with insufficient visual information, the older adults may be at a greater risk for imbalance or inability to recover from a possible trip when stepping over an obstacle. PMID:24746603

  14. Comparison of automated and manual purification of total RNA for mRNA-based identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Kitayama, Tetsushi; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Silica column-based RNA purification procedures have widespread use in mRNA profiling for body fluid identification in forensic samples. Also, automated RNA purification systems employing magnetic bead technology have recently become available. In this preliminary study, to ascertain which RNA purification technology is more suitable for the identification of body fluids by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative analyses of the yield and quality of total RNA were performed between automated purification using an EZ1 Advanced Instrument and manual purification using an RNeasy Mini Kit. The yield and size distribution of total RNA were compared by gene expression analysis of two different sized fragments of the β-actin gene. In addition, the relative amounts of several target genes were compared between the purification methods, and the integrity of total RNA was determined by chip-based electrophoresis. The results of this study suggest that RNeasy can purify higher-quality RNA as compared with automated purification using EZ1. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR analysis, however, was higher in the EZ1-purified samples, likely due to the relative efficiency of EZ1 in extracting short-length RNA from degraded samples. We also show that the quantification of relative levels of body fluid-specific genes could be influenced by the purification procedure. Our results indicate that although use of high-quality RNA is generally required for reproducible results in gene expression analysis, the forensic relevance of short RNA fragments in highly degraded samples cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, our results suggest that automated purification procedures as well as silica column-based manual purification procedures can be used for mRNA-based body fluid identification in forensic samples. PMID:25270217

  15. Treosulfan, Fludarabine and 2 Gy Total Body Irradiation Followed by Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with MDS and AML

    PubMed Central

    Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Gutman, Jonathan; Nemecek, Eneida R.; Bar, Merav; Milano, Filippo; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Scott, Bart; Fang, Min; Wood, Brent; Pagel, John M.; Baumgart, Joachim; Delaney, Colleen; Maziarz, Richard T.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Estey, Elihu H.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storer, Barry E.; Deeg, H. Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers curative therapy for many patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, post-HCT relapse remains a major problem, particularly in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. In this prospective phase II trial we assessed the efficacy and toxicity of treosulfan, fludarabine and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as conditioning for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS or AML. Ninety-six patients with MDS (n=36; 15 RMCD; 10 RAEB-1; 10 RAEB-2; 1 CMML-1) or AML (n=60; 35 CR1; 18 CR2; 3 advanced CR; 4 refractory relapse) were enrolled; median age was 51 (range: 1–60) years. Twelve patients had undergone a prior HCT with high intensity conditioning. Patients received intravenous (IV) treosulfan, 14 g/m2/day on days −6 to −4, IV fludarabine, 30 mg/m2/day on days −6 to −2, and 2 Gy TBI on day 0, followed by infusion of hematopoietic cells from related (n=27) or unrelated (n=69) donors. Graft-vs.-host disease prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 2-year overall survival (OS), relapse incidence and non-relapse mortality were 73%, 27% and 8%, respectively. The incidences of grades II–IV (III–IV) acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 59% (10%) and 47%, respectively. Two-year OS was not significantly different between MDS patients with poor risk and good/intermediate risk cytogenetics (69% and 85%, respectively), or between AML patients with unfavorable and favorable/intermediate risk cytogenetics (64% and 76%, respectively). In AML patients, minimal residual disease (MRD; n=10) at the time of HCT predicted higher relapse incidence (70% vs. 18%) and lower OS (41% vs. 79%) at 2 years, when compared to patients without MRD. In conclusion, treosulfan, fludarabine and low-dose TBI provided effective conditioning for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS or AML, and resulted in low relapse incidence, regardless

  16. A model of end-expiratory lung impedance dependency on total extracellular body water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, J.; Sobota, V.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinical monitoring of patients during mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates lung impedance measurements using Dräger PulmoVista 500 EIT system on an animal model. Mechanically ventilated model was created. Vital signs were monitored as well as mechanical ventilation parameters. Extracellular fluid balance and blood volume were handled as follows: 30-40% of total blood volume were removed and returned back, 0.5 to 1 litre of Ringer's solution was injected afterwards. The quantity of injected fluids was recorded for each animal. During this process thoracic electrical impedance measurement was performed. Recorded data from PulmoVista 500 EIT system were analysed using the official Dräger EIT Data Analysis Tool. The dependency of end-expiratory lung impedance on the change of fluid balance was observed. The relation between end-expiratory (minimum impedance value) frames and changes of fluid balance is shown. Preliminary results strongly support the expectation that electrical impedance of thorax can be affected by total extracellular fluid change.

  17. Correlated responses in body composition to divergent selection for exponential growth rate to 14 or 42 days of age in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, F G; Barbato, G F

    2002-07-01

    Chicks divergently selected for 14-d (14H and 14L) or 42-d (42H and 42L) exponential growth rate (EGR) over five generations were used to determine correlated responses between growth at different ages and body composition. Regression coefficient estimates across five generations of selection were not significant for any line at either age for percentage total body water or protein. Genetic correlations between EGR from hatching to 14 d of age (EGR14) and 42-d percentage carcass fat were -0.18, -0.57, 0.63, and -0.79 among the 14H, 14L, 42H, and 42L lines, respectively. Genetic correlations between EGR from hatching to 42 d of age (EGR42) and 42-d percentage carcass fat were 0.09, -0.67,0.50, and -0.75 among the 14H, 14L, 42H, and 42L lines, respectively. During the short-term selection experiment, selection for fast EGR14 or EGR42 increased fat at the age of selection. However, selection for fast EGR42 increased body weight and percentage fat at 42 d of age (DOA), whereas selection for fast EGR14 increased body weight but not fat at 42 DOA. Therefore, it is possible to simultaneously select for high body weight at, or near, the inflection point of the growth curve without increasing fat deposition or obesity by taking advantage of the lack of a genetic correlation between EGR14 and body fat percentage at later ages. PMID:12162352

  18. Vertebral body split fracture after a single-level cervical total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Jau-Ching; Fay, Li-Yu; Ko, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2012-03-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is a viable option for the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. This 67-year-old nonsmoking male patient underwent single-level ProDisc-C cervical TDR at C5-6 without any intraoperative problem. His radicular pain improved and he had no neck pain immediately after the operation. However, on postoperative Day 3, a radiograph demonstrated a vertical split fracture of the C-5 vertebra. This fracture was managed conservatively, and 2 years postoperatively a follow-up CT scan demonstrated stable device position and fusion of the fracture. Although the linear fracture caused no neurological symptoms or device migration, the authors advocate prudence in selection and installation of keel-design prostheses, even in a single-level cervical TDR scenario. PMID:22176434

  19. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. A novel method of studying total body water content using a resonant cavity: experiments and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Martin P.; Clegg, Janet; Stone, Darren A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic method of obtaining total body water is proposed, in which the water content is obtained from the dielectric properties as measured by a resonant perturbation technique. A screened room acts as a radio-frequency cavity, in our case resonating at 59 MHz, a frequency at which both real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of tissues are correlated to their moisture content. The presence of a human subject in the room leads to both a negative shift in the room's resonant frequency and a reduction in its Q-factor. We simulated the room and the body using the transmission line matrix (TLM) method, a computational electromagnetic code which models the problem in the time domain. Experiment and numerical model showed good agreement for two orientations of the subject. The sensitivity of the technique was investigated by measuring the response before and after the subject drank a small quantity of water, less than 2% of body mass. The resulting change in the resonant frequency was significant, and was also predicted by the numerical model. The proposed technique for studying body composition is simple, non-invasive and employs non-ionizing radio waves at low power.

  1. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.02-P < 0.001). Villus height was significantly reduced in all segments on day 4 and 7 (P = 0.02-0.005), whereas it had recovered by day 12 (P > 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.04-P < 0.001). Plasma citrulline levels were dramatically reduced after irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone

  2. Effect of fractionated versus unfractionated total body irradiation on the growth of the BN acute myelocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenbeek, A.; Martens, A.C.M.

    1981-08-01

    The efficacy of various total body irradiation (TBI) regimens prior to bone marrow transplantation was evaluated in a rat model for acute myelocytic leukemia (Dq = 85.1 cGy gamma ; N = 3.7). Using high dose rate gamma-irradiation (115 cGy/min), fractionated TBI with large total daily doses (400 to 600 cGy), either given as acute doses or as split doses at 8 hr intervals, was most effective. Split doses (2 fractions per day) offered no additional advantage. At the most, a 4 log leukemic cell kill was induced. No lethal toxicity was observed. Nine-hundred cGy flash TBI had a similar anti-tumor effect, but with this regimen almost half of the rats died from radiation-induced toxicity (lungs and gastro-intestinal tract). The results are explained in terms of differences between normal and leukemic cells as regards (a) repair of sublethal damage; and (b) repopulation. Low dose rate continuous gamma-irradiation (0.26 cGy/min) with total doses ranging from 900 to 2000 cGy was also quite effective. Maximally a 4 log cell kill was obtained. With 2000 cGy, 50% of the rats died from the gastro-intestinal tract-syndrome. In addition to the major role played by chemotherapy, TBI is mainly of importance in sterilizing the various sanctuaries in the body which contain leukemic cells anatomically resistant to most cytostatic agents.

  3. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  4. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men.The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008).Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  5. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  6. The Influence of Body Mass Index, Age and Sex on Inflammatory Disease Risk in Semi-Captive Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  7. Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Yih; Wang, Yi-Fong; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Kawach, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine unintentional drowning mortality by age and body of water across 60 countries, to provide a starting point for further in-depth investigations within individual countries. Methods The latest available three years of mortality data for each country were extracted from WHO Health Statistics and Information Services (updated at 13 November 2013). We calculated mortality rate of unintentional drowning by age group for each country. For countries using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10) detailed 3 or 4 Character List, we further examined the body of water involved. Results A huge variation in age-standardised mortality rate (deaths per 100 000 population) was noted, from 0.12 in Turkey to 9.19 in Guyana. Of the ten countries with the highest age-standardised mortality rate, six (Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine and Moldova) were in Eastern Europe and two (Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) were in Central Asia. Some countries (Japan, Finland and Greece) had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among children aged 0–4 years, but had a high rank in mortality rate among older adults. On the contrary, South Africa and Colombia had a relatively high rank among children aged 0–4 years, but had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among older adults. With regard to body of water involved, the proportion involving a bathtub was extremely high in Japan (65%) followed by Canada (11%) and the USA (11%). Of the 13 634 drowning deaths involving bathtubs in Japan between 2009 and 2011, 12 038 (88%) were older adults aged 65 years or above. The percentage involving a swimming pool was high in the USA (18%), Australia (13%), and New Zealand (7%). The proportion involving natural water was high in Finland (93%), Panama (87%), and Lithuania (85%). Conclusions After considering the completeness of reporting and quality of classifying drowning deaths across countries, we conclude that drowning is a high-priority public health

  8. Etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan as conditioning for marrow transplantation in adults and children

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, T.R.; Ortlieb, M.; Tefft, M.C.; Torrisi, J.; Cahill, R.; Deeg, H.J. ); Peters, C.; Gadner, H. ); Urban, C. )

    1994-04-30

    In an attempt to intensify conditioning therapy for bone marrow transplantation of hematologic malignancies, a retrospective three center evaluation of escalating doses of etoposide added to cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation or busulfan was undertaken. Seventy-six patients who received etoposide (25-65 mg/kg) added to cyclophosphamide (60-120 mg/kg) and either total body irradiation (12.0-13.2 Gy) or busulfan (12-16 mg/kg) were evaluable for toxicity. Fifty-one of the evaluable patients received allogeneic transplants, while twenty-six received autologous transplants. A comparative analysis of toxicities according to conditioning regimen, donor source and etoposide dose was made. Similar toxicities were observed among the treatment groups with the exception of more frequent skin (p = 0.03) and life threatening hepatic toxicities (p = 0.01) in the busulfan treated patients. Life threatening or fatal toxicities were not influenced by donor source, either when analyzed by treatment group or etoposide dose. Etoposide at a dose of 60-65 mg/kg in combination with TBI and cyclophosphamide was associated with a significantly increased incidence of life threatening or fatal toxicities compared with a combination using a dose of 25-50 mg/kg (15 of 24 vs. 5 of 20; p = 0.013). The maximally tolerated dose of etoposide in combination with busulfan and cyclophosphamide cannot be definitively established in this analysis in part due to the heterogeneity of the patient population and treatment schemes. Although toxicities with bone marrow transplant preparative regimens containing etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan were frequently severe, treatment related mortality risk was believed to be acceptably low. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Frail bodies: geriatric medicine and the constitution of the fourth age.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Clinical discourses of frailty are central both to the construction of the social category of the fourth age and to the role and identity of hospital geriatric medicine. However, the influence of such clinical discourses is not just from science to the social sphere and nor do these discourses have their source in a putative truth of the old body but emerge from an interplay between physiological facts, discourses of governmentality, productive processes associated with late modern capitalism and the professional ambitions of geriatric medicine. The article explores this interplay in the two key discourses of frailty that have emerged in the clinical literature during the past 15 years, that of the phenotype and the accumulation of deficits, respectively. Outlining the development of the discourse of senescence from its origins to the more recent emergence of a nosological category of frailty the article explores how these key discourses capture the older body according to particular sets of norms. These norms link physiological understanding with broader discourses of governmentality, including the professional project of geriatric medicine. In particular, metaphorical representations in the discourses of frailty convey key cultural and clinical assumptions concerning both older bodies and old age more generally. PMID:25650444

  10. Bodies, technologies, and aging in Japan: thinking about old people and their silver products.

    PubMed

    Long, Susan O

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary Japan is known both for its high tech culture and its rapidly aging population, with 22 % of people currently 65 years and older. Yet there has been little attention to the material culture of the elderly. This paper explores the way aging bodies, official ideology, and consumption of what are called "assistive devices" and "life technologies" come together in the experience of frail old people who depend not only on human caregivers but on "things" such as walkers, kidney dialysis machines, and electric massage chairs. It begins to consider the questions: What technology to aid failing bodies is available, and to whom? How does the advocacy of independence create new forms of consumption? How do "things" mediate ideological change regarding elder care and help to create new understandings of self and one's relation to others? Data come from interviews conducted in 2003-2007 as part of a study of elder care in Japan under the public long term care insurance system that began in 2000. These interviews point both to acceptance of the technology as a way to avoid over-dependence on caregivers, and to resistance to the limitations of aging and to its 21st century definition by the state. PMID:22566111

  11. Aged bodies and kinship matters: The ethical field of kidney transplant

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    The number of kidneys transplanted to people over age 70, both from living and cadaver donors, has increased steadily in the past two decades in the United States. Live kidney donation, on the rise for all age groups, opens up new dimensions of intergenerational relationship and medical responsibility when the transfer of organs is from younger to older people. There is little public knowledge or discussion of this phenomenon, in which the site of ethical judgment and activism about longevity and mortality is one’s regard for the body of another and the substance of the body itself is ground for moral consideration about how kinship is “done.” The clinic, patient, and patient’s family together shape a bond between biological identity and human worth, a demand for an old age marked by somatic pliability and renewability, and a claim of responsibility that merges the “right to live” and “making live.” Live kidney transplantation joins genetic, reproductive, and pharmacological forms of social participation as one more technique linking ethics to intervention and the understanding of the arc of human life to clinical opportunity and consumption. Significant in this example is the medicocultural scripting of transplant choice that becomes a high-stakes obligation in which the long-term impacts on generational relations cannot be foreseen. PMID:18461150

  12. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of residual bodies in aged cultured human glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, E.; Fredriksson, B.A.; Brunk, U.

    1980-01-01

    Secondary lysosomes of the residual body type are frequent in nondividing cells from phase III cultures of human glial cells. These organelles have previously been shown to be analogous to lipofuscin granules of postmitotic cells in vivo. Most recent studies favor the assumption that residual bodies mainly result from incomplete degradation within the lysosomal vacuome of endogenous cellular components such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Since iron occurs in several metalloenzymes produced by such organelles, it should then be possible to demonstrate accumulated iron within residual bodies. X-ray dispersive analysis of sectioned biological material is often hampered by diffusion and dissolution during preparation, as well as by too low a concentration of the elements. In this study we cultured glial cells on Formvar-coated gold grids and studied them unsectioned, after brief glutaraldehyde fixation and freeze-drying, in a transmission electron microscope at 100 kV in TEM and STEM mode. It was then possible to demonstrate iron in residual bodies of aged cells, presumably because the type of preparation utilized does not permit much dissolution.

  13. Results of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation After Treatment With Different High-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Regimens in Five Dutch Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Loes van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Brand, Ronald; Kal, Henk B.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Hofman, Pieter; Schattenberg, Anton V.; Maazen, Richard W. van der; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Eijkenboom, Wil M.H.; Lelie, Johannes P. van der; Oldenburger, Foppe; Barge, Renee M.; Biezen, Anja van; Vossen, Jaak M.J.J.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The TBI regimens were normalized by using the biological effective dose (BED) concept. The BED values were divided into three dose groups. Study end points were relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed, stratified by disease. Results: In the highest TBI dose group, RI was significantly lower and NRM was higher vs. the lower dose groups. However, a significant influence on RFS and OS was not found. Relapses in the eye region were found only after shielding to very low doses. Age was of significant influence on OS, RFS, and NRM in favor of younger patients. The NRM of patients older than 40 years significantly increased, and OS decreased. There was no influence of age on RI. Men had better OS and RFS and lower NRM. Type of transplantation significantly influenced RI and NRM for patients with acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no influence on RFS and OS. Conclusions: Both RI and NRM were significantly influenced by the size of the BED of single-dose or two-fraction TBI regimens; OS and RFS were not. Age was of highly significant influence on NRM, but there was no influence of age on RI. Hyperfractionated TBI with a high BED might be useful, assuming NRM can be reduced.

  14. Regional subcutaneous fat characteristics stratified by sex, age, and obesity, and their relationships with total and visceral fat in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify the sex-, age-, and obesity-level-specific regional subcutaneous fat characteristics and their relationships with total and visceral fat in 302 Japanese adults (mean age: 41.8+/-15.7 yr; range: 20.0 to 82.6 yr). Subcutaneous fat thickness at 14 sites (right cheek, chin, chest (2 sites), abdomen, suprailiac, triceps, subscapular, back (2 sites), thigh (2 sites), knee, and calf), percent body fat (%BF) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured by B-mode ultrasound, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. The results of 3-way ANOVA (2 sex groups, 5 age groups, 2 obesity-level groups) for each subcutaneous fat thickness at 14 sites indicated that the characteristics of sex-specific differences differed by age groups and obesity levels, and these differences are more apparent in the obese group and the 30- to 50-year-old groups. Subcutaneous fat accumulation progressed toward the central body with increased age and obesity. The relationships between subcutaneous fat, total fat, and visceral fat differed with sex and obesity level. The significant relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and VFA was found in the nonobese (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) and nonviscerally obese (VFA<100 cm(2)) groups (male: r=.474; female: r=.417), but not in the nonobese and viscerally obese males (r=-.068) and in the obese and viscerally obese subjects (males: r=.291; females: r=-.327). There may be a close relationship between subcutaneous fat accumulation capacity and visceral fat accumulation. PMID:19823005

  15. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  16. Malnutrition in Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: Comparison Using Serum Albumin, Total Protein, and Hemoglobin Level

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Tanaka, Hibiki; Fujise, Noboru; Matsushita, Masateru; Miyagawa, Yusuke; Hatada, Yutaka; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Noriko; Todani, Shuji; Matsukuma, Kengo; Kawano, Michiyo; Ikeda, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition among dementia patients is an important issue. However, the biochemical markers of malnutrition have not been well studied in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical blood markers among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A total of 339 dementia outpatients and their family caregivers participated in this study. Low serum albumin was 7.2 times more prevalent among patients with DLB and 10.1 times more prevalent among those with FTLD than among those with AD, with adjustment for age. Low hemoglobin was 9.1 times more common in female DLB patients than in female AD patients, with adjustment for age. The levels of biochemical markers were not significantly correlated with cognitive function. Family caregivers of patients with low total protein, low albumin, or low hemoglobin were asked if the patients had loss of weight or appetite; 96.4% reported no loss of weight or appetite. In conclusion, nutritional status was worse in patients with DLB and FTLD than in those with AD. A multidimensional approach, including blood testing, is needed to assess malnutrition in patients with dementia. PMID:27336725

  17. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Sue, Lucia I.; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A.; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E.; Dugger, Brittany N.; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C.; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Belden, Christine M.; Long, Kathy E.; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J.; Gale, Lisa D.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Caselli, Richard J.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Rapscak, Steven Z.; Ahern, Geoffrey L.; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D.; Reiman, Eric M.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median postmortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than

  18. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Walker, Douglas G; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E; Dugger, Brittany N; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N; Hentz, Joseph G; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A; Davis, Kathryn J; Belden, Christine M; Long, Kathy E; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Gale, Lisa D; Nicholson, Lisa R; Caselli, Richard J; Woodruff, Bryan K; Rapscak, Steven Z; Ahern, Geoffrey L; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D; Reiman, Eric M; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2015-08-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200

  19. Slow drug delivery decreased total body clearance and altered bioavailability of immediate- and controlled-release oxycodone formulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Sun, Duxin; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Oxycodone is a commonly used analgesic with a large body of pharmacokinetic data from various immediate-release or controlled-release formulations, under different administration routes, and in diverse populations. Longer terminal half-lives from extravascular administration as compared to IV administration have been attributed to flip-flop pharmacokinetics with the rate constant of absorption slower than elimination. However, PK parameters from the extravascular studies showed faster absorption than elimination. Sustained release formulations guided by the flip-flop concept produced mixed outcomes in formulation development and clinical studies. This research aims to develop a mechanistic knowledge of oxycodone ADME, and provide a consistent interpretation of diverging results and insight to guide further extended release development and optimize the clinical use of oxycodone. PK data of oxycodone in human studies were collected from literature and digitized. The PK data were analyzed using a new PK model with Weibull function to describe time-varying drug releases/ oral absorption, and elimination dependent upon drug input to the portal vein. The new and traditional PK models were coded in NONMEM. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address the relationship between rates of drug release/absorption and PK profiles plus terminal half-lives. Traditional PK model could not be applied consistently to describe drug absorption and elimination of oxycodone. Errors were forced on absorption, elimination, or both parameters when IV and PO profiles were fitted separately. The new mechanistic PK model with Weibull function on absorption and slower total body clearance caused by slower absorption adequately describes the complex interplay between oxycodone absorption and elimination in vivo. Terminal phase of oxycodone PK profile was shown to reflect slower total body drug clearance due to slower drug release/absorption from oral formulations. Mechanistic PK models with

  20. Late Toxicity of a Novel Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Using Single Fraction Total Body Irradiation for Hematologic Malignancies in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ngwube, Alexander I.; Shenoy, Shalini; Druley, Todd E.; Hayashi, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Single fraction total body irradiation (SFTBI) as part of a myeloablative preparative regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematopoietic malignancies was shown to have similar survival compared with fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI)-containing regimens, with less acute toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine long-term toxicity >2 years following SFTBI-based HSCT. Twenty-one patients were evaluated at a median follow-up of 6.8 years. Thyroid dysfunction was found in 21% of patients, 1 of whom (5.2%) was symptomatic; 23% had gonadal failure; 50% of patients with growth potential had linear growth disturbance; 27% had mild to moderate pulmonary disease; and 25% had cataracts. Intelligence quotient was stable. cGVHD was present in 28%, and 4 patients (19%) were on immune suppression 2 years posttransplant. Overall survival subsequent to 2 years posttransplant was 76% in this cohort of patients. No secondary malignancies were observed. In conclusion, the toxicities of SFTBI occurred at similar or reduced frequency compared with FTBI. SFTBI should be considered for patients who may benefit from a radiation-containing HSCT preparative regimen. PMID:25333837

  1. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, R; Wahl, P; Krieg, J; Gautier, E

    2014-01-01

    In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied - preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear. PMID:25340804

  2. Protein biomarkers for enhancement of radiation dose and injury assessment in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Sandgren, David J; Blakely, William F

    2014-06-01

    Development and validation of early-response radiation injury biomarkers are critical for effective triage and medical management of irradiated individuals. Plasma protein and haematological profiles were evaluated using multivariate linear-regression analysis to provide dose-response calibration curves for photon-radiation dose assessment in 30 rhesus macaques total-body-irradiated to 1-8.5 Gy with (60)Co gamma rays (0.55 Gy min(-1)). Equations for radiation dose received were established based on different combinations of protein biomarkers [i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Flt3 Ligand (Flt3L)] at samples collection time-points 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 d post-total-body irradiation. Dynamic changes in the levels of CRP, SAA, IL-6 and Flt3L may function as prognostic indicators of the time course and severity of acute radiation sickness (ARS). The combination of protein biomarkers provides greater accuracy for early radiation assessment than any one biomarker alone. PMID:24925901

  3. Inhibition of Heinz body induction in an in vitro model and total antioxidant activity of medicinal Thai plants.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Tamaporn; Pradniwat, Paweena; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2005-01-01

    Herbs have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries and known to possess antioxidant properties that may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We screen aqueous extracts from 20 medicinal plants in Thailand that were believed to possess anti-tumor activity, help immune-stimulating property and maintain blood stasis. The antioxidant activities were investigated in two bioassays. Firstly, we demonstrated inhibition of Heinz bodies induction caused by oxidants under in vitro condition. The percentages of Heinz body inhibition activity in plant extracts from Terminalia citrina, Cassia timoriensis, and Derris elliptica were the highest followed by Anamirta cocculus, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. In addition, we investigated total antioxidant activity in plant extracts by improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. The total antioxidant activity of the extract from Terminalia citrina was also the highest activity followed by Ficus pubigera, Derris elliptica, Anamirta cocculus, Caesalpinia sappan, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. Our results suggest medicinal Thai plants as valuable sources of antioxidants, which may have a potential anti-carcinogenic activity. PMID:16435991

  4. Inflammatory reaction and changes in expression of coagulation proteins on lung endothelial cells after total-body irradiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Van der Meeren, Anne; Vandamme, Marie; Squiban, Claire; Gaugler, Marie-Hélène; Mouthon, Marc-André

    2003-12-01

    Inflammatory reaction is a classical feature of radiation exposure, and pneumonitis is a dose-limiting complication in the handling of hematological disorders treated with total-body irradiation. In the present study, we first evaluated the inflammatory response in C57BL6/J mice exposed to lethal doses of gamma rays treated with antibiotics or not. Both interleukin 6 and KC (also known as Gro1) were increased in the plasma 10 to 18 days after radiation exposure, independent of bacterial infection, whereas fibrinogen release was linked to a bacterial infection. Furthermore, both Il6 and KC were increased in the lungs of irradiated mice. Our second objective was to characterize the endothelial cell changes in the lungs of total-body-irradiated mice. For this purpose, a quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of genes involved in inflammatory and coagulation processes. We found that the adhesion molecules P-selectin and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 were up-regulated, whereas E-selectin remained unchanged. Tissue factor expression was up-regulated as well, and thrombomodulin gene expression was down-regulated. The investigation by immunohistochemistry of adhesion molecules confirmed the increase in the basal expression of both P-selectin and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 on pulmonary endothelial cells. All together, our results suggest the involvement of endothelial cells in the development of radiation-induced inflammatory and thrombotic processes. PMID:14640783

  5. Improved Survival of Mice After Total Body Irradiation with 10 MV Photon, 2400 MU/min SRS Beam

    PubMed Central

    KALASH, RONNY; BERHANE, HEBIST; YANG, YONG; EPPERLY, MICHAEL W.; WANG, HONG; DIXON, TRACY; RHIEU, BYUNG; GREENBERGER, JOEL S.; HUQ, MOHAMMED SAIFUL

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim We evaluated the radiobiological effects of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) photon beams on survival of C57BL/6NTac mice following total body irradiation. Materials and Methods Survival of Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells was tested after irradiation using 6 MV: 300 MU/min or 1400 MU/min; or 10 MV: 300 MU/min or 2400 MU/min. Survival of C57BL/6NTac mice after a dose which is lethal to 50% of the mice in 30 days (LD50/30) (9.25 Gy) total body irradiation (TBI) and 21 Gy to orthotopic 3LL tumors was tested. We quantitated levels of organ-specific gene transcripts by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Results While 3LL cell survival and inhibition of orthotopic tumor growth was uniform, 10 MV photons at 2400 MU/min TBI led to significantly greater survival (p=0.0218), with higher levels of intestinal (Sod2), (Gpx1), (Nrf2), and (NFκB) RNA transcripts. Conclusion Clinical 10 MV-2400 cGy/min SRS beams led to unexpected protection of mice on TBI and increased radioprotective gene transcripts. PMID:24425830

  6. Detection of Foreign Bodies and Bubble Defects in Tire Radiography Images Based on Total Variation and Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tao; Li, Qing-Ling

    2013-08-01

    We present the analysis and decomposition of tire radiography images by combining the total variation, curvelet transform based image enhancement, and Canny edge detection to detect foreign bodies and bubble defects in tires. Relying on the feature of total variation that images can be decomposed as texture parts and cartoon parts, we decompose the tire radiography image and select the cartoon part for defect detection since the textures are segmented and defect information is retained. The edges of the image are enhanced by modifying the curvelet coefficients before further edge detection operation. Furthermore, a Canny edge detection operator is used to detect the defects in which the eight-neighborhood bilinear interpolation non-maximum suppression method is employed to improve the detection performance. In our experiments, the Sobel operator and state-of-the-art methods such as the LoG operator and Canny edge detection algorithms are employed for comparison, and the experimental results are discussed briefly. The experimental results indicate that foreign bodies and bubbles in tires can be detected and located accurately by our proposed method.

  7. Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K. . E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E.; Savani, Bipin N.; Guion, Peter M.S.; Hope, Andrew J.; Mansueti, John R.; Ning, Holly; Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D.; Wu, Colin O.; Barrett, A. John

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

  8. Intraesophageal manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid liposomes ameliorates novel total-body and thoracic radiation sensitivity of NOS1-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Malolan S; Stone, Brandon; Rwigema, Jean-Claude; Salimi, Umar; Epperly, Michael W; Goff, Julie; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Cao, Shaonan; Zhang, Xichen; Buchholz, Bettina M; Bauer, Anthony J; Choi, Serah; Bakkenist, Christopher; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2010-09-01

    The effect of deletion of the nitric oxide synthase 1 gene (NOS1(-/-)) on radiosensitivity was determined. In vitro, long-term cultures of bone marrow stromal cells derived from NOS1(-/-) were more radioresistant than cells from C57BL/6NHsd (wild-type), NOS2(-/-) or NOS3(-/-) mice. Mice from each strain received 20 Gy thoracic irradiation or 9.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), and NOS1(-/-) mice were more sensitive to both. To determine the etiology of radiosensitivity, studies of histopathology, lower esophageal contractility, gastrointestinal transit, blood counts, electrolytes and inflammatory markers were performed; no significant differences between irradiated NOS1(-/-) and control mice were found. Video camera surveillance revealed the cause of death in NOS1(-/-) mice to be grand mal seizures; control mice died with fatigue and listlessness associated with low blood counts after TBI. NOS1(-/-) mice were not sensitive to brain-only irradiation. MnSOD-PL therapy delivered to the esophagus of wild-type and NOS1(-/-) mice resulted in equivalent biochemical levels in both; however, in NOS1(-/-) mice, MnSOD-PL significantly increased survival after both thoracic and total-body irradiation. The mechanism of radiosensitivity of NOS1(-/-) mice and its reversal by MnSOD-PL may be related to the developmental esophageal enteric neuronal innervation abnormalities described in these mice. PMID:20726721

  9. Uptake of indium-111-labeled platelets and indium-111 oxine by murine kidneys after total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbe, S.; Taylor, S.; Maurer, H.; Kullgren, B.

    1996-08-01

    Radiation nephropathy is a well-known late manifestation of renal irradiation in human beings and experimental animals. Its pathogenesis is unclear, but vascular injury may play a role. Endothelial cells have been demonstrated to manifest a variety of abnormalities within hours of exposure to radiation. In the present experiments mice were exposed to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, and the distribution of {sup 111}In-labeled platelets was evaluated during the first week after irradiation. The purpose was to determine if early abnormalities of endothelial cells would be manifested by altered sequestration of platelets in kidneys and other organs. It was found that the indium accumulated in the kidneys of irradiated mice to a greater extent than in nonirradiated mice, but the pattern of accumulation differed from that seen after injection of radiolabeled platelets. Renal hyperemia was not demonstrable with {sup 51}Cr-labeled red cells, renal vascular permeability was not detected with {sup 125}I-labeled albumin, and the pattern of renal uptake of plasma proteins labeled albumin, and the pattern of renal uptake of plasma proteins labeled with {sup 59}Fe {sup 111}In did not coincide with that seen from {sup 111}In administered as labeled platelets or oxine. Renal uptake of {sup 111}In-oxine was not associated with alterations in urinary or fecal excretion or an increase in total-body retention of the radioisotope. The findings are consistent with the notion that renal vascular injury at the time of irradiation results in accumulation of platelets or platelet constituents during the first week after total-body irradiation of mice. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  11. The effect of age and body mass index on cost of spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Walid, Mohammad Sami; Sanoufa, Mazen; Robinson, Joe Sam

    2011-04-01

    Complex shifts in demography combined with drastic advancements in spinal surgery have led to a steep increase in often expensive spinal interventions in older and obese patients. A cost analysis, based on hospital charges, was performed retrospectively on the spinal surgery of 787 randomly selected patients who were operated at The Medical Center of Central Georgia, a large urban hospital in Central Georgia. The types of surgery included anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), lumbar decompression and fusion (LDF), and lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD). The distribution of patient age followed a Gaussian form. The peak age for patients was 50-59 years (28.8%), and there was no statistical difference in age between men and women. The body mass index (BMI) differed (p<0.01) between males (28.86 kg/m(2); range: 18-47 kg/m(2)) and females (30.69 kg/m(2); range: 17-58 kg/m(2)). The BMI data did not follow a Gaussian distribution for either gender. The hospital cost for spinal surgery increased with age except for male patients who underwent ACDF. For male patients who underwent LDF, the increase in hospital cost was statistically significant between the 40-49-year and the ≥ 70-year age groups. Univariate analysis with type of surgery as a covariate showed that age was a significant determinant of hospital cost (p=0.000), and BMI was not (p=0.110); however, the interaction between age and BMI was significant (p=0.000). Older patients undergoing spinal surgery had lower BMI, more so in males (r=-0.047, p=0.426) than in females (r=-0.038, p=0.485). There were linear trends in all gender-spinal surgery categories between age, BMI and hospital cost. Older female patients who underwent LDF tended to have a lower BMI but higher hospital cost, confirming that age was more important than BMI in determining hospital cost in these patients. The increments in cost of spinal surgery in relation to age especially and BMI were, nevertheless, small. We believe that spinal

  12. Alumina-on-alumina total hip prostheses in patients 40 years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Bizot, P; Banallec, L; Sedel, L; Nizard, R

    2000-10-01

    To avoid the consequences of polyethylene wear in a high-risk population, 128 alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties have been done in 104 consecutive patients. The maximum age of patients was 40 years. The main preoperative diagnoses were osteonecrosis and sequellae of congenital hip dislocation (71% of the hips). The same titanium alloy cemented stem was implanted in all of the hips. Four types of alumina acetabular component fixations were used: a cemented plain alumina socket (41 hips), a screw-in ring with an alumina insert (22 hips), a press-fit plain alumina socket (32 hips), and a press-fit titanium metal back with an alumina insert (33 hips). Eight patients (11 hips) died during the followup period. Sixteen revisions have been documented, 12 for acetabular aseptic loosening, three for bipolar loosening (two of which were septic), and one for unexplained pain. Eighty-eight hips in 74 patients have been followed up radiologically for 2 to 22 years. Wear was unmeasurable. Four additional sockets showed definite migration. The respective survival rates after 7 years were 94.1% for the cemented cup, 88.8% for the screw-in ring, 95.1% for cementless press-fit plain alumina socket and 94.3% for the metal-back press-fit component. The 10-year survival rate was 90.4% for the cemented socket and 88.8% for the screw-in ring. The 15-year survival rate was 78.9% for the cemented socket. Grafting was the only prognostic factor, with a survival rate of 62.6% after 10 years for the hips with a bone graft and of 90.1% for hips without a graft. The alumina-on-alumina bearing surfaces seem to be a valuable alternative to the standard metal-on-polyethylene system for young patients. However, an improvement in socket fixation is required to lengthen the life span of the prosthesis to match the life expectancy of this demanding population. PMID:11039794

  13. Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis. PMID:23539077

  14. Prediction of plantar soft tissue stiffness based on sex, age, bodyweight, height and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-02-01

    15% of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients suffer high risk of ulceration and 85% of the amputation involving DM population is caused by non-healing ulcers. These findings elucidate the fact that foot ulcer can result in major amputation especially to the DM and elderly population. Therefore, early diagnosis of abnormally stiffened plantar soft tissue is needed to prevent the catastrophic tissue damage. In order to differentiate between normal and pathological tissues, a threshold reference value that defines healthy tissue is required. The objective of this study is to perform a multivariate analysis to estimate the healthy plantar tissue stiffness values based on the individuals physical attributes such as bodyweight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their age and sex. 100 healthy subjects were recruited. Indentation was performed on 2nd metatarsal head pad at 3 different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. The results showed the important influences of BW, height and BMI in determining the plantar tissue stiffness. On the other hand, age and sex only play minimal roles. The study can be further extended to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed predictive model by evaluating several other related parameters such as body fat content, footwear usage, frequency of sports participation, etc. PMID:26474035

  15. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L.; Migrino, Raymond Q.; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W.; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; et al

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9more » days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.« less

  16. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L.; Migrino, Raymond Q.; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W.; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E.; Baker, John E.

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  17. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-01-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease. PMID:26171225

  18. Long-Term Outcome After Static Intensity-Modulated Total Body Radiotherapy Using Compensators Stratified by Pediatric and Adult Cohorts

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Ralf A. Schultze, Juergen; Jensen, J. Martin; Hebbinghaus, Dieter; Galalae, Razvan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome after total body irradiation with intensity-modulating compensators and allogeneic/autologous transplantation, especially in terms of therapy-related toxicity in pediatric and adult cohorts. Methods and Materials: A total of 257 consecutive patients (40 children and 217 adults) have been treated since 1983 with TBI using static intensity-modulated radiotherapy for hematologic malignancies. The total dose of 12 Gy was applied in six fractions within 3 days before allogeneic (n = 174) or autologous (n = 83) transplantation. The median follow-up was 9.2 years. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 47.9% (49.8% for the adults and 37.5% for the children, p = 0.171). The 5-year tumor-related mortality rate was 23%, and the 5-year treatment-related mortality rate 29.2% (29.5% in the adults and 27.5% in the pediatric patients). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 28 (10.9%) of 257 patients and in 12.5% of the pediatric cohort. The interstitial pneumonitis rate was 25% in pediatric patients treated with a 12-Gy lung dose compared with 4.2% for those treated to an 11-Gy lung dose. The overall survival rate stratified by lung dose was 26.7% for 12 Gy and 52.4% for 11 Gy (p = 0.001). The incidence of veno-occlusive disease and cataract was 5.8% and 6.6% in all patients and 12.5% and 15% in the pediatric patients, respectively (p < 0.05). Secondary malignancies were found in 4.3% of all patients, all in the adult cohort at transplantation. Conclusion: Static intensity-modulated total body irradiation with a total dose of 12 Gy before allogeneic/autologous transplantation is a successful treatment with good long-term outcome and acceptable therapy-related toxicities. Constraining the lung dose to 11 Gy substantially lowered the actuarial treatment-related mortality. This effect was especially striking in the pediatric patients.

  19. Carbohydrate feeding increases total body and specific tissue 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine neogenesis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, L.A.; Moeller, M.; McMahon, F.A.; Castle, J.N.; Gulli, R.; Cavalieri, R.R.

    1988-08-01

    The glucose-fed rat, in contrast to the chow-fed animal, has a higher serum total T3 concentration and an increase in the hepatic content of T4 5'-deiodinase (type I) activity. The mechanism and significance of these glucose-induced changes in T3 metabolism are elucidated in this study. To focus on extrathyroidal thyroid hormone metabolism the kinetic parameters were determined in thyroidectomized T4-replaced rats (1.25 micrograms T4/100 g BW.day). Kinetics of T4 and T3 were studied separately by infusing labeled hormone to equilibrium. Glucose feeding for 72 h (G) significantly increased both the total and free serum T3 concentrations compared to the respective means in the chow-fed control group (P). The glucose-induced changes in serum T3 reflect the approximate doubling of T3 production to 14.7 +/- 0.6 ng/h.100 g in G rats compared to 7.6 +/- 0.7 ng/h.100 g in P rats. The higher T3 production rate in the G group is due to a significant increase in the fractional total body T4 to T3 conversion (0.33 +/- 0.02) compared to that in the P group (0.19 +/- 0.02). The tissue (liver, kidney, brain, and brown adipose tissue) concentration of T4 (nanograms per g wet wt) was significantly increased in the G group. The increase ranged from 54% in liver to 80% in kidney, brain, and brown adipose tissue. The tissue concentration of T3 (nanograms per g wet wt) was even more dramatically increased by glucose feeding than was T4. The glucose-induced increment in organ T3 ranged from 2.5-fold (kidney, muscle, and brain) to 5-fold (liver and white adipose tissue) to 12-fold (brown adipose tissue). These data indicate that the increase in serum total and free T3 concentrations associated with glucose feeding reflects augmented total body T3 production from T4. The effect of the enhanced T3 neogenesis was generalized, as the T3 content was increased in each organ studied. Thus, glucose feeding has unique effects on T3 metabolism.

  20. Whole-body protein turnover in preterm appropriate for gestational age and small for gestational age infants: comparison of [15N]glycine and [1-(13)C]leucine administered simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Van Goudoever, J B; Sulkers, E J; Halliday, D; Degenhart, H J; Carnielli, V P; Wattimena, J L; Sauer, P J

    1995-04-01

    Measurements of whole-body protein turnover in preterm infants have been made using different stable isotope methods. Large variation in results has been found, which could be due to different clinical conditions and/or the use of different tracers. We studied 14 appropriate for gestational age and nine small for gestational age orally fed preterm infants using [15N]glycine and [1-(13)C]leucine simultaneously, which allowed us to make a comparison of commonly used methods to calculate whole-body protein turnover. Whole-body protein turnover was calculated from 15N enrichment in urinary ammonia and urea after [15N]-glycine administration and from the 13C enrichment in expired CO2 after administration of [1-(13)C]leucine. Enrichment of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid after [1-(13)C]leucine constant infusion was measured as a direct parameter of whole-body protein turnover. Group means for whole-body protein turnover using [15N]glycine or [1-(13)C]leucine ranged from 10 to 14 g.kg-1.d-1, except when using the end product method that assumes a correlation between leucine oxidation and total nitrogen excretion. We found very low 15N enrichment of urinary urea in the majority of small for gestational age infants. These infants also had a lower nitrogen excretion in urine and oxidized less leucine. Nitrogen balance was higher in small for gestational age infants (416 +/- 25 mg.kg-1.d-1) compared with appropriate for gestational age infants (374 +/- 41 mg.kg-1.d-1, p = 0.003). [15N]Glycine does not seem to exchange its label with the body nitrogen pool to a significant degree and is therefore not always suitable as a carrier for 15N in protein turnover studies in premature infants. PMID:7596675

  1. Body weight variability in midlife and risk for dementia in old age

    PubMed Central

    Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Goldbourt, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between body weight variability and dementia more than 3 decades later. Methods: The measurement of body weight variability was based on 3 successive weight recordings taken from over 10,000 apparently healthy tenured working men participating in the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease study, in which cardiovascular risk factors and clinical status were assessed in 1963, 1965, and 1968, when subjects were 40–70 years of age. Groups of men were stratified according to quartiles of SD of weight change among 3 measurements (1963/1965/1968): ≤1.15 kg, 1.16–1.73 kg, 1.74–2.65 kg, and ≥2.66 kg. The prevalence of dementia was assessed more than 36 years later in approximately one-sixth of them who survived until 1999/2000 (minimum age 76 years) and underwent cognitive evaluation (n = 1,620). Results: Survivors' dementia prevalence rates were 13.4%, 18.4%, 20.1%, and 19.2% in the first to fourth quartiles of weight change SD, respectively (p for trend = 0.034). Compared to the first quartile of weight change SD and adjusted for diabetes mellitus, body height, and socioeconomic status, a multivariate analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio for dementia was 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–2.13), 1.59 (95% CI 1.05–2.37), and 1.74 (95% CI 1.14–2.64) in quartiles 2–4 of weight change SD respectively. This relationship was independent of the direction of weight changes. Conclusion: Midlife variations in weight may antecede late-life dementia. PMID:23576627

  2. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  3. Excess body mass is associated with T cell differentiation indicative of immune ageing in children.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, G; Johnston, C A; O'Connor, D P; Foreyt, J P; Simpson, R J

    2014-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with accelerated biological ageing and immunosenescence. As the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, we wanted to determine if associations between obesity and immunosenescence would manifest in children. We studied 123 Mexican American adolescents aged 10-14 (mean 12·3 ± 0·7) years, with body weights ranging from 30·1 to 115·2 kg (mean 52·5 ± 14·5 kg). Blood samples were obtained to determine proportions of naive, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM), senescent and early, intermediate and highly differentiated subsets of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Overweight and obese children had significantly lowered proportions of early CD8(+) T cells (B = -11·55 and -5·51%, respectively) compared to healthy weight. Overweight children also had more EM (B = +7·53%), late (B = +8·90%) and senescent (B = +4·86%) CD8(+) T cells than healthy weight children, while obese children had more intermediate CD8(+) (B = +4·59%), EM CD8(+) (B = +5·49%), late CD4(+) (B = +2·01%) and senescent CD4(+) (B = +0·98%) T cells compared to healthy weight children. These findings withstood adjustment for potentially confounding variables, including age, gender and latent cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections. We conclude that excess body mass, even in adolescence, may accelerate immunosenescence and predispose children to increased risks of incurring immune-related health problems in adulthood. PMID:24401077

  4. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals. PMID:24458753

  5. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  6. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  7. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  8. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  9. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Machado, F S; Valadares Filho, S C; Trece, A S; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves aged 4 d with an average initial live weight of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were defined as a reference group and slaughtered at 4 d of age to estimate the initial body composition of the animals. The other calves were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of age, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces and urine and sampling of feeds. At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered and their body tissues were sampled for analyses. Total dry matter and nutrient intake increased linearly and starter intake decreased linearly in response to the supply of increasing amounts of milk. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not affected by the inclusion of starter feed and increased linearly as milk supply was elevated. Daily gain was greater at increased milk supply levels and also greater when starter was supplied, without any interaction between milk supply level and the presence or absence of starter. Fecal N excretion and N retention were higher in the animals fed starter feed. Fecal N excretion was not affected by milk levels, whereas N retention was affected. Body protein and ash contents decreased linearly according to increased milk allowance. In contrast, fat body content increased linearly according to milk supply. The presence of starter feed in the diet was responsible for the increased body fat content, but had no effect on protein or ash content. In conclusion, weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of

  10. Revision for taper corrosion at the neck-body junction following total hip arthroplasty: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mitchell C; Chen, Darwin D

    2016-03-01

    The management of the patient with a recalled, modular neck-body total hip arthroplasty can be complex, as it involves a combination of clinical, technical, and medicolegal challenges. Management begins with a thorough history and physical exam, radiographic evaluation, infection workup, and serum metal ion levels. Three-dimensional imaging is obtained based on patient symptomatology and metal ion levels and is used to evaluate for the presence of an adverse local tissue response as well as the integrity of the existing soft tissue envelope. The decision to perform revision surgery is based on a combination of patient symptomatology, laboratory values, and imaging findings. Revision surgery involves the entire armamentarium of femoral revision techniques, and the acetabulum may need to be revised at the surgeon's discretion. The femoral implant can often be removed without disrupting the femoral bone envelope; however, the surgeon should have a low threshold to perform an extended trochanteric osteotomy. PMID:26810063

  11. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI.

  12. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (25 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI.

  13. Biogeographic Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Total Body Adiposity among African-American Females: The Boston Area Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Fang, Shona C.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Florez, Jose C.; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Methods We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. Results We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002) with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003) with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time. Conclusion Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women. PMID:25875902

  14. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis of blood cell subsets in patients given total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Clave, E.; Socie, G.; Carosella, E.

    1995-11-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has often been closely linked with accidental or intentional therapeutical irradiation. In both situations, study of the radiosensitivity of human blood cell subsets is of interest. Using one-color flow cytometry analysis of B lymphocytes, T cell subsets, and natural killer cells, we previously reported that lymphocyte subsets exhibit equal radiosensitivity. Taking advantage of recent developments in the knowledge of leukocyte differentiation antigens and flow cytometry technology we undertook a study of blood cell subsets to search for rare populations exhibiting different radiosensitivity. Thirty patients, who were delivered a 12 Gy fractionated total body irradiation as part of their conditioning regimen before transplantation for malignant disorders, were studied using multicolor flow cytometry. T and B lymphocytes showed a sharp, radiation-induced decrease, with the B lymphocytes (cluster of differentiation (CD) 19+) being the most sensitive. When analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry all major lymphocyte subsets appeared equally sensitive to the in vivo irradiation. Therefore, all major lymphocyte subsets sharing the helper phenotype (naive or memory) and the cytotoxic phenotype appeared equally sensitive to in vivo whole body irradiation. In parallel, the CD34+ cell subset remained basically unchanged after whole body irradiation. Finally, the CD3{minus}, 56+, 16+ natural killer cell subset was relatively radioresistant (91 and 74% of its initial value, after 2 and 4 Gy, respectively) as compared to other lymphocyte subsets. Our study provides evidence that T and B cell subsets seem to be highly radiosensitive in vivo. The CD34+ progenitor/stem cells and NK cells seem to be more radioresistant. This latter result might provide clues to the understanding of the pathophysiogeny of radiation-induced aplasia and of the engrafment/rejection process following bone marrow transplantation. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Shuman, Anne L; Diener, Antonia K; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R

    2015-04-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for loss of white blood cells (WBCs), which are the body's main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved WBC loss, specifically neutrophils, in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated, irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well as internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses. PMID:25909052

  16. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-04-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for loss of white blood cells (WBCs), which are the body's main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved WBC loss, specifically neutrophils, in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated, irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well as internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses.

  17. Correlates of body depilation: an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Thompson, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners. PMID:24128670

  18. Age at menarche, total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke: the Adventist Health Study, 1976–88

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, B K; Oda, K; Knutsen, S F; Fraser, G E

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between age at menarche and total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Methods A cohort study of 19 462 Californian Seventh-Day Adventist women followed-up from 1976 to 1988. A total of 3313 deaths occurred during follow-up, of which 809 were due to ischaemic heart disease and 378 due to stroke. Results An early menarche was associated with increased total mortality (P-value for linear trend <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (P-value for linear trend = 0.01) and stroke (P-value for linear trend = 0.02) mortality. There were, however, also some indications of an increased ischaemic heart disease mortality in women aged 16–18 at menarche (5% of the women). When assessed as a linear relationship, a 1-year delay in menarche was associated with 4.5% (95% CI 2.3–6.7) lower total mortality. The association was stronger for ischaemic heart disease [6.0% (95% CI 1.2–10.6)] and stroke [8.6% (95% CI 1.6–15.1)] mortality. Conclusions The results suggest that there is a linear, inverse relationship between age at menarche and total mortality as well as with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality. PMID:19188208

  19. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  20. The Effect of Exercise on Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem as a Function of Gender and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Williamson, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and psychological wellbeing, surveying people age 16-60 years. Women had lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. While there was generally a positive relationship between exercise and wellbeing, for women age 16-21 years, there was a significant negative relationship. Women…

  1. A Multi-Stage Ultra-Endurance Run over 1,200 KM Leads to a Continuous Accumulation of Total Body Water

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Schulze, Ingo; Kohler, Götz

    2008-01-01

    We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra- endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the ‘Deutschlandlauf’ 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean ± SD, 43.8 ± 6.2 years, 73.8 ± 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 ± 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 ± 1.8 kg·m-2). Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body water were determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the anthropometric method before the race and after each stage. In addition, urinary specific gravity was measured in order to quantify hydration status. Fat mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis) decreased by 3.9 kg (p < 0.05), skeletal muscle mass (anthropometric method) decreased by 2.0 kg (p < 0.05) whereas percent total body water increased by 6.1 % (p < 0.05) by the end of the race. Ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance event over 1,200 km, with 17 consecutive stages, showed a cumulative increase in percent total body water, a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass, depending upon the method used. We presume that the eccentric component of running leads to damage of skeletal muscle, leading to rhabdomyolysis, with impaired renal function. Key pointsUltra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance run over 1,200 km in 17 consecutive stages suffered a decrease in fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and an increase in total body water, whereas overall body mass showed no change. PMID:24149903

  2. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage. PMID:26274957

  3. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage. PMID:26274957

  4. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-10-15

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection.

  5. Comparison of the Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometers for Assessing Total and Regional Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon A; Petri, Robert M; Hunter, Heather L; Raju, Dheeraj; Gower, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the agreement of the Lunar Prodigy with the newer Lunar iDXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer for determining total body and regional (arms, legs, trunk) bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM), lean tissue mass (LTM), total body mass, and percent fat. Ninety-two healthy adult males (n = 36) and females (n = 56) were scanned consecutively on the iDXA and the Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers. For iDXA, relative to Prodigy, paired t tests indicated significantly lower estimates for total body and regional BMD and BMC (p < 0.001). Measures of total body and trunk FM, LTM, and percent fat did not differ between the instruments. In regional analyses, estimates of FM and percent fat were greater, and that of LTM was lower, in the arms (p < 0.001). In contrast, iDXA estimates of LTM were higher in the legs (p < 0.001). All body composition measures were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analyses indicated that significant bias existed between iDXA and Prodigy for total body and regional BMD estimates (p < 0.001) such that iDXA underestimated BMD to a greater extent in persons with higher values. In addition, iDXA overestimation bias existed for FM in total body, arms, and legs, and the overestimation was primarily observed in participants with greater body fat (p < 0.001). When combining or comparing data from iDXA with those from Prodigy, investigators should be aware that certain total body and regional estimates are significantly different. The greatest percent differences were observed for arm BMD, FM, and percent fat. PMID:26209017

  6. Influence of age and body mass on the response of adolescent male pigs to anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Reed, F C; Shaw, D J; McLean, K A; Clutton, R E

    2015-07-25

    Age and body mass affect a human's response to drugs, including anaesthetics. In pigs, such effects, if they occur, are likely to be pronounced: commercial breeds have been selected for rapid growth, meaning rapid body composition and mass change with age. Thirty-six male pigs were anaesthetised for CT scanning on three occasions (S1-3) when aged 105, 137 and 166 days and when mean (±sd) masses were 57.2±4.4, 88.4±6.2 and 114.7±7.6 kg, respectively. Medetomidine (5 μg/kg), azaperone (1 mg/kg), ketamine (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.25 mg/kg) were combined and injected intramuscularly. The times when pigs became recumbent (R1) and remained so (RP) were recorded. If venous cannulation was not possible five minutes after recumbency, 2-3 per cent isoflurane in a 1:2 O2/N2O mixture was delivered by mask until cannulation was possible and then discontinued. If anaesthetic depth was inadequate for CT scanning, a full dose (midazolam 0.25 mg/kg, ketamine 2 mg/kg) or half dose of induction agents was administered intravenously. During recovery from anaesthesia, the times at first movement (M1), first standing attempt (S1) and successful sustained standing (SP) were recorded. The relationship between mass and time (minutes) from injection to each end point was assessed using regression analysis and linear mixed-effect models (LMEM); LMEM were used to assess isoflurane and intravenous anaesthetic effects. Analysis using LMEM showed no significant relationships between mass and the times from injection to the five end points. Isoflurane reduced the time to M1, S1 and SP (P<0.037); intravenous agents had no effect on S1 or SP (P>0.585) but increased the time from injection to M1 (P<0.001). In conclusion, age and mass do not influence the response of commercially bred pigs to the intravenous anaesthetic combination described. PMID:25948632

  7. Total body water and its compartments are not affected by ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine in healthy young adult males.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analiza M; Júdice, Pedro B; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Magalhães, João P; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo; Sardinha, Luís B

    2013-06-01

    Acute and chronic caffeine intakes have no impact on hydration status (R.J. Maughan and J. Griffin, J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 16(6): 411-420, 2003), although no research has been conducted to analyze the effects using dilution techniques on total-body water (TBW) and its compartments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on TBW, extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) during a 4-day period in active males. Thirty men, nonsmokers and low caffeine users (<100 mg·day(-1)), aged 20-39 years, participated in this double-blind, randomized, crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: No. NCT01477294). The study included 2 conditions (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of caffeine and placebo (malt-dextrin)) of 4 days each, with a 3-day washout period. TBW and ECW were assessed by deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution, respectively, whereas ICW was calculated as TBW minus ECW. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry and water intake was assessed by dietary records. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test main effects. No changes in TBW, ECW, or ICW and no interaction between the randomly assigned order of treatment and time were observed (p > 0.05). TBW, ECW, and ICW were unrelated to fat-free mass, water ingestion, and PA (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that a moderate caffeine dose, equivalent to approximately 5 espresso cups of coffee or 7 servings of tea, does not alter TBW and fluid distribution in healthy men, regardless of body composition, PA, or daily water ingestion. PMID:23724879

  8. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly. PMID:23983895

  9. Age-related changes to cardiac systolic and diastolic function during whole-body passive hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Sarma, Satyam; Schlader, Zachary J.; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ageing on hyperthermia-induced changes in cardiac function is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that hyperthermia-induced changes in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function are attenuated in older adults when compared with young adults. Eight older (71 ± 5 years old) and eight young adults (29 ± 5 years old), matched for sex, physical activity and body mass index, underwent whole-body passive hyperthermia. Mean arterial pressure (Finometer Pro), heart rate, forearm vascular conductance (venous occlusion plethysmography) and echocardiographic indices of diastolic and systolic function were measured during a normothermic supine period and again after an increase in internal temperature of ~1.0 °C. Hyperthermia decreased mean arterial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes and increased heart rate to a similar extent in both groups (P > 0.05). Ageing did not alter the magnitude of hyperthermia-induced changes in indices of systolic (lateral mitral annular S′ velocity) or diastolic function (lateral mitral annular E′ velocity, peak early diastolic filling and isovolumic relaxation time; P > 0.05). However, with hyperthermia the global longitudinal systolic strain increased in the older group, but was unchanged in the young group (P = 0.03). Also, older adults were unable to augment late diastolic ventricular filling [i.e. E/A ratio and A/(A + E) ratio] during hyperthermia, unlike the young (P <0.05). These findings indicate that older adults depend on a greater systolic contribution (global longitudinal systolic strain) to meet hyperthermic demand and that the atrial contribution to diastolic filling was not further augmented in older adults when compared with young adults. PMID:25641368

  10. On the age and parent body of the daytime Arietids meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, A.; Wiegert, P.; Pokorny, P.; Brown, P.

    2016-01-01

    The daytime Arietid meteor shower is active from mid-May to late June and is among the strongest of the annual meteor showers, comparable in activity and duration to the Perseids and the Geminids. Due to the daytime nature of the shower, the Arietids have mostly been constrained by radar studies. The Arietids exhibit a long-debated discrepancy in the semi-major axis and the eccentricity of meteoroid orbits as measured by radar and optical surveys. Radar studies yield systematically lower values for the semi-major axis and eccentricity, where the origin of these discrepancies remain unclear. The proposed parent bodies of the stream include comet 96P/Machholz and more recently the Marsden's group of sun-skirting comets. In this work, we present detailed numerical modelling of the daytime Arietid meteoroid stream, with the goal to identifying the parent body and constraining the age of the stream. We use observational data from an extensive survey of the Arietids by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), in the period of 2002-2013, and several optical observations by the SonotaCo meteor network and the Cameras for All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS). Our simulations suggest that the age and observed characteristics of the daytime Arietids are consistent with cometary activity from 96P, over the past 12000 years. The sunskirting comets that presumably formed in a major comet breakup between 100 - 950 AD (Chodas and Sekanina, 2005), alone, cannot explain the observed shower characteristics of the Arietids. Thus, the Marsden sunskirters cannot be the dominant parent, though our simulations suggest that they contribute to the core of the stream.

  11. Rho GTPase activity in the honey bee mushroom bodies is correlated with age and foraging experience

    PubMed Central

    Dobrin, Scott E.; Fahrbach, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Foraging experience is correlated with structural plasticity of the mushroom bodies of the honey bee brain. While several neurotransmitter and intracellular signaling pathways have been previously implicated as mediators of these structural changes, none interact directly with the cytoskeleton, the ultimate effector of changes in neuronal morphology. The Rho family of GTPases are small, monomeric G proteins that, when activated, initiate a signaling cascade that reorganizes the neuronal cytoskeleton. In this study, we measured activity of two members of the Rho family of GTPases, Rac and RhoA, in the mushroom bodies of bees with different durations of foraging experience. A transient increase in Rac activity coupled with a transient decrease in RhoA activity was found in honey bees with 4 days foraging experience compared with same-aged new foragers. These observations are in accord with previous reports based on studies of other species of a growth supporting role for Rac and a growth opposing role for RhoA. This is the first report of Rho GTPase activation in the honey bee brain. PMID:22108023

  12. Body fat and body-mass index among a multiethnic sample of college-age men and women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Catherine L; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S; Deng, Max; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m(2); PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m(2)) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r (2) = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  13. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  14. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age. PMID:27293604

  15. Dosimetric Study and Verification of Total Body Irradiation Using Helical Tomotherapy and its Comparison to Extended SSD Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Audrey H.; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Radiology practice guideline for total body irradiation (TBI) requires a back-up treatment delivery system. This study investigates the development of helical tomotherapy (HT) for delivering TBI and compares it with conventional extended source-to-surface distance (X-SSD) technique. Four patients' head-to-thigh computed tomographic images were used in this study, with the target defined as the body volume without the left and right lungs. HT treatment plans with the standard TBI prescription (1.2 Gy/fx, 10 fractions) were generated and verified on phantoms. To compare HT plans with X-SSD treatment, the dose distribution of X-SSD technique was simulated using the Eclipse software. The average dose received by 90% of the target volume was 12.3 Gy (range, 12.2-12.4 Gy) for HT plans and 10.3 Gy (range, 10.08-10.58 Gy) for X-SSD plans (p < 0.001). The left and right lung median doses were 5.44 Gy and 5.40 Gy, respectively, for HT plans and 8.34 Gy and 8.95 Gy, respectively, for X-SSD treatment. The treatment planning time was comparable between the two methods. The beam delivery time of HT treatment was longer than X-SSD treatment. In conclusion, HT-based TBI plans have better dose coverage to the target and better dose sparing to the lungs compared with X-SSD technique, which applies dose compensators, lung blocks, and electron boosts. This study demonstrates that HT is possible for delivering TBI. Clinical validation of the feasibility of this approach would be of interest in the future.

  16. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

  17. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Hawkey, A, Griffiths, K, Babraj, J, and Cobley, JN. Whole-body vibration training and its application to age-related performance decrements: an exploratory analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 555-560, 2016-Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations. PMID:26244828

  18. [Effects of a low-fat diet including vegetables on total blood cholesterol levels in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Bertoncini, P; Laghi, G; Del Corso, L; Giuliano, G

    1990-11-30

    High total serum cholesterol and low HDL levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease before the age of 65. Currently in older populations their role has not yet been defined. In the elderly a low-cholesterol diet is therefore preferable to pharmacological treatment, in view of the absence of collateral effects. In this study 40 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia were divided at random into two groups. They were respectively fed their usual diet and a legume-supplemented normal caloric diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased in the latter group from the 2nd week onward. PMID:2150025

  19. ‘Keeping your body and mind active’: an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and ‘semistructured’ participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. Participants 27 participants (65–80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Setting Participants’ homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. Results All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. ‘Getting out of the house’, being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their ‘activeness’. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Conclusions Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its

  20. [Maternal Predictors of Body Mass Index of Pre-school and School Age Children].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Félix, Rosario E; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Cárdenas-Villareal, Valia M; Moral de la Rubia, José; Ruvalcaba Rodríguez, María D; Hernandez-Carranco, Roandy G

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to identify maternal variables that could be used as predictors of the child's body mass index (BMI). We considered the following variables: (a) socio-demographic (age, education, occupation, marital status and family income); (b) anthropometric (BMI); and (c) upbringing strategies (monitoring and limits for eating habits, monitoring and sedentary behavior limits, discipline and control in feeding. A predictive correlational study was carried out with 537 dyads (mother-child). Children enrolled in 4 public schools (2 for pre-school children and 2 for primary school children) were selected for probabilistic, random sampling. The mothers answered the Feeding and Activity Upbringing Strategies Scale, giving socio-demographic information and the dyads' weight and height was measured. The data were analyzed for correlations and path analysis. It was found that the average age of mothers was 34.25 years (SD=6.91), with 12.40 years of education (SD=3.36), 53.3% mentioned that they were housewives and 46.7% had a paid job outside of the home; 38.5% showed pre-OB and 27.3% some degree of OB. The child's average age was 7.26 years (SD=2.46), and 3.2% showed low weight, 59.6% normal weight and 37.2% OW-0B. It was found that working outside the home, having a higher maternal BMI, less control and more discipline in feeding are variables that predict higher BMI in the child. We recommend the design of interventions to reduce and treat the child's OW-OB taking into account the predictors that were found. PMID:26821487

  1. Suture Dynamics of the Banda Arc Collision Zone: Geochemical and Age Analysis of Ultramafic and Mafic Bodies in Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, J. M.; Harris, R. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Hoiland, C. W.; Flores, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    New age and geochemical data confirm that most ultramafic bodies on the north coast of Timor are derived from the distal reaches of the Australian continental margin lower plate that was exhumed by extension during Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifting. The ultramafic bodies were accreted to Timor during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. One of the lherzolitic ultramafic bodies near Caicua was previously unknown, but yields clear isotopic indicators that it is kin to the Hili Manu mafic and ultramafic complex further to the west. Zircon grains from metagabbro of the Hili Manu complex have cores with mostly Early Permian ages and rims of Latest Miocene ages. Isotopic analysis indicates abyssal plain, or passive margin affinity of the Caicua ultramafic body. One important exception to this pattern are mafic and ultramafic bodies associated with the Ocussi volcanics, which yield Miocene and Pliocene ages and supra-subduction zone chemical signatures. The Ocussi body is clearly part of the upper plate of the collision and formed after collision initiated further to the east. It is also structurally higher than the Hili Manu complex and has no affinities with the Australian plate. This study documents that both the upper and lower plates of the active arc-continent collision contribute mafic and ultramafic rocks to the evolving suture zone between the Indo-Australian and Asian plates in the Banda Arc region.

  2. Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, M A; Baer, D J; Rumpler, W V; Weindruch, R; Ingram, D K; Tilmont, E M; Cutler, R G; Roth, G S

    1996-01-01

    Many studies of caloric restriction (CR) in rodents and lower animals indicate that this nutritional manipulation retards aging processes, as evidenced by increased longevity, reduced pathology, and maintenance of physiological function in a more youthful state. The anti-aging effects of CR are believed to relate, at least in part, to changes in energy metabolism. We are attempting to determine whether similar effects occur in response to CR in nonhuman primates. Core (rectal) body temperature decreased progressively with age from 2 to 30 years in rhesus monkeys fed ad lib (controls) and is reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C in age-matched monkeys subjected to 6 years of a 30% reduction in caloric intake. A short-term (1 month) 30% restriction of 2.5-year-old monkeys lowered subcutaneous body temperature by 1.0 degrees C. Indirect calorimetry showed that 24-hr energy expenditure was reduced by approximately 24% during short-term CR. The temporal association between reduced body temperature and energy expenditure suggests that reductions in body temperature relate to the induction of an energy conservation mechanism during CR. These reductions in body temperature and energy expenditure are consistent with findings in rodent studies in which aging rate was retarded by CR, now strengthening the possibility that CR may exert beneficial effects in primates analogous to those observed in rodents. PMID:8633033

  3. 'I don't know whether it is to do with age or to do with hormones and whether it is do with a stage in your life': making sense of menopause and the body.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Helena R; Foster, Juliet L H

    2013-02-01

    This article discusses a mixed-methods study that explored women's views about menopause and any relationship between these and several measures of body consciousness. A total of 270 women in the United Kingdom completed surveys of menopausal attitudes, self-objectification, body surveillance and body shame. There was a positive association between rating highly on body dissatisfaction scales and holding negative attitudes towards menopause. Interviews (n = 12) were conducted to investigate this further. Menopause was inextricably linked with aging for these women, and changing appearance was a particular concern for women who rated high on self-objectification. The implications of this are discussed. PMID:22904151

  4. A phase I study of WR-2721 in combination with total body irradiation (TBI) in patients with refractory lymphoid malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Coia, L.; Krigel, R.; Hanks, G.; Comis, R.; Algazy, K.; Peters, R.; McCulloch, W.; Schien, P. )

    1992-01-01

    This Phase I study was designed to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of WR-2721 when given twice weekly with total body irradiation (TBI) in the treatment of patients with advanced refractory lymphoid malignancies and to define the toxicities of this combination and schedule. Patients eligible for this study had advanced recurrent indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients had symptomatic or progressive disease, a performance status of 0, 1, or 2, and adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function. Only patients failing one or two regimens of prior chemotherapy were eligible. Patients who had received prior extended field irradiation were ineligible. Patients received TBI twice weekly (Tuesday and Friday) to a total of 10 doses at 15 cGy/fx. WR-2721 was given intravenously over 15 min beginning 30 min before irradiation. The escalation of WR-2721 was Level 1: 740 mg/m2 and Level 2: 910 mg/m2. The MTD of WR-2721 was that dose which produced predictable and reversible toxicity and would not interfere with patient well-being. Seven patients were entered onto the study, three at 740 mg/m2 and four at 910 mg/m2. Five patients had CLL and two patients small lymphocytic NHL. No patient had hypotension or nausea requiring reduction in dose level or even interruption of infusion of WR-2721. At 740 mg/m2 no grade 3 or 4 toxicities related to WR-2721 were observed, but two patients could not complete treatment because of TBI-induced prolonged thrombocytopenia following treatments 5 and 8. One patient completed all 10 treatments. At 910 mg/m2 of WR-2721, two patients requested removal from study because of malaise, one after 5 cycles and one after 7 cycles. One patient completed all 10 treatments.

  5. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yanshun; Qin, Maoquan; Wang, Bin; Li, Sidan; Zhu, Guanghua; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Huyong

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI) myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD). The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27217774

  6. Molecular and cellular profiling of acute responses to total body radiation exposure in ovariectomized female cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    DeBo, Ryne J.; Register, Thomas C.; Caudell, David L.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Dugan, Gregory; Gray, Shauna; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Bourland, J. Daniel; Chao, Nelson J.; Cline, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The threat of radiation exposure requires a mechanistic understanding of radiation-induced immune injury and recovery. The study objective was to evaluate responses to ionizing radiation in ovariectomized (surgically post-menopausal) female cynomolgus macaques. Materials and methods Animals received a single total-body irradiation (TBI) exposure at doses of 0, 2 or 5 Gy with scheduled necropsies at 5 days, 8 weeks and 24 weeks post-exposure. Blood and lymphoid tissues were evaluated for morphologic, cellular, and molecular responses. Results Irradiated animals developed symptoms of acute hematopoietic syndrome, and reductions in thymus weight, thymopoiesis, and bone marrow cellularity. Acute, transient increases in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were observed in 5 Gy animals along with dose-dependent alterations in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) signatures in thymus, spleen, and lymph node. Expression of T cell markers was lower in thymus and spleen, while expression of macrophage marker CD68 (cluster of differentiation 68) was relatively elevated in lymphoid tissues from irradiated animals. Conclusions Ovariectomized female macaques exposed to moderate doses of radiation experienced increased morbidity, including acute, dose-dependent alterations in systemic and tissue-specific biomarkers, and increased macrophage/T cell ratios. The effects on mortality exceeded expectations based on previous studies in males, warranting further investigation. PMID:25786585

  7. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for white blood cell (WBC) loss, which are the body’s main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved white blood cell (WBC), specifically neutrophil, loss in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses. PMID:25909052

  8. Total kinetic energy production of body segments is different between racing and training paces in elite Olympic rowers.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Daniel J; Nolte, Volker; Kedgley, Angela E; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2009-09-01

    Total kinetic energy (TKE) was calculated for 28 Canadian national team Olympic rowers during training on water, comparing low-stroke rates (18-22 stroke/min) and high-stroke rates (32-40 stroke/min), using video analysis. Stroke duration was normalized to 100%, beginning and ending at the "catches", with the drive phase occurring first and recovery second. Two discrete points were identified during the stroke, both occurring when the fingers had the same horizontal position as the ankles (i.e., mid-drive and mid-recovery). The ratios of recovery-to-drive TKE at these points for the entire body at low and high-stroke rates were 0.36 +/- 0.34 and 1.26 +/- 0.54 respectively. Significant differences were found for the lower leg, upper arm and forearm segments, and within the female groups. Low-stroke rate is a typical training pace and high-stroke rate is analogous to a race pace. This study demonstrates that TKE production during recovery in a race was not replicated during training. While training at low-stroke rates is vital for technique refinement, this study stresses the importance of training appropriately for the energy expenditure during high-stroke rate recovery. This is commonly overlooked by coaches and athletes. PMID:19891198

  9. Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

    1993-12-31

    Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

  10. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Bennent, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets, or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should continue TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  11. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  12. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body

    PubMed Central

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Conclusion: Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification. PMID:26005300

  13. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  14. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  15. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared analysis of fly ash geopolymer gel aging.

    PubMed

    Rees, Catherine A; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2007-07-17

    Structural changes in fly ash geopolymers activated with different sodium hydroxide and silicate concentrations are investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy over a period of 200 days. A strong correlation is found between the concentration of silicate monomer in the activating solution and the position of the main Si-O-T stretching band in the FTIR spectrum, which gives an indication of the relative changes in the gel Si/Al ratio. The FTIR spectra of geopolymer samples with activating solution concentrations of up to 1.2 M SiO2 indicate that an Al-rich gel forms before the final gel composition is reached. The time required for the system to reach a steady gel composition depends on the silicate activating solution concentration and speciation. Geopolymers activated with solutions containing predominantly high-order silicate species rapidly reach a steady gel composition without first forming an Al-rich gel. A minimum silicate monomer concentration of approximately 0.6 M is required to shift the geopolymer synthesis mechanism from hydroxide activation to silicate activation. Silicate speciation in the activating solutions also affects zeolite formation and geopolymer microstructures, with a more homogeneous microstructure and less zeolite formation observed at a higher SiO2 content. PMID:17590027

  16. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (p<0.01) followed by young adults and older adults. Female subjects (across all ages) had significantly lower plasma HMB concentrations. A significant positive correlation between HMB concentrations and appendicular lean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; p<0.001) was observed in the young adults and older adults group. Handgrip strength was positively associated with plasma HMB concentrations in young adults (r=0.58; p<0.01) and the older adults group (r=0.28; p<0.01). The findings of the present study suggest that there is an age- related decline in endogenous HMB concentrations in humans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. PMID:27108182

  17. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6–7

    PubMed Central

    Sleddens, Ester FC; Kremers, Stef PJ; Thijs, Carel

    2008-01-01

    Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Methods In total, 135 parents of primary school children aged 6 and 7 completed the questionnaire (response rate 41.9%). Children's BMI was converted into standardised z-scores, adjusted for child gender and age to examine the association between mean scale scores and child weight status. Results Results generally confirmed the theoretical factor structure, with acceptable internal reliability and between-subscale correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were positively associated with the 'food approach' subscales of the CEBQ (food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating) (β's 0.15 to 0.22) and negatively with 'food avoidant' subscales (satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional undereating, and food fussiness) (β's -0.09 to -0.25). Significant relations with child BMI z-scores were found for food responsiveness (p = 0.02), enjoyment of food (p = 0.03), satiety responsiveness (p = 0.01) and slowness in eating (p = 0.01). Conclusion The results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometrically sound tool for assessing children's eating behaviours in Dutch children and the study demonstrates its applicability in overweight-related studies. PMID:18937832

  18. Longitudinal trajectory of sexual functioning after hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease and total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F. Lennie; Francisco, Liton; Togawa, Kayo; Kim, Heeyoung; Bosworth, Alysia; Atencio, Liezl; Hanby, Cara; Grant, Marcia; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study described the trajectory of sexual well-being from before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to 3 years after in 131 allogeneic and 146 autologous HCT recipients using Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function and Derogatis Global Sexual Satisfaction Index. Sixty-one percent of men and 37% of women were sexually active pre-HCT; the prevalence declined to 51% (P = .01) in men and increased to 48% (P = .02) in women at 3 years post-HCT. After HCT, sexual satisfaction declined in both sexes (P < .001). All sexual function domains were worse in women compared with men (P ≤ .001). Orgasm (P = .002) and drive/relationship (P < .001) declined in men, but sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .01) and sexual behavior/experience (P = .01) improved in women. Older age negatively impacted sexual function post-HCT in both sexes (P < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .003) and orgasm (P = .006) in men and sexual arousal (P = .05) and sexual satisfaction (P = .005) in women. All male sexual function domains declined after total body irradiation (P < .05). This study identifies vulnerable subpopulations that could benefit from interventional strategies to improve sexual well-being. PMID:24159171

  19. Ratio of remnant to total liver volume or remnant to body weight: which one is more predictive on donor outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Yaprak, Onur; Guler, Necdet; Altaca, Gulum; Dayangac, Murat; Demirbas, Tolga; Akyildiz, Murat; Ulusoy, Levent; Tokat, Yaman; Yuzer, Yildiray

    2012-01-01

    Backround Right lobe donations are known to expose the donors to more surgical risks than left lobe donations. In the present study, the effects of remnant volume on donor outcomes after right lobe living donor hepatectomies were investigated. Methods The data on 262 consecutive living liver donors who had undergone a right hepatectomy from January 2004 to June 2011 were retrospectively analysed. The influence of the remnant on the outcomes was investigated according to the two different definitions. These were: (i) the ratio of the remnant liver volume to total liver volume (RLV/TLV) and (ii) the remnant liver volume to donor body weight ratio (RLV/BWR). For RLV/TLV, the effects of having a percentage of 30% or below and for RLV/BWR, the effects of values lower than 0.6 on the results were investigated. Results Complication and major complication rates were 44.7% and 13.2% for donors with RLV/TLV of ≤30%, and 35.9% and 9.4% for donors with RLV/BWR of < 0.6, respectively. In donors with RLV/TLV of ≤30%, RLV/BWR being below or above 0.6 did not influence the results in terms of liver function tests, complications and hospital stay. The main impact on the outcome was posed by RLV/TLV of ≤30%. Conclusion Remnant volume in a right lobe living donor hepatectomy has adverse effects on donor outcomes when RLV/TLV is ≤30% independent from the rate of RLV/BWR with a cut-off point of 0.6. PMID:22672550

  20. TH-C-12A-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Modulated Arc Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiamas, P; Czerminska, M; Makrigiorgos, G; Karen, M; Zygmanski, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A simplified Total Body Irradiation (TBI) was developed to work with minimal requirements in a compact linac room without custom motorized TBI couch. Results were compared to our existing fixed-gantry double 4 MV linac TBI system with prone patient and simultaneous AP/PA irradiation. Methods: Modulated arc irradiates patient positioned in prone/supine positions along the craniocaudal axis. A simplified inverse planning method developed to optimize dose rate as a function of gantry angle for various patient sizes without the need of graphical 3D treatment planning system. This method can be easily adapted and used with minimal resources. Fixed maximum field size (40×40 cm2) is used to decrease radiation delivery time. Dose rate as a function of gantry angle is optimized to result in uniform dose inside rectangular phantoms of various sizes and a custom VMAT DICOM plans were generated using a DICOM editor tool. Monte Carlo simulations, film and ionization chamber dosimetry for various setups were used to derive and test an extended SSD beam model based on PDD/OAR profiles for Varian 6EX/ TX. Measurements were obtained using solid water phantoms. Dose rate modulation function was determined for various size patients (100cm − 200cm). Depending on the size of the patient arc range varied from 100° to 120°. Results: A PDD/OAR based beam model for modulated arc TBI therapy was developed. Lateral dose profiles produced were similar to profiles of our existing TBI facility. Calculated delivery time and full arc depended on the size of the patient (∼8min/ 100° − 10min/ 120°, 100 cGy). Dose heterogeneity varied by about ±5% − ±10% depending on the patient size and distance to the surface (buildup region). Conclusion: TBI using simplified modulated arc along craniocaudal axis of different size patients positioned on the floor can be achieved without graphical / inverse 3D planning.

  1. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  2. SU-E-T-404: Simple Field-In-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation in Large Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, P; Pinnix, C; Dabaja, B; Wang, C; Aristophanous, M; Tung, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A simple Field-in-Field technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) was developed for traditional AP/PA TBI treatments to improve dosimetric uniformity in patients with large separation. Methods: TBI at our institution currently utilizes an AP/PA technique at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 380cm with patients in left decubitus position during the AP beam and in right decubitus during the PA beam. Patients who have differences in thickness (separation) between the abdomen and head greater than 10cm undergo CT simulation in both left and right decubitus treatment positions. One plan for each CT is generated to evaluate dose to patient midline with both AP and PA fields, but only corresponding AP fields will be exported for treatment for patient left decubitus position and PA fields for patient right decubitus position. Subfields are added by collimating with the x-ray jaws according to separation changes at 5–7% steps to minimize hot regions to less than 10%. Finally, the monitor units (MUs) for the plans are verified with hand calculation and water phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity (+/−10%) is achieved with field-in-field using only asymmetric jaws. It is dosimetrically robust with respect to minor setup/patient variations inevitable due to patient conditions. MUs calculated with Pinnacle were verified in 3 clinical cases and only a 2% difference was found compared to homogeneous calculation. In-vivo dosimeters were also used to verify doses received by each patient with and confirmed dose variations less than 10%. Conclusion: We encountered several cases with separation differences that raised uniformity concerns — based on a 1% dose difference per cm separation difference assumption. This could Resultin an unintended hot spot, often in the head/neck, up to 25%. This method allows dose modulation without adding treatment complexity nor introducing radiobiological variations, providing a reasonable solution for this unique

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  4. Interleukin 1 alpha stimulates hemopoiesis but not tumor cell proliferation and protects mice from lethal total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, L.S.; Harwell, S.; Keng, P.; Lee, F.; Rubin, P.; Siemann, D. )

    1991-03-01

    Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1) is a polypeptide/glycoprotein growth factor with multiple functions including the modulation of hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. In vivo studies were performed with C57BL/6J mice injected with 0, 0.2, or 2.0 micrograms of IL-1 24 hr before or after lethal total body irradiation (TBI) (9.5 Gy). More mice in the groups administered IL-1 before TBI survived (90% of the 2.0 micrograms group) than those treated 2 or 24 hr after TBI, which was still slightly superior to the uninjected group, which all died within 15 days (p = .0001). Proliferation of bone marrow granulocyte/macrophage colonies following split dose TBI was also greatest for mouse groups treated with IL-1 prior to TBI. These experiments support data from other investigators that IL-1 stimulation of BM is related to IL-1 timing with respect to TBI. Stimulation of hemopoiesis was also assessed in terms of changes in peripheral blood and BM cell numbers and cell cycle kinetics using an electronic particle counter and flow cytometric techniques. Mice injected with 2 micrograms of IL-1 showed an initial decline (at 3-6 hr) and then a selective proliferation (24-48 hr) of early and more committed progenitor cells to 125% and 200% of control values, respectively. Peripheral blood counts rose accordingly. Cells in S and G2/M phases increased over 10 hr and then declined in number. It thus appeared that some synchronization of cell cycling occurred, which might place cells in a more radioresistant phase of the cell cycle. The glutathione (GSH) content and synthesis in BM cells were measured by isocratic paired-ion high performance liquid chromatography and 35S-labelled cysteine incorporation into the GSH tripeptide. An increase in cellular GSH content and synthesis was demonstrated following IL-1 which lasted 24 hr.

  5. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  6. Relationship of Body Composition to Somatotype in Boys Ages 7 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, M. H.; Lohman, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    The authors conclude that endomorphy and the first component of Heath and Carter's anthropometric method reflect body fatness to a considerable degree, but that little association between lean body mass and mesomorphy or the second component exists in children. (Author)

  7. Age-associated changes of brain copper, iron, and zinc in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stewart F; Nasaruddin, Muhammad Bin; Carey, Manus; Holscher, Christian; McGuinness, Bernadette; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth; Passmore, Peter; Elliott, Christopher T; Meharg, Andrew A; Green, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    Disease-, age-, and gender-associated changes in brain copper, iron, and zinc were assessed in postmortem neocortical tissue (Brodmann area 7) from patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 14), severe AD (n = 28), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 15), and normal age-matched control subjects (n = 26). Copper was lower (20%; p < 0.001) and iron higher (10-16%; p < 0.001) in severe AD compared with controls. Intriguingly significant Group*Age interactions were observed for both copper and iron, suggesting gradual age-associated decline of these metals in healthy non-cognitively impaired individuals. Zinc was unaffected in any disease pathologies and no age-associated changes were apparent. Age-associated changes in brain elements warrant further investigation. PMID:25024342

  8. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  9. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  10. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  11. Prospective evaluation of pulmonary function in cancer patients treated with total body irradiation, high-dose melphalan, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandola, L.; Siena, S.; Bregni, M.; Sverzellati, E.; Piotti, P.; Stucchi, C.; Gianni, A.M.; Lombardi, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Pulmonary function tests (standard vital capacity, SVC; total lung capacity, TLC; forced expiratory volume in 1 second-forced vital capacity ratio, FEV1/FVC; carbon monoxide transfer factor, DLCO) were prospectively evaluated in patients (median age 25 years, 13-52 years; median follow-up 20 months, 6-51 months) with Hodgkin's disease (15 patients), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (9 patients), and inflammatory breast cancer (3 patients) treated with sequential high-dose therapy comprising the following phases over approximately 2 months: (a) cyclophosphamide (7 g/m2); (b) vincristine (1.4 mg/m2), methotrexate (8 g/m2), and cisplatinum (120 mg/m2) or etoposide (2 g/m2); (c) total body irradiation (TBI; 12.5 gy, 5 fractions over 48 hours), intravenous melphalan (120-180 mg/m2), and transplantation of autologous peripheral blood and/or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Within 2 months after transplantation, 12 patients also received 25 Gy radiotherapy boost to mediastinum and clavicular regions. In vivo dosimetry evaluations of fractionated TBI treatments showed that mean radiation dose absorbed by lungs was 12.18 Gy (97.4% of TBI dose). Despite such a high radiation dose, we observed only transient and subclinical decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO. The decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO was more evident and prolonged in patients receiving radiotherapy boost. All parameters progressively recovered to normal values within 2 years after transplantation. In contrast, FEV1/FVC remained within normal limits in all patients, thus demonstrating the absence of obstructive ventilatory changes. In addition, no interstitial pneumonia was observed.

  12. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  13. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  14. Exploration of virtual body-representation in adolescence: the role of age and sex in avatar customization.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Gatti, Elena; Triberti, Stefano; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The malleable nature of the self led researchers to investigate the meaning of virtual identity by exploring virtual self-representation through avatars and its association with users' identity. The present study aims to investigate the changes in virtual body-representation in adolescence related to age levels and sex and the association with adolescents' self-esteem and body esteem. Anthropometric features, body esteem and self-esteem were used to assess adolescents' body image and identity. The scoring code of the "Drawing Me" graphical test was used to evaluate the avatars. The sample is composed of 63 adolescents of different ages-early, middle and late adolescence-balanced by sex. Results show that the creation of a digital avatar changes with age and is partially associated with adolescents' perceptions in terms of body esteem and self-esteem. Moreover, the creation of avatars occurs differently for boys, who enrich their avatars with many sexual features, than for girls, who prefer to detail their avatars' clothing to enrich them. Critical reflections and implications for psychological interventions that may use avatars to investigate adolescents' identity in integration with other tools will be discussed. PMID:27376008

  15. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  16. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  17. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover. PMID:26487675

  18. Physical Activity as a Preventative Factor for Frailty: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Carol; Morey, Miriam C.; Pieper, Carl F.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Mercer, Vicki; Cohen, Harvey J.; Visser, Marjolein; Brach, Jennifer S.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Rubin, Susan; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2009-01-01

    Background It is unclear if physical activity (PA) can prevent or reverse frailty. We examined different doses and types of PA and their association with the onset and severity of frailty. Methods Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study participants (N = 2,964) were followed for 5 years, with frailty defined as a gait speed of less than 0.60 m/s and/or inability to rise from a chair without using one's arms. Individuals with one impairment were considered moderately frail and those with both severely frail. We examined PA doses of volume and intensity, activity types (eg, lifestyle vs exercise activities), and their associations with incident frailty and transition to severe frailty in those who became frail. Results Adjusted models indicated that sedentary individuals had significantly increased odds of developing frailty compared with the exercise active group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.01), whereas the lifestyle active did not. Number of diagnoses was the strongest predictor of incident frailty. In those who became frail during follow-up (n = 410), there was evidence that the sedentary (adjusted OR = 2.80; 95% CI: 0.98–8.02) and lifestyle active (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.22–6.43) groups were more likely to have worsening frailty over time. Conclusions Despite the strong relationship seen between comorbid conditions and onset of frailty, this observational study suggests that participation in self-selected exercise activities is independently associated with delaying the onset and the progression of frailty. Regular exercise should be further examined as a potential factor in frailty prevention for older adults. PMID:19164276

  19. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    PubMed

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05) from each other in body mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05) in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by

  20. SU-E-T-260: Pediatric Total Body Irradiation Calculations and In-Vivo Dosimetry Using Diodes and OSLD's

    SciTech Connect

    Chungbin, S; Fatyga, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify that a photon total body irradiation (TBI) calculation method scales properly from adult to pediatric dimensions and to determine TBI in-vivo dosimetry correction factors for diodes and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLD's). Methods: TBI technique used is 400 SAD 18 MV opposed laterals with beam spoiler. Water bags are used to supplement narrower lateral dimensions for patient treatments. To verify that dose calculations scale properly with decreasing dimensions, CAX doses were measured and compared to calculations for different rectangular phantom geometries: (L=length(cm), H=height(cm), d=depth(cm)): L(30)xH(30) (d=3-25), L(30)xH(12)(d=2–20), L(13)xH(13) (d=5–13), L(30)x(H=10–40) d=15, L(30–150) x H(10) (d=15). In infant geometry, measured off axis “leg” dose (L(30)xH(2.5–10.6), d=7)) was compared to CAX (“body” L(30)xH(10)(d=7) adjacent to “leg”). Entrance and exit doses were measured with surface diodes, diodes with buildup, OSLD's, as well as ion chambers for comparison. Correction factors ((ion chamber CAX dose)/(in vivo dose)) were calculated for surface diodes, diodes with buildup, OSLD's, and ion chamber. Results: All rectangular phantom measurements agree with calculated within 2.5%. For L(30)xH(30), L(30)xH(12), L(13)xH(13), L(30)x(H=10–40) and L(30–80)xH(10) agreement was within 1%. For the infant geometry, the ratio of leg dose to CAX varies from 0.956 (h=2.5) to 0.995 (h=10.6). The range of in-vivo dosimetry entrance+exit to CAX dose correction factors varied by dosimeter (diode: 0.883–1.015, surface diode: 1.008–1.214, ion chamber: 0.924–1.084, OSLD: 0.920–1.106). Conclusion: TBI calculations scaled properly to pediatric dimensions. In-vivo dosimetry with various detectors demonstrated similar trends with different magnitudes. OSLD measurements agreed well with ion chamber measurements.

  1. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  2. Homo economicus: commercialization of body tissue in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nelkin, Dorothy; Andrews, Lori

    1998-01-01

    The human body is becoming hot property, a resource to be "mined," "harvested," patented, and traded commercially for profit as well as scientific and therapeutic advances. Under the new entrepreneurial approach to the body old tensions take on new dimensions -- about consent, the fair distribution of tissues and products developed from them, the individual and cultural values represented by the body, and public policy governing the use of organs and tissues. PMID:11656768

  3. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p < 0.01) time main effect for each flexibility outcome variable (SF: +6.1%, +3.9%, +3.4%; SE: +8.9%, +13.5%, +26.9%; STE: +12.8%, +8.7%, +24.3%; BSR: +4.4 cm, +3.4 cm, +3.1 cm; BSL: +3.6 cm, +2.3 cm, +6.1 cm) for SO, VO, and VS, respectively. Shoulder extension was the only variable that showed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction effect for group by time. In conclusion, vibration training, alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety. PMID:23478479

  4. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  5. Daily consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato with added fat tends to increase total body vitamin A pool size in vitamin A depleted Bangladeshi women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the affect of daily consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), with or without added fat, on the total body vitamin A (VA) pool size of Bangladeshi women with low initial VA status. Women (n=120) received for 60d either 1) 0 µg RAE/d as boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP) ...

  6. Age-associated de-repression of retrotransposons in the Drosophila fat body, its potential cause and consequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Danqing; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain transposable elements (TE) that can move into new locations upon activation. Since uncontrolled transposition of TEs, including the retrotransposons and DNA transposons, can lead to DNA breaks and genomic instability, multiple mechanisms, including heterochromatin-mediated repression, have evolved to repress TE activation. Studies in model organisms have shown that TEs become activated upon aging as a result of age-associated deregulation of heterochromatin. Considering that different organisms or cell types may undergo distinct heterochromatin changes upon aging, it is important to identify pathways that lead to TE activation in specific tissues and cell types. Through deep sequencing of isolated RNAs, we report an increased expression of many retrotransposons in the old Drosophila fat body, an organ equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. This de-repression correlates with an increased number of DNA damage foci and decreased level of Drosophila lamin-B in the old fat body cells. Depletion of the Drosophila lamin-B in the young or larval fat body results in a reduction of heterochromatin and a corresponding increase in retrotransposon expression and DNA damage. Further manipulations of lamin-B and retrotransposon expression suggest a role of the nuclear lamina in maintaining the genome integrity of the Drosophila fat body by repressing retrotransposons. PMID:27072046

  7. How is this child feeling? Preschool-aged children’s ability to recognize emotion in faces and body poses

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined children’s recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children (N = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills, which included five tasks (three with faces and two with bodies). Parents and teachers reported on children’s aggressive behaviors and social skills. Children’s emotion accuracy on two of the three facial tasks and one of the body tasks was related to teacher reports of social skills. Some of these relations were moderated by child gender. In particular, the relationships between emotion recognition accuracy and reports of children’s behavior were stronger for boys than girls. Identifying preschool-aged children’s strengths and weaknesses in identification of emotion from faces and body poses may be helpful in guiding interventions with children who have problems with social and behavioral functioning that may be due, in part, to emotional knowledge deficits. Further developmental implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27057129

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  9. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  10. Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Lucero; Rea, Lorrie D.; Bentzen, Rebecca; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets 1) highest [THg] was in hair, 2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and 3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ≤ 0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg]. PMID:24661459

  11. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  12. Associations between sex, body weight, age, and ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness.

    PubMed

    Bento, Pedro L; Center, Sharon A; Randolph, John F; Yeager, Amy E; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2016-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether body weight, age, or sex was associated with ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness (AT) in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 266 dogs (22 sexually intact and 119 castrated males and 19 sexually intact and 106 spayed females representing 12 breeds) with non-adrenal gland illness. PROCEDURES Thickness of the caudal pole of the left and right adrenal glands was measured on longitudinal ultrasonographic images. Dogs were stratified into age and body weight categories to investigate associations with AT. RESULTS AT was significantly lower in dogs that weighed ≤ 12 kg (26.4 lb) than in dogs that weighed > 12 kg and left AT increased with age. Both left and right AT were larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 12 to ≤ 20 kg, and left AT was larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 20 to ≤ 30 kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that body weight, age, and sex were significantly associated with AT, indicating that these variables should be considered when evaluating AT in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness and when developing reference intervals for AT in dogs. Further, findings indicated that dogs with non-adrenal gland illness that weigh ≤ 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.62 cm, whereas dogs that weigh > 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.72 cm. PMID:26953919

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Reijne, Aaffien C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Dijk, Theo H; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A; Groen, Albert K; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  14. Long-Lasting Impact of Neonatal Exposure to Total Body Gamma Radiation on Secondary Lymphoid Organ Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Maria; Ramos-Payan, Rosalio; Biear, Jamie; Hernady, Eric; Sangster, Mark Y; Randall, Troy D; Johnston, Carl J; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Williams, Jacqueline P

    2015-10-01

    The acute period after total body irradiation (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of infection, principally resulting from the loss of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as disruption of mucosal epithelial barriers. Although there is a return to baseline infection control coinciding with the apparent progressive recovery of hematopoietic cell populations, late susceptibility to infection in radiation-sensitive organs such as lung and kidney is known to occur. Indeed, pulmonary infections are particularly prevalent in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) survivors, in both adult and pediatric patient populations. Preclinical studies investigating late outcomes from localized thoracic irradiation have indicated that the mechanisms underlying pulmonary delayed effects are multifactorial, including exacerbated and persistent production of pro-inflammatory molecules and abnormal cross-talk among parenchymal and infiltrating immune and inflammatory cell populations. However, in the context of low-dose TBI, it is not clear whether the observed exacerbated response to infection remains contingent on these same mechanisms. It is possible instead, that after systemic radiation-induced injury, the susceptibility to infection may be independently related to defects in alternative organs that are revealed only through the challenge itself; indeed, we have hypothesized that this defect may be due to radiation-induced chronic effects in the structure and function of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). In this study, we investigated the molecular and cellular alterations in SLO (i.e., spleen, mediastinal, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes) after TBI, and the time points when there appears to be immune competence. Furthermore, due to the high incidence of pulmonary infections in the late post-transplantation period of bone marrow transplant survivors, particularly in children, we focused on outcomes in mice irradiated as neonates, which served as a model for a pediatric

  15. Elevated Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percentage Are Associated with Decreased Physical Fitness in Soccer Players Aged 12–14 Years

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents are in increased risk for the development of obesity, while sport has been suggested as an effective means against adolescent obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweightness/obesity, (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BF), and (c) the association between BMI, BF and physical fitness in adolescent soccer players. Methods Members (n=136, aged 13.1±0.6 yr) of competitive soccer clubs were examined for physical and physiological characteristics. Results Based on international BMI cut-off points, 19.9% (n=27) of participants were classified as overweight. BMI was highly correlated with BF (r=0.77, P<0.001). BMI and BF were in inverse relationship with aerobic power (r= − 0.29, P<0.001; r= − 0.44, P<0.001, respectively), maximal anaerobic power (r= − 0.23, P=0.009; r= − 0.47, P<0.001) and local muscular endurance (r= − 0.36, P<0.001; r= − 0.67, P<0.001). Conclusions The strong relationship between BMI and BF suggest the further use of BMI in adolescent soccer players. The findings confirmed previous observations in the general population about the negative effect of overweight and fatness on physical fitness. The prevalence of overweightness among participants was similar with what is observed in general population. Therefore, sport participation cannot guarantee physiological body mass and body composition, and it is necessary to prescribe exercise targeting body mass and fat control. PMID:23012636

  16. Legacy effects of short-term intentional weight loss on total body and thigh composition in overweight and obese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chmelo, E A; Beavers, D P; Lyles, M F; Marsh, A P; Nicklas, B J; Beavers, K M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Weight regain following intentional weight loss may negatively impact body composition, accelerating fat regain and increasing risk of physical disability. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term changes in whole body and thigh composition in obese older adults who intentionally lost and then partially regained weight to obese older adults who remained weight stable. Subjects/Methods: This pilot study analyzed total body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and thigh (computed tomography (CT)) composition data collected from 24 older (65–79 years) adults 18 months after completion of a 5-month randomized trial that compared resistance training alone (RT) with RT plus caloric restriction (RT+CR). Results: Mean loss of body mass in the RT+CR group (n=13) was 7.1±2.4 kg during the 5-month intervention (74% fat mass; 26% lean mass; all P<0.01), whereas RT (n=11) remained weight stable (+0.3±1.8 kg; P=0.64). Differential group effects were observed for all DXA and CT body composition measures at 5 months (all P⩽0.01); however, by 23 months, group differences persisted only for total body (RT+CR: 81.6±10.0 kg vs RT: 88.5±14.9 kg; P=0.03) and lean (RT+CR: 50.8±9.3 kg vs RT: 54.4±12.0 kg; P<0.01) mass. All RT+CR participants regained weight from 5 to 23 months (mean gain=+4.8±2.6 kg; P<0.01). Total fat mass and all thigh fat volumes increased, whereas thigh muscle volume decreased, during the postintervention follow-up in RT+CR (all P⩽0.01). In the RT group, body mass did not change from 5 to 23 months (−0.2±0.9 kg; P=0.87). Decreased total thigh volume, driven by the loss of thigh muscle volume, were the only postintervention body composition changes observed in the RT group (both P<0.04). Conclusions: Short-term body composition benefits of an RT+CR intervention may be lost within 18 months after completion of the intervention. PMID:27043417

  17. Antioxidant-chemoprevention diet ameliorates late effects of total-body irradiation and supplements radioprotection by MnSOD-plasmid liposome administration.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Michael W; Wang, Hong; Jones, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Tracy; Montesinos, Carlos A; Greenberger, Joel S

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Many acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which deplete antioxidant stores, leading to cellular apoptosis, stem cell depletion and accelerated aging. C57BL/6NHsd mice receiving intravenous MnSOD-PL prior to 9.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) show increased survival from the acute hematopoietic syndrome, and males demonstrated improved long-term survival (Epperly et al., Radiat. Res. 170, 437-444, 2008). We evaluated the effect of an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet compared to a regular diet on long-term survival in female mice. Twenty-four hours before the LD(50/30) dose of 9.5 Gy TBI, subgroups of mice were injected intravenously with MnSOD-PL (100 μg plasmid DNA in 100 μl of liposomes). Mice on either diet treated with MnSOD-PL showed decreased death after irradiation compared to irradiated mice on the house diet alone (P = 0.031 for the house diet plus MnSOD-PL or 0.015 for antioxidant diet plus MnSOD-PL). The mice on the antioxidant-chemoprevention diet alone or with MnSOD-PL that survived 30 days after irradiation had a significant increase in survival compared to mice on the regular diet (P = 0.04 or 0.01, respectively). In addition, mice treated with MnSOD-PL only and surviving 30 days after radiation also had increased survival compared to those on the regular diet alone (P = 0.02). Survivors of acute ionizing radiation damage have ameliorated life shortening if they are fed an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet. PMID:21466381

  18. Academic difficulties and occupational outcomes of adult survivors of childhood leukemia who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and fractionated total body irradiation conditioning.

    PubMed

    Freycon, Fernand; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Casagranda, Léonie; Frappaz, Didier; Mialou, Valérie; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Gomez, Frederic; Faure-Conter, Cécile; Plantaz, Dominique; Berger, Claire

    2014-04-01

    We studied academic and employment outcomes in 59 subjects who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (a-HSCT) with fractionated total body irradiation (fTBI) for childhood leukemia, comparing them with, first, the general French population and, second, findings in 19 who underwent a-HSCT with chemotherapy conditioning. We observed an average academic delay of 0.98 years among the 59 subjects by Year 10 of secondary school (French class Troisième), which was higher than the 0.34-year delay in the normal population (P < .001) but not significantly higher than the delay of 0.68 years in our cohort of 19 subjects who underwent a-HSCT with chemotherapy. The delay was dependent on age at leukemia diagnosis, but not at fTBI. This delay increased to 1.32 years by the final year of secondary school (Year 13, Terminale) for our 59 subjects versus 0.51 years in the normal population (P = .0002), but did not differ significantly from the 1.08-year delay observed in our cohort of 19 subjects. The number of students who received their secondary school diploma (Baccalaureate) was similar to the expected rate in the general French population for girls (observed/expected = 1.02) but significantly decreased for boys (O/E = 0.48; CI: 95%[0.3-0.7]). Compared with 13.8% of the general population, 15.3% of the cancer survivors received no diploma (P = NS). Reported job distribution did not differ significantly between our cohort of childhood cancer survivors and the general population except that more female survivors were employed in intermediate-level professional positions. Academic difficulties after fTBI are common and their early identification will facilitate educational and professional achievement. PMID:24087985

  19. Antioxidant-Chemoprevention Diet Ameliorates Late Effects of Total-Body Irradiation and Su