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Sample records for age tumor location

  1. Variable Solitary Fibrous Tumor Locations

    PubMed Central

    Zhanlong, Ma; Haibin, Shi; Xiangshan, Fang; Jiacheng, Song; Yicheng, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to describe the radiological imaging features of different solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) locations and present histopathological correlations. From 2007 to 2013, 20 cases of histologically confirmed that SFTs were retrospectively analyzed with computed tomography (CT; 9/20), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 5/20), or both CT and MRI (6/20). All 20 SFTs were well defined, lobular, soft-tissue masses, and 60% were located outside of the pleura. One pleural case invaded to the 10th thoracic vertebra and had lung metastases. Images revealed 11 heterogeneous lesions that exceeded 3.0 ± 0.203 cm along the greatest axis with patchy necrotic foci, and 9 homogeneous lesions <3.0 ± 0.203. Microscopically, all SFTs were proliferative spindle cells with varying degrees of fibrosis and interspersed vessel branching. Cells were strongly immunopositive for CD34. Here we review variable imaging findings of SFTs, which can be within the pleura as well as within other serosal tissues such as the meninges and postperitoneum. SFTs > 3.0 ± 0.203 cm along the greatest axis appeared to be mixed patterns, whereas SFTs < 3.0 ± 0.203 cm had isodense appearances. SFTs cells were CD34 immunopositive and surgery was a first-line treatment choice. PMID:27043668

  2. Relationship between Spinal Hemangioblastoma Location and Age

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Yamato, Yu; Kobayashi, Sho; Togawa, Daisuke; Banno, Tomohiro; Arima, Hideyuki; Oe, Shin; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To investigate the relationship between tumor location and clinical characteristics. Overview of Literature Hemangioblastoma is a rare disease that develops in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to evaluate hemangioblastomas. Hemangioblastoma's location is designated as intramedullary, intramedullary+extramedullary, or extramedullary by MRI. Methods We analyzed 11 patients who underwent surgery for spinal hemangioblastoma. Using T1 contrast axial MRI data, the cases were divided into three groups (intramedullary, intramedullary+extramedullary, and extramedullary). Patient demographics, MRI findings, and preoperative neurological status were analyzed and compared for each group. Results The average age of patients with intramedullary, intramedullary+extramedullary, and extramedullary hemangioblastoma was 34.0, 64.4, and 67.5 years, respectively. Patients in the intramedullary hemangioblastoma group were younger than the other groups. Extramedullary cases had a smaller syrinx compared to the other groups. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the hemangioblastoma tumor location and the subsequent diagnosis by an MRI. PMID:27114772

  3. Chondromyxoid fibroma: a rare tumor with an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Fotiadis, Elias; Akritopoulos, Panagiotis; Samoladas, Efthimios; Akritopoulou, Kiriaki; Kenanidis, Eustathios

    2008-04-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma constitutes a rare benign tumor of the bones, which has a potential of regional enlargement towards the local tissues. An adult male patient at the age of 28 suffered a fracture of the lateral malleolus due to an eccentric, lytic, lobular lesion in the epiphysis, during a basketball match. The differential diagnosis included the chondroblastoma, the aneurysmal cyst and the chondrosarcoma. After the removal of the tumor with curettage, both with curette and with a high-speed burr, osseous cement was placed in the cavity of the lesion. The biopsy of the tumor confirmed the diagnosis of the chondromyxoid fibroma. This is the first unusual location of the tumor in the national bibliography. The patient after 5 years post-operatively does not show either clinical or radiological signs of regional recurrence of the tumor.

  4. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  5. Skin tumors in aging Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Adeleh; Loya, Theresa; Lee, Jeffrey L

    2002-06-01

    We report 25 cases of skin neoplasm observed among 30 Long Evans rats serving as controls in a psychosocial behavioral study conducted in the Vivarium at Charles R. Drew University, Los Angeles, CA. The animals were 10 weeks old at the beginning of the study. All the skin tumors developed at 18 to 26 months of age and slowly enlarged over a period of 9 months. Multiple nodules occurred in 8 males and 6 females. None of the tumors regressed. The tumors were located around the hind leg and dorso-medial area and measured 1 to 2 cm. Physical examination revealed firm well demarcated dermal masses. Most of the tumor nodules were intradermal, and some had a central ulcerated or keratin-filled core. Microscopic examination performed on some of the tumors showed findings of classic Keratoacanthoma, whereas others showed histologic features suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. These findings indicate a high rate (83%) of spontaneous skin neoplasms among aging Long Evans rats. To our knowledge, such a high rate of skin neoplasms in aged rodents has not been described in the literature. Furthermore, further studies should be undertaken to confirm these findings and to assess whether these rodents might serve as a model for studying the alterations in the immune system with aging.

  6. Prognosis by tumor location in adults with intracranial ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Eli T; Aranda, Derick; Kim, Joseph M; Oh, Taemin; Parsa, Andrew T; Oh, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial ependymomas are rare tumors in adults. Thus, factors affecting prognosis are poorly understood. We performed a study to investigate whether tumor location is an important prognostic factor in adults who undergo surgery for intracranial ependymomas. PubMed was searched to identify studies that reported clinical outcomes in adult patients with intracranial ependymoma. Data were extracted for patient and tumor characteristics, extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Tumors were categorized as supratentorial or infratentorial and extraventricular or intraventricular. Presenting clinical features and tumor characteristics were tabulated. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses were performed to determine PFS and OS by tumor location. Extent of resection was also analyzed by tumor location. A total of 183 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Patients presented at a mean of 8.2months with a myriad of clinical features. The mean tumor size was 3.38 cm, and 19.3% of tumors were cystic. Supratentorial tumors were most commonly located in the frontal and parietal lobes, and infratentorial tumors in the fourth ventricle. Supratentorial tumors demonstrated significantly poorer PFS (p<0.001) and OS (p=0.003) than infratentorial tumors, despite a higher rate of gross total resection (GTR) for the supratentorial tumors (72.6% versus 42.1%). Extraventricular ependymomas displayed significantly poorer PFS than intraventricular ependymomas (p=0.009). In summary, supratentorial ependymomas have significantly poorer PFS and OS than their infratentorial counterparts, despite being more conducive to GTR, suggesting increased clinical aggressiveness. Extraventricular location is also associated with significantly poorer PFS than intraventricular location.

  7. A Rare Location of a Neuroendocrine Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Jonathan B; Zayat, Vania

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arising in the duodenum are rare neoplasms that are often classified as indolent and have a low potential to metastasize. Although rare, multiple reports cite an increasing incidence of duodenal NETs. Symptoms are usually nonspecific and the diagnosis is made via endoscopy. Endoscopic resection is the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis is usually favorable. We describe a case of a duodenal NET that presented with vague symptoms in order to increase the awareness of this rare but increasing in frequency entity. PMID:27774362

  8. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Liver: A Rare Tumor in a Rarer Location

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Biswajit; Gochhait, Debasis; Kaushal, Gourav; Barwad, Adarsh; Pottakkat, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm. Liver is a rare location of this tumor. We report a case of hepatic solitary fibrous tumor in a 56-year-old female, who presented with right upper abdominal pain. An extended right hepatectomy was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed solitary fibrous tumor of the liver. PMID:27746883

  9. Warthin tumor of the upper lip: an unusual location of a benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Almeida, Aroldo; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Tostes Oliveira, Denise

    2011-06-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

  10. Tumor location and detectability in mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, E.L.; Threatt, B.

    1982-10-01

    The adequacy of a film mammogram that does not visualize the retromammary space or ribs has concerned radiologists. The 79 prevalent cancers detected in the 10,000 self-referred woman at the University of Michigan Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project were analyzed for number of films required to detect the cancer, relationship of the cancer to the posterior edge of the film, number of occult lesions, tumor size, histologic type, sensitivity of detection method, and number of interval carcinomas. The mammograms were obtained using a dedicated mammographic machine and the upright position, with visualization of the anterior axillary fold on the mediolateral view. The ribs were not imaged. Of the 79 cancers, 76 were detectable on the mammogram. All were visualized on the mediolateral view, while three were not imaged on the craniocaudal view. Twelve percent of the cancers were within 1 cm of the posterior edge of the film. Only six ''interval'' carcinomas were found in the 10,000 patients within the year of the initial examinations; these women had dense P2 or DY mammographic parenchymal patterns. The detected cancers were smaller and had a significantly higher percentage of noninvasive cancers than in a symptomatic clinical population. Thus, properly exposed film mammograms using vigorous breast compression examine the breast adequately without visualizing the ribs.

  11. [Surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumors at different locations].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingjiang; Gao, Zhidong; Wang, Shan

    2015-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in gastrointestinal tract. At present, surgical and molecular targeted therapies are the main treatments. Operation is properly the only way of radical resection. The general principles of surgery are complete resection of the tumor, negative margins, as well as no intraoperative tumor rupture. The choice of surgical skills for GIST is obviously affected by different locations. This paper reviews current literatures combined with our experiences, and elaborates relevant contents in detail. PMID:25940165

  12. Locating and targeting moving tumors with radiation beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dieterich, Sonja; Cleary, Kevin; D'Souza, Warren; Murphy, Martin; Wong, Kenneth H.; Keall, Paul

    2008-12-15

    The current climate of rapid technological evolution is reflected in newer and better methods to modulate and direct radiation beams for cancer therapy. This Vision 20/20 paper focuses on part of this evolution, locating and targeting moving tumors. The two processes are somewhat independent and in principle different implementations of the locating and targeting processes can be interchanged. Advanced localization and targeting methods have an impact on treatment planning and also present new challenges for quality assurance (QA), that of verifying real-time delivery. Some methods to locate and target moving tumors with radiation beams are currently FDA approved for clinical use--and this availability and implementation will increase with time. Extensions of current capabilities will be the integration of higher order dimensionality, such as rotation and deformation in addition to translation, into the estimate of the patient pose and real-time reoptimization and adaption of delivery to the dynamically changing anatomy of cancer patients.

  13. Racial variation in colorectal polyp and tumor location.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Julia Gore; Morris, Arden M.; Thornton, John Daryl; Flowers, Christopher R.; McCashland, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer among whites have decreased, but they have remained unchanged among African Americans. To explain this disparity, we used the multicenter endoscopy database of the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative to compare the prevalence of proximal polyps and tumors among asymptomatic African Americans and whites undergoing routine screening colonoscopy. METHODS: African Americans and whites undergoing colonoscopy between January 1, 2002 and September 30, 2003 were considered for analysis. RESULTS: There were 145,175 index colonoscopy reports on unique patients. After applying exclusion criteria, 46,726 patients remained for analysis. Adjusting for age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists level, bowel preparation and endoscopic setting, African Americans were less likely to have polyps [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.84]. However, the odds of having proximal polyps was higher in African Americans (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.11-1.52) compared to whites. In regards to tumors, African Americans were more likely to have tumors (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.14-2.77) and more likely to have proximal tumors than whites (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.16-16.42). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for confounders, African Americans undergoing screening colonoscopy in multiple practice settings had higher odds of proximal polyps and tumors than whites, suggesting current colorectal cancer screening recommendations in African Americans should be expanded. PMID:17668638

  14. Analysis of bulimic symptomatology across age and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marisol; Hernandez, Annya; Clarke, Analesa; Joiner, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: a) to investigate the relationship between age and bulimic symptoms among a sample of women with a broad age range; and b) to investigate the relationship between geographic location within the United States and bulimic symptoms. The sample consisted of 1807 female health professionals from six different states (NC, VA, OH, LA, TN, and MO). Analyses revealed that there were no differences between the age groups on bulimic symptoms. There were differences across geographic locations on bulimic symptoms, such that the South Atlantic (NC, VA) states reported the most bulimic symptoms. Findings suggest that age may not serve as a protective factor against bulimic symptoms as some previous studies have suggested. These findings also provide further evidence on the influence of environment on bulimic symptoms among a sample of women.

  15. Location of brain tumor intersecting white matter tracts predicts patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Carle, Alexander B; Bluemel, Trevor; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Schloemer, Fallon; Shumate, Derrick; Connelly, Jennifer; Schmainda, Kathleen M; LaViolette, Peter S

    2015-11-01

    Brain tumor cells invade adjacent normal brain along white matter (WM) bundles of axons. We therefore hypothesized that the location of tumor intersecting WM tracts would be associated with differing survival. This study introduces a method, voxel-wise survival analysis (VSA), to determine the relationship between the location of brain tumor intersecting WM tracts and patient prognosis. 113 primary glioblastoma (GBM) patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. Patient specific tumor location, defined by contrast-enhancement, was combined with diffusion tensor imaging derived tractography to determine the location of axons intersecting tumor enhancement (AXITEs). VSA was then used to determine the relationship between the AXITE location and patient survival. Tumors intersecting the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), right and left cortico-spinal tract (CST), and corpus callosum (CC) were associated with decreased overall survival. Tumors intersecting the CST, body of the CC, right ATR, posterior IFOF, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus are associated with decreased progression-free survival (PFS), while tumors intersecting the right genu of the CC and anterior IFOF are associated with increased PFS. Patients with tumors intersecting the ATR, IFOF, CST, or CC had significantly improved survival prognosis if they were additionally treated with bevacizumab. This study demonstrates the usefulness of VSA by locating AXITEs associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. This information should be included in patient-physician conversations, therapeutic strategy, and clinical trial design.

  16. Location of brain tumor intersecting white matter tracts predicts patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Carle, Alexander B; Bluemel, Trevor; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Schloemer, Fallon; Shumate, Derrick; Connelly, Jennifer; Schmainda, Kathleen M; LaViolette, Peter S

    2015-11-01

    Brain tumor cells invade adjacent normal brain along white matter (WM) bundles of axons. We therefore hypothesized that the location of tumor intersecting WM tracts would be associated with differing survival. This study introduces a method, voxel-wise survival analysis (VSA), to determine the relationship between the location of brain tumor intersecting WM tracts and patient prognosis. 113 primary glioblastoma (GBM) patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. Patient specific tumor location, defined by contrast-enhancement, was combined with diffusion tensor imaging derived tractography to determine the location of axons intersecting tumor enhancement (AXITEs). VSA was then used to determine the relationship between the AXITE location and patient survival. Tumors intersecting the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), right and left cortico-spinal tract (CST), and corpus callosum (CC) were associated with decreased overall survival. Tumors intersecting the CST, body of the CC, right ATR, posterior IFOF, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus are associated with decreased progression-free survival (PFS), while tumors intersecting the right genu of the CC and anterior IFOF are associated with increased PFS. Patients with tumors intersecting the ATR, IFOF, CST, or CC had significantly improved survival prognosis if they were additionally treated with bevacizumab. This study demonstrates the usefulness of VSA by locating AXITEs associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. This information should be included in patient-physician conversations, therapeutic strategy, and clinical trial design. PMID:26376654

  17. Aging, Eye Movements, and Object-Location Memory

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shui-I; Meadmore, Katie L.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether “intentional” instructions could improve older adults' object memory and object-location memory about a scene by promoting object-oriented viewing. Eye movements of younger and older adults were recorded while they viewed a photograph depicting 12 household objects in a cubicle with or without the knowledge that memory about these objects and their locations would be tested (intentional vs. incidental encoding). After viewing, participants completed recognition and relocation tasks. Both instructions and age affected viewing behaviors and memory. Relative to incidental instructions, intentional instructions resulted in more accurate memory about object identity and object-location binding, but did not affect memory accuracy about overall positional configuration. More importantly, older adults exhibited more object-oriented viewing in the intentional than incidental condition, supporting the environmental support hypothesis. PMID:22428060

  18. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikant; Dhir, Manmath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:24174807

  19. Clinicopathologic study of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and differential diagnosis of papillary tumors located at the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Wang, Junmei; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Guilin; Fang, Jingyi; Yue, Shenglin; Xu, Li

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypes of 10 cases of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and compared them with other papillary tumors, including eight cases of choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), three cases of atypical choroid plexus papilloma (ACPP), two cases of papillary ependymoma (PE), three cases of papillary meningioma (PM) and two cases of metastatic carcinoma (MC) the at cerebellopontine angle (CPA). The age at onset of ELST ranged from 13 to 39 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The clinical presentations were primarily ear-related symptoms. The temporal bones showed extensive destruction. Histologically, the important characteristics for differential diagnosis with CPP, which is most similar to ELST, include the quantity of blood vessels, the nuclei location at apical surface of the papillary, clear cytoplasm cells sometimes with visible vacuoles, psammoma bodies and dura or bone invasion. Immunohistochemistry stains for AE1/AE3, cytokeratin CK)5/6, epithelial membrane antigen, CK8/18, S-100, and synaptophysin are helpful in diagnosis of ELST. In ELST, ultrastructure of uniform 2 μm vesicles in cytoplasm was seen, and gene analysis also showed missense mutation in exon 3. This study indicates that the above histological features combined with immunohistochemistry findings are important for making the correct diagnosis. Gene analysis should be used in patients without medical history to exclude von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:25944396

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the sella mimicking pituitary adenoma: an uncommon tumor in a rare location-a case report.

    PubMed

    Furlanetto, Tania Weber; Pinheiro, Cláudio Faria Pitta; Oppitz, Paulo Petry; de Alencastro, Luiz Carlos; Asa, Sylvia L

    2009-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is rarely located in the central nervous system, and sella turcica involvement was reported in only two patients. We report the case of a 28-year-old man with a SFT of the sella turcica mimicking a pituitary nonfunctioning macroadenoma. He presented with optic nerve compression caused by a heterogeneous tumor located in the sellar and suprasellar area. At surgery, the tumor was hard and infiltrated the sellar diaphragm, so that resection resulted in a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. His postoperative course was also complicated by complete central diabetes insipidus, hypopituitarism, and two episodes of meningitis. After surgical resection, the diagnosis of SFT was reached on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical studies. He was discharged after 49 days. Ten months after surgery, he was clinically well, and magnetic resonance images showed no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor. SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sellar and parasellar tumors.

  1. Early Esophageal Cancer Specific Survival Is Unaffected by Anatomical Location of Tumor: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Amin, Rajan N; Parikh, Samip J; Gangireddy, Venu Gopala Reddy; Kanneganti, Praveen; Talla, Swathi; Daram, Sumanth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately one-fifth of all esophageal cancer cases are defined as early esophageal cancer (EEC). Although endoscopic therapy (ET) has been shown to be equally effective as esophagectomy (EST) in patients with EEC, there is little information comparing the survival outcomes of the two therapies based on anatomical location. Methods. A population-based study was conducted and the data was obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Patients with EEC (i.e., stages Tis and T1a) and treated with either ET or EST were analyzed to compare EEC-related survival for three different locations of tumor. Results. The overall EEC-specific 1-year and 5-year mean (±SE) survival rates were 11.66 ± 0.05 and 52.80 ± 0.58 months, respectively. Tumors located in lower third had better 5-year survival compared to those located in middle third (83.50% versus 73.10%, p < 0.01). However, when adjusted for age, race, gender, marital status, grade, stage of tumor, histological type, and treatment modality, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. The EEC-specific 1-year or 5-year adjusted survival did not differ by anatomic location of the tumor. Therefore, ET might serve as a minimally invasive yet effective alternative to EST to treat EEC. PMID:27559535

  2. Early Esophageal Cancer Specific Survival Is Unaffected by Anatomical Location of Tumor: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Samip J.; Gangireddy, Venu Gopala Reddy; Kanneganti, Praveen; Talla, Swathi; Daram, Sumanth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately one-fifth of all esophageal cancer cases are defined as early esophageal cancer (EEC). Although endoscopic therapy (ET) has been shown to be equally effective as esophagectomy (EST) in patients with EEC, there is little information comparing the survival outcomes of the two therapies based on anatomical location. Methods. A population-based study was conducted and the data was obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Patients with EEC (i.e., stages Tis and T1a) and treated with either ET or EST were analyzed to compare EEC-related survival for three different locations of tumor. Results. The overall EEC-specific 1-year and 5-year mean (±SE) survival rates were 11.66 ± 0.05 and 52.80 ± 0.58 months, respectively. Tumors located in lower third had better 5-year survival compared to those located in middle third (83.50% versus 73.10%, p < 0.01). However, when adjusted for age, race, gender, marital status, grade, stage of tumor, histological type, and treatment modality, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. The EEC-specific 1-year or 5-year adjusted survival did not differ by anatomic location of the tumor. Therefore, ET might serve as a minimally invasive yet effective alternative to EST to treat EEC. PMID:27559535

  3. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-01-01

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690

  4. Primary Tumor Location as a Prognostic Factor in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loupakis, Fotios; Yang, Dongyun; Yau, Linda; Feng, Shibao; Cremolini, Chiara; Zhang, Wu; Maus, Martin K. H.; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Langer, Christiane; Scherer, Stefan J.; Müller, Thomas; Hurwitz, Herbert I.; Saltz, Leonard; Falcone, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background: We sought to clarify the prognostic impact of primary tumor location in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: We evaluated the association between tumor location and survival parameters in patients with previously untreated mCRC receiving first-line chemotherapy ± bevacizumab in three independent cohorts: a prospective pharmacogenetic study (PROVETTA) and two randomized phase III trials, AVF2107g and NO16966. Cancers proximal or distal of the splenic flexure were classified as right-sided or left-sided, respectively. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among evaluable patients in the PROVETTA (n = 200), AVF2107g (n = 559), and NO16966 (n = 1268) studies, 72.0%, 63.1%, and 73.7% had left-sided tumors, respectively. In PROVETTA, patients with left-sided tumors had superior OS (left-sided vs right-sided: hazard ratio [HR] = .44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .28 to .70, P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR = .52, 95% CI = .36 to .75, P < .001) outcomes. Multivariable analyses confirmed right-sided location as a negative prognostic variable, independent of mucinous histology and BRAF mutational status. Data from the AVF2107g (HR for OS = .55, 95% CI = .43 to .70) and NO16966 trials (HR for OS = .71, 95% CI = .62 to .82 both P < .001) also showed favorable outcomes in patients with left-sided tumors. In both randomized studies, the efficacy of bevacizumab was independent of tumor location. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that primary tumor location is an important prognostic factor in previously untreated mCRC. Given the consistency across an exploratory set and two confirmatory phase III studies, side of tumor origin should be considered for stratification in randomized trials. PMID:25713148

  5. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W.; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2012-10-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  6. Aging predisposes to acute inflammatory induced pathology after tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Chen, Mingyi; Mirsoian, Annie; Zamora, Anthony E.; Maverakis, Emanual; Wilkins, Danice E.C.; Alderson, Kory L.; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Redelman, Doug; Taub, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer commonly occurs in the elderly and immunotherapy (IT) is being increasingly applied to this population. However, the majority of preclinical mouse tumor models assessing potential efficacy and toxicities of therapeutics use young mice. We assessed the impact of age on responses to systemic immune stimulation. In contrast to young mice, systemic cancer IT regimens or LPS given to aged mice resulted in rapid and lethal toxicities affecting multiple organs correlating with heightened proinflammatory cytokines systemically and within the parenchymal tissues. This inflammatory response and increased morbidity with age was independent of T cells or NK cells. However, prior in vivo depletion of macrophages in aged mice resulted in lesser cytokine levels, increased survival, and decreased liver histopathology. Furthermore, macrophages from aged mice and normal human elderly volunteers displayed heightened TNF and IL-6 production upon in vitro stimulation. Treatment of both TNF knockout mice and in vivo TNF blockade in aged mice resulted in significant increases in survival and lessened pathology. Importantly, TNF blockade in tumor-bearing, aged mice receiving IT displayed significant anti-tumor effects. These data demonstrate the critical role of macrophages in the age-associated hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses to systemic immunostimulation and underscore the importance of performing preclinical assessments in aged mice. PMID:24081947

  7. Computerized method for estimation of the location of a lung tumor on EPID cine images without implanted markers in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, H.; Egashira, Y.; Shioyama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Yoshidome, S.; Anai, S.; Nomoto, S.; Honda, H.; Toyofuku, F.; Higashida, Y.; Onizuka, Y.; Terashima, H.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for estimation of the location of a lung tumor in cine images on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) without implanted markers during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Each tumor region was segmented in the first EPID cine image, i.e., reference portal image, based on a multiple-gray level thresholding technique and a region growing technique, and then the image including the tumor region was cropped as a 'tumor template' image. The tumor location was determined as the position in which the tumor template image took the maximum cross-correlation value within each consecutive portal image, which was acquired in cine mode on the EPID in treatment. EPID images with 512 × 384 pixels (pixel size: 0.56 mm) were acquired at a sampling rate of 0.5 frame s-1 by using energies of 4, 6 or 10 MV on linear accelerators. We applied our proposed method to EPID cine images (226 frames) of 12 clinical cases (ages: 51-83, mean: 72) with a non-small cell lung cancer. As a result, the average location error between tumor points obtained by our method and the manual method was 1.47 ± 0.60 mm. This preliminary study suggests that our method based on the tumor template matching technique might be feasible for tracking the location of a lung tumor without implanted markers in SBRT.

  8. The effect of tumor location and respiratory function on tumor movement estimated by real-time tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system

    SciTech Connect

    Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki . E-mail: hshirato@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Fujino, Masaharu; Suzuki, Keishiro; Yamazaki, Kouichi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: The effects of tumor location and pulmonary function on the motion of fiducial markers near lung tumors were evaluated to deduce simple guidelines for determining the internal margin in radiotherapy without fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Pooled data collected by a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system on 42 markers in 39 patients were analyzed. The pulmonary functions of all patients were assessed before radiotherapy. Using chest X-ray film, the position of the marker was expressed relative to the geometry of the unilateral lung. Posterior location meant the area of the posterior half of the lung in a lateral chest X-ray film, and caudal location meant the caudal half of the chest X-ray film; these categories were determined by measuring the distance between the marker and anatomic landmarks, including the apex, costophrenic angle, midline of spinal canal, lateral, anterior, and posterior boundary of the lung. Results: Before the radiotherapy, 18 patients had obstructive respiratory dysfunction (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity [FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC] <70), 5 patients had constrictive dysfunction (percent vital capacity [%VC] <80), and 3 had mixed dysfunction. Means of FEV{sub 1.0}/FVC and %VC were 97.0% and 66.5%, respectively. Median tumor movements in the x (left-right), y (anteroposterior), and z (craniocaudal) directions were 1.1 mm, 2.3 mm, and 5.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between respiratory function and magnitude of marker movement in any direction. Median marker movement in the z direction was 2.6 mm for the cranial location and 11.8 mm for the caudal location, respectively (p < 0.001). Median movement in the z direction was 11.8 mm for posterior location and 3.4 mm for anterior location, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Simple measurement of the relative location on plain chest X-ray film was related, but respiratory function test was not related, to the craniocaudal

  9. [INVITED] Time reversal optical tomography: Detecting and locating tumors in an ex vivo model human breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Alrubaiee, Mohammad; Gayen, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Time reversal optical tomography (TROT), a recently introduced diffuse optical imaging approach, is used to detect, locate, and obtain cross-section images of tumors inside a "model human breast." The model cancerous breast is assembled as a semi-cylindrical slab of uniform thickness using ex vivo human breast tissues with two pieces of tumors embedded in it. The experimental arrangement used a 750-nm light beam from a Ti:sapphire laser to illuminate an end face (source plane) of the sample in a multi-source probing scheme. A multi-detector signal acquisition scheme measured transmitted light intensity distribution on the other end face (detector plane). The perturbations in light intensity distribution in the detector plane were analyzed using TROT to obtain locations of the tumor pieces in three dimensions and estimate their cross sections. The estimated locations and dimensions of targets are in good agreement with the results of a corroborating magnetic resonance imaging experiment.

  10. Optimal surface marker locations for tumor motion estimation in lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Jiang Graves, Yan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-12-01

    Using fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to predict the tumor location is a widely used approach in lung cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to propose an algorithm that automatically identifies a sparse set of locations on the patient’s surface with the optimal prediction power for the tumor motion. In our algorithm, it is assumed that there is a linear relationship between the surface marker motion and the tumor motion. The sparse selection of markers on the external surface and the linear relationship between the marker motion and the internal tumor motion are represented by a prediction matrix. Such a matrix is determined by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function contains a sparsity term that penalizes the number of markers chosen on the patient’s surface. Bregman iteration is used to solve the proposed optimization problem. The performance of our algorithm has been tested on realistic clinical data of four lung cancer patients. Thoracic 4DCT scans with ten phases are used for the study. On a reference phase, a grid of points are casted on the patient’s surfaces (except for the patient’s back) and propagated to other phases via deformable image registration of the corresponding CT images. Tumor locations at each phase are also manually delineated. We use nine out of ten phases of the 4DCT images to identify a small group of surface markers that are mostly correlated with the motion of the tumor and find the prediction matrix at the same time. The tenth phase is then used to test the accuracy of the prediction. It is found that on average six to seven surface markers are necessary to predict tumor locations with a 3D error of about 1 mm. It is also found that the selected marker locations lie closely in those areas where surface point motion has a large amplitude and a high correlation with the tumor motion. Our method can automatically select sparse locations on the patient’s external surface and

  11. Extrarenal teratoid Wilms' tumor: two cases in unusual locations, one associated with elevated serum AFP.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Seon; Kim, In Koo; Kim, Yong Man; Khang, Shin-Kwang; Kim, Kyu-Rae; Lee, Yonghee

    2010-01-01

    Teratoid Wilms' tumor is an unusual morphological entity characterized by a classic triphasic malignancy with predominantly heterologous tissue. The authors describe two cases of teratoid Wilms' tumor with an extrarenal site: one in a 13-year-old girl with vaginal spotting (patient 1) and another in a 1-day-old girl with a sacrococcygeal mass (patient 2). The tumors were located in the vagina and coccyx, respectively. Under the initial clinical diagnosis of sarcoma botryoides in patient 1 and teratoma in patient 2, the masses were removed. Microscopically, both tumors were composed of typical triphasic Wilms' tumor tissue with primitive cartilage and skeletal muscle, and squamous and columnar mucinous epithelia. The patient with sacrococcygeal mass (patient 2) had an elevated serum AFP level. The patients were given chemotherapy and have now remained disease free for 7 years 1 month, and 2 years 5 months after surgery, respectively. Familiarity with this rare variant of Wilms' tumor might be important in arriving at a correct diagnosis.

  12. Atypical and malignant solitary fibrous tumors in extrathoracic locations: evidence of their comparability to intra-thoracic tumors.

    PubMed

    Vallat-Decouvelaere, A V; Dry, S M; Fletcher, C D

    1998-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), first described as a pleural lesion, has been reported at numerous extrathoracic sites over the past 10 years. About 10% to 15% of intrathoracic SFTs are histologically or clinically malignant, but such cases have very rarely been described at other locations. Among 92 cases of extrathoracic SFT in our files, we identified 10 that either had recurred (2 cases) or had a least one atypical histologic feature (8 cases). The ten tumors occurred in five men and five women, 32 to 81 years old (median 56), measured 1.9 cm to 20 cm (median 11.5 cm), and were located in the abdomen/pelvis (4 cases), retroperitoneum (3 cases), groin, trunk, and upper arm. Nuclear atypia (8 cases), markedly increased cellularity (6 cases), areas of necrosis (4 cases), and greater than 4 mitoses/10 HPFs (3 cases) were seen in addition to the typical histologic features of SFT. Six tumors had at least two of these atypical histologic features. Nine cases were positive for CD34, six were positive for O-13, and one was focally positive for smooth muscle actin. Eight were excised completely. Subsequent follow-up revealed tumor relapse in eight cases (follow up 6-180 months, median 24). Four patients had local recurrence at 12 to 168 months. Distant metastasis developed at 1 to 6 years in five cases with spread to lung (2 cases), liver (4 cases), and bone. Metastasis or local recurrence developed within 2 years in five patients. To date, no patient has died of their tumor. These findings demonstrate that nuclear atypia, hypercellularity, greater than 4 mitoses/10 HPFs, and necrosis may be seen in up to 10% of extrathoracic SFTs, and are associated with, but are not by themselves predictive of, aggressive clinical behavior. In addition, our findings confirm that the behavior of extrathoracic SFTs is unpredictable, entirely comparable to that of their better known pleural counterparts, and confirm that patients with SFTs in all locations require careful, long-term follow

  13. Clinical Relevance of the Tumor Location-Modified Lauren Classification System of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang Kyu; Park, Young Suk; Jung, Do Hyun; Son, Sang Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Lauren classification system is a very commonly used pathological classification system of gastric adenocarcinoma. A recent study proposed that the Lauren classification should be modified to include the anatomical location of the tumor. The resulting three types were found to differ significantly in terms of genomic expression profiles. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the modified Lauren classification (MLC). Materials and Methods A total of 677 consecutive patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from January 2005 to December 2007 for histologically confirmed gastric cancer were included. The patients were divided according to the MLC into proximal non-diffuse (PND), diffuse (D), and distal non-diffuse (DND) type. The groups were compared in terms of clinical features and overall survival. Multivariate analysis served to assess the association between MLC and prognosis. Results Of the 677 patients, 48, 358, and 271 had PND, D, and DND, respectively. Their 5-year overall survival rates were 77.1%, 77.7%, and 90.4%. Compared to D and PND, DND was associated with significantly better overall survival (both P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age, differentiation, lympho-vascular invasion, T and N stage, but not MLC, were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Multivariate analysis of early gastric cancer patients showed that MLC was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (odds ratio, 5.946; 95% confidence intervals, 1.524~23.197; P=0.010). Conclusions MLC is prognostic for survival in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, in early gastric cancer. DND was associated with an improved prognosis compared to PND or D. PMID:26468416

  14. Interfractional Reproducibility of Lung Tumor Location Using Various Methods of Respiratory Motion Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Starkschall, George; Balter, Peter; Britton, Keith; McAleer, Mary F.; Cox, James D.; Mohan, Radhe

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To determine interfractional reproducibility of the location of lung tumors using respiratory motion mitigation. Methods and Materials: Free-breathing four-dimensional computed tomography (CT) data sets and CT data sets during breath hold were acquired weekly for 17 patients undergoing treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer. Distances between the center of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and a reproducible bony reference point under conditions of breath hold on end inspiration (EI) and end expiration (EE) and during free breathing on the 0% phase (corresponding to EI) and 50% phase (corresponding to EE) were analyzed for interfractional reproducibility. Systematic uncertainties in tumor location were determined as the difference in distance between the GTV center on the first CT data set and the mean location of GTV centers on the subsequent data sets. Random uncertainties in tumor location were determined as the standard deviation of the distances between the GTV centers and the bony reference points. Margins to account for systematic and random interfractional variations were estimated based on these uncertainties. Results: Mean values of interfractional setup uncertainties were as follows: systematic uncertainties-EI, 0.3 cm; EE, 0.2 cm; 0% phase, 0.3 cm; and 50% phase, 0.3 cm; and random uncertainties-EI, 0.3 cm; EE, 0.3 cm; 0% phase, 0.3 cm; and 50% phase, 0.3 cm. There does not appear to be any correlation between uncertainties and GTV size, but there appears to be a weak positive correlation between uncertainties and the magnitude of GTV excursion. Conclusions: Voluntary breath hold and gating on either EI or EE appear to be equally reliable methods of ensuring the reproducibility of lung tumor position. We recommend setup margins of 0.3 cm if using cone-beam CT or kilovoltage X-ray with fiducials and aligning directly to the tumor and 0.8 cm when aligning to a nearby bony surrogate using cone-beam CT or kilovoltage X-ray.

  15. Recovering 3D tumor locations from 2D bioluminescence images and registration with CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Menon, Lata G.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel and efficient algorithm for reconstructing the 3D locations of tumor sites from a set of 2D bioluminescence images which are taken by a same camera but after continually rotating the object by a small angle. Our approach requires a much simpler set up than those using multiple cameras, and the algorithmic steps in our framework are efficient and robust enough to facilitate its use in analyzing the repeated imaging of a same animal transplanted with gene marked cells. In order to visualize in 3D the structure of the tumor, we also co-register the BLI-reconstructed crude structure with detailed anatomical structure extracted from high-resolution microCT on a single platform. We present our method using both phantom studies and real studies on small animals.

  16. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  17. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  18. Aging, tumor suppression and cancer: High-wire act!

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Judith

    2004-08-15

    Evolutionary theory holds that aging is a consequence of the declining force of natural selection with age. We discuss here the evidence that among the causes of aging in complex multicellular organisms, such as mammals, is the antagonistically pleiotropic effects of the cellular responses that protect the organism from cancer. Cancer is relatively rare in young mammals, owing in large measure to the activity of tumor suppressor mechanisms. These mechanisms either protect the genome from damage and/or mutations, or they elicit cellular responses--apoptosis or senescence--that eliminate or prevent the proliferation of somatic cells at risk for neoplastic transformation.We focus here on the senescence response, reviewing its causes, regulation and effects. In addition, we describe recent data that support the idea that both senescence and apoptosis may indeed be the double-edged swords predicted by the evolutionary hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy--protecting organisms from cancer early in life, but promoting aging phenotypes, including late life cancer, in older organisms.

  19. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  20. SU-E-J-107: The Impact of the Tumor Location to Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Y; Tachibana, H; Kadoya, N; Jingu, K; Kitamura, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For four-dimensional planning and adaptive radiotherapy, the accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is essential. We evaluated the accuracy of an in-house program with the free-downloadable DIR software library package (NiftyReg) and two commercially available DIR software programs (MIM Maestro and Velocity AI) in lung SBRT cancer patients. In addition to it, the relationship between the tumor location and the accuracy of the DIRs was investigated. Methods: The free-form deformation was implemented in the in-house program and the MIM. The Velocity was based on the B-spline algorithm. The accuracy of the three programs was evaluated in comparison for the structures on 4DCT image datasets between at the peak-inhale and at the peak-exhale. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and normalized DSC (NDSC) were measured for the gross tumor volumes from 19 lung SBRT patients. Results: The DSC measurement showed the median values of the DSC were 0.885, 0.872 and 0.798 for the In-house program, the MIM and the Velocity, respectively. The Velocity showed significant difference compared to the others. The median NDSC values were 1.027, 1.005 and 0.946 for the In-house, the MIM and the Velocity, respectively. This indicated that the spatial overlap agreement between the reference and the deformed structure for the in-house and MIM was comparable with the accuracy within 1mm uncertainty. There was larger discrepancy within 1–2mm uncertainty for the Velocity. The In-house and the MIM showed the higher NDSC values than the median values when the GTV was not attached to the chest wall and diaphragm(p < 0.05). However, there is no relationship between the accuracy and the tumor location in the Velocity. Conclusion: The difference of the DIR program would affect different accuracy and the accuracy may be reduced when the tumor is located or attached to chest wall or diaphragm.

  1. Preoperative radiotherapy in gastric cancer: CTV definition for conformal therapy according to tumor location.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Francesco; Valentini, Vincenzo; Pacelli, Fabio; D'Ugo, Domenico; Mantini, Giovanna; Balducci, Mario; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Nori, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    In the past radiation oncologists had not a major interest in the treatment of gastric cancer, but the positive outcomes of the Intergroup Study (INT-0116) supported the role of locoregional control in promoting better survival. To reduce the toxicity and the risk of residual disease in locally advanced tumors after surgery,a preoperative approach was tentatively considered. The aim of this manuscript is to define the location of nodal area at risk for cancer involvement according to the tumor location (cardias, corpus, antrum) on CT images to help the radiotherapist in the contouring process of the CTV for preoperative conformal treatment of gastric cancer. The analysis of both the percentage of nodal involvement detected at surgery and of the site of recurrence after radical surgery can direct to the areas to be considered at risk with its contouring on CT. Preoperative conformal-three dimensional radiotherapy of gastric cancer requires clear and well defined contouring guide-lines to allow the evaluation of clinical outcomes and the analysis if the area at risk for recurrence has changed after the preoperative approach. PMID:15018320

  2. Suprasellar Mature Cystic Teratoma: An Unusual Location for an Uncommon Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Raed B.; Sweiss, Fadi B.; Dalvin, Lauren; Siddiqi, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors are uncommon and account for only 0.3–3.4% of all intracranial tumors. Teratomas are a subset of these neoplasms, and their finding in brain structures is exceptionally rare, and occurrence within the skull base is quite novel. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented with vision changes, incontinence, ataxia, and altered mental status of 1 week's duration. Imaging revealed a large intrasellar mass with suprasellar extension, involvement of the ventricular system, and marked hydrocephalus with the enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy/transsylvian approach for resection of the mass. Postoperative histological examination of the resected mass was confirmatory for a mature cystic teratoma. This was followed by radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant radiotherapy. At the most recent followup, approximately 4 years later, the patient is doing well with improved vision since the operation. This report highlights our experience with a teratoma in a very unusual location, and we review the relevant literature. PMID:24198987

  3. Surface chondromyxoid fibroma of the distal ulna: unusual tumor, site, and age.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Klein, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilage congener tumor comprising less than 1 % of primary bone tumors. Although the age range is wide, it is most commonly seen in the second and third decades. The most frequent location of CMF is in the long tubular bones of the lower extremities, particularly the proximal tibia and distal femur. Although the majority of chondromyxoid fibromas present as intramedullary tumors, a subgroup of chondromyxoid fibromas arising as surface lesions of the bone has recently been described. These are associated with an older mean age and an increased incidence of matrix calcifications. Chondromyxoid fibromas are rare in the distal ulna. We report a CMF presenting as a surface lesion of the distal metaphysis of the left ulna in a 41-year-old woman. We reviewed the literature on chondromyxoid fibromas involving the ulna and found that out of 22 cases, 1 was in the distal ulna, 13 in the proximal ulna, and in the remaining 8 the ulnar sites were unspecified. No case of chondromyxoid fibroma in the published literature had been designated as a surface lesion. Our own unpublished data include 70 chondromyxoid fibromas, 4 of which are in the ulna. Two of these are in the distal portion. PMID:24057439

  4. Effect of host age on the transplantation, growth, and radiation response of EMT6 tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, S.

    1981-02-01

    The characteristics of EMT6 tumors in young adult and aged BALB/c KaRw mice were compared. The number of tumor cells implanted s.c. necessary to cause tumors in 50% of the injection sites was lower in aging than in young adult mice. The latent period of intradermally implanted tumors was shorter in aging mice than in young animals; however, the growth curves of established tumors were similar. The number and appearance of lung colonies after injection of cells i.v. and the pattern of spontaneous metastases were similar in young and aged animals. Radiation dose-response curves for the cells of tumors in young and aging mice were different and suggested that the proportion of hypoxic cells was higher in tumors on aging animals. These findings suggest that both immunological and nonimmunological tumor-host interactions differ in young and aged animals and that such factors may influence the natural history of the tumor and the response of the tumor to treatment.

  5. Effects of Aging and Anatomic Location on Gene Expression in Human Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Fields, Mark A.; Hoshino, Risa; Priore, Lucian V. Del

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of age and topographic location on gene expression in human neural retina. Methods: Macular and peripheral neural retina RNA was isolated from human donor eyes for DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Results: Total RNA integrity from human donors was preserved. Hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrates that the gene expression profiles of young, old, macula, and peripheral retina cluster into four distinct groups. Genes which are highly expressed in macular, peripheral, young, or old retina were identified, including inhibitors of Wnt Signaling Pathway (DKK1, FZD10, and SFRP2) which are preferably expressed in the periphery. Conclusion: The transcriptome of the human retina is affected by age and topographic location. Wnt pathway inhibitors in the periphery may maintain peripheral retinal cells in an undifferentiated state. Understanding the effects of age and topographic location on gene expression may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions for age-related eye diseases. PMID:22666212

  6. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25528066

  7. Effects of Healthy Ageing on Precision and Binding of Object Location in Visual Short Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19–83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25528066

  8. The age profile of the location decision of Australian general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunzhou

    2015-10-01

    The unbalanced distribution of general practitioners (GPs) across geographic areas has been acknowledged as a problem in many countries around the world. Quantitative information regarding GPs' location decision over their lifecycle is essential in developing effective initiatives to address the unbalanced distribution and retention of GPs. This paper describes the age profile of GPs' location decision and relates it to individual characteristics. I use the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey of doctors (2008-2012) with a sample size of 5810 male and 5797 female GPs. I employ a mixed logit model to estimate GPs' location decision. The results suggest that younger GPs are more prepared to go to rural and remote areas but they tend to migrate back to urban areas as they age. Coming from a rural background increases the likelihood of choosing rural areas, but with heterogeneity: While male GPs from a rural background tend to stay in rural and remote areas regardless of age, female GPs from a rural background are willing to migrate to urban areas as they age. GPs who obtain basic medical degrees overseas are likely to move back to urban areas in the later stage of their careers. Completing a basic medical degree at an older age increases the likelihood of working outside major cities. I also examine factors influencing GPs' location transition patterns and the results further confirm the association of individual characteristics and GPs' location-age profile. The findings can help target GPs who are most likely to practise and remain in rural and remote areas, and tailor policy initiatives to address the undesirable distribution and movement of GPs according to the identified heterogeneous age profile of their location decisions. PMID:26310594

  9. Children's one-hand catching as a function of age, gender, and ball location.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Moore, J B; Steele, K H

    1992-12-01

    A sizable body of literature exists on the product characteristics and developmental sequence for two-hand catching, but to date there is no description of the developmental characteristics of simple one-hand catching in young children. This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and ball location on children's one-hand catching. Boys and girls (N = 240) ranging in age from 5 to 12 years attempted to catch a total of 24 tennis balls, tossed from a 9-ft distance. Tosses were directed to four locations: (a) Waist, (b) Shoulder, (c) Above-the-Head, and (d) Out-to-the-Side. Descriptive data consisted of the percentage of successful catches at each ball location, and the hand-arm orientation selected by the child as a function of ball location. Results revealed that catching performance improved with age, boys caught more balls than girls, ball location influenced catching success, and, in general, the location of the toss constrained the child's selection of an appropriate hand-arm orientation. With the possible exception of the Shoulder location for girls, even very young children are sensitive to the perceptual aspects of the toss and respond with an appropriate orientation. PMID:1439158

  10. Children's one-hand catching as a function of age, gender, and ball location.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Moore, J B; Steele, K H

    1992-12-01

    A sizable body of literature exists on the product characteristics and developmental sequence for two-hand catching, but to date there is no description of the developmental characteristics of simple one-hand catching in young children. This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and ball location on children's one-hand catching. Boys and girls (N = 240) ranging in age from 5 to 12 years attempted to catch a total of 24 tennis balls, tossed from a 9-ft distance. Tosses were directed to four locations: (a) Waist, (b) Shoulder, (c) Above-the-Head, and (d) Out-to-the-Side. Descriptive data consisted of the percentage of successful catches at each ball location, and the hand-arm orientation selected by the child as a function of ball location. Results revealed that catching performance improved with age, boys caught more balls than girls, ball location influenced catching success, and, in general, the location of the toss constrained the child's selection of an appropriate hand-arm orientation. With the possible exception of the Shoulder location for girls, even very young children are sensitive to the perceptual aspects of the toss and respond with an appropriate orientation.

  11. Caveolin-1 and Accelerated Host Aging in the Breast Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Isabelle; Camacho, Jeanette; Titchen, Kanani; Gonzales, Donna M.; Quann, Kevin; Bryant, Kelly G.; Molchansky, Alexander; Milliman, Janet N.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Sotgia, Federica; Jasmin, Jean-François; Schwarting, Roland; Pestell, Richard G.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing chronological age is the most significant risk factor for human cancer development. To examine the effects of host aging on mammary tumor growth, we used caveolin (Cav)-1 knockout mice as a bona fide model of accelerated host aging. Mammary tumor cells were orthotopically implanted into these distinct microenvironments (Cav-1+/+ versus Cav-1−/− age-matched young female mice). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1–deficient tumor microenvironment have an increased stromal content, with vimentin-positive myofibroblasts (a marker associated with oxidative stress) that are also positive for S6-kinase activation (a marker associated with aging). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1–deficient tumor microenvironment were more than fivefold larger than tumors grown in a wild-type microenvironment. Thus, a Cav-1–deficient tumor microenvironment provides a fertile soil for breast cancer tumor growth. Interestingly, the mammary tumor-promoting effects of a Cav-1–deficient microenvironment were estrogen and progesterone independent. In this context, chemoprevention was achieved by using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor and anti-aging drug, rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin treatment of mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1–deficient microenvironment significantly inhibited their tumor growth, decreased their stromal content, and reduced the levels of both vimentin and phospho-S6 in Cav-1–deficient cancer-associated fibroblasts. Since stromal loss of Cav-1 is a marker of a lethal tumor microenvironment in breast tumors, these high-risk patients might benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin or other rapamycin-related compounds (rapalogues). PMID:22698676

  12. Advanced 3D image processing techniques for liver and hepatic tumor location and volumetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemouny, Stephane; Joyeux, Henri; Masson, Bruno; Borne, Frederic; Jaeger, Marc; Monga, Olivier

    1999-05-01

    To assist radiologists and physicians in diagnosing, and in treatment planning and evaluating in liver oncology, we have developed a fast and accurate segmentation of the liver and its lesions within CT-scan exams. The first step of our method is to reduce spatial resolution of CT images. This will have two effects: obtain near isotropic 3D data space and drastically decrease computational time for further processing. On a second step a 3D non-linear `edge- preserving' smoothing filtering is performed throughout the entire exam. On a third step the 3D regions coming out from the second step are homogeneous enough to allow a quite simple segmentation process, based on morphological operations, under supervisor control, ending up with accurate 3D regions of interest (ROI) of the liver and all the hepatic tumors. On a fourth step the ROIs are eventually set back into the original images, features like volume and location are immediately computed and displayed. The segmentation we get is as precise as a manual one but is much faster.

  13. Advantages of a dual-color fluorescence-tracing glioma orthotopic implantation model: Detecting tumor location, angiogenesis, cellular fusion and the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YUNTIAN; ZHANG, QUANBIN; ZHANG, JINSHI; LU, ZHAOHUI; WANG, AIDONG; FEI, XIFENG; DAI, XINGLIANG; WU, JINDING; WANG, ZHIMIN; ZHAO, YAODONG; TIAN, YE; DONG, JUN; LAN, QING; HUANG, QIANG

    2015-01-01

    Various organs of the body have distinct microenvironments with diverse biological characteristics that can influence the growth of tumors within them. However, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between tumor and host cells are currently not well understood. In the present study, a dual-color fluorescence-tracing glioma orthotopic implantation model was developed, in which C6 rat glioma cells labeled with the red fluorescent dye CM-Dil, and SU3 human glioma cells stably expressing red fluorescence protein, were inoculated into the right caudate nucleus of transgenic female C57BL/6 nude mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein. The dual-color tracing with whole-body in vivo fluorescence imaging of xenografts was performed using a live imaging system. Frozen sections of the transplanted tumor were prepared for histological analyses, in order to detect the presence of invading tumor cells, blood vessels and cellular fusion. Dual-color images were able to distinguish between red tumor cells and green host cells. The results of the present study suggested that a dual-color fluorescence-tracing glioma orthotopic implantation model may be convenient for detecting tumor location, angiogenesis, cellular fusion, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26668594

  14. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  15. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  16. Age, Sex, and Verbal Abilities Affect Location of Linguistic Connectivity in Ventral Visual Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Douglas D.; Minas, Taylor; Bolger, Donald J.; Booth, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the "strength" of connectivity between regions can vary depending upon the cognitive demands of a task. In this study, the "location" of task-dependent connectivity from the primary visual cortex (V1) was examined in 43 children (ages 9-15) performing visual tasks; connectivity maxima were identified for a visual…

  17. Germ cell tumor located in the midline of the anterior neck.

    PubMed

    Pirdopska, Tatyana; Terziev, Ivan; Hristova, Sv; Mladenovsky, W; Petkov, R

    2011-01-01

    Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  18. Angiolipoma of the Orbit: A Rare Tumor in an Unusual Location.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Bryant P; Meyer, Dale R

    2015-01-01

    Despite their relatively frequent occurrence on the trunk and extremities, lipomas rarely present in the orbit. Rarer still are variants of lipoma such as fibrolipoma, myxoid lipoma, and angiolipoma. The authors report a 66-year-old woman who presented with a large, slowly growing tumor of the forehead and orbit. The case presentation conforms to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and is HIPAA compliant. Clinical and radiographic evidence suggested a lipomatous type of tumor, and excisional biopsy revealed adipose proliferation with numerous small vessels and fibrin thrombi consistent with angiolipoma. The tumor was completely excised without ophthalmic sequelae or recurrence in 6 months of follow up. To the authors' knowledge, this tumor represents only the second reported case of this type of highly vascularized lipomatous lesion within the orbit. This case is a novel entity in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors and demonstrates the value of total excision in such cases.

  19. Atherosclerosis and Vascular Aging as Modifiers of Tumor Progression, Angiogenesis, and Responsiveness to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Halka; St. Croix, Brad; Milsom, Chloe; May, Linda; Guo, Qing; Yu, Joanne L.; Klement, Petr; Rak, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    It is rarely considered that age-related common vascular co-morbidities may affect therapeutic outcomes of antiangiogenic therapy in cancer. Indeed, the accepted model of human disease consists of 4- to 8-week-old (young) tumor-bearing, but otherwise healthy, experimental mice, yet human cancers are diagnosed and treated in later decades of life when atherosclerosis and vascular diseases are highly prevalent. Here we present evidence that tumor growth and angiogenesis are profoundly altered in mice affected by natural aging and with genetically induced atherosclerosis (in ApoE−/− mice). Thus, transplantable tumors (Lewis lung carcinoma and B16F1) grew at higher rates in young (4 to 8 weeks old) ApoE+/+ and ApoE−/− nonatherosclerotic syngeneic recipients than in their old (12 to 18 months old) or atherosclerotic (old/ApoE−/−) counterparts. These age-related changes were paralleled by reduced tumor vascularity, lower expression of tumor endothelial marker 1, increased acute tumor hypoxia, depletion of circulating CD45−/VEGFR+ cells, and impaired endothelial sprouting ex vivo. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide exerted antimitotic effects on tumors in young hosts, but this effect was reduced in atherosclerotic mice. Collectively, our results suggest that vascular aging and disease may affect tumor progression, angiogenesis, and responses to therapy. PMID:17823292

  20. [Relation between location of elements in periodic table and affinity for the malignant tumor (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Hisada, K; Ando, I

    1977-10-01

    Affinity of many inorganic compounds for the malignant tumor was examined, using the rats which were subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. And the relations between the uptake rate into the malignant tumor and in vitro binding power to the protein were investigated in these compounds. In these experiments, the bipositive ions and anions had not affinity for the tumor tissue with a few exceptions. On the other hand, Hg, Au and Bi, which have strong binding power to the protein, showed high uptake rate into the malignant tumor. As Hg++, Au+ and Bi+++ are soft acids according to classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these elements would bind strongly to soft base (R-SH, R-S-) present in the tumor tissue. In many hard acids (according to classification of Lewis acids), the uptake rate into the tumor was shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. It is presumed that the chemical bond of these hard acids in the tumor tissue is ionic bond to hard base (R-COO-, R-PO3(2-), R-SO3-, R-NH2).

  1. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  2. Age-related location of manifest accessory pathway and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Huttin, Olivier; Olivier, Arnaud; Sellal, Jean Marc; Villemin, Thibaut; Manenti, Vladimir; Moulin-Zinsch, Anne; Marçon, François; Simon, Gauthier; Andronache, Marius; Beurrier, Daniel; de Chillou, Christian; Girerd, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Accessory pathway (AP) ablation is not always easy. Our purpose was to assess the age-related prevalence of AP location, electrophysiological and prognostic data according to this location. Methods Electrophysiologic study (EPS) was performed in 994 patients for a pre-excitation syndrome. AP location was determined on a 12 lead ECG during atrial pacing at maximal preexcitation and confirmed at intracardiac EPS in 494 patients. Results AP location was classified as anteroseptal (AS)(96), right lateral (RL)(54), posteroseptal (PS)(459), left lateral (LL)(363), nodoventricular (NV)(22). Patients with ASAP or RLAP were younger than patients with another AP location. Poorly-tolerated arrhythmias were more frequent in patients with LLAP than in other patients (0.009 for ASAP, 0.0037 for RLAP, <0.0001 for PSAP). Maximal rate conducted over AP was significantly slower in patients with ASAP and RLAP than in other patients. Malignant forms at EPS were more frequent in patients with LLAP than in patients with ASAP (0.002) or PSAP (0.001). Similar data were noted when AP location was confirmed at intracardiac EPS. Among untreated patients, poorly-tolerated arrhythmia occurred in patients with LLAP (3) or PSAP (6). Failures of ablation were more frequent for AS or RL AP than for LL or PS AP. Conclusions AS and RLAP location in pre-excitation syndrome was more frequent in young patients. Maximal rate conducted over AP was lower than in other locations. Absence of poorly-tolerated arrhythmias during follow-up and higher risk of ablation failure should be taken into account for indications of AP ablation in children with few symptoms. PMID:27134439

  3. Metastatic Hip Tumor in a Middle-Aged Woman.

    PubMed

    Callan, Brad

    2016-05-01

    A 44-year-old woman was referred to physical therapy by a podiatrist for "iliotibial band syndrome." No imaging had been done, and she denied all constitutional symptoms, but reported having breast cancer 5 years earlier. Following an increase in pain, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and biopsy confirmed a metastatic breast cancer tumor. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):400. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0407. PMID:27133943

  4. Pilocarpine Seizures Cause Age-Dependent Impairment in Auditory Location Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Neill, John C; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L

    2005-01-01

    Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this question using an animal model of status epilepticus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline on postnatal day (P) 20, or a convulsant dose of pilocarpine on P20 or P45. Pilocarpine on either day induced status epilepticus; status epilepticus at P45 resulted in CA3 cell loss and spontaneous seizures, whereas P20 rats had no cell loss or spontaneous seizures. Mature rats were trained with sound-source location and sound-silence discriminations. Control (saline P20) rats acquired both discriminations immediately. In status epilepticus (P20) rats, acquisition of the sound-source location discrimination was moderately impaired. Status epilepticus (P45) rats failed to acquire either sound-source location or sound-silence discriminations. Status epilepticus in rat causes an age-dependent, long-term impairment in auditory discrimination. This impairment may explain one cause of impaired auditory location discrimination in humans. PMID:16596970

  5. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  6. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product. PMID:19238469

  7. Prognostic Value of Tumor-Associated Macrophages According to Histologic Locations and Hormone Receptor Status in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Jae Moon; Jang, Min Hye; Kim, Dong Il; Seo, An Na; Park, So Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor progression by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis. However, in breast cancer, the clinical relevance of the TAM infiltration according to distinct histologic locations (intratumoral vs. stromal) and hormone receptor status is unclear. We investigated the significance of the levels of TAM infiltration in distinct histologic locations in invasive breast cancer. We also examined the relationship of the TAM levels with the clinicopathologic features of tumors, expression of EMT markers, and clinical outcomes. Finally, we analyzed the prognostic value of TAM levels according to hormone receptor status. High levels of infiltration of intratumoral, stromal and total TAMs were associated with high histologic grade, p53 overexpression, high Ki-67 proliferation index and negative hormone receptor status. Infiltration of TAMs was also correlated with overexpression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin and alteration of β-catenin. Overall, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAMs was associated with poor disease-free survival, and was found to be an independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analyses by hormone receptor status, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAM was an independent prognostic factor in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup, but not in the hormone-receptor negative subgroup. Our findings suggest that intratumoral TAMs play an important role in tumor progression in breast cancer, especially in the hormone receptor-positive group, and the level of TAM infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25884955

  8. Location and age of Mesolithic coastal occupation sites on Oronsay, Inner Hebrides.

    PubMed

    Jardine, W G

    1977-05-12

    The existence of at least five Mesolithic occupation sites on the island of Oronsay, Inner Hebrides, has now been established. Preliminary results of recent excavation of two of the sites were reported in 1971 (ref. 1). Since then further excavations have been made and the locations and ages of the sites in relation to the position of the shore line of the sea at the maximum of the Holocene marine transgression have been investigated. The results obtained suggest that the ages of some of the sites in relation to the former shore line cannot be established solely on stratigraphical and altitudinal evidence but require supplementary information based on radiocarbon dating. It will be some time before the full details will be published, and so a short account of the results so far obtained is presented now.

  9. Simultaneous estimation of size, radial and angular locations of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast - A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    This article reports a numerical study pertaining to simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast. The breast skin surface temperature profile is specific to a tumor of specific size and location. The temperature profiles are always the Gaussian one, though their peak magnitudes and areas differ according to the size and location of the tumor. The temperature profiles are obtained by solving the Pennes bioheat equation using the finite element method based solver COMSOL 4.3a. With temperature profiles known, simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of the tumor is done using the curve fitting method. Effect of measurement errors is also included in the study. Estimations are accurate, and since in the inverse analysis, the curve fitting method does not require solution of the governing bioheat equation, the estimation is very fast. PMID:26267509

  10. Brain tumors in children and adolescents: cognitive and psychological disorders at different ages.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Geraldina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Massimino, Maura; Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Sommovigo, Michela; Castelli, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    Cognitive and psychological disorders are among the most frequently observed sequelae in brain tumor survivors. The goal of this work was to verify the presence of these disorders in a group of children and adolescents diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years, differentiate these disorders according to age of assessment, identify correlations between the two types of impairments and define possible associations between these impairments and clinical variables. The study involved 76 patients diagnosed with brain tumor before age 18 years. Three age groups were formed, and all the patients received a standardized battery of age-matched cognitive and psychological tests. According to our findings, all three groups present with cognitive and psychological-behavioral disorders. Their frequency varies according to age of onset and is strongly associated to time since diagnosis. The performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) was more impaired than the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ). Internalizing problems, withdrawal and social problems were the most frequent psychological disorders. Correlations were found between cognitive impairment and the onset of the main psychological and behavioral disorders. These findings are relevant as they point out the long-term outcome of brain tumor survivors. Hence, the recommendation to diversify psychological interventions and rehabilitation plans according to the patients' age.

  11. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening.

  12. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening. PMID:9709283

  13. Stand age, tree location and depth impacts on the hydrophobicity of forested dune soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Richard; McCreath, Iain; Ogden, Mike; Hallett, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a forest is one of the key mechanisms needed for its productivity. Paradoxically, biomass from forests such as decomposing needles and soil micro-organisms, may result in hydrophobic substances that impede water flow and decrease water retention. At the same time, the decomposition of plant biomass may alter soil pore structure to improve flow and retention of water. Although water repellency has been widely reported in boreal forests, including in unlikely locations in northern maritime climates, the effect of stand age and soil location in relation to trees has not been investigated. In this study it was hypothesised that water repellency would increase with stand age, and would be greater at the interface between the litter layer and soil than in the subsoil or the litter layer itself. Measurements were conducted with soil from Culbin Forest, which is located on the northeast coast of the UK. The forest was planted in phases, starting over 100 years ago, as a means to stabilise eroding sand dunes that were initially highly hydrophilic. Soils were sampled from the litter layer, at the interface between the litter and sand and in the subsoil at locations under the tree, in the drip line and outside of the tree. Field replicated areas planted with Scots Pine in 1888, 1925, 1969, 1992 and 2000 were selected to provide a chronosequence. A series of tests were carried out both in the field and the laboratory to determine the influence that the age of Scots pine trees have on the water repellency of the soil. These included the water drop penetration test and infiltration measurements within the field, while a modified Wilhelmy plate test and capillary rise measurements were measured in the laboratory. The soil was found to possess non-significant water repellency features within the field, likely due to high water content levels of the soil at the time of testing. But after drying, the soil was highly water repellent. The contact angle or repellency

  14. Predicting location of recurrence using FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET in canine sinonasal tumors treated with radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Tyler; Fu, Rau; Bowen, Stephen; Zhu, Jun; Forrest, Lisa; Jeraj, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Dose painting relies on the ability of functional imaging to identify resistant tumor subvolumes to be targeted for additional boosting. This work assessed the ability of FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET imaging to predict the locations of residual FDG PET in canine tumors following radiotherapy. Nineteen canines with spontaneous sinonasal tumors underwent PET/CT imaging with radiotracers FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM prior to hypofractionated radiotherapy. Therapy consisted of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy to the sinonasal cavity with or without an integrated boost of 0.8 Gy to the GTV. Patients had an additional FLT PET/CT scan after fraction 2, a Cu-ATSM PET/CT scan after fraction 3, and follow-up FDG PET/CT scans after radiotherapy. Following image registration, simple and multiple linear and logistic voxel regressions were performed to assess how well pre- and mid-treatment PET imaging predicted post-treatment FDG uptake. R2 and pseudo R2 were used to assess the goodness of fits. For simple linear regression models, regression coefficients for all pre- and mid-treatment PET images were significantly positive across the population (P < 0.05). However, there was large variability among patients in goodness of fits: R2 ranged from 0.00 to 0.85, with a median of 0.12. Results for logistic regression models were similar. Multiple linear regression models resulted in better fits (median R2 = 0.31), but there was still large variability between patients in R2. The R2 from regression models for different predictor variables were highly correlated across patients (R ≈ 0.8), indicating tumors that were poorly predicted with one tracer were also poorly predicted by other tracers. In conclusion, the high inter-patient variability in goodness of fits indicates that PET was able to predict locations of residual tumor in some patients, but not others. This suggests not all patients would be good candidates for dose painting based on a single biological target.

  15. Predicting location of recurrence using FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET in canine sinonasal tumors treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Tyler; Fu, Rau; Bowen, Stephen; Zhu, Jun; Forrest, Lisa; Jeraj, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Dose painting relies on the ability of functional imaging to identify resistant tumor subvolumes to be targeted for additional boosting. This work assessed the ability of FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET imaging to predict the locations of residual FDG PET in canine tumors following radiotherapy. Nineteen canines with spontaneous sinonasal tumors underwent PET/CT imaging with radiotracers FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM prior to hypofractionated radiotherapy. Therapy consisted of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy to the sinonasal cavity with or without an integrated boost of 0.8 Gy to the GTV. Patients had an additional FLT PET/CT scan after fraction 2, a Cu-ATSM PET/CT scan after fraction 3, and follow-up FDG PET/CT scans after radiotherapy. Following image registration, simple and multiple linear and logistic voxel regressions were performed to assess how well pre- and mid-treatment PET imaging predicted post-treatment FDG uptake. R(2) and pseudo R(2) were used to assess the goodness of fits. For simple linear regression models, regression coefficients for all pre- and mid-treatment PET images were significantly positive across the population (P < 0.05). However, there was large variability among patients in goodness of fits: R(2) ranged from 0.00 to 0.85, with a median of 0.12. Results for logistic regression models were similar. Multiple linear regression models resulted in better fits (median R(2) = 0.31), but there was still large variability between patients in R(2). The R(2) from regression models for different predictor variables were highly correlated across patients (R ≈ 0.8), indicating tumors that were poorly predicted with one tracer were also poorly predicted by other tracers. In conclusion, the high inter-patient variability in goodness of fits indicates that PET was able to predict locations of residual tumor in some patients, but not others. This suggests not all patients would be good candidates for dose painting based on a single biological target. PMID

  16. Metals in albatross feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of species, age, and nest location

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the authors examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. They collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. The authors test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression they found significant models accounting for the variation in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. They also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated.

  17. Nuclear location-dependent role of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in hepatic tumoral cell lines proliferation.

    PubMed

    Corsi, L; Geminiani, E; Avallone, R; Baraldi, M

    2005-04-15

    PBR is involved in numerous biological functions, including steroid biosynthesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cell proliferation. The presence of PBR at the perinuclear/nuclear subcellular level has been demonstrated in aggressive breast cancer cell lines and human glioma cells where it seems to be involved in cell proliferation. In our study we investigated the presence of perinuclear/nuclear PBR in different hepatic tumor cell lines with regard to binding to [3H] PK 11195 and protein analysis. The results obtained by saturation binding experiments and scatchard analysis of perinuclear/nuclear PBR density in parallel with the results on the growth curves of the cell lines tested, indicate that the perinuclear/nuclear PBR density correlates inversely with cell doubling time. Moreover, the cell line with high perinuclear/nuclear PBR proliferated in response to PBR ligand, whereas that with low perinuclear/nuclear PBR did not. Our results reinforce the idea that the subcellular localisation of PBR defines its function and that this receptor could be a possible target for new strategies against cancer.

  18. Urology pertinent neuroendocrine tumors: focusing on renal pelvis, bladder, prostate located sympathetic functional paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    ALBERTI, C.

    2016-01-01

    Urology pertinent neuroendocrine neoplasias are more and more driving to research attractive contributions mainly as regards the urinary tract paragangliomas, besides the prostate cancer neuroendocrine differentiation. About such visceral sympathetic paragangliomas, a considerable attention is aroused by those concerning the renal pelvis, urinary bladder and, particularly, the prostate gland. Essential catecholamine/adrenergic signal-mediated pathophysiological implications and outlined diagnostic approaches are here taken into consideration. Particularly, to reach an accurate functional diagnostic assessment, both plasma and urine catecholamine level tests are required together with 123I or 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan while 131I-, instead of 123I-, labeled MIBG, proving to be also useful to targeted radionuclide therapy of sympathetic paragangliomas. Nevertheless, a thorough diagnostic confirmation should be obtained by a proper histologic/immunohistochemical study, so that it respectively highlighting the typical “zellballen” cell setting and neuroendocrine tumor cell specific bio-markers such as chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase. Open/laparoscopic/robot-assisted surgical procedures are performed under α1 (doxazosin, prazosin) - and β(propranolol)-adrenergic blockade to avoid the risk of an intraoperative adrenergic signal-triggered hypertensive crisis, what moreover may occur also during cystoscopy and biopsy in case of bladder or prostate paraganglioma. Given a conceivable likeness, about some adrenergic-mediated pathophysiological implications, between prostate paraganglioma and prostate cancer neuroendocrine transdifferentiation – although as regards two obviously different diseases – a reliable pathogenetic matter concerning prostate paraganglioma is requiring novel research approaches. PMID:27381689

  19. Bone Fractures Following External Beam Radiotherapy and Limb-Preservation Surgery for Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Relationship to Irradiated Bone Length, Volume, Tumor Location and Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Parent, Amy L.; Griffin, Anthony M.; Fung, Sharon; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between tumor location, bone dose, and irradiated bone length on the development of radiation-induced fractures for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma (LE-STS) patients treated with limb-sparing surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Of 691 LE-STS patients treated from 1989 to 2005, 31 patients developed radiation-induced fractures. Analysis was limited to 21 fracture patients (24 fractures) who were matched based on tumor size and location, age, beam arrangement, and mean total cumulative RT dose to a random sample of 53 nonfracture patients and compared for fracture risk factors. Mean dose to bone, RT field size (FS), maximum dose to a 2-cc volume of bone, and volume of bone irradiated to >=40 Gy (V40) were compared. Fracture site dose was determined by comparing radiographic images and surgical reports to fracture location on the dose distribution. Results: For fracture patients, mean dose to bone was 45 +- 8 Gy (mean dose at fracture site 59 +- 7 Gy), mean FS was 37 +- 8 cm, maximum dose was 64 +- 7 Gy, and V40 was 76 +- 17%, compared with 37 +- 11 Gy, 32 +- 9 cm, 59 +- 8 Gy, and 64 +- 22% for nonfracture patients. Differences in mean, maximum dose, and V40 were statistically significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.01). Leg fractures were more common above the knee joint. Conclusions: The risk of radiation-induced fracture appears to be reduced if V40 <64%. Fracture incidence was lower when the mean dose to bone was <37 Gy or maximum dose anywhere along the length of bone was <59 Gy. There was a trend toward lower mean FS for nonfracture patients.

  20. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC-male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging.

  1. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  2. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Test Lines...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Test Lines...

  5. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  6. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    PubMed Central

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  7. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  8. Location, Age, and Tectonic Significance of the Western Idaho Suture Zone (WISZ)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Criss, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The Western Idaho Suture Zone (WISZ) represents the boundary between crust overlying Proterozoic North American lithosphere and Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic intraoceanic crust accreted during Cretaceous time. Highly deformed plutons constituted of both arc and sialic components intrude the WISZ and in places are thrust over the accreted terranes. Pronounced variations in Sr, Nd, and O isotope ratios and in major and trace element composition occur across the suture zone in Mesozoic plutons. The WISZ is located by an abrupt west to east increase in initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, traceable for over 300 km from eastern Washington near Clarkston, east along the Clearwater River thorough a bend to the south of about 110? from Orofino Creek to Harpster, and extending south-southwest to near Ola, Idaho, where Columbia River basalts conceal its extension to the south. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages of hornblende and biotite from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous plutons in the accreted terranes are highly discordant within about 10 km of the WISZ, exhibiting patterns of thermal loss caused by deformation, subsequent batholith intrusion, and rapid rise of the continental margin. Major crustal movements within the WISZ commenced after about 135 Ma, but much of the displacement may have been largely vertical, during and following emplacement of batholith-scale silicic magmas. Deformation continued until at least 85 Ma and probably until 74 Ma, progressing from south to north.

  9. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  10. Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception.

    PubMed

    Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T

    2006-01-15

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating.

  11. Location, age, and rock type of volcanic rocks younger than 5 million years in Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J. Jr.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-04-01

    As part of the assessment of the Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy potential of Arizona and New Mexico, a compilation of the locations and ages of volcanic rocks less than 5 Myr was made. The locations of those rocks less than 3 Myr are shown on a map of the region. Because the compiled information has many uses in addition to geothermal exploration, the entire compilation is presented as a tabulation. The table is organized first by state and secondly by latitude and longitude within each state. Rock type, age and error, method of dating, and original reference are also given. The K-Ar dates have not been recalculated using the most recent decay constants for /sup 40/K. A few references gave only verbal descriptions of sample location; these locations were converted to approximate latitude and longitude.

  12. Subcutaneous vaccination with irradiated, cytokine-producing tumor cells stimulates CD8+ cell-mediated immunity against tumors located in the "immunologically privileged" central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, J H; Archer, G E; Ashley, D M; Fuchs, H E; Hale, L P; Dranoff, G; Bigner, D D

    1996-01-01

    Vaccination with cytokine-producing tumor cells generates potent immune responses against tumors outside the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS, however, is a barrier to allograft and xenograft rejection, and established tumors within the CNS have failed to respond to other forms of systemic immunotherapy. To determine what barriers the "immunologically privileged" CNS would pose to cytokine-assisted tumor vaccines and what cytokines would be most efficacious against tumors within the CNS, we irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells producing murine interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, gamma-interferon, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and used these cells as subcutaneous vaccines against tumors within the brain. Under conditions where untransfected B16 cells had no effect, cells producing IL-3, IL-6, or GM-CSF increased the survival of mice challenged with viable B16 cells in the brain. Vaccination with B16 cells producing IL-4 or gamma-interferon had no effect, and vaccination with B16 cells producing IL-2 decreased survival time. GM-CSF-producing vaccines were also able to increase survival in mice with pre-established tumors. The response elicited by GM-CSF-producing vaccines was found to be specific to tumor type and to be abrogated by depletion of CD8+ cells. Unlike the immunity generated against subcutaneous tumors by GM-CSF, however, the effector responses generated against tumors in the CNS were not dependent on CD4+ cells. These data suggest that cytokine-producing tumor cells are very potent stimulators of immunity against tumors within the CNS, but effector responses in the CNS may be different from those obtained against subcutaneous tumors. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8816812

  13. Conditional Survival of All Primary Brain Tumor Patients by Age, Behavior, and Histology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kimberly R.; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Davis, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival statistics commonly reflect survival from the time of diagnosis but do not take into account survival already achieved after a diagnosis. The objective of this study was to provide conditional survival estimates for brain tumor patients as a more accurate measure of survival for those who have already survived for a specified amount of time after diagnosis. Methods Data on primary malignant and nonmalignant brain tumor cases diagnosed from 1985–2005 from selected SEER state cancer registries were obtained. Relative survival up to 15 years postdiagnosis and varying relative conditional survival rates were computed using the life-table method. Results The overall 1-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis was 67.8% compared to the 6-month relative conditional survival rate of 85.7% for 6-month survivors (the probability of surviving to 1 year given survival to 6 months). The 10-year overall relative survival rate was 49.5% from time of diagnosis compared to the 8-year relative conditional survival rate of 79.2% for 2-year survivors. Conditional survival estimates and standard survival estimates varied by histology, behavior, and age at diagnosis. The 5-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis for glioblastoma was 3.6% compared to the 3-year relative conditional survival rate of 36.4% for 2-year survivors. For most nonmalignant tumors, the difference between relative survival and the corresponding conditional survival estimates were minimal. Older age groups had greater numeric gains in survival but lower conditional survival estimates than other age groups. Similar findings were seen for other conditional survival intervals. Conclusions Conditional survival is a useful disease surveillance measure for clinicians and brain tumor survivors to provide them with better ‘real-time’ estimates and hope. PMID:21677447

  14. Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location. Center Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraisamy, P.

    There is hardly any estimate of returns to schooling in India based on national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the economic returns to education in India by gender, age cohort, and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993-94, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period…

  15. The prognostic value of injury severity, location of event, and age at injury in pediatric traumatic head injuries

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, Jonas G; Flekkoy, Kjell M; Arnkelsson, Gudmundur B; Tomasson, Kristinn; Gudmundsson, Kristinn R; Arnarson, Eirikur Orn

    2008-01-01

    Aims To estimate the prognostic value of injury severity, location of event, and demographic parameters, for symptoms of pediatric traumatic head injury (THI) 4 years later. Methods Data were collected prospectively from Reykjavik City Hospital on all patients age 0–19 years, diagnosed with THI (n = 408) during one year. Information was collected on patient demographics, location of traumatic event, cause of injury, injury severity, and ICD-9 diagnosis. Injury severity was estimated according to the Head Injury Severity Scale (HISS). Four years post-injury, a questionnaire on late symptoms attributed to the THI was sent. Results Symptoms reported were more common among patients with moderate/severe THI than among others (p < 0.001). The event location had prognostic value (p < 0.05). Overall, 72% of patients with moderate/severe motor vehicle-related THI reported symptoms. There was a curvilinear age effect (p < 0.05). Symptoms were least frequent in the youngest age group, 0–4 years, and most frequent in the age group 5–14 years. Gender and urban/rural residence were not significantly related to symptoms. Conclusions Motor vehicle related moderate/severe THI resulted in a high rate of late symptoms. Location had a prognostic value. Patients with motor vehicle-related THI need special consideration regardless of injury severity. PMID:18728737

  16. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  17. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  18. Instrumental and Terminal Life Values of Faculty by Community College Location, Age, Experience, Highest Degree and Other Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, John F.; Hales, Loyde W.

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the life values of community college faculty and selected demographic variables (i.e., college location, age, teaching experience, highest degree held, and other employment). A stratified random sample of 984 Oregon community college instructors was asked to identify "guiding…

  19. Mechanical properties of human enamel as a function of age and location in the tooth.

    PubMed

    Park, Saejin; Wang, Duck H; Zhang, Dongsheng; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne

    2008-06-01

    Aging and the related changes in mechanical behavior of hard tissues of the human body are becoming increasingly important. In this study the influence of aging on the mechanical behavior of human enamel was evaluated using 3rd molars from young (18 < or = age < or = 30 years) and old (55 < or = age) patients. The hardness and elastic modulus were quantified using nanoindentation as a function of distance from the Dentin-Enamel Junction (DEJ) and within three different regions of the crown (i.e. cervical, cuspal and inter-cuspal enamel). Results of the evaluation showed that the elastic modulus and hardness increased with distance from the DEJ in all three regions examined, regardless of patient age. The largest increases with distance from the DEJ occurred within the cervical region of the old enamel. Overall, the results showed that there were no age-dependent differences in properties of enamel near the DEJ. However, near the tooth's surface, both the hardness (p < 0.025) and elastic modulus (p < 0.0001) were significantly greater in the old enamel. At the surface of the tooth the average elastic modulus of "old" enamel was nearly 20% greater than that of enamel from the young patients.

  20. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23711239

  1. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression

    PubMed Central

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D). We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen. In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  2. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  3. Small numbers of residual tumor cells at the site of primary inoculation are critical for anti-tumor immunity following challenge at a secondary location.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Takashi; Nadiminti, Hari; Lonsdorf, Anke S; Murakami, Takashi; Perez, Bradford A; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Finkelstein, Steven E; Pothiawala, Gulnar; Belkaid, Yasmine; Hwang, Sam T

    2007-07-01

    Luciferase-transduced B16 murine melanoma cells (luc-B16) inoculated in ear skin do not form tumors but prevent tumor formation by luc-B16 cells injected into the footpad. To determine the requirements for such immunity, we followed the fate of luc-B16 cells following ear injection. Surprisingly, small numbers of viable luc-B16 cells were detected in tumor-free mouse skin for up to 60 days post-inoculation. After 1 week, the number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells (along with foxp3 mRNA expression) increased rapidly in the injected ear skin. Residual tumor cells in ears were reduced in mice treated with anti-CD25 mAb and in CD4-deficient mice, but increased in CD8-deficient mice. Strikingly, the loss of luc-B16 cells in the ear skin, either spontaneously or following amputation of the injected ear, resulted in significantly enhanced tumor formation by parental and luciferase-expressing B16 cells after footpad injection. These studies suggest that small numbers of tumor cells (possibly regulated by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells expressing Foxp3) are required for effective host anti-tumor responses at alternate inoculation sites. PMID:17139493

  4. Pilocarpine Seizures Cause Age-Dependent Impairment in Auditory Location Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, John C.; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this…

  5. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real-time tumor tracking in external-beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study.

    PubMed

    Nankali, Saber; Esmaili Torshabi, Ahmad; Samadi Miandoab, Payam; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In external-beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation-based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two "Genetic" and "Ranker" searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F-test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation-based feature selection algorithm, in

  6. Association between Shigella Infection and Diarrhea Varies Based on Location and Age of Children

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P.; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A. S. G.; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M. Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2015-01-01

    Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case–control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28–0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24–35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3–15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3–23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD. PMID:26324734

  7. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B and hepatitis C ...

  8. Epithelial salivary gland tumors in two distant geographical locations, Finland (Helsinki and Oulu) and Israel (Tel Aviv): a 10-year retrospective comparative study of 2,218 cases.

    PubMed

    Bello, Ibrahim O; Salo, Tuula; Dayan, Dan; Tervahauta, Elisa; Almangoush, Alhadi; Schnaiderman-Shapiro, Anna; Barshack, Iris; Leivo, Ilmo; Vered, Marilena

    2012-06-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) of epithelial origin are relatively rare, and worldwide reports show considerable variations in their epidemiology. The aim of this study was to examine, for the first time, the records of SGTs from two very distant geographical locations, Finland (two medical centers) and Israel (one medical center) between 1999 and 2008, based exclusively on the 2005 WHO classification of head and neck tumors, and to compare those data to the other available (single-center) studies that used the same classification. A total of 2,218 benign and malignant tumors diagnosed in the three centers were analyzed. Differences in classification of the tumors were found between the two geographical locations as well as between the two centers from Finland. There was a higher ratio of benign-to-malignant SGTs in the Finnish centers (5.4:1 and 7:1) compared to the Israeli center (2:1), a higher frequency of tumors of minor salivary glands in the Israeli center (34%) than in the Finnish centers (4 and 11%), and a higher frequency of malignant SGTs in the minor salivary glands in Israel (64.5%) than in Finland (10.9 and 27%). The diversity of these multicenter data are compatible with reports from different parts of the world. We conclude that conducting epidemiologic surveys based on the latest WHO classification provides clinicopathologic correlations on SGTs that seem to be characteristic even in small geographical regions.

  9. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  10. A mitochondrial location for haemoglobins--dynamic distribution in ageing and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Freya; Greville-Heygate, Oliver; Marsh, Oliver; Anderson, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Haemoglobins are iron-containing proteins that transport oxygen in the blood of most vertebrates. The mitochondrion is the cellular organelle which consumes oxygen in order to synthesise ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegeneration and ageing. We find that α and β haemoglobin (Hba and Hbb) proteins are altered in their distribution in mitochondrial fractions from degenerating brain. We demonstrate that both Hba and Hbb are co-localised with the mitochondrion in mammalian brain. The precise localisation of the Hbs is within the inner membrane space and associated with inner mitochondrial membrane. Relative mitochondrial to cytoplasmic ratios of Hba and Hbb show changing distributions of these proteins during the process of neurodegeneration in the pcd(5j) mouse brain. A significant difference in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb content in the mitochondrial fraction is seen at 31 days after birth, this corresponds to a stage when dynamic neuronal loss is measured to be greatest in the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mouse. We also report changes in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb levels in ageing brain and muscle. Significant differences in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb can be seen when comparing aged brain to muscle, suggesting tissue specific functions of these proteins in the mitochondrion. In muscle there are significant differences between Hba levels in old and young mitochondria. To understand whether the changes detected in mitochondrial Hbs are of clinical significance, we examined Parkinson's disease brain, immunohistochemistry studies suggest that cell bodies in the substantia nigra accumulate mitochondrial Hb. However, western blotting of mitochondrial fractions from PD and control brains indicates significantly less Hb in PD brain mitochondria. One explanation could be a specific loss of cells containing mitochondria loaded with Hb proteins. Our study opens the door to an examination of the role of Hb function, within the context of the mitochondrion

  11. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  12. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack.

  13. Cryosurgery and acrylic cementation as surgical adjuncts in the treatment of aggressive (benign) bone tumors. Analysis of 25 patients below the age of 21.

    PubMed

    Malawer, M M; Dunham, W

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the clinical experience with cryosurgery (use of liquid nitrogen) and acrylic cementation (polymethylmethacrylate; PMMA) in the treatment of aggressive, benign bone sarcomas and the biologic basis of this technique. The results of 25 patients below the age of 21 treated by cryosurgery, with an average follow-up period of 60.8 months, are reported. Three approaches to surgical reconstruction were used: Group 1 (four patients) had cryosurgery with no reconstruction, Group 2 (13 patients) had bone graft reconstruction alone, and Group 3 (eight patients) had composite osteosynthesis with internal fixation, bone graft, and/or PMMA. The overall control rate was 96% (one recurrence). The tumor types were giant-cell tumor, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and malignant giant-cell tumor. Nineteen lesions involved the lower extremity, and six lesions were located in the upper extremity. There were two secondary fractures (8%), one local flap necrosis, and one synovial fistula. There were no infections. Two epiphyseodeses were performed. The functional results were excellent (83%), good (13%), and fair (4%). The technique of composite osteosynthesis is recommended for all large tumors of the lower extremity. Cryosurgical results compare favorably with those obtained by en bloc resection and demonstrate the ability of cryosurgery to eradicate tumors while avoiding the need for extensive resections and reconstructive procedures. PMID:1984931

  14. Relationship between pulmonary function and degree of spinal deformity, location of apical vertebrae and age among adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Joehaimey; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Omar, Ahmad Sabri; Abdullah, Ahmad Tajudin; Nor, Sobri; Lam, Weii Cheak; Yusof, Mohd Imran

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This retrospective review aimed to examine the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the Cobb angle, location of apical vertebrae and age in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there have been no detailed analyses of preoperative pulmonary function in relation to these three factors in AIS. METHODS A total of 38 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar scoliosis were included. Curvature of spinal deformity was measured using the Cobb method. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function. Statistical methods were used to analyse the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the factors that may contribute to poor pulmonary function. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 16.68 ± 6.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between the degree of the Cobb angle and FVC as well as FEV1; however, the relationships were not statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.072, respectively). There was also a trend towards a significant negative correlation between the thoracic curve and FVC (p = 0.014). Patients with larger thoracic curves had lower pulmonary function. A one-year increase in age significantly decreased FVC by 1.092 units (p = 0.044). No significant relationship between age and preoperative FEV1 was found. The median FVC was significantly higher in patients with affected apical vertebrae located at levels L1–L3 than at T6–T8 or T9–T12 (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION Lung function impairment was seen in more severe spinal deformities, proximally-located curvature and older patients. PMID:26831315

  15. MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Human Astrocytes in Relation to Anatomical Location and Age.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Ludwin, Samuel K; Fuh, Shih-Chieh; Sawaya, Robin; Moore, Craig S; Ho, Ming-Kai; Bedell, Barry J; Sarnat, Harvey B; Bar-Or, Amit; Antel, Jack P

    2016-02-01

    Anatomic distribution and age are variables linked to functions of astrocytes under physiologic and pathologic conditions. We measured the relative expression of a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in astrocytes captured by laser micro-dissection from normal human adult white and grey matter, human fetal white matter and germinal matrix samples. Although expression of most miRNAs was comparable between adult and fetal samples, regional differences were observed. In the adult cerebral cortex, expression of miRNAs in morphologically distinct inter-laminar astrocytes underlying the glial limitans differed from those in deeper cortical layers, suggesting functional specialization possibly related to structural stability and defense from potentially harmful factors in the cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between adult white and grey matter miRNA expression included higher expression of pro-inflammatory miRNAs in the former, potentially contributing to differences in inflammation between grey and white matter plaques in multiple sclerosis. Lower expression of miRNAs in fetal versus adult white matter astrocytes likely reflects the immaturity of these migrating cells. Highly expressed miRNAs in the fetal germinal matrix are probably relevant in development and also recapitulate some responses to injury. Future studies can address regional alterations of miRNA expression in pathological conditions. PMID:26802178

  16. Preliminary location and age database for invertebrate fossils collected in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John M.; West, William B.; Malmborg, William T.; Brabb, Earl E.

    2003-01-01

    Most geologic maps published for central California in the past century have been made without the benefit of microfossils. The age of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the structurally complex sedimentary formations of the Coast Ranges is critical in determining stratigraphic succession and in determining whether the juxtapositon of similar appearing formations means that a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of sedimentary rocks. This information has been confidential, but in the past 20 years the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and much material is now available. We report here on approximately 4,700 samples, largely foraminifers, from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The information contained here can be used to update geologic maps, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, and for solving other geologic problems.

  17. CMTM3, located at the critical tumor suppressor locus 16q22.1, is silenced by CpG methylation in carcinomas and inhibits tumor cell growth through inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jisheng; Cui, Yan; Li, Ting; Ng, Ka Man; Geng, Hua; Li, Henan; Shu, Xing-sheng; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Wei; Luo, Bing; Zhang, Qian; Mok, Tony Shu Kam; Zheng, Wei; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Srivastava, Gopesh; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chan, Anthony T C; Ma, Dalong; Tao, Qian; Han, Wenling

    2009-06-15

    Closely located at the tumor suppressor locus 16q22.1, CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 3 and 4 (CMTM3 and CMTM4) encode two CMTM family proteins, which link chemokines and the transmembrane-4 superfamily. In contrast to the broad expression of both CMTM3 and CMTM4 in normal human adult tissues, only CMTM3 is silenced or down-regulated in common carcinoma (gastric, breast, nasopharyngeal, esophageal, and colon) cell lines and primary tumors. CMTM3 methylation was not detected in normal epithelial cell lines and tissues, with weak methylation present in only 5 of 35 (14%) gastric cancer adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed that CMTM3 protein was absent in 12 of 35 (34%) gastric and 1 of 2 colorectal tumors, which was well correlated with its methylation status. The silencing of CMTM3 is due to aberrant promoter CpG methylation that could be reversed by pharmacologic demethylation. Ectopic expression of CMTM3 strongly suppressed the colony formation of carcinoma cell lines. In addition, CMTM3 inhibited tumor cell growth and induced apoptosis with caspase-3 activation. Thus, CMTM3 exerts tumor-suppressive functions in tumor cells, with frequent epigenetic inactivation by promoter CpG methylation in common carcinomas. PMID:19509237

  18. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  19. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Soyfer, Viacheslav; Meir, Yaron; Corn, Benjamin W; Schifter, Dan; Gez, Eliahu; Tempelhoff, Haim; Shtraus, Natan

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  20. Influence of Tumor Thrombus Location on the Outcome of External-beam Radiation Therapy in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Macrovascular Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Jiazhou; Zeng Zhaochong; Zhang Jianying; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The present study evaluates the influence of portal vein (PV) vs. inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombosis sites on the effectiveness of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 181 HCC patients with PV and/or IVC tumor thrombi who were referred for EBRT at our institution between 2000 and 2009. EBRT was designed to focus on the tumor thrombi with or without primary intrahepatic tumors to deliver a median total conventional dose of 50 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy). Predictors of survival were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median survival was 10.2, 7.4, 17.4, and 8.5 months for patients with PV branch, PV trunk, IVC, and PV plus IVC tumor thrombosis, respectively. Unfavorable pretreatment predictors were associated by multivariate analysis with lower albumin and higher {alpha}-fetoprotein levels, poorer Child-Pugh liver function classification, multiple intrahepatic foci, lymph node metastases, thrombus location, less chance to receive post-EBRT transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the two-dimensional EBRT technique. In comparison to patients with PV tumor thrombosis, patients with IVC thrombi had a higher occurrence of solitary intrahepatic lesions (p = 0.027), well-controlled intrahepatic tumors (p < 0.001), and a better response to EBRT (p < 0.001), and they were more likely to receive post-EBRT TACE (p = 0.033). Conclusions: In HCC, patients with IVC thrombus treated with EBRT had a better response rate and longer survival than those with PV thrombus.

  1. A Collision Tumor Consisting of Granular Cell Tumor and Adenocarcinoma in the Uterus of an Aged Djungarian Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Golbar, Hossain M.; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Okamura, Kensaku; Fujita, Daisuke; Tagami, Yukari; Sasai, Hiroshi; Yamate, Jyoji

    2011-01-01

    A neoplastic nodular lesion consisting of an admixture of granular cell tumor and adenocarcinoma was found in the uterus of a 26-month-old Djungarian hamster. Neoplastic cells of the uterine adenocarcinoma showed an epithelial nature in their growth patterns and by cytokeratin-immunopositive reaction, exhibiting nuclear pleomorphism. The granular cells had an abundant amount of fine granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and eccentric or central nuclei with no nuclear atypia; the granular structures were positive for periodic acid-Schiff with diastase resistance and were confirmed as lysosomes/autophagosomes by electron microscopy; immunohistochemically, the cells reacted to desmin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin and negatively for neurogenic, histiocyte/macrophage or epithelial markers, indicating smooth muscle origin. Because these tumors were generated from different cell origins, a diagnosis of collision tumor was made. PMID:22319236

  2. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) expression decreases with aging, acute liver injuries and tumors in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Terai, Shuji; Hirose, Yoshikazu; Takami, Taro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging. {yields} Decreased expression was observed in liver tumors as compared to the surrounding area. {yields} SMP30/RGN is important for liver proliferation and tumorigenesis. -- Abstract: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) is known to be related to aging, hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, expression and function of non-mammalian SMP30/RGN is poorly understood. We found that zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging, partial hepatectomy and thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury. SMP30/RGN expression was also greatly decreased in a zebrafish liver cell line. In addition, we induced liver tumors in adult zebrafish by administering diethylnitrosamine. Decreased expression was observed in foci, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocellular carcinomas and mixed tumors as compared to the surrounding area. We thus showed the importance of SMP30/RGN in liver proliferation and tumorigenesis.

  3. Transcription levels of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptors are associated with age and leaflet location in porcine mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L G; Offenberg, H; Moesgaard, S G; Thomsen, P D; Pedersen, H D; Olsen, L H

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the expression levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET(A) and ET(B) receptors (ET(A)-R and ET(B)-R) in porcine mitral valves and associate the transcription levels to age, leaflet location and deposition of mucopolysaccharides (MPS). Tissue samples from the chordal and inter-chordal insertion area of the anterior mitral valve leaflet from 11 sows (> or = 2 years of age) and 10 slaughter pigs (approximately 6 months old) were obtained and the relative gene expression levels of ET-1, ET(A)-R and ET(B)-R measured by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. A separate tissue sample was taken for histopathological grading of MPS deposition. The transcription levels of ET-1 (P < 0.0001) and ET(A)-R (P < 0.0004) were significantly higher in leaflets from the sows compared with slaughter pigs. The gene expression of ET(B)-R was not associated to age (P = 0.38), but increased in chordal insertion areas compared with inter-chordal areas (P = 0.01). The expression of ET-1 and ET(A)-R mRNA did not differ significantly between the two leaflet locations. The valve leaflets from sows had a significantly increased degree of MPS deposition compared with slaughter pigs upon histological examination (P = 0.04). In conclusion, an age-related valvular degeneration is observed in porcine mitral valve leaflets and ET-1 is suggested to be involved through action of both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors.

  4. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be

  5. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bo Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  6. Aged garlic extract inhibits 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumor development by suppressing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jikihara, Hiroshi; Qi, Guangying; Nozoe, Koichiro; Hirokawa, Mayumi; Sato, Hiromi; Sugihara, Yuka; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    Garlic and its constituents are reported to have a preventive effect against colorectal cancer in animal models. Aged garlic extract (AGE), which is produced by natural extraction from fresh garlic for more than 10 months in aqueous ethanol, also has reputed chemopreventive effects on colon carcinogenesis, but has never been studied for its effects on colon cancer development. We investigated the antitumor effects of AGE in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis, and the mechanism of AGE in human colon cancer cell proliferation. F344 rats randomly divided into three groups were administered DMH (20 mg/kg weight) subcutaneously once a week for 8 weeks in a basal diet. After the last injection, one group of rats was then moved onto a basal diet containing 3% wt/wt AGE, and rats were sacrificed at 8 or 31 weeks. The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), histological type of tumor and proliferative activity of the tumor lesions were analyzed by macroscopic, pathological and immunohistochemical methods. DLD-1 human colon cancer cells were utilized to investigate the effect of AGE on anti-cell proliferation. AGE decreased the number of ACF but had no effect on gross tumor pathology. AGE showed a lower number of adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that AGE suppressed the proliferative activity in adenoma and adenocarcinoma lesions, but showed no effect on normal colon mucosa. Moreover, we demonstrated that AGE delayed cell cycle progression by downregulating cyclin B1 and cdk1 expression via inactivation of NF-κB in the human colorectal cancer cells but did not induce apoptosis. These findings suggest that AGE has an antitumor effect through suppression of cell proliferation. PMID:25573280

  7. Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumors: Effects on Gynecomastia, Growth Velocity, and Bone Age

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCT) present in isolation or, especially in children, in association with Carney Complex (CNC) or Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). These tumors overexpress aromatase (CYP19A1), which leads to increased conversion of delta-4-androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. Prepubertal boys may present with growth acceleration, advanced bone age, and gynecomastia. Objective: To investigate the outcomes of aromatase inhibitor therapy (AIT) in prepubertal boys with LCCSCTs. Design: Case series of a very rare tumor and chart review of cases treated at other institutions. Setting: Tertiary care and referral center. Patients: Six boys, five with PJS and one with CNC, were referred to the National Institutes of Health for treatment of LCCSCT. All patients had gynecomastia, testicular enlargement, and advanced bone ages, and were being treated by their referring physicians with AIT. Interventions: Patients were treated for a total of 6–60 months on AIT. Main Outcome Measures: Height, breast tissue mass, and testicular size were all followed; physical examination, scrotal ultrasounds, and bone ages were obtained, and hormonal concentrations and tumor markers were measured. Results: Tumor markers were negative. All patients had decreases in breast tissue while on therapy. Height percentiles declined, and predicted adult height moved closer to midparental height as bone age advancement slowed. Testicular enlargement stabilized until entry into central puberty. Only one patient required unilateral orchiectomy. Conclusions: Patients with LCCSCT benefit from AIT with reduction and/or elimination of gynecomastia and slowing of linear growth and bone age advancement. Further study of long-term outcomes and safety monitoring are needed but these preliminary data suggest that mammoplasty and/or orchiectomy may be foregone in light of the availability of medical therapy. PMID:25226294

  8. The mechanical properties of ex vivo bovine and porcine crystalline lenses: age-related changes and location-dependent variations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangpil; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of ex vivo animal lenses from three groups were evaluated: old bovine (25-30 mo old, n = 4), young bovine (6 mo old, n = 4) and young porcine (6 mo old, n = 4) eye globes. We measured the dynamics of laser-induced microbubbles created at different locations within the crystalline lenses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and the microbubble displacements were measured using a custom-built high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system. Based on the measured dynamics of the microbubbles, Young's moduli of bovine and porcine lens tissue in the vicinity of the microbubbles were reconstructed. Age-related changes and location-dependent variations in the Young's modulus of the lenses were observed. Near the center, the old bovine lenses had a Young's modulus approximately fivefold higher than that of young bovine and porcine lenses. The gradient of Young's modulus with respect to radial distance was observed in the lenses from three groups.

  9. Anatomic Tumor Location Influences the Success of Contemporary Limb-Sparing Surgery and Radiation Among Adults With Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Korah, Mariam P.; Deyrup, Andrea T.; Monson, David K.; Oskouei, Shervin V.; Weiss, Sharon W.; Landry, Jerome; Godette, Karen D.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of anatomic location in the upper extremity (UE) vs. lower extremity (LE) on the presentation and outcomes of adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2008, 118 patients underwent limb-sparing surgery (LSS) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent for nonrecurrent extremity STS. RT was delivered preoperatively in 96 and postoperatively in 22 patients. Lesions arose in the UE in 28 and in the LE in 90 patients. Patients with UE lesions had smaller tumors (4.5 vs. 9.0 cm, p < 0.01), were more likely to undergo a prior excision (43 vs. 22%, p = 0.03), to have close or positive margins after resection (71 vs. 49%, p = 0.04), and to undergo postoperative RT (32 vs. 14%, p = 0.04). Results: Five-year actuarial local recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates for the entire group were 85 and 74%, with no difference observed between the UE and LE cohorts. Five-year actuarial probability of wound reoperation rates were 4 vs. 29% (p < 0.01) in the UE and LE respectively. Thigh lesions accounted for 84% of the required wound reoperations. The distribution of tumors within the anterior, medial, and posterior thigh compartments was 51%, 26%, and 23%. Subset analysis by compartment showed no difference in the probability of wound reoperation between the anterior and medial/posterior compartments (29 vs. 30%, p = 0.68). Neurolysis was performed during resection in (15%, 5%, and 67%, p < 0.01) of tumors in the anterior, medial, and posterior compartments. Conclusions: Tumors in the UE and LE differ significantly with respect to size and management details. The anatomy of the UE poses technical impediments to an R0 resection. Thigh tumors are associated with higher wound reoperation rates. Tumor resection in the posterior thigh compartment is more likely to result in nerve injury. A better understanding of the inherent differences between tumors in various extremity sites will assist in

  10. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  11. A treatment-planning comparison of three beam arrangement strategies for stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors using volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Okada, Wataru; Ogino, Ryo; Kubo, Kazuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Nakahara, Ryuta; Kawamorita, Ryu; Ishii, Yoshie; Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate beam arrangement for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with centrally located lung tumors. Fifteen consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors treated at our institution were enrolled. For each patient, three VMAT plans were generated using two coplanar partial arcs (CP VMAT), two non-coplanar partial arcs (NCP VMAT), and one coplanar full arc (Full VMAT). All plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Target coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared across techniques. PTV coverage was almost identical for all approaches. The whole lung V10Gy was significantly lower with CP VMAT plans than with NCP VMAT plans, whereas no significant differences in the mean lung dose, V5Gy, V20Gy or V40Gy were observed. Full VMAT increased mean contralateral lung V5Gy by 12.57% and 9.15% when compared with NCP VMAT and CP VMAT, respectively. Although NCP VMAT plans best achieved the dose–volume constraints for mediastinal OARs, the absolute differences in dose were small when compared with CP VMAT. These results suggest that partial-arc VMAT may be preferable to minimize unnecessary exposure to the contralateral lung, and use of NCP VMAT should be considered when the dose–volume constraints are not achieved by CP VMAT. PMID:26951076

  12. Comparison of the social contact patterns among school-age children in specific seasons, locations, and times.

    PubMed

    Luh, Dih-Ling; You, Zhi-Shin; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-03-01

    Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. This study explored how people interact in specific seasons (flu season and non-flu season), environmental settings (city and county), and times (weekend and weekday). We conducted a survey of junior high school students (grades 7-8) using an established questionnaire during May-June 2013 and December 2013. The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the times (weekday/weekend) and stratification by location and seasons were 75, 87, 105 and 106, respectively. The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. Conversation and skin-to-skin contact behaviors were surveyed through diary-based questionnaires, of which 665 valid questionnaires were returned. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D.=12.9) and 14.6 (S.D.=9.5) people, respectively. However, statistical analysis showed that the average number of contacts in Taichung City and Yilan County were significantly different (p<0.001). Weekdays were associated with 23-28% more contacts than weekend days during both the non-flu and flu seasons (p<0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Our work has important implications for the dynamic modeling of infectious diseases and performance analysis of human contact numbers and contact characteristics for schoolchildren in specific seasons, places, and times. PMID:26972512

  13. Comparison of the social contact patterns among school-age children in specific seasons, locations, and times.

    PubMed

    Luh, Dih-Ling; You, Zhi-Shin; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-03-01

    Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. This study explored how people interact in specific seasons (flu season and non-flu season), environmental settings (city and county), and times (weekend and weekday). We conducted a survey of junior high school students (grades 7-8) using an established questionnaire during May-June 2013 and December 2013. The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the times (weekday/weekend) and stratification by location and seasons were 75, 87, 105 and 106, respectively. The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. Conversation and skin-to-skin contact behaviors were surveyed through diary-based questionnaires, of which 665 valid questionnaires were returned. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D.=12.9) and 14.6 (S.D.=9.5) people, respectively. However, statistical analysis showed that the average number of contacts in Taichung City and Yilan County were significantly different (p<0.001). Weekdays were associated with 23-28% more contacts than weekend days during both the non-flu and flu seasons (p<0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Our work has important implications for the dynamic modeling of infectious diseases and performance analysis of human contact numbers and contact characteristics for schoolchildren in specific seasons, places, and times.

  14. Sialoblastoma and epithelial tumors in children: their morphologic spectrum and distribution by age.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A

    1999-09-01

    This commentary addresses the histologic spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms in children with emphasis on perinatal tumors. Histopathologically, perinatal tumors fall into four categories: 1) histologically benign with adult counterpart, 2) hamartomas 3) embryomas-sialoblastomas, and 4) histologically and biologically malignant adult analogue tumors. Although the criteria to serrate benign from malignant sialoblastomas are not well-established, the following histologic features would favor an aggressive clinical course: perineural and/or vascular spaces invasion, necrosis, and a cytologic atypia beyond the expected for embryonic epithelium.

  15. NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion and STAT6 immunoexpression in extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors: the association between fusion variants and locations.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Kao, Yu-Chien; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Chen, Ko-Chin; Lan, Jui; Lin, Po-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm harboring NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which drives STAT6 nuclear relocation. For extrathoracic SFTs, the clinical relevance of this molecular hallmark remains obscure. We assessed STAT6 immunoexpression for 61 extrathoracic SFTs exclusive of the meninges and head and neck, and 25 had analyzable RNAs to distinguish fusion variants by RT-PCR. The immunohistochemical and molecular findings were correlated with clincopathological features and disease-free survival (DFS). Twenty-eight males and 33 females had SFTs in the body cavities (n = 31), extremities (n = 17), and trunk (n = 13), categorized into 53 non-malignant and 8 malignant tumors. The vast majority (n = 57, 93%) exhibited distinctive STAT6 nuclear expression, including malignant ones. The common fusion variants were NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17 in 13 SFTs and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 in 8, while miscellaneous variants were detected only in 4 SFTs in the limbs and trunk but not in any body cavity-based cases (P = 0.026). The worse DFS was univariately associated with malignant histology (P = 0.04) but unrelated to tumor size, location, or fusion variant. Conclusively, extrathoracic SFTs mostly harbor NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17, followed by NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2. Miscellaneous variants are significantly rare in SFTs within the body cavities. The clinical aggressiveness of extrathoraic SFTs is associated with malignant histology but unrelated to the NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants. PMID:27039712

  16. NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion and STAT6 immunoexpression in extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors: the association between fusion variants and locations.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Kao, Yu-Chien; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Chen, Ko-Chin; Lan, Jui; Lin, Po-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm harboring NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which drives STAT6 nuclear relocation. For extrathoracic SFTs, the clinical relevance of this molecular hallmark remains obscure. We assessed STAT6 immunoexpression for 61 extrathoracic SFTs exclusive of the meninges and head and neck, and 25 had analyzable RNAs to distinguish fusion variants by RT-PCR. The immunohistochemical and molecular findings were correlated with clincopathological features and disease-free survival (DFS). Twenty-eight males and 33 females had SFTs in the body cavities (n = 31), extremities (n = 17), and trunk (n = 13), categorized into 53 non-malignant and 8 malignant tumors. The vast majority (n = 57, 93%) exhibited distinctive STAT6 nuclear expression, including malignant ones. The common fusion variants were NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17 in 13 SFTs and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 in 8, while miscellaneous variants were detected only in 4 SFTs in the limbs and trunk but not in any body cavity-based cases (P = 0.026). The worse DFS was univariately associated with malignant histology (P = 0.04) but unrelated to tumor size, location, or fusion variant. Conclusively, extrathoracic SFTs mostly harbor NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17, followed by NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2. Miscellaneous variants are significantly rare in SFTs within the body cavities. The clinical aggressiveness of extrathoraic SFTs is associated with malignant histology but unrelated to the NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants.

  17. PLASMA ELECTROPHORETIC PROFILES IN THE EASTERN MASSASAUGA (SISTRURUS CATENATUS) AND INFLUENCES OF AGE, SEX, YEAR, LOCATION, AND SNAKE FUNGAL DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Junge, Randall E; Baker-Wylie, Sarah; Hileman, Eric T; Faust, Lisa J; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals of the protein electrophoretic fractions and the acute-phase proteins hemoglobin binding protein (as determined by the haptoglobin assay) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and assess any possible correlations between varying age class, sex, location (Illinois or Michigan), year, or presence of snake fungal disease (SFD). Banked plasma samples were assayed from 130 eastern massasaugas from 2009 to 2014 in Illinois and Michigan. Snakes from Michigan had higher total protein (mean: 5.50 g/dl), albumin/globulin ratio (0.42), albumin (1.59 g/dl), and gamma globulins (0.55 g/dl) than from snakes in Illinois (4.72 g/dl, 0.29, 1.03 g/dl, 0.38 g/dl, respectively). Snakes in Illinois (22.19 g/ml) had higher CRP than snakes in Michigan (10.89 mg/ml). Adults had higher gamma globulins (0.47 g/dl) than juveniles (0.28 g/dl). Males had higher alpha-2 globulins (0.98 g/dl) and CRP (21.4 mg/ml) than females (0.85, 11.6, respectively). There were no significant differences in absolute plasma proteins in SFD-positive snakes, but the percentage of gamma globulins was significantly higher in positive snakes. Future research in this area can now build on this data to determine changes in population health over time or due to specific environmental or disease threats.

  18. Dosimetric errors during treatment of centrally located lung tumors with stereotactic body radiation therapy: Monte Carlo evaluation of tissue inhomogeneity corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Altunbas, Cem Kavanagh, Brian; Dzingle, Wayne; Stuhr, Kelly; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed

    2013-01-01

    Early experience with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of centrally located lung tumors indicated increased rate of high-grade toxicity in the lungs. These clinical results were based on treatment plans that were computed using pencil beam–like algorithms and without tissue inhomogeneity corrections. In this study, we evaluated the dosimetric errors in plans with and without inhomogeneity corrections and with planning target volumes (PTVs) that were within the zone of the proximal bronchial tree (BT). For 10 patients, the PTV, lungs, and sections of the BT either inside or within 2 cm of the PTV were delineated. Two treatment plans were generated for each patient using the following dose-calculation methods: (1) pencil beam (PB) algorithm without inhomogeneity correction (IC) (PB − IC) and (2) PB with inhomogeneity correction (PB + IC). Both plans had identical beam geometry but different beam segment shapes and monitor units (MU) to achieve similar conformal dose coverage of PTV. To obtain the baseline dose distributions, each plan was recalculated using a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm by keeping MUs the same in the respective plans. The median maximum dose to the proximal BT and PTV dose coverage in the PB + IC plans were overestimated by 8% and 11%, respectively. However, the median maximum dose to the proximal BT and PTV dose coverage in PB − IC plans were underestimated by 15% and 9%. Similar trends were observed in low-dose regions of the lung within the irradiated volume. Our study indicates that dosimetric bias introduced by unit tissue density plans cannot be characterized as underestimation or overestimation of dose without taking the tumor location into account. This issue should be considered when analyzing clinical toxicity data from early lung SBRT trials that utilized unit tissue density for dose calculations.

  19. Age, Sex, and Handedness Differentially Contribute to Neurospatial Function on the Memory Island and Novel-Image Novel-Location Tests

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Brian J.; Acevedo, Summer F.; Edwards, Krystle R.; Curtiss, Alan B.; McGinnis, Gwendolyn J.; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Memory Island and the Novel-Image Novel-Location are recently developed measures of spatial learning and recognition-memory modeled after the Morris water maze and the novel object-recognition tests. The goal of this study was to characterize how sex, age, and handedness contribute to Memory Island and Novel-Image Novel-Location performance. Volunteers (N=287, ages 6 to 67) from a local science museum completed four Memory Island trials containing a visible target and four trials containing a hidden target. A pronounced sex difference favoring males was noted in all measures of hidden trial performance. The total latency during the hidden trials among older-adults was longer than younger-adults or adolescents. Faster and more efficient performance by males was also identified during the visible trials, particularly among children. Adolescents and younger-adults outperformed children and older ages. Sinistrals had a lower cumulative distance to the target. Novel-Image Novel-Location behavior was examined in a separate sample (N=128, ages 6 to 86). Females had higher Novel-Image and Novel-Location scores than males. Novel-Image performance was independent of age while sinistrals had elevated Novel-Image scores relative to dextrals. Together, these findings identify how sex, age, and handedness uniquely contribute to performance on these tasks. PMID:21463643

  20. MDL-1, a growth- and tumor-suppressor, slows aging and prevents germline hyperplasia and hypertrophy in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Michèle; Feyst, Inna; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Ezcurra, Marina; Tullet, Jennifer M A; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Au, Catherine; Gilliat, Ann F; Hellberg, Josephine; Thornton, Janet M; Gems, David

    2014-02-01

    In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. Here we describe the role of mdl-1 in C. elegans germline proliferation and aging. The deletion allele mdl-1(tm311) shortened lifespan, and did so significantly more so in long-lived daf-2 mutants implying that mdl-1(+) contributes to effects of daf-2 on lifespan. mdl-1 mutant hermaphrodites also lay increased numbers of unfertilized oocytes. During aging, unfertilized oocytes in the uterus develop into tumors, whose development was accelerated by mdl-1(tm311). Opposite phenotypes were seen in daf-2 mutants, i.e. mdl-1 and daf-2 mutant germlines are hyperplastic and hypoplastic, respectively. Thus, MDL-1, like its mammalian orthologs, is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and growth that slows progression of an age-related pathology in C. elegans (uterine tumors). In addition, intestine-limited rescue of mdl-1 increased lifespan but not to wild type levels. Thus, mdl-1 likely acts both in the intestine and the germline to influence age-related mortality.

  1. Mice deficient in Rbm38, a target of the p53 family, are susceptible to accelerated aging and spontaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Enshun; Ren, Cong; Yan, Wensheng; Zhang, Min; Chen, Mingyi; Cardiff, Robert D.; Imai, Denise M.; Wisner, Erik; Chen, Xinbin

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding motif protein 38 (Rbm38), also called RNPC1 [RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 1], is a target of the p53 family and modulates p53 expression via mRNA translation. To investigate the biological function of Rbm38 in vivo, we generated an Rbm38-null mouse model. We showed that mice deficient in Rbm38 exhibit signs of accelerated aging and are prone to hematopoietic defects and spontaneous tumors. To determine the biological significance of the p53-Rbm38 loop, we showed that Rbm38 deficiency enhances accumulation of p53 induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and sensitizes mice to IR-induced lethality in a p53-dependent manner. Most importantly, Rbm38 deficiency markedly decreases the tumor penetrance in mice heterozygous for p53 via enhanced p53 expression. Interestingly, we found that Rbm38 deficiency shortens the life span of, and promotes lymphomagenesis in, mice deficient in p53. These results provide genetic evidence that Rbm38 is necessary for normal hematopoiesis and for suppressing accelerated aging and tumorigenesis. Thus, the p53-Rbm38 axis might be explored for extending longevity and for tumor suppression. PMID:25512531

  2. Central nervous system tumors in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    De la Torre Mondragón, L; Ridaura Sanz, C; Reyes Mujica, M; Rueda Franco, F

    1993-08-01

    Five hundred and seventy primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors from the Department of Pathology at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City, collected from 1970 to 1989, were histologically reclassified in order to find out their relative incidence as well as their outstanding features. With this, we could establish a frame of reference for our local population, contributing to the epidemiological analysis of these entities. All the tumors were examined independently by two pathologists (C.R. and M.R.), using the classification of Rorke et al. Histological type, patient age and sex, and tumor location were analyzed. CNS tumors were the secondmost frequently encountered solid tumors, after lymphomas, and were increasing in incidence at a rate of 2.2 annually. Children in the age group 0-9 years were most often affected, and there was a predominance of male patients. Astrocytoma and medulloblastoma were the most common tumor types. The infratentorial region was the most frequent tumor location in the 2- to 9-year age group. By contrast, in the under 2-year-olds a supratentorial location was more frequent, and the incidence of germ cell tumors was proportionally high. In general, some histological types seemed to be associated with particular age groups. Although we found primitive neuroectodermal tumors to be the fifth most common at all ages (except for medulloblastoma), many other authors do not report a similar finding.

  3. Heating deep seated eccentrically located tumors with an annular phased array system: a comparative clinical study using two annular array operating configurations.

    PubMed

    Samulski, T V; Kapp, D S; Fessenden, P; Lohrbach, A

    1987-01-01

    Regional heating administered with an annular array to 12 patients with deep-seated advanced malignant disease eccentrically located in the lower abdomen and pelvis is compared based on the annular array operating configuration. One configuration (4 quadrants active) delivers radiofrequency power with relative uniformity throughout the patient cross-section. The other (2 quadrants active) allows the radiofrequency power deposition to be shifted preferentially into the eccentrically located treatment volume. Phantom measurements have been made to demonstrate the redistribution of radiofrequency power that results when the annular array is operated in these respective configurations. Systemic responses (i.e. oral temperature rise, changes in blood pressure, and heart rate) to these regional hyperthermia applications are compared and are not significantly different with respect to these heating configurations. Temperature data obtained during treatment sessions using these two annular array operating configurations are analyzed based on the fraction of measured tumor and normal tissue temperatures exceeding or equal to a given index temperature. Although the two quadrant configuration is more efficient in delivering power to the treatment volume, this analysis does not indicate a significant gain in therapeutic heating as a result of this preferential power deposition. Treatment tolerance and heterogeneity with respect to tissue type and blood flow remained the dominant limiting factors with regard to temperatures achieved.

  4. Comparison study of the partial-breast irradiation techniques: Dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, electron beam therapy, and helical tomotherapy depending on various tumor locations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Joo; Park, So-Hyun; Son, Seok-Hyun; Cheon, Keum-Seong; Choi, Byung-Ock; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2013-10-01

    The partial-breast irradiation (PBI) technique, an alternative to whole-breast irradiation, is a beam delivery method that uses a limited range of treatment volume. The present study was designed to determine the optimal PBI treatment modalities for 8 different tumor locations. Treatment planning was performed on computed tomography (CT) data sets of 6 patients who had received lumpectomy treatments. Tumor locations were classified into 8 subsections according to breast quadrant and depth. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), electron beam therapy (ET), and helical tomotherapy (H-TOMO) were utilized to evaluate the dosimetric effect for each tumor location. Conformation number (CN), radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and dose delivered to healthy tissue were estimated. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis. The ET approach showed good sparing effects and acceptable target coverage for the lower inner quadrant—superficial (LIQ-S) and lower inner quadrant—deep (LIQ-D) locations. The H-TOMO method was the least effective technique as no evaluation index achieved superiority for all tumor locations except CN. The ET method is advisable for treating LIQ-S and LIQ-D tumors, as opposed to 3D-CRT or H-TOMO, because of acceptable target coverage and much lower dose applied to surrounding tissue.

  5. VMAT-SBRT planning based on an average intensity projection for lung tumors located in close proximity to the diaphragm: a phantom and clinical validity study.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shingo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Misaki; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Isono, Masaru; Kamikaseda, Hiroshi; Masaoka, Akira; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to validate the use of an average intensity projection (AIP) for volumetric-modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT) planning for a moving lung tumor located near the diaphragm. VMAT-SBRT plans were created using AIPs reconstructed from 10 phases of 4DCT images that were acquired with a target phantom moving with amplitudes of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm. To generate a 4D dose distribution, the static dose for each phase was recalculated and the doses were accumulated by using the phantom position known for each phase. For 10 patients with lung tumors, a deformable registration was used to generate 4D dose distributions. Doses to the target volume obtained from the AIP plan and the 4D plan were compared, as were the doses obtained from each plan to the organs at risk (OARs). In both phantom and clinical study, dose discrepancies for all parameters of the dose volume (D(min), D(99), D(max), D(1) and D(mean)) to the target were <3%. The discrepancies of D(max) for spinal cord, esophagus and heart were <1 Gy, and the discrepancy of V20 for lung tissue was <1%. However, for OARs with large respiratory motion, the discrepancy of the D(max) was as much as 9.6 Gy for liver and 5.7 Gy for stomach. Thus, AIP is clinically acceptable as a planning CT image for predicting 4D dose, but doses to the OARs with large respiratory motion were underestimated with the AIP approach.

  6. VMAT–SBRT planning based on an average intensity projection for lung tumors located in close proximity to the diaphragm: a phantom and clinical validity study

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Shingo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Misaki; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Isono, Masaru; Kamikaseda, Hiroshi; Masaoka, Akira; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to validate the use of an average intensity projection (AIP) for volumetric-modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT–SBRT) planning for a moving lung tumor located near the diaphragm. VMAT–SBRT plans were created using AIPs reconstructed from 10 phases of 4DCT images that were acquired with a target phantom moving with amplitudes of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm. To generate a 4D dose distribution, the static dose for each phase was recalculated and the doses were accumulated by using the phantom position known for each phase. For 10 patients with lung tumors, a deformable registration was used to generate 4D dose distributions. Doses to the target volume obtained from the AIP plan and the 4D plan were compared, as were the doses obtained from each plan to the organs at risk (OARs). In both phantom and clinical study, dose discrepancies for all parameters of the dose volume (Dmin, D99, Dmax, D1 and Dmean) to the target were <3%. The discrepancies of Dmax for spinal cord, esophagus and heart were <1 Gy, and the discrepancy of V20 for lung tissue was <1%. However, for OARs with large respiratory motion, the discrepancy of the Dmax was as much as 9.6 Gy for liver and 5.7 Gy for stomach. Thus, AIP is clinically acceptable as a planning CT image for predicting 4D dose, but doses to the OARs with large respiratory motion were underestimated with the AIP approach. PMID:26419645

  7. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  10. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-02-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of /sup 35/S-labeled NaSO/sub 4/ into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage.

  11. Cognitive Outcome following Unilateral Arterial Ischaemic Stroke in Childhood: Effects of Age at Stroke and Lesion Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmacott, Robyn; Askalan, Rand; MacGregor, Daune; Anderson, Peter; deVeber, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Plasticity in the developing brain is a controversial issue. Although language and motor function often recover remarkably well following early brain injury, recent evidence suggests that damage to the developing brain results in significant long-term neuropsychological impairment. Our aim was to investigate the relationship among age at…

  12. Effects of Ageing and Hearing Thresholds on Speech Perception in Quiet and in Noise Perceived in Different Locations

    PubMed Central

    Wahat, Nor Haniza Abdul; Mazlan, Rafidah

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study investigated the effect of ageing on speech perception in quiet and in noise, with noise directed from front, right and left. Subjects and Methods Sixty Malay native adults with normal or near normal hearing comprising of 20 young adults (21 to 39 years old), 20 middle aged (40 to 59 years old) and 20 older adults (60 to 74 years old) participated in this study. Their speech perception ability was measured using the Malay Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in four test conditions; 1) in quiet (HINT Q), 2) with noise from front (HINT NF), 3) with noise from right (HINT NR), and 4) with noise from left (HINT NL). Reception thresholds for sentences (RTSs) were measured in each of the aforementioned conditions using an adaptive method. Results The results showed that, 1) genuine age-related decline was found in speech perception performance in HINT (NF), 2) hearing threshold was a major determinant differentiating speech perception performance for HINT (Q) and HINT (NL) conditions, and 3) speech perception performance for HINT (NR) was determined by both age and hearing threshold. Conclusions This study suggests that, in older adults, while hearing thresholds affect speech perception in quiet, other factors such as central auditory processing and cognitive functions might be more important determinant factors for speech perception performance in noise. PMID:25558404

  13. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that

  14. IMMMUNOPHENOTYPE OF SPONTANEOUS HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS OCCURRING IN YOUNG AND AGING FEMALE CD-1 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Rehg, Jerold E.; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not be published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in young female CD-1 mice used as health monitoring sentinels and aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80 wk carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice 12 mo or less of age, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic T-cell lymphomas were common in mice > 12 mo old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic MuLV genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of MuLV protein by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods. PMID:26224701

  15. Immunophenotype of Spontaneous Hematolymphoid Tumors Occurring in Young and Aging Female CD-1 Mice. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Rehg, Jerold E; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-10-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not been published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in 24 young female CD-1 mice used as health-monitoring sentinels and 32 aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80-week carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice aged 12 months or less, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas were common in mice >12-mo-old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of a MuLV protein p30 by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods.

  16. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chorti, Angeliki; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a benign lesion characterized by its specific histological findings and is found as solitary or multiple lesions in several locations of the human body. The aim of the present systematic review is to give a detailed account of all reported cases of CFT in the literature and to analyze the available data, to completely characterize the entity from epidemiological, medical, and surgical aspects. A bibliographic research was performed from 1988 until 2015. A database with the patients’ characteristics was made, including sex, age, location of the tumor, symptoms, symptoms duration, size of the tumor, diagnostic methods, treatment, metastasis, and follow-up. A total of 104 articles were identified, reporting 157 cases of CFT. Mean age of patients was 33.58 years and the ratio between men and women was 1:1.27. The most common locations of CFT were stomach (18%), small intestine (8.7%), pleura (9.9%), mesentery (5%), and peritoneum (6.8%). Mean diameter of the tumor was estimated 4.6 cm. The correlations proceeded showed that as age increases, size decreases (P = 0.001) and that the tumor is larger in females (P = 0.027). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the larger tumors appear in the neck and adrenal gland (P = 0.001). The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 30.57%. Computed tomography and biopsy were the most common tests for the diagnosis of CFT. Open surgical procedure was performed in the majority of cases. The median hospitalization was 6.06 days and the mean follow-up period was 29.97 months. Recurrences were mentioned in 10 of 96 patients with available data. No deaths owing to CFT were mentioned in the literature. CFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarging mass revealed by clinical or imaging examination either incidentally or after specific acute or chronic symptomatology. PMID:27196478

  17. Expression of a Mutant p53 Results in an Age-Related Demographic Shift in Spontaneous Lung Tumor Formation in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenrui; Gao, Li; Wu, Xin; Hade, Erinn M.; Gao, Jian-Xin; Ding, Haiming; Barsky, Sanford H.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mutations in the P53 gene are among the most common genetic abnormalities in human lung cancer. Codon 273 in the sequence-specific DNA binding domain is one of the most frequently mutated sites. Methodology To investigate the role of mutant p53 in lung tumorigenesis, a lung specific p53(273H) transgenic mouse model was developed. Rates of lung cancer formation in the transgenic animals and their littermates were evaluated by necropsy studies performed in progressive age cohorts ranging from 4 to 24 months. In order to establish the influence of other common genetic abnormalities in lung tumor formation in the animals, K-Ras gene mutation and p16INK4a (p16) promoter methylation were evaluated in a total of 281 transgenic mice and 189 non-transgenic littermates. Principal Findings At the age extremes of 4–12 and 22–24 months no differences were observed, with very low prevalence of tumors in animals younger than 12 months, and a relatively high prevalence at age 22 months or older. However, the transgenic mice had a significant higher lung tumor rate than their non-transgenic counterparts during the age of 13–21 months, suggesting an age-related shift in lung tumor formation induced by the lung-specific expression of the human mutant p53. Histopathology suggested a more aggressive nature for the transgenic tumors. Older mice (>13 months) had a significantly higher rate of p16 promoter methylation (17% v 82%). In addition, an age related effect was observed for K-Ras codons 12 or 13 mutations, but not for codon 61 mutations. Conclusions/Significance These results would suggest that the mutant p53(273H) contributes to an acceleration in the development of spontaneous lung tumors in these mice. Combination with other genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring after the age of 13 months is intimately linked to its oncogenic potential. PMID:19440353

  18. Changes in sex and non-sex hormones and distribution of erythrocyte antigens in reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus in Adjara.

    PubMed

    Nakashidze, I; Kotrikadze, N; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M; Ramishvili, L

    2013-04-01

    The aim the research was to study the hormonal state of reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus. The quantitative changes of sex steroid hormones: progesterone (P), estradiol (E), testosterone (T), gonadotropine -Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were investigated. Distribution of ABO blood group antigens and Rh-Hr systems genetic variants in the blood of women living in Adjara Region was also studied. For study was used reproductive age women's blood with benign (fibromioma) and malignant (endometrial cancer) tumors of body of uterus (the middle age was 20-45 years). The determination of hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA). For the research of blood groups, were used the immunoserologic methods. The study have revealed that in blood of reproductive age women with benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus, level of estradiol was increased while levels of progesterone and testosterone were sharply reduced. Amount of Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone were also increased. It's significant that, both hormones were sharply increased in case of cancer of body of uterus, in comparison with control group and benign tumor. According to distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes - O (I) phenotypic group of ABO system has its highest frequency in blood of women with cancer of body of uterus. Cancer of body of uterus is associated with O (I) phenotypic groups; benign tumor of body of uterus - with A(II) and AB(IV) phenotypic groups. Women with cc and EE genetic variants of Rh-Hr system have sensitivity to the development of benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus; women with ee genetic variant have lower sensitivity towards body of uterus cancer and sharply expressed sensitivity to uterus benign tumors. In women with malignant tumors of body of uterus the frequency of distribution of Rh-Hr system CC genetic variant was sharply reduced. PMID:23676481

  19. Age dependence of tumor genetics in unfavorable neuroblastoma: arrayCGH profiles of 34 consecutive cases, using a Swedish 25-year neuroblastoma cohort for validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aggressive neuroblastoma remains a significant cause of childhood cancer death despite current intensive multimodal treatment protocols. The purpose of the present work was to characterize the genetic and clinical diversity of such tumors by high resolution arrayCGH profiling. Methods Based on a 32K BAC whole-genome tiling path array and using 50-250K Affymetrix SNP array platforms for verification, DNA copy number profiles were generated for 34 consecutive high-risk or lethal outcome neuroblastomas. In addition, age and MYCN amplification (MNA) status were retrieved for 112 unfavorable neuroblastomas of the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry, representing a 25-year neuroblastoma cohort of Sweden, here used for validation of the findings. Statistical tests used were: Fisher’s exact test, Bayes moderated t-test, independent samples t-test, and correlation analysis. Results MNA or segmental 11q loss (11q-) was found in 28/34 tumors. With two exceptions, these aberrations were mutually exclusive. Children with MNA tumors were diagnosed at significantly younger ages than those with 11q- tumors (mean: 27.4 vs. 69.5 months; p=0.008; n=14/12), and MNA tumors had significantly fewer segmental chromosomal aberrations (mean: 5.5 vs. 12.0; p<0.001). Furthermore, in the 11q- tumor group a positive correlation was seen between the number of segmental aberrations and the age at diagnosis (Pearson Correlation 0.606; p=0.037). Among nonMNA/non11q- tumors (n=6), one tumor displayed amplicons on 11q and 12q and three others bore evidence of progression from low-risk tumors due to retrospective evidence of disease six years before diagnosis, or due to tumor profiles with high proportions of numerical chromosomal aberrations. An early age at diagnosis of MNA neuroblastomas was verified by registry data, with an average of 29.2 months for 43 cases that were not included in the present study. Conclusion MNA and segmental 11q loss define two major genetic variants of

  20. SU-E-J-55: Dosimetric Evaluation of Centrally Located Lung Tumors: A Monte Carlo (MC) Study of Lung SBRT Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Estes, C; Park, J; Kumar, P; Wang, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions calculated using the iPlan XVMC algorithm and heterogeneities corrected/uncorrected Pencil Beam (PB-hete/PB-homo) algorithms for SBRT treatments of lung tumors. Methods: Ten patients with centrally located solitary lung tumors were treated using MC-based SBRT to 60Gy in 5 fractions for PTVV100%=95%. ITV was delineated on MIP-images based on 4D-CT scans. PTVs(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 10.1–106.5cc(mean=48.6cc). MC-SBRT plans were generated with a combination of non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan-XVMC-algorithm (BrainLABiPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX consisting of HD-MLCs and 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) mode, following RTOG 0813 dosimetric criteria. For comparison, PB-hete/PB-homo algorithms were used to re-calculate dose distributions using same beam configurations, MLCs/monitor units. Plans were evaluated with isocenter/maximal/mean doses to PTV. Normal lung doses were evaluated with V5/V10/V20 and mean-lung-dose(MLD), excluding PTV. Other OAR doses such as maximal spinal cord/2cc-esophagus/max bronchial tree (BT/maximal heart doses were tabulated. Results: Maximal/mean/isocenter doses to PTV calculated by PB-hete were uniformly larger than MC plans by a factors of 1.09/1.13/1.07, on average, whereas they were consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.9/0.84/0.9, respectively. The volume covered by 5Gy/10Gy/20Gy isodose-lines of the lung were comparable (average within±3%) when calculated by PB-hete compared to XVMC, but, consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.90/0.88/0.85, respectively. MLD was higher with PB-hete by 1.05, but, lower by PB-homo by 0.9, on average, compared to XVMC. XVMC max-cord/max-BT/max-heart and 2cc of esophagus doses were comparable to PB-hete; however, PB-homo underestimates by a factors of 0.82/0.89/0.88/0.86, on average, respectively. Conclusion: PB-hete significantly overestimates dose to PTV relative to XVMC -hence underdosing the target. MC is more complex and accurate with

  1. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  2. Mercury Accumulation in Harbour Seals from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: The Role of Transplacental Transfer, Lactation, Age and Location.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Jeffries, Steven; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Telmer, Kevin; Macdonald, Robie; Ross, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain in the form of methylmercury, a compound well known for its neurotoxicity. We analyzed total mercury (THg) in hair collected from 209 harbour seals captured at 10 sites in British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (USA) between 2003 and 2010. In addition, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allowed for a highly refined analysis of THg accumulation over time by examining nine whiskers taken from 4- to 6-week-old pups. We estimate that THg concentrations in pups increased sharply at a point corresponding to mid- to late gestation of their time in utero (4.7 ± 0.8 and 6.6 ± 1.3 µg/g dry weight (dw), respectively), and then again at the onset of nursing (8.1 ± 1.3 µg/g dw). These abrupt changes highlight the importance of both pre- and post-natal THg transfer from the mother to the growing fetus and the newborn pup. While THg levels varied among sites, hair analyses from seals collected at the same site demonstrated the influence of age in THg accumulation with pups (5.3 ± 0.3 µg/g) and juveniles (4.5 ± 0.5 µg/g) having lower levels than those in adults (8.3 ± 0.8 µg/g). Our results revealed that 33 % of the pups sampled (n = 167) had THg levels that surpassed a mammalian hair threshold for neurochemical alterations. This study suggests that Hg could represent a health concern to marine wildlife, especially as atmospheric emissions of this toxic element from human activities in the Pacific Rim and worldwide continue.

  3. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:1561298

  4. Mercury Accumulation in Harbour Seals from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: The Role of Transplacental Transfer, Lactation, Age and Location.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Jeffries, Steven; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Telmer, Kevin; Macdonald, Robie; Ross, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain in the form of methylmercury, a compound well known for its neurotoxicity. We analyzed total mercury (THg) in hair collected from 209 harbour seals captured at 10 sites in British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (USA) between 2003 and 2010. In addition, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allowed for a highly refined analysis of THg accumulation over time by examining nine whiskers taken from 4- to 6-week-old pups. We estimate that THg concentrations in pups increased sharply at a point corresponding to mid- to late gestation of their time in utero (4.7 ± 0.8 and 6.6 ± 1.3 µg/g dry weight (dw), respectively), and then again at the onset of nursing (8.1 ± 1.3 µg/g dw). These abrupt changes highlight the importance of both pre- and post-natal THg transfer from the mother to the growing fetus and the newborn pup. While THg levels varied among sites, hair analyses from seals collected at the same site demonstrated the influence of age in THg accumulation with pups (5.3 ± 0.3 µg/g) and juveniles (4.5 ± 0.5 µg/g) having lower levels than those in adults (8.3 ± 0.8 µg/g). Our results revealed that 33 % of the pups sampled (n = 167) had THg levels that surpassed a mammalian hair threshold for neurochemical alterations. This study suggests that Hg could represent a health concern to marine wildlife, especially as atmospheric emissions of this toxic element from human activities in the Pacific Rim and worldwide continue. PMID:26159879

  5. Probing single-tumor cell interactions with different-age type I collagen networks by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Marie; Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Wehbe, Katia; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Yang, Ying; Cinque, Gianfelice; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2014-01-01

    We report here on a first study using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and imaging to investigate HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells grown onto different-aged type I collagen networks. Spectral images were analyzed with k-means and fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithms. K-means delineated tumor cells from their surrounding collagen networks and the latter as a function of age mainly due to specific changes in the sugar absorption region. The FCM analysis gave a better nuance of the spectral images. A progression of the biochemical information was observed upon going from the cellular compartments to the pericellular contact regions and to the intact collagens of the different age groups. Two spectral markers based on sugar and protein bands via the intensity ratio (I1032/I1655) and band area ratio (Asugar/Aamide II), showed an increase in advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) with age. A clear-separation of the three age groups was obtained for spectra originating from the peripheral contact areas mainly due to changes in protein band intensities. The above-described markers decreased to constant levels for the three conditions indicating a masking of the biochemical information. These results hold promises to better understand the impact of age on tumor progression processes while highlighting new markers of the tumor cell invasion front. PMID:25193972

  6. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the giant soil-burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros saussure (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Geoscapheinae): analysis with respect to age, sex and location.

    PubMed

    Brown, W V; Rose, H A; Lacey, M J; Wright, K

    2000-11-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of a widespread species of soil-burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, have been sampled from most of its known geographical locations. Analysis of extracts from individual insects has enabled a study of differences within a population as well as among geographical locations. In the case of M. rhinoceros, except for newly hatched first-instar nymphs, variations in hydrocarbon composition among individuals of different cohorts of M. rhinoceros, based on age and sex, are no greater than those among individuals of a single cohort. Geographical populations of this species are variable in hydrocarbon composition unless they occur within a few kilometres of each other. A few populations showed very different hydrocarbon patterns but, in the absence of any correlating biological differences, it is uncertain whether this signifies the presence of otherwise unrecognizable sibling species or just extreme examples of the geographical variation characteristic of this group of insects.

  7. Age and life course location as interpretive resources for decisions regarding disclosure of HIV to parents and children: Findings from the HIV and later life study.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Ridge, Damien; Catalan, Jose; Delpech, Valerie

    2016-08-01

    Studies of disclosure amongst older people living with HIV (PLWH) are uninformed by critical social-gerontological approaches that can help us to appreciate how older PLWH see and treat age as relevant to disclosure of their HIV status. These approaches include an ethnomethodologically-informed social constructionism that explores how 'the' life course (a cultural framework depicting individuals' movement through predictable developmental stages from birth to death) is used as an interpretive resource for determining self and others' characteristics, capacities, and social circumstances: a process Rosenfeld and Gallagher (2002) termed 'lifecoursing'. Applying this approach to our analysis of 74 life-history interviews and three focus groups with older (aged 50+) people living with HIV in the United Kingdom, we uncover the central role that lifecoursing plays in participants' decision-making surrounding disclosure of their HIV to their children and/or older parents. Analysis of participants' accounts uncovered four criteria for disclosure: the relevance of their HIV to the other, the other's knowledge about HIV, the likelihood of the disclosure causing the other emotional distress, and the other's ability to keep the disclosed confidential. To determine if these criteria were met in relation to specific children and/or elders, participants engaged in lifecoursing, evaluating the other's knowledge of HIV, and capacity to appropriately manage the disclosure, by reference to their age. The use of assumptions about age and life-course location in decision-making regarding disclosure of HIV reflects a more nuanced engagement with age in the disclosure decision-making process than has been captured by previous research into HIV disclosure, including on the part of people aging with HIV. PMID:27531455

  8. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  9. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  10. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  11. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period.

  12. Induction of mammary tumors in aging rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene: role of DNA synthesis during carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.K.; Dao, T.L.

    1980-03-01

    Two routes of administration were used to test the susceptibility of the mammary gland of the rat to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) carcinogenesis in relation to age of the tissue. In one series of experiments, 60-, 70-, 90-, 120-, 150-, and 200-day-old female nonbred Sprague-Dawley rats were given DMBA iv. In parallel experiments, rats of the same ages as those above were given DMBA by local application. Mammary tumors developed in 89 to 90% of the 60- and 70-day-old rats and in 40% of the 90-day-old rats. Rats 120 days old and older were completely refractory to DMBA. In contrast, all rats, irrespective of their ages, developed tumors when DMBA was applied locally. DMBA given iv significantly inhibited DNA synthesis in mammary glands, but DMBA applied locally significantly increased the Li of the mammary glands.

  13. Helminth parasites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway with special emphasis on nematodes: variation with age, sex, diet, and location of host.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Carina E; Lydersen, Christian; Aspholm, Paul E; Haug, Tore; Kovacs, Kit M

    2010-10-01

    Complete gastrointestinal tracts from 257 ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway, were examined for helminth parasites. Three different helminth groups were recorded (acanthocephalans 61.1%; nematodes 38%; cestodes 0.9%). Acanthocephalans (Polymorphidae) and cestodes (Anophryocephalus and Diphyllobothrium sp(p)., as well as unidentified species, were confined to the intestines. The anisakid nematodes Phocascaris phocae, Pseudoterranova sp(p)., Anisakis sp(p)., and Phocascaris/Contracaecum sp(p). were recorded in both stomachs and the anterior part of the small intestines. The abundance of nematodes and acanthocephalans varied significantly with sampling location of the seal hosts. This is likely due to the relative prevalence of Arctic versus Atlantic water in the different fjord systems, which strongly influences the age class and species of fish available as prey for the seals. Adult male ringed seals had significantly higher abundances of nematodes than did adult females or juveniles. Adult males also had significantly higher abundances of acanthocephalans than did adult females, but were not significantly different from juveniles in this regard. Nematode abundance increased significantly with age of male hosts, but this trend was lacking in female seals. Infection parameters appeared to be related to differences in the age of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) exploited by male, female, and juvenile seals.

  14. Caffeine suppresses exercise-enhanced long-term and location memory in middle-aged rats: Involvement of hippocampal Akt and CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-11-01

    The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol. PMID:25260559

  15. Caffeine suppresses exercise-enhanced long-term and location memory in middle-aged rats: Involvement of hippocampal Akt and CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-11-01

    The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol.

  16. Variants located upstream of CHRNB4 on chromosome 15q25.1 are associated with age at onset of daily smoking and habitual smoking.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Manav; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bertelsen, Sarah; Bucholz, Kathy; Budde, John P; Hinrichs, Anthony; Agrawal, Arpana; Brooks, Andrew; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Foroud, Tatiana; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Manz, Niklas; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Rice, John; Tischfield, Jay; Xuei, Xiaoling; Schuckit, Marc; Edenberg, Howard J; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Several genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have linked chromosome 15q24-q25.1 (a region including the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster) with alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and smoking-related illnesses such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To further examine the impact of these genes on the development of substance use disorders, we tested whether variants within and flanking the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster affect the transition to daily smoking (individuals who smoked cigarettes 4 or more days per week) in a cross sectional sample of adolescents and young adults from the COGA (Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism) families. Subjects were recruited from families affected with alcoholism (either as a first or second degree relative) and the comparison families. Participants completed the SSAGA interview, a comprehensive assessment of alcohol and other substance use and related behaviors. Using the Quantitative trait disequilibrium test (QTDT) significant association was detected between age at onset of daily smoking and variants located upstream of CHRNB4. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model further revealed that these variants significantly predict the age at onset of habitual smoking among daily smokers. These variants were not in high linkage disequilibrium (0.28age-associated relationship underlies the association of SNPs in CHRNB4 with onset of chronic smoking behaviors in adolescents and young adults and may improve genetic information that will lead to better prevention and intervention for substance use disorders among adolescents and young adults.

  17. Screening outcomes in older US women undergoing multiple mammograms in community practice: does interval, age, or comorbidity score affect tumor characteristics or false positive rates?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Dejana; Zhu, Weiwei; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Geller, Berta; Dittus, Kim; Moore, Dan; Wernli, Karen J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-03-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity.

  18. Retrorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Bullard Dunn, Kelli

    2010-02-01

    Retrorectal or presacral tumors are rare and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Because the retrorectal space contains multiple embryologic remnants derived from various tissues, the tumors that develop in this space are heterogeneous. Most lesions are benign, but malignant neoplasms are not uncommon. Lesions are classified as congenital, neurogenic, osseous, inflammatory, or miscellaneous. Although treatment depends on diagnosis and anatomic location, most retrorectal lesions will require surgical resection.

  19. Impact of tumor location and pathological discordance on survival of children with midline high-grade gliomas treated on Children’s Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Ian F.; Demers, Alain; Sapp, Mark V.; Lambert, Pascal; Weisfeld-Adams, James D.; Burger, Peter C.; Gilles, Floyd; Davis, Richard L.; Packer, Roger; Boyett, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with high-grade glioma (HGG) have a poor prognosis compared to those with low-grade glioma (LGG). Adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial, but its optimal use remains undetermined. Histology and extent of resection are important prognostic factors. We tested the hypothesis that patients with midline HGG treated on Children’s Cancer Group Study (CCG) CCG-945 have a worse prognosis compared to the entire group. Of 172 children eligible for analysis, 60 had midline tumors primarily localized to the thalamus, hypothalamus and basal ganglia. Time-to-progression and death were determined from the date of initial diagnosis, and survival curves were calculated. Univariate analyses were undertaken for extent of resection, chemotherapy regimen, anatomic location, histology, proliferation index, MGMT status and p53 over-expression. For the entire midline tumor group, 5-year PFS and OS were 18.3 ± 4.8 and 25 ± 5.4 %, respectively. Many patients only had a biopsy (43.3 %). The sub-groups with near/total resection and hypothalamic location appeared to have better PFS and OS. However, the effect of tumor histology on OS was significant for children with discordant diagnoses on central pathology review of LGG compared to HGG. Proliferative index (MIB-1 > 36 %), MGMT and p53 over-expression correlated with poor outcomes. Children treated on CCG-945 with midline HGG have a worse prognosis when compared to the entire group. The midline location may directly influence the extent of resection. Central pathology review and entry of patients on clinical trials continue to be priorities to improve outcomes for children with HGG. PMID:25431150

  20. Neuroimaging of spine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Nandor K; Pfiffner, Thomas J; Mechtler, Laszlo L

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary, intradural/extramedullary, and extradural spine tumors comprise a wide range of neoplasms with an even wider range of clinical symptoms and prognostic features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), commonly used to evaluate the spine in patients presenting with pain, can further characterize lesions that may be encountered on other imaging studies, such as bone scintigraphy or computed tomography (CT). The advantage of the MRI is its multiplane capabilities, superior contrast agent resolution, and flexible protocols that play an important role in assessing tumor location, extent in directing biopsy, in planning proper therapy, and in evaluating therapeutic results. A multimodality approach can be used to fully characterize the lesion and the combination of information obtained from the different modalities usually narrows the diagnostic possibilities significantly. The diagnosis of spinal tumors is based on patient age, topographic features of the tumor, and lesion pattern, as seen at CT and MRI. The shift to high-end imaging incorporating diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, whole-body short tau inversion recovery, positron emission tomography, intraoperative and high-field MRI as part of the mainstream clinical imaging protocol has provided neurologists, neuro-oncologists, and neurosurgeons a window of opportunity to assess the biologic behavior of spine neoplasms. This chapter reviews neuroimaging of spine tumors, primary and secondary, discussing routine and newer modalities that can reduce the significant morbidity associated with these neoplasms. PMID:27430436

  1. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  2. Sleep fragmentation and sepsis differentially impact blood-brain barrier integrity and transport of tumor necrosis factor-α in aging.

    PubMed

    Opp, Mark R; George, Amrita; Ringgold, Kristyn M; Hansen, Kim M; Bullock, Kristin M; Banks, William A

    2015-11-01

    The factors by which aging predisposes to critical illness are varied, complex, and not well understood. Sepsis is considered a quintessential disease of old age because the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis increases in old and the oldest old individuals. Aging is associated with dramatic changes in sleep quality and quantity and sleep increasingly becomes fragmented with age. In healthy adults, sleep disruption induces inflammation. Multiple aspects of aging and of sleep dysregulation interact via neuroimmune mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), a cytokine involved in sleep regulation and neuroimmune processes, exerts some of its effects on the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study we examined the impact of sepsis, sleep fragmentation, and aging on BBB disruption and TNF transport into brain. We used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in young and aged mice that were either undisturbed or had their sleep disrupted. There was a dichotomous effect of sepsis and sleep disruption with age: sepsis disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in young mice but not in aged mice, whereas sleep fragmentation disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in aged mice, but not in young mice. Combining sleep fragmentation and CLP did not produce a greater effect on either of these BBB parameters than did either of these manipulations alone. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which sleep fragmentation and sepsis alter BBB functions are fundamentally different from one another and that a major change in the organism's responses to those insults occurs with aging.

  3. 3pK, a new mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase located in the small cell lung cancer tumor suppressor gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Sithanandam, G; Latif, F; Duh, F M; Bernal, R; Smola, U; Li, H; Kuzmin, I; Wixler, V; Geil, L; Shrestha, S

    1996-01-01

    NotI linking clones, localized to the human chromosome 3p21.3 region and homozygously deleted in small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H740 and NCI-H1450, were used to search for a putative tumor suppressor gene(s). One of these clones, NL1G210, detected a 2.5-kb mRNA in all examined human tissues, expression being especially high in the heart and skeletal muscle. Two overlapping cDNA clones containing the entire open reading frame were isolated from a human heart cDNA library and fully characterized. Computer analysis and a search of the GenBank database to reveal high sequence identity of the product of this gene to serine-threonine kinases, especially to mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2, a recently described substrate of mitogen-activated kinases. Sequence identitiy was 72% at the nucleotide level and 75% at the amino acid level, strongly suggesting that this protein is a serine-threonine kinase. Here we demonstrate that the new gene, referred to as 3pK (for chromosome 3p kinase), in fact encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated protein serine-threonine kinase with a novel substrate specificity. PMID:8622688

  4. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  5. Growth-inhibiting effect of tumor necrosis factor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells is enhanced with advancing age in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Y.; Kaji, K.; Ito, H.; Noda, K.; Matsuo, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the effects of in vitro aging on the growth capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under the influence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) with or without interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The growth and colony-forming abilities of control cells were impaired with advancing age in vitro, especially at later stages (more than 70-80% of life span completed). It was found that treatment with TNF inhibited growth and colony-forming efficiency at any in vitro age. The effects of TNF were shown to increase with increasing in vitro age, as reflected by a more pronounced increase in doubling times, a decrease in saturation density, and a reduction in colony-forming efficiency. However, the characteristics of TNF receptors, including the dissociation constant, and the number of TNF-binding sites per cell-surface area remained rather constant. The effect of TNF was augmented by IFN-gamma at a dose that alone affected growth and colony formation only slightly. The augmentation by IFN-gamma was also found to depend on in vitro age; the synergy with TNF in the deterioration of colony-forming ability was observed only in aged cells. These results suggest that the intrinsic responsiveness of HUVECs to growth-inhibiting factors, as well as to growth-stimulating factors, changes during aging in vitro.

  6. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

  7. Scrotal tumors in dogs: a retrospective study of 676 cases (1986-2010).

    PubMed

    Trappler, Michelle C; Popovitch, Cathy A; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Goldschmidt, Kyle H; Risbon, Rebecca E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine common tumor types that occur on the canine scrotum in relation to other cutaneous locations and to identify potential risk factors for specific scrotal tumor development. A retrospective study was conducted and the database of pathology reports from the Surgical Pathology Service of the Department of Pathology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania from 1986 to 2010 was searched for canine neoplastic scrotal and non-scrotal cutaneous lesions. Neoplastic lesions were evaluated based on diagnosis, breed, age, and number and location of tumors (scrotal versus non-scrotal cutaneous). Mast cell tumor, melanocytoma, malignant melanoma, vascular hamartoma, hemangiosarcoma, hemangioma, and cutaneous histiocytoma were the most common tumor types identified on the canine scrotum. Breed predispositions and mean age at diagnosis were identified for each tumor type and should be considered when planning surgical excision of a canine scrotal tumor.

  8. Proposal for a new risk stratification classification for meningioma based on patient age, WHO tumor grade, size, localization, and karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Patrícia Henriques; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, Álvaro; Gonçalves, Jesus Maria; Ruiz, Laura; de Oliveira, Catarina; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years. Methods Tumor cytogenetics were systematically investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 302 meningioma samples, and the proposed classification was further validated in an independent series of cases (n = 132) analyzed by high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Results Overall, we found an adverse impact on patient relapse-free survival (RFS) for males, presence of brain edema, younger patients (<55 years), tumor size >50 mm, tumor localization at intraventricular and anterior cranial base areas, WHO grade II/III meningiomas, and complex karyotypes; the latter 5 variables showed an independent predictive value in multivariate analysis. Based on these parameters, a prognostic score was established for each individual case, and patients were stratified into 4 risk categories with significantly different (P < .001) outcomes. These included a good prognosis group, consisting of approximately 20% of cases, that showed a RFS of 100% ± 0% at 10 years and a very poor-prognosis group with a RFS rate of 0% ± 0% at 10 years. The prognostic impact of the scoring system proposed here was also retained when WHO grade I cases were considered separately (P < .001). Conclusions Based on this risk-stratification classification, different strategies may be adopted for follow-up, and eventually also for treatment, of meningioma patients at different risks for relapse. PMID:24536048

  9. Androgen receptor expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in a large series of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed in 427 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the expression of such hormone receptors was investigated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray technique. All tumors were negative for estrogen receptor expression. Progesterone and androgen receptors expression was observed in 5.4% and 17.6% of tumors, respectively. We found the higher average age at diagnosis, the lower frequency of tumors located in the small intestine, and the higher frequency of extragastrointestinal tumors to be statistically significant in the group of tumors with androgen receptor expression in contrast to the group showing no androgen receptor expression. There was no statistic difference between such groups regarding sex, tumor size, mitotic count, cell morphology, and risk of aggressive behavior. Considering that the expression of androgen receptors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is not negligible, further studies are encouraged to establish the role of androgen deprivation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  10. Tumor location, but not H3.3K27M, significantly influences the blood-brain-barrier permeability in a genetic mouse model of pediatric high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Subashi, Ergys; Cordero, Francisco J; Halvorson, Kyle G; Qi, Yi; Nouls, John C; Becher, Oren J; Johnson, G Allan

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) occur with strikingly different frequencies in infratentorial and supratentorial regions. Although histologically these malignancies appear similar, they represent distinct diseases. Recent genomic studies have identified histone K27M H3.3/H3.1 mutations in the majority of brainstem pHGGs; these mutations are rarely encountered in pHGGs that arise in the cerebral cortex. Previous research in brainstem pHGGs suggests a restricted permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). In this work, we use dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to evaluate BBB permeability in a genetic mouse model of pHGG as a function of location (cortex vs. brainstem, n = 8 mice/group) and histone mutation (mutant H3.3K27M vs. wild-type H3.3, n = 8 mice/group). The pHGG models are induced either in the brainstem or the cerebral cortex and are driven by PDGF signaling and p53 loss with either H3.3K27M or wild-type H3.3. T2-weighted MRI was used to determine tumor location/extent followed by 4D DCE-MRI for estimating the rate constant (K (trans) ) for tracer exchange across the barrier. BBB permeability was 67 % higher in cortical pHGGs relative to brainstem pHGGs (t test, p = 0.012) but was not significantly affected by the expression of mutant H3.3K27M versus wild-type H3.3 (t-test, p = 0.78). Although mice became symptomatic at approximately the same time, the mean volume of cortical tumors was 3.6 times higher than the mean volume of brainstem tumors. The difference between the mean volume of gliomas with wild-type and mutant H3.3 was insignificant. Mean K (trans) was significantly correlated to glioma volume. These results present a possible explanation for the poor response of brainstem pHGGs to systemic therapy. Our findings illustrate a potential role played by the microenvironment in shaping tumor growth and BBB permeability. PMID:26511492

  11. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3. 0 m. y. old in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-12-01

    This map is one of a series of maps designed for hot dry rock geothermal assessment in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of the west Texas. The 3.0 m.y. cutoff age was selected because original heat has probably largely dissipated in older rocks. The location of volcanic centers is more important to geothermal resource assessment than the location of their associated volcanic rocks; however, ages have been determined for numerous flows far from their source. Therefore, the distribution of all volcanic rocks less than or equal to 3.0 m.y. old, for which there is at least one determined age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages were obtained from the original literature in all cases except for McKee and others (1974), Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976). The abstract by McKee and others (1974) lists only the ages of various rocks they dated, so locations were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). The dates of Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976) are taken from written communications cited by Luedke and Smith (1978); therefore, both references are shown on the map for those ages.

  12. Age-related decline in melatonin and its MT1 receptor are associated with decreased sensitivity to melatonin and enhanced mammary tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Hill, Steven M; Cheng, Chi; Yuan, Lin; Mao, Lulu; Jockers, Rolf; Dauchy, Bob; Blask, David E

    2013-02-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) has potent anti-breast cancer activity, its actions are heavily mediated via the MT1 receptor and subsequent modulation of downstream signaling pathways including cAMP/PKA, Erk/MAPK, p38, and Ca2+/calmodulin. Also, via the MT1 pathway, MLT can repress the transcriptional activity of some mitogenic nuclear receptors including ERα, GR, and RORα, while potentiating the activity of other receptors (RARα and RXRα) involved in differentiation, anti-proliferation, and apoptosis. A review of the literature supports the view that MLT, via its MT1 receptor, can suppress all phases of breast cancer including initiation, promotion, and progression. During the fifth and sixth decades of life, the production of MLT diminishes, concurrently with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Inasmuch as MLT has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity, we hypothesized that there may be a causal link between the reduction in MLT production in the pineal gland and the incidence of breast cancer which increases with age. We designed this study to establish whether a truly inverse relationship exists between tissue-isolated mammary tumor growth in young (2 months), adult (12 months), and old (20 months) female Buffalo rats and the decrease in both MLT and the MT1 receptor with age, such that a causal link could be found. Serum MLT levels were measured in both the light and dark phases. A significant 29% decrease in serum MLT levels, measured at the nocturnal peak, was found in the adult and senescent rats (75% decrease) in comparison to that in young rats. In young rats, the nocturnal pineal gland MLT content exceeded daytime levels by 19-fold compared to a sevenfold increase in old mice. Also, the MT1 receptor was found to be significantly lower in the nighttime and early morning in the senescent rat uterus as compared to uteri from young and adult rats. Analysis of the rate of growth in transplanted, tissue-isolated, mammary tumors

  13. Clinical analysis of salivary gland tumor cases in West China in past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi; Wen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2008-02-01

    In our study, 3461 cases of salivary gland tumor treated between 1955 and 2002 at West China Stomatology Hospital of Sichuan University were retrospectively analyzed, and compared with the previous reports. Measures such as age, tumor location, tumor histological type, and the nature of the growth (benign or malignant) were recorded at the same time. The findings are as follows: the average ages of salivary gland tumor patients were 41.38 years for the benign cases and 45.20 for the malignant ones; the male:female ratio was 0. 99:1 in the benign cases and 1.34:1 in the malignant ones; primary tumors were mostly in the parotid gland, palate and submandibular gland in sequence. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent benign tumor followed by Warthin's tumor and basal cell adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified were the most frequent malignant tumors. The incidence of salivary gland tumors increased with age. The male:female ratio of malignant tumors was higher than that of benign ones. The parotid gland and palate were the most common locations of salivary gland tumors. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most frequent benign and malignant tumors, respectively.

  14. Ependymoma: a heterogeneous tumor of uncertain origin and limited therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Dorfer, Christian; Tonn, Joerg; Rutka, James T

    2016-01-01

    Ependymomas are tumors that typically occur with an age-based site preference, with adults harboring supratentorial and spinal tumors and pediatric tumors being mainly in the posterior fossa. Despite their similar histologic appearance, the prognosis varies significantly by age and tumor location, with a better prognosis in increasing age. The mainstay of treatment remains surgical excision with or without radiation therapy as the tumor biology is poorly understood and chemotherapy is generally considered to be ineffective. More recently, molecular biology data have increased our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive these tumors, but still it will take a lot of effort to find effective chemotherapeutic regimens. Currently, we are trying to define a subset of tumors, for which radiation therapy can be avoided. PMID:26948369

  15. Salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P J; Black, K M

    1985-10-01

    A retrospective review of 643 patients with salivary gland tumors seen between 1958-72 is reported. There were 328 malignant and 375 benign tumors. All patients with malignant tumors were assessed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. The median age for developing malignant tumors was 58 and there was a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. For benign tumors the median age was 46 years and the male to female ratio 0.8:1. Overall the primary tumor was controlled by the first planned treatment in 145 (44%) malignant tumors and in 253 (80%) benign tumors. The five and 10 year actuarial survival for malignant tumors was 59.4% and 45.6% respectively.

  16. Low back pain beliefs are associated to age, location of work, education and pain-related disability in Chinese healthcare professionals working in China: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    .049). Conclusion This study suggests that LBP-related beliefs and attitudes among Chinese HCPs are influenced by age, location of work, level of LBP-related disability and education level. Understanding back pain beliefs of Chinese HCPs forms an important foundation for future studies into the condition and its management in China. PMID:25065641

  17. Eldercare Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Behavioral Health Caregiver Elder Abuse Prevention Financial Assistance Food & Nutrition Health Insurance Healthy Aging Home Repair & Modification Housing Options In-Home Services Legal Assistance Long ...

  18. Primary pediatric cardiac tumors: a 17 year experience.

    PubMed

    Sallee, D; Spector, M L; van Heeckeren, D W; Patel, C R

    1999-03-01

    We reviewed 22 cases of primary pediatric cardiac tumors followed at our institution from January 1981 through November 1997, analyzing them by subtype, age and manner of presentation, location, associated findings, interventions, and clinical course. Rhabdomyomas were the most common (11), followed by intrapericardial teratomas (2), myxomas (1), fibromas (1), hemangiomas (1), mesotheliomas (1), and rhabdomyosarcomas (1), with 4 undetermined tumors. The majority (77%) of tumors were diagnosed before the age of one year, including six prenatally. The most common presentations were murmurs (5), arrhythmias (5), and abnormal screening fetal ultrasound examinations (4). Tumors were located most frequently in the right ventricle (13) and left ventricle (7), with multiple tumors being present in 10 cases. Eight patients (36%) had associated arrhythmias or conduction abnormalities, and of the 11 patients with rhabdomyomas, tuberous sclerosis was diagnosed in 8. Eight patients underwent cardiac catheterization, including two for electrophysiologic study with radiofrequency ablation, and seven patients had complete or partial tumor resection. The follow-up period ranged from 2 months to 15 years, and there were 3 tumor-related deaths. Therefore, despite the benign histology of most primary pediatric cardiac tumors, there may be significant associated morbidity and occasional mortality. As echocardiographic techniques such as fetal ultrasonography have continued to improve, however, these cardiac tumors have increasingly been detected early before significant symptoms develop.

  19. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    CETINKAYA, NILUFER; BAS, SEVDA; CUYLAN, ZELIHA FIRAT; ERDEM, OZLEM; ERKAYA, SALIM; GUNGOR, TAYFUN

    2016-01-01

    Uterine tumors with ovarian sex cord-like elements are a rarely observed type of uterine body tumor with unknown etiology, and are divided into two groups: Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLEs) and uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs). While ESTSCLEs are commonly associated with metastasis and recurrence, there is limited data in the relevant literature concerning the behavior of UTROSCTs. However, UTROSCTs are typically benign in nature. Although case numbers are limited, extra-uterine or lymph node metastasis has been reported. Surgical approaches may be altered according to the patient's age and desire for future fertility. Hysterectomies with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy or hysteroscopic tumor resection are reported to be safe surgical treatment options. However, in the current report, a case of UTROSCT initially misdiagnosed as adenosarcoma following hysteroscopic tumor resection is presented. Staging surgery revealed the precise diagnosis of the tumor using appropriate immunohistochemical evaluations, and led to the discovery of a secondary tumor focus in the myometrium, adjacent to the location of the previously excised tumor. Thus, hysteroscopic resection is questionable as a definitive surgical treatment in patients exhibiting UTROSCT. If hysteroscopic resection is the selected treatment, close follow-up with diagnostic imaging is recommended. PMID:26893767

  20. Long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine, but not caloric restriction, protects mesenchymal stem cells of aged rats against tumor necrosis factor-induced death.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Claudio; Bonafe', Francesca; Farruggia, Giovanna; Stanic, Ivana; Gamberini, Chiara; Carboni, Marco; Basile, Ilaria; Giordano, Emanuele; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Guarnieri, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulation was evaluated after a long-term antioxidant treatment, or caloric restriction, in aged rats. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of 30-month-old rats which orally received N-acetylcysteine in the last 18 months. The necrotic cell death-induced in vitro by TNFalpha, determined by trypan blue exclusion, was markedly attenuated in MSCs obtained from treated vs. control aged rats (percent mean+/-SEM: 10.9+/-2.17 vs. 17.8+/-0.53; p<0.05). Also, the proliferation rate of MSCs from control, but not N-acetylcysteine-treated, aged rats evaluated up to 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of MSCs from younger (4-month-old) rats. No significant effect was observed relative to the parameters investigated when the aged rats were previously subjected to a hypocaloric diet for 18 months. In conclusion, a prolonged supplementation with N-acetylcysteine in rats can increase resistance to necrotic death of MSCs and may also counteract an excessive rate of MSC proliferation.

  1. Imaging features of primary tumors of the spine: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sujata; Jyotsnarani, Y; Uppin, Shantiveer G; Susarla, Rammurti

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumors of spine are rare accounting for less than 5% of new bone tumors diagnosed every year. These tumors may exhibit characteristic imaging features that can help in early diagnosis and improved prognosis. Plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma and lymphoproliferative tumors are the most common malignant primary spinal tumors. Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the spine. Computed tomography is useful to assess tumor matrix and osseous change. Magnetic resonance is useful to study associated soft tissue extension, marrow infiltration, and intraspinal extension. Confusing one tumor with the other based on only imaging findings is not uncommon. However, radiologic manifestations of these tumors need to be correlated with the age, sex, location, and presentation to arrive at a close clinical diagnosis. PMID:27413280

  2. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt...) Years of Age and Older ER10MR98.004...

  3. SU-E-T-179: Exploring Appropriate Offset Values for Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo Dose Optimization in Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Encompassing the Effects of Respiration and Tumor Location

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G; Shang, C; Leventouri, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Exploring appropriate offset values in dose optimization with pencil beam (PB) algorithm to minimize dosimetric differences with plans calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) for lung cancer treatment with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: 20 cases of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, treated with gated full motion range SBRT were selected. According to the proximity of the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) to the chest wall, two groups are defined: peripherally located when GTV merges with the chest wall for at least 50% of the lesion diameter, and centrally located when the GTV is surrounded by lung tissue. Treatment plans were created on 4D average intensity projection (AIP) CT set with Brainlab iPlanDose 4.1.2 planning system. The D97 of PTV was normalized to 50Gy using the fast PB and compared with MC. The optimized plan was then recomputed over each 4D respiratory phase, and compared with MC using the same plan MU's. Results: The mean difference in the PB and MC D97 of the ITV was 10.5% (±0.8%) of the prescription dose (50Gy). PB algorithm showed 2.3–2.4% less overestimation to the D97 of the ITV, when comparing to MC, in the maximum exhalation phase than in the maximal inhalation phase. Significantly smaller dose difference between PB and MC is also shown in plans for peripheral lesions (7.7 ± 0.7%) versus for central lesions (12.7±0.8%) (p< 0.01). Conclusion: The dosimetric differences between PB and MC can be reasonably predicted depending on the location of lesion in the lung, and may be used as offset value in dose optimization with PB. Since the maximal exhalation phase demonstrates less dose discrepancy between the two algorithms than that in maximal inhalation phase, caution is suggested when the latter is included as a major phase portion in the respiration gated lung SBRT.

  4. [Treatment of giant tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Vyrupaev, S V

    2005-01-01

    Since large () benign mixed tumors of the parotid gland are rare, there is insufficient evidence on the modalities of the facial nerve management. General practice is excision which, however, leads, as a rule, to disfigurement. Eight patients, aged 29-65, with tumors of more than 15 cm in diameter were operated on. Tumors were located externally of the gland (5), parapharyngeally (2), or both (1). The regularities between the facial nerve location and site of tumor were investigated, and it is suggested that, in difficult cases, search should start from the temporal area since it offers most access. When tumor of parapharyngeal localization is excised, it is desirable to perform double osteotomy in the mental part of the mandible as well as at the point of entry of the lower of the alveolar nerve, to avoid the latter's being traumatized. To avoid L. Frey syndrome and restore the facial contour, Alloplant volumetric allotransplant was used.

  5. Atypical clinical features of children with central nervous system tumor: Delayed diagnosis and switch in handedness.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kentaro; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Miyata, Ichiro; Nonaka, Yuichiro; Yuza, Yuki; Kawata, Shoko; Akiyama, Masaharu; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Ida, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Herein is described the cases of three children with central nervous system (CNS) tumor, who had switch in handedness occurring before diagnostic confirmation. Although the onset, age, tumor location, and histology were heterogeneous, the diagnosis of CNS tumor was delayed in all three patients. The present experience indicates that switch in handedness should be recognized as a sign of CNS tumor in pediatric patients, and which might prevent delay in diagnosis. Pediatricians should carefully examine such patients who present with some suggestive symptoms of CNS tumor, even when they are unusual, in order to make a timely and appropriate diagnosis.

  6. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  7. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  8. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  9. The effect of age at exposure on the inactivating mechanisms and relative contributions of key tumor suppressor genes in radiation-induced mouse T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sunaoshi, Masaaki; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Hirano-Sakairi, Shinobu; Blyth, Benjamin J; Morioka, Takamitsu; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Shang, Yi; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Tachibana, Akira; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-09-01

    Children are considered more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer than adults, yet any differences in genomic alterations associated with age-at-exposure and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We assessed genome-wide DNA copy number and mutation of key tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphomas arising after weekly irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice with 1.2Gy X-rays for 4 consecutive weeks starting during infancy (1 week old), adolescence (4 weeks old) or as young adults (8 weeks old). Although T-cell lymphoma incidence was similar, loss of heterozygosity at Cdkn2a on chromosome 4 and at Ikaros on chromosome 11 was more frequent in the two older groups, while loss at the Pten locus on chromosome 19 was more frequent in the infant-irradiated group. Cdkn2a and Ikaros mutation/loss was a common feature of the young adult-irradiation group, with Ikaros frequently (50%) incurring multiple independent hits (including deletions and mutations) or suffering a single hit predicted to result in a dominant negative protein (such as those lacking exon 4, an isoform we have designated Ik12, which lacks two DNA binding zinc-finger domains). Conversely, Pten mutations were more frequent after early irradiation (60%) than after young adult-irradiation (30%). Homozygous Pten mutations occurred without DNA copy number change after irradiation starting in infancy, suggesting duplication of the mutated allele by chromosome mis-segregation or mitotic recombination. Our findings demonstrate that while deletions on chromosomes 4 and 11 affecting Cdkn2a and Ikaros are a prominent feature of young adult irradiation-induced T-cell lymphoma, tumors arising after irradiation from infancy suffer a second hit in Pten by mis-segregation or recombination. This is the first report showing an influence of age-at-exposure on genomic alterations of tumor suppressor genes and their relative involvement in radiation-induced T-cell lymphoma. These data are important for considering the risks

  10. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient’s age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results. PMID:26751577

  11. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Sarah; Darlix, Amélie; Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient's age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results.

  12. [Combined effect of vilon and cyclophosphane on tumor transplants and lymphoid tissue explants in mice and rats of various age].

    PubMed

    Barykina, O P; Iuzhakov, V V; Chalisova, N I; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Konovalov, S S

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were performed in mice with transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma. The injections of synthetic peptide vilon at the doses 1 mg/kg significantly increased the survival of mice. So vilon has possessed the oncomodulating action on the transplanted carcinoma. The synchronous injection both of vilon and cyclophosphan at the doses 100 mg/kg decreases the survival of mice. There was also studied in spleen organotypic tissue culture the effect of vilon and cyclophosphan on the development of explants of rats of various age: 1 day and 2 years old. Vilon stimulated apoptosis both in young and old rats, but the inhibitory effect of cyclophosphan was abolished in the presence of vilon in culture media at the dose 5 ng/ml. The results obtained suggested that perspective preparates in the cancer therapy--vilon and cytostatic drugs-, must be used not synchronously.

  13. Immunohistochemical characteristics of uveal melanoma assording to the age at diagnosis, histological type and extension of the tumor.

    PubMed

    Danilova, N V; Davydova, S Yu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MMP9 expression and tumour invasion in different structures of the eye. We also examined whether there was any correlation between the growth factors (TGFb and EGF), onco-suppressor proteins (p16 and p53) and Ki-67, and the tumour histological subtypes, atypia level and age at diagnosis. Tumour specimens were obtained from 42 primary uveal melanomas immediately after enucleation at The Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases. The patients were not treated with radio- or thermotherapy. During our systematic study, we exclusively employed 10%-formalin fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissue sections of UM for histological diagnosis and immunohistochemistry. According to our data the hyperexpression of MMP9 and EGFR correlates with a high proportion of spindle cells in a tumour (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0,1 for each). Moreover, we have demonstrated the association between the level of EGFR, TGFb and MMP9 expression and the initial invasion stage (Spearman's test p=0,1). In addition, we have revealed the significant correlation between TGFb hyperexpression and atypia level (Spearman's test p=0,059). Our data reflect that the diagnoses at an advanced age correlate with hyperexpression of p16 (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0,068). An interesting result is that p16 level reduced in inverse proportion to that of TGFb. On the basis of our data and previous studies, we reached the conclusion that after the lapse of time the level of p16 rises significantly in order to inhibit proliferating activity of melanocytes in the normally functioning pigmented layer. However, although the probability of UM diagnoses in elderly is increasing, we have no reliable data for the relationship with high atypia levels. PMID:25543409

  14. Infratentorial angioleiomyoma: a new location for a rare neoplastic entity.

    PubMed

    Gasco, Jaime; Franklin, Brodus; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Campbell, Gerald A; Eltorky, Mahmoud; Salinas, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Angioleiomyomas are benign neoplasms most often located in the subcutaneous tissue of middle-aged individuals and usually confined to the subcuticular and deep dermal layers of the lower extremities. An intracranial site for this tumor is exceedingly rare, with very few reports documenting locations in the neuraxis. To the authors' knowledge the present case represents the first reported instance of an infratentorial angioleiomyoma. The authors conducted a review of selected English-language papers published since 1960 describing well-documented cases of intracranial vascular leiomyomas, with detailed information on the clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, and particulars of surgical management in each case.

  15. Factors Affecting Outcomes in Patients Treated Surgically for Upper Extremity Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jesse E; Graves, Christopher M; TeKippe, Ashley; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Miller, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    There is little data available regarding outcomes of patients who have undergone surgery for tumors of the upper extremity. Functional data after surgery for upper extremity tumors would aid in guiding patient expectations in the peri-operative period. The purpose of this study was to identify patient, tumor, and surgery-related characteristics associated with patient-reported physical and emo-tional function before and after surgery for tumors of the upper extremity. Pre- and post-operative mental and physical Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were collected from 79 patients with benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper extremity. A retrospective chart review was performed to ascertain whether tumor behavior, type, location, patient sex, age, surgical specimen size, or type of surgery were correlated with differing outcomes. Our outcome measure was patient-reported physi-cal and mental score (SF-36) at less than one year, one to two years, and greater than two years post-operatively. We found that patients with tumors proximal to the elbow and patients with right-sided tumors had statistically significantly lower post-operative physical scores at minimum two-year follow-up (p=0.02). Additionally, lower physical scores were associated with age greater than 50 (p=0.03) and tumor resection rather than curettage (p=0.01). The subset of patients with hereditary multiple exostoses had significantly lower post-operative physical scores than other patient sub-populations. There was no difference in physical function after surgery between patients with benign and malig-nant tumors, patients with tumors larger than 5 cm and less than 5 cm in greatest dimension, and patients with bone versus soft tissue tumors. Inter-estingly, we found that there was no difference in mental function scores between any comparisons. Our results suggest that patient age, tumor location, and type of surgery are correlated with patient-reported physical function following sur

  16. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  17. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: relationship with age, sex and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Houde, Magali; Hulsey, Thomas C; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Balthis, Len; Muir, Derek C G

    2012-01-01

    Plasma PFCs were measured in 157 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled from two US southeast Atlantic sites (Charleston (CHS), SC and Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL) during 2003-2005. ∑PFCs, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (∑PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (∑PFSAs) and individual compounds were significantly higher in CHS dolphins for all age/sex categories compared to IRL dolphins. Highest ∑PFCs concentrations occurred in CHS juvenile dolphins (2340 ng/g w.w.); significantly higher than found in adults (1570 ng/g w.w. males; 1330 ng/g w.w. females). ∑PFCAs were much greater in CHS dolphins (≈ 21%) compared to IRL dolphins (≈ 7%); ∑PFSAs were 79% in CHS dolphins versus 93% in IRL dolphins. PFOS, the dominant compound, averaged 72% and 84%, respectively, in CHS and IRL dolphins. Decreasing PFC levels occurred with age on the bioaccumulation of PFCs in both sites. These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins.

  18. Current diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in children. Experience with 22 consecutive tumors in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caty, M.G.; Coran, A.G.; Geagen, M.; Thompson, N.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of childhood. In comparison with adults with pheochromocytomas, children have a higher incidence of bilaterality, familial association, and extra-adrenal location. Fourteen children with 22 tumors were treated during the period 1970 through 1988. Children presented at a mean age of 13 years. Most children (10 of 14) presented with sustained hypertension. The majority of tumors were located with a combination of computed tomography and iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning. Eight adrenal and six extra-adrenal tumors were resected. Four children underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Follow-up data are available on 9 of the 14 children. All of these patients remain normotensive without medication. Preoperative examination of children with pheochromocytoma using the iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan provides an accurate diagnosis of adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors, thus making feasible resection of this rare tumor with complete cure.

  19. Location and age of foraminifer samples examined by Chevron Petroleum Company paleontologists from more than 2,500 oil test wells in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.

    2011-01-01

    Chevron Petroleum Company in 2001 donated an estimated 50,000 foraminifer slides, 5,000 well logs, geologic and surface locality maps, and paleontologic reports to the California Academy of Sciences and Stanford University for safekeeping, because they stopped or cut back exploration for petroleum deposits in California. The material was loaned to Earl Brabb temporarily so that information useful to the U.S. Geological Survey could be extracted. Among the estimated 5,000 well logs, more than 2,500 were printed on fragile Ozalid paper that had deteriorated by turning brown and hardening so that they could be easily damaged. These 2,516 well logs were scanned to provide a digital copy of the information. The 2,516 wells extend over an area from Eureka in Humboldt County south to the Imperial Valley and from the Pacific Ocean east to the eastern side of the Great Valley and the Los Angeles Basin. The wells are located in 410 7.5-minute quadrangle maps in 42 counties. The digital information herein preserves the data, makes the logs easily distributed to others interested in subsurface geology, and makes previously proprietary information widely available to the public for the first time.

  20. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  1. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices on jigger infestation among household members aged 18 to 60 years: case study of a rural location in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Bernard; Nyagero, Josephat; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Jigger infestation is an important but neglected public health problem. The study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices of household members on jigger infestation, practices and control within Murang'a district, a rural location in Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. Structured interview schedules and observation checklist were used to collect quantitative data. A sample size of 271 household members was interviewed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed and odds ratios computed at 95% confidence interval to determine variables association. Results On knowledge, 70.1% acknowledged poor hygiene and sanitation contributes to jigger infestation while 16.6% identified jigger flea as the cause of jigger infestation. Over half (53.9%) reported jiggers are transmissible from person to person. Majority (94.8%) identified signs and symptoms of jigger infestation. Over a quarter (23.6%) reported an infested household member and 18.8% infested persons were confirmed during the study. Many (59.8%) held the opinion that, jigger infested persons are lazy, 26.2% reported they are poor and 12% reported they either have specific blood or are from certain families. Below half (48.7%) believed in myths and misconceptions on jiggers. Majority (90.8%) reported needles/pins were the mostly used jigger removal items followed by thorns 38.7%. About two thirds (62.0%) were not aware of communal jigger prevention and control activities. The Chi-square results showed that, the village, type of house floor and compound maintenance were significantly associated with jigger infestation (p<0.05). Conclusion Knowledge on jigger infestation is high but this has not translated to jigger prevention and control in the area. PMID:23467785

  3. Incidence of gliomas by anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Larjavaara, Suvi; Mäntylä, Riitta; Salminen, Tiina; Haapasalo, Hannu; Raitanen, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Juha; Auvinen, Anssi

    2007-07-01

    The anatomic location of a glioma influences prognosis and treatment options. The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of gliomas in different anatomic areas of the brain. A representative population-based sample of 331 adults with glioma was used for preliminary analyses. The anatomic locations for 89 patients from a single center were analyzed in more detail from radiologic imaging and recorded on a three-dimensional 1 x 1 x 1-cm grid. The age-standardized incidence rate of gliomas was 4.7 per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent subtypes were glioblastoma (47%) and grade II-III astrocytoma (23%), followed by oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. The gliomas were located in the frontal lobe in 40% of the cases, temporal in 29%, parietal in 14%, and occipital lobe in 3%, with 14% in the deeper structures. The difference in distribution between lobes remained after adjustment for their tissue volume: the tumor:volume ratio was 4.5 for frontal, 4.8 for temporal, and 2.3 for parietal relative to the occipital lobe. The area with the densest occurrence was the anterior subcortical brain. Statistically significant spatial clustering was found in the three-dimensional analysis. No differences in location were found among glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the anatomic distribution of gliomas within the brain.

  4. Tumor Mismatch Repair Immunohistochemistry and DNA MLH1 Methylation Testing of Patients With Endometrial Cancer Diagnosed at Age Younger Than 60 Years Optimizes Triage for Population-Level Germline Mismatch Repair Gene Mutation Testing

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Daniel D.; Tan, Yen Y.; Walsh, Michael D.; Clendenning, Mark; Metcalf, Alexander M.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Arnold, Sven T.; Thompson, Bryony A.; Lose, Felicity A.; Parsons, Michael T.; Walters, Rhiannon J.; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Cummings, Margaret; Oehler, Martin K.; Blomfield, Penelope B.; Quinn, Michael A.; Kirk, Judy A.; Stewart, Colin J.; Obermair, Andreas; Young, Joanne P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Clinicopathologic data from a population-based endometrial cancer cohort, unselected for age or family history, were analyzed to determine the optimal scheme for identification of patients with germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. Patients and Methods Endometrial cancers from 702 patients recruited into the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study (ANECS) were tested for MMR protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and for MLH1 gene promoter methylation in MLH1-deficient cases. MMR mutation testing was performed on germline DNA of patients with MMR-protein deficient tumors. Prediction of germline mutation status was compared for combinations of tumor characteristics, age at diagnosis, and various clinical criteria (Amsterdam, Bethesda, Society of Gynecologic Oncology, ANECS). Results Tumor MMR-protein deficiency was detected in 170 (24%) of 702 cases. Germline testing of 158 MMR-deficient cases identified 22 truncating mutations (3% of all cases) and four unclassified variants. Tumor MLH1 methylation was detected in 99 (89%) of 111 cases demonstrating MLH1/PMS2 IHC loss; all were germline MLH1 mutation negative. A combination of MMR IHC plus MLH1 methylation testing in women younger than 60 years of age at diagnosis provided the highest positive predictive value for the identification of mutation carriers at 46% versus ≤ 41% for any other criteria considered. Conclusion Population-level identification of patients with MMR mutation-positive endometrial cancer is optimized by stepwise testing for tumor MMR IHC loss in patients younger than 60 years, tumor MLH1 methylation in individuals with MLH1 IHC loss, and germline mutations in patients exhibiting loss of MSH6, MSH2, or PMS2 or loss of MLH1/PMS2 with absence of MLH1 methylation. PMID:24323032

  5. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 129 cases.

    PubMed

    Kusama, K; Iwanari, S; Aisaki, K; Wada, M; Ohtani, J; Itoi, K; Hanai, K; Shimizu, K; Komiyama, K; Kudo, I; Moro, I

    1997-09-01

    From 1970 to 1996, 129 cases of intraoral minor salivary gland tumors were diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Dentistry. The diagnosis of each case was based on the 1991 WHO classification. Eighty benign and 49 malignant minor salivary gland tumors were found in the approximately 9,300 oral biopsies submitted during the 27-year period. Pleomorphic adenomas were the most commonly histologic type of the benign tumors identified and 51% of the malignant tumors were diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common primary location of the tumors was the palate. Sixty percent of all tumors occurred in females and the peak age for incidences of all tumors was found in the third, fourth, sixth and seventh decades. These results were compared with those of the studies in different world population groups.

  6. [Cardiac tumors. Experience with two cases].

    PubMed

    García Martínez, E; Torres Borrego, J; Méndez Vidal, Maria J; Beaudoin Perron, A; Peña Rosa, Maria J

    2004-07-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare neoplasms with an incidence of 0.027 cases per 100. Up to 90 % of these tumors are benign but, because of their location, they can be lethal, despite their histology. Most appear in infants aged less than 1 year. Teratomas, which are relatively frequent in the pediatric age group, are usually located in the ovaries, sacrococcygeal area, thorax, and retroperitoneal area. Intrapericardial location is less frequent. In this localization, the clinical manifestation depends on compression of adjacent structures and determines the therapeutic attitude in each case. Imaging studies should be performed and the definitive diagnosis is obtained after surgical resection, which is the treatment of choice. The differential diagnosis should include other tumors of the anterior mediastinum, thymus hypertrophy, pericardial effusion and primary cardiac disorders such as pericardial mesothelioma, Ebstein malformation, and intrapericardial bronchogenic cysts. We present two patients who were diagnosed in the first year of life in our hospital. Both children developed pericardial tumours. In one patient, the mass decreased and disappeared while in the other, who received a later diagnosis, surgical treatment was required.

  7. Parotid tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Jaques, D A; Krolls, S O; Chambers, R G

    1976-10-01

    Most salivary gland tumors, both benign and malignant, develop within the parotid glands. Although an overwhelming majority of tumors are reported in the adult population, the parotid glands are also the most frequently involved salivary glands in the pediatric age group. This study represents a combination of case material from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and our personal experiences. Of approximately 10,000 salivary gland lesions accessioned in all ages, only 124 tumors occurred in the parotid gland in children less than fifteen years old. There were ninety benign and thirty-four malignant lesions. The two most common benign masses were mixed tumors and vascular lesions. The most common malignancies were the mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. We recommended that all solid tumors be removed by parotidectomy.

  8. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  9. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, Sarah J.; Arends, Mark J.; Brownstein, David G.; Luo Feijun; Devenney, Paul S.; Rose, Lorraine; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; Berry, Rachel L.; Harrison, David J.; Hooper, Martin L.; Patek, Charles E. . E-mail: Charles.Patek@ed.ac.uk

    2006-01-01

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras {sup -/-} (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} and K-ras {sup -/-} ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras {sup -/-} cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras {sup tm{delta}}{sup 4A/tm{delta}}{sup 4A} ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras {sup -/-} cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice.

  10. Oncocytic tumors of salivary gland type: a study with emphasis on nuclear DNA ploidy.

    PubMed

    Félix, A; Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1993-04-01

    We studied nine cases of oncocytic tumors of salivary gland type in order to evaluate their clinico-pathologic profiles and nuclear DNA patterns as criteria for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant forms. The tumors were located at the parotid gland, palate, and orbit. The age of the patients ranged between 35 and 85 years and the sex ratio (F:M) was 1:0.8. Seven tumors were capsulated and had typical cytology: they were composed of polyhedrical cells with large, eosinophilic, and granular cytoplasm and dark nucleus. The remaining two tumors exhibited malignancy criteria for the oncocytic tumors: atypia, pleomorphism, and mitosis. The evaluation of the nuclear DNA content was also distinct: benign tumors had a DNA diploid pattern and the malignant neoplasms displayed a DNA aneuploid pattern. These observations point to DNA nuclear assessment as an additional criterion to discriminate neoplasms with divergent clinical behavior and prognosis.

  11. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  12. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a review of 75 cases in a Libyan population.

    PubMed

    Jaber, M A

    2006-02-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas are uncommon but most often occur in the oral cavity, particularly the hard palate. Dental examination may provide an opportunity for early detection. During the period of 1977-2000 a group of 75 patients (31 males and 44 females, median age 44.2 years and range 15-86 years) with minor salivary gland tumors were diagnosed, based on the 1991 WHO classification. The peak occurrence of the tumors was in the fifth decade for males and sixth decade for females. The frequency of benign tumors was 38.6% (n = 29) and malignant tumors 61.3% (n = 46). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histological type of benign tumor identified whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors. The most common primary location of the tumors was the palate followed by the cheek. A benign tumor usually presented as an asymptomatic swelling and ulceration, pain being more frequently associated with the malignant tumors. This study shows that intraoral tumors of minor salivary glands vary widely in presentation, and should be taking into account by medical and dental practitioners in any differential diagnosis when assessing intraoral pathology. Any lesion arising from the hard palate (the most common site in this series) should be considered as a possible minor salivary gland tumor. Referral to a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic following diagnosis is strongly recommended.

  13. Reconstruction After Tumor Resection in the Growing Child.

    PubMed

    Groundland, John S; Binitie, Odion

    2016-01-01

    Limb preservation surgery has gained acceptance as a viable alternative to amputation for the treatment of extremity bone tumors in the growing child. There are several options for reconstructing the potential loss of a physis and the defect created by tumor excision. Metallic endoprosthesis, massive allograft, and allograft-prosthesis composites have been described in the skeletally immature population. With the development of expandable prostheses, even those far from skeletal maturity may be candidates for limb salvage. However, improvements in the literature are needed, including reporting surgical and functional outcomes in a rigorous manner, specific to age, anatomic location, and reconstruction.

  14. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  15. Evaluation of the influence of tumor location and size on the difference of dose calculation between Ray Tracing algorithm and Fast Monte Carlo algorithm in stereotactic body radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer using CyberKnife.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent W C; Tam, Kwok-wah; Tong, Shun-ming

    2013-09-06

    This study evaluated the extent of improvement in dose predication accuracy achieved by the Fast Monte Carlo algorithm (MC) compared to the Ray Tracing algorithm (RAT) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and how their differences were influenced by the tumor site and size. Thirty-three NSCLC patients treated with SBRT by CyberKnife in 2011 were recruited. They were divided into the central target group (n = 17) and peripheral target group (n = 16) according to the RTOG 0236 guidelines. Each group was further divided into the large and small target subgroups. After the computation of treatment plans using RAT, a MC plan was generated using the same patient data and treatment parameters. Apart from the target reference point dose measurements, various dose parameters for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were assessed. In addition, the "Fractional Deviation" (FDev) was also calculated for comparison, which was defined as the ratio of the RAT and MC values. For peripheral lung cases, RAT produced significantly higher dose values in all the reference points than MC. The FDev of all reference point doses and dose parameters was greater in the small target than the large target subgroup. For central lung cases, there was no significant reference point and OAR dose differences between RAT and MC. When comparing between the small target and large target subgroups, the FDev values of all the dose parameters and reference point doses did not show significant difference. Despite the shorter computation time, RAT was inferior to MC, in which the target dose was usually overestimated. RAT would not be recommended for SBRT of peripheral lung tumors regardless of the target size. However, it could be considered for large central lung tumors because its performance was comparable to MC.

  16. CD137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is located on chromosome 1p36, in a cluster of related genes, and colocalizes with several malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, H; Arden, K; Lotz, M

    1997-06-27

    CD137 (ILA/4-1BB) is a member of the tumor-necrosis-factor receptor family. Members of this receptor family and their structurally related ligands are important regulators of a wide variety of physiological processes and play an especially important role in the regulation of immune responses. CD137 regulates cell proliferation and survival of T-lymphocytes. Using Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction, we localized the CD137 gene to chromosome 1p36. This chromosomal region harbors the genes of several other members of this receptor family and is associated with deletions and rearrangements in several malignancies.

  17. Tumor Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... acoustic neuroma is also known as a schwannoma, vestibular schwannoma, or neurilemmoma. Characteristics Arises from cells that ... multiple CNS tumors, including neurofibromas, multiple meningiomas, bilateral vestibular schwannomas, optic nerve gliomas, and spinal cord tumors. ...

  18. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  19. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Tumors of the Central Nervous System: An 18-Year Retrospective Review in a Tertiary Pediatric Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    AGHAYAN GOLKASHANI, Hosein; HATAMI, Hossein; FARZAN, Abdonaser; MOHAMMADI, Hassan Reza; NILIPOUR, Yalda; KHODDAMI, Maliheh; JADALI, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies exist on the demographics and trends of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Iran. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases with confirmed CNS tumors admitted to Mofid Pediatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran during the last 18 years. Materials & Methods Data on gender, age of diagnosis, pathologic classification and tumor location were extracted from the available medical records. We used the last version of International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Result Overall, 258 (81.9%) brain tumors and 57 (18.1%) spinal tumors were identified. Our subjects comprised of 147 (46.7%) female and 168 (53.3%) male children. More male dominancy was observed in brain tumors with a male to female ratio of 1.2 compared with 1.03 of spinal tumors. Malignant CNS tumors were most common in 1-4 yr age group. The four most common brain tumors in our subjects were astrocytomas, medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngioma. Overall, 53.1% of the brain tumors were supratentorial. Gliomas, PNET and neuroblastma were the most frequent primary spinal tumors in our study. We observed an increasing trend for both brain and spinal tumors that was moreremarkable in the last 5 years. Conclusion Our results are comparable with similar single center studies on CNS tumors during childhood. The observed disparities could be attributed to the single center nature of our study and geographical, environmental and racial variations in pediatric CNS tumors. The increasing trend of both brain and spinal tumors could warrant further investigations at provincial and national levels to investigate probable contributing environmental risk factors. PMID:26401150

  2. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 62 cases in a Venezuelan population.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Bastidas, H; Ocanto, R A; Acevedo, A M

    1996-01-01

    From 1968 to 1992 sixty-two cases of tumors of minor salivary glands were diagnosed from a Venezuelan population at the Oral Histopathology Laboratory of the Central University of Venezuela School of Dentistry. The diagnosis of individual tumors was based on the 1991 World Health Organization classification. Tumors were analyzed considering histological type, age and sex of the patient, and intraoral location. Pleomorphic adenomas constituted the most common histological diagnosis of the benign sample (71%), and 62% of the malignant tumors were diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The principal location was the palate, and a marked female prevalence was observed. Geographic differences appear to exist when compared with results of studies representing a cross-section of different world population groups.

  3. Focal degeneration of aged or injured myoepithelial cells and the resultant auto-immunoreactions are trigger factors for breast tumor invasion.

    PubMed

    Man, Yan-gao

    2007-01-01

    The development of breast cancer is believed to be a multi-step process, sequentially progressing from normal to hyperplastic, to in situ, and to invasive stages. The progression from the in situ to invasive stage is believed to be triggered primarily, if not solely, by the overproduction of proteolytic enzymes by cancer cells, which cause degradation of the basement membrane. This theory is consistent with data derived from studies with cell cultures or animal models, while results from recent worldwide clinical trials with a variety of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors have been very disappointing, casting doubt on the validity of the enzyme theory. Based on our recent studies, we propose that breast tumor invasion is triggered by the following mechanisms and events: (1) the predisposition of genetic abnormalities in ME cell replenishment-related genes or other insults results in elevated focal degeneration of ME cells in some individuals; (2) the degradation products of ME cells or diffusible molecules of epithelial cells attract infiltration of immunoreactive cells (IRC) into the affected sites; (3) the direct physical contact between IRC and degenerated ME cells results in the discharge of digestive enzymes from IRC, causing focal disruptions in the ME cell layer; (4) focal disruptions in a given ME cell layer result in a localized loss of tumor suppressors and paracrine inhibitory function, a focal increase of permeability for oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors, and a localized increase of leukocyte infiltration, which facilitate the monoclonal proliferation of tumor progenitors, forming a biologically more aggressive cell cluster overlying the disrupted ME cell layer; (5) the direct physical contact between the newly formed cell cluster and stromal cells stimulates the production of tenascin and other invasion-associated molecules that facilitate tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, providing a favorable micro

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cem; Kabatas, Serdar; Ozen, Ozlem Isiksacan; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan; Altinors, Nur

    2009-12-01

    Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are typically dural based, CD34-positive neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Since they were first described in 1996 at the meninges, fewer than 100 SFT had been reported in both cranial and spinal compartments of the central nervous system. SFT can resemble other spindle cell tumors both radiologically and histopathologically, and differentiation can be best achieved through viewing their ultrastructure and using immunohistochemical techniques. In this report, we present four patients with SFT. Upon diagnosing two patients with SFT located in the cerebellopontine angle and parasagittal areas, we reviewed our pathological files and found two more patients; one having a parasagittal tumor and the other having a convexity tumor, that had been diagnosed with hemangiopericytoma. These tumours proved to be SFT after an immunohistochemical re-examination.

  5. Imaging tumors of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, T; Minami, M; Ozawa, K; Akimoto, Y; Okada, M; Yamamoto, H; Suzuki, H; Sasaki, Y

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging evaluations of nine histopathologically confirmed minor salivary gland tumors were made retrospectively and compared with evaluations of images obtained by computed tomography. All tumors had low-to-intermediate T1 signal intensities and intermediate-to-high T2 signal intensities. Malignant tumors had an irregular margin in all but one case. Benign tumors invariably had well-defined margins. In terms of tumor margination, the magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated well with the histopathologic findings. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the internal architecture of the minor salivary gland tumors multidirectionally and was superior to computed tomography in this respect and in the ability to locate the tumors.

  6. Lip Reconstruction after Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimi, Azin; Kazemi, Mohammad; Shams, Amin; Hashemzadeh, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all oral cavity carcinomas involve the lips, and the primary management of these lesions is complete surgical resection. Loss of tissue in the lips after resection is treated with a variety of techniques, depending on the extension and location of the defect. Here we review highly accepted techniques of lip reconstruction and some of new trials with significant clinical results. Reconstruction choice is primarily depend to size of the defect, localization of defect, elasticity of tissues. But patient’s age, comorbidities, and motivation are also important. According to the defect location and size, different reconstruction methods can be used. For defects involved less than 30% of lips, primary closures are sufficient. In defects with 35–70% lip involvement, the Karapandzic, Abbe, Estlander, McGregor or Gillies’ fan flaps or their modifications can be used. When lip remaining tissues are insufficient, cheek tissue can be used in Webster and Bernard advancement flaps and their various modifications. Deltopectoral or radial forearm free flaps can be options for large defects of the lip extending to the Jaws. To achieve best functional and esthetic results, surgeons should be able to choose most appropriate reconstruction method. Considering defects’ size and location, patients’ expects and surgeon’s ability and knowledge, a variety of flaps are presented in order to reconstruct defects resulted from tumor ablation. It’s necessary for surgeons to trace the recent innovations in lip reconstruction to offer best choices to patients. PMID:27308236

  7. Surgical Outcome of Intradural Spinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M K; Sakeb, N; Ali, M Y; Awwal, M A; Khan, S I; Goni, M M; Mia, M B; Alam, M B; Zaman, N; Jannat, S N

    2016-07-01

    Results of 63 surgically treated intradural spinal tumors between the period of October 2003 and December 2014 at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and in our private settings, Dhaka, were analyzed retrospectively. There were 33 males, 30 females with an average age of 52.4 years (13-70 years) and followed up for at least a year. The preoperative symptom with duration, tumors location and intradural space occupancy and the histopathological diagnosis were analyzed. Pain was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the neurologic function was assessed by Nurick's grade. The tumors were located as, thoracic (n=32, 50.79%), lumbar (n=16, 25.39%), cervical (n=05, 07.93%), and junctional (n=10, 15.87%, CervicoThoracic-01, Thoracolumbar-09). The histopathological diagnosis included schwannoma (n=30, 47.7%), meningiomas (n=14, 22.3%), neurofibroma, arachnoid cyst and myxopapillary ependymoma (n=03, 04.76%) each and paraganglioma (n=01, 01.59%). Among the intramedullary tumors, ependymoma (n=03, 04.76%), astrocytoma and epidermoid cyst (n=02, 03.17%), haemangioblastoma, paraganglioma and cavernous haemangioma (n=01, 01.59%) each. The VAS score was reduced in all cases from 8.0±1.2 to 1.2±0.8 (p<0.003) and the Nurick's grade was improved in all cases from 3.0±1.3 to 1.0±0.0 (p<0.005). The preoperative neurological deficit improved within 8 postoperative weeks in most cases and within 1 postoperative year in all cases. Complications included cerebrospinal fluid leakage, parasthesia and further neurological deterioration (Astrocytoma) (n=02, 03.17%) and dependant bedsore and recurrence (Ependymoma) (n=01, 01.59%). Aggressive surgical excision potentially minimizes neurologic morbidity and improved outcome except intramedullary tumors where initial treatment consists of maximum safe surgical resection or biopsy. PMID:27612900

  8. Mortality and Embolic Potential of Cardiac Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramires, Félix José Alvarez; Mady, Charles; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. Objectives To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Methods Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years). In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%). The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Results Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%), followed by fibromas (6.9%), thrombi (6.4%) and sarcomas (6.4%). Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm) 37 (19.8%) patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001). The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002) and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006), but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months), there were 2 deaths (1.1%) and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Conclusion Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event. PMID:25029470

  9. Analysis of dose distribution and risk of pneumonitis in stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors: a comparison of robotic radiosurgery, helical tomotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Kannarunimit, Danita; Descovich, Martina; Garcia, Aaron; Chen, Josephine; Weinberg, Vivian; Mcguinness, Christopher; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Murnane, John; Gottschalk, Alexander R; Yom, Sue S

    2015-02-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to central lung tumors is associated with normal -tissue toxicity. Highly conformal technologies may reduce the risk of complications. This study compares physical dose characteristics and anticipated risks of radiation pneumonitis (RP) among three SBRT modalities: robotic radiosurgery (RR), helical tomotherapy (HT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Nine patients with central lung tumors ≤5 cm were compared. RR, HT and VMAT plans were developed per RTOG 0831. Dosimetric comparisons included target coverage, conformity index, heterogeneity index, gradient index, maximal dose at 2 cm from target (D2 cm), and dose-volume parameters for organs at risk (OARs). Efficiency endpoints included total beam-on time and monitor units. RP risk was derived from Lyman-Kutcher-Burman modeling on in-house software. The average GTV and PTV were 11.6 ± 7.86 cm(3) and 36.8 ± 18.1 cm(3). All techniques resulted in similar target coverage (p = 0.64) and dose conformity (p = 0.88). While RR had sharper fall-off gradient (p = 0.002) and lower D2 cm (p = 0.02), HT and VMAT produced greater homogeneity (p < 0.001) and delivery efficiency (p = 0.001). RP risk predicted from whole or contralateral lung volumes was less than 10%, but was 2-3 times higher using ipsilateral volumes. Using whole (p = 0.04, p = 0.02) or ipsilateral (p = 0.004, p = 0.0008) volumes, RR and VMAT had a lower risk of RP than HT. Using contralateral volumes, RR had the lowest RP risk (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0003 versus HT, VMAT). RR, HT and VMAT were able to provide clinically acceptable plans following the guidelines provided by RTOG 0813. All techniques provided similar coverage and conformity. RR seemed to produce a lower RP risk for a scenario of small PTV-OAR overlap and small PTV. VMAT and HT produced greater homogeneity, potentially desirable for a large PTV-OAR overlap. VMAT probably yields the lowest RP risk for a large

  10. MEG localization of spike sources in human patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Birbilis, T; Anninos, P; Seimenis, I; Adamopoulos, A; Kotini, A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify epileptic zones in patients with brain tumors before undergoing tumor surgery. The MEG data were recorded with a 122-channel biomagnetometer. Equivalent current dipoles (ECD) were calculated for epileptic spikes on MEG recordings according to the single dipole model. Eight patients (five males and three females) within the age range (43-73 years; mean ± SD = 55.12 ± 9.77) were examined by MEG before neurosurgery operation. Four patients had meningioma grade I, three had glioblastoma grade IV and one had astrocytoma grade II. All the patients showed ECD at their MEG's before surgical operation except a female one with meningioma who showed no ECD. Tumors observed in the frontal areas show posteriorly located ECD. We conclude that the MEG is a valuable clinical tool for the localization of epileptic foci in patients with brain tumors before surgical tumor operation.

  11. Tumors of minor salivary glands and the analysis of 106 cases.

    PubMed

    Neely, M M; Rohrer, M D; Young, S K

    1996-01-01

    This study is based on 106 cases of predominantly minor salivary gland tumors which were received at the University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry Department of Oral Pathology Biopsy Service from 1972 to 1995. (In this study), 55% of the cases were benign and 45% were malignant. Benign tumors include pleomorphic adenoma (68%), monomorphic adenoma (10%), oncocytoma/oncocytosis (7%), papillary cystadenoma (14%), and myoepithelioma (2%). Of the malignant tumors, 34% were mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 17% adenoid cystic carcinoma, 21% adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (N.O.S.), 21% polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, and 6% malignant mixed tumors. There was no difference in relative incidence of benign or malignant tumors between males and females. The 7th decade was the peak occurrence age for both benign and malignant and the palate was the most frequent location.

  12. Pediatric Mediastinal Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Achint K; Sargar, Kiran; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the imaging findings of pediatric mediastinal tumors and tumor-like lesions. The classification of the mediastinum is discussed with normal imaging appearance of the thymus in pediatric age group followed by a discussion on multiple mediastinal lesions in different compartments with emphasis on their imaging characteristics.

  13. Prevalence and management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Machado-Aranda, David; Malamet, Matthew; Chang, Yeon-Jeen; Jacobs, Michael J; Ferguson, Lorenzo; Silapaswan, Sumet; Goriel, Yousif; Kolachalam, R; Mittal, Vijay K

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of patients with confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in a community hospital over a 6-year period are described. Our objective was to communicate our experience managing this rare tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. A retrospective chart review was performed. Patients were selected based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes in correlation with their respective confirmational pathology. Patients with a diagnosis of GIST, cells of Cajal tumor, and/or different varieties of gastrointestinal sarcoma were included in this study. These tumors had to have a positive C-kit on immunohistochemistry. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records as well as pathology reports. Follow up from attendings' office records and telephone interviews complemented our data. A total of 61 patients was identified in our institution (averaging 10 patients per year). Females represented 63 per cent of our series. The average ages were 70.2 +/- 19.1 years for females and 59.4 +/- 13.5 years for males (P < 0.01). The most common clinical presentation was an intra-abdominal nonobstructing mass followed by an endoscopically detected mass or incidental tumors found during unrelated surgery. Surgical emergencies such as acute abdomen and gastrointestinal bleed were rare. Over half of these tumors were located in the stomach. Other sites were the small intestine, colon, esophagus, and rectal-vaginal septum. Opened surgical resection was performed in two-thirds of treated cases, whereas laparoscopic resection was done in the remainder. Only 18 per cent of these tumors were considered benign, whereas 35 per cent were considered to have some malignant potential and 47 per cent were of undetermined potential. In surgically resected tumors, we found a 42 per cent recurrence rate with a median average time of recurrence of 22 months. Pathologic grading and type of surgery were not predictors of rate and timing

  14. Risk factors for lymphatic metastasis of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors: a retrospective cohort study of 242 patients.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Saito, Kenichi; Takagishi, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis to the lymph nodes is relatively rare in malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors, and its risk factors remains unknown, except for tumors of the lymphogenous histotype, including rhabdomyosarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, and clear cell sarcoma. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for lymph node metastasis of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 242 patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors. The predictors of interest for the risk of lymph node metastasis included age, sex, histopathological diagnosis, location(s) of the primary tumor(s), local recurrence, residual tumor(s), and the size of the primary tumors. To identify the risk factors for lymph node metastasis, Cox regression analyses were performed. Among the 242 patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors in the current study, 60, 29, and 28 were detected to have lung, lymph node, and bone metastases, respectively. In the univariate analyses, the lymphogenous histotype and a primary tumor invading the subcutis were the risk factors for lymph node metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the lymphogenous histotype (P < 0.01) and a primary tumor in the subcutis (P < 0.01) remained significantly associated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis with 5.15 and 3.48 of hazard ratios, respectively. Lymph node metastasis was detected in malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors more frequently than that has been previously reported, and the risk factors for lymph node metastasis were the lymphogenous histotype and primary tumors invading the subcutis.

  15. "Aging bull'.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, G W

    1996-12-01

    An old bull, it is said by those who know, can have his troubles. Included among these are vertebral osteosclerosis and ankylosing spondylosis; this stiffening up limits, rather than accentuates, the value and reproductive potential of a stud bull past his prime. Associated with these abnormalities, however-and not seen in age-matched cows of comparable breeds-are fascinating endocrine neoplasms suggestive of a pattern that could be productive as a model of human hereditary endocrine abnormalities. Adjacent to the thyroid gland in other vertebrates are ultimobranchial bodies that are incorporated into the lateral thyroid lobes in primates as the parafollicular "C cells' of the thyroid. These are the cells in man that give rise to medullary thyroid cancer and are associated with calcitonin secretion, useful as a tumor marker. In aging bulls of whatever breed, nearly half exhibit abnormality of these ultimobranchial bodies: 20% show hyperplasia, and 30% have frank neoplasia. These ultimobranchial tumors appear in bulls passing 6 1/2 years in age, and are absent in young bulls and all cows of any age. Calcitonin can be demonstrated in the ultimobranchial tumors from bulls, and secretion is stimulated by calcium infusion, though serum calcium remains normal. The ultimobranchial tumors themselves can range from hyperplasia through adenoma to metastasizing carcinoma-in fact, representing one of the commoner cattle cancers. Parathyroid glands taken from bulls with these ultimobranchial tumors initially show evidence of inhibited secretory activity and morphologic atrophy, but later go on to develop hyperplasia and, eventually, autonomy. Cattle forage on calcium-rich diets. Bulls appear to respond to this calcium excess from the positive balance, but breeding cows have the unique calcium deficits of the high net loss of calcium through lactation and the large requirements of calcifying a fetal skeleton. Chronic stimulation of the APUD-derived ultimobranchial bodies by high

  16. EGFR mutation and lobar location of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Hua; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Ho, Chao-Chi; Hsia, Te-Chun; Su, Kang-Yi; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Chien-Ming; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Wei-Yu; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yu, Sung-Liang; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations among lung cancer location, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status. Treatment-naive, pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinomas with tumor specimens available for genetic analysis were included from 2011 through 2014. Overall, 1771 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were included for analysis, after excluding those with carcinoma not otherwise specified, or synchronous multiple primary lung cancers. The median age was 64 years, and the female:male and never smoker:ever smoker ratios were 930:855 (52:48%) and 1167:604 (65:35%), respectively. The EGFR mutation rate was 56%. Among patients, 1093 (62%) had primary tumors in the upper lobes. Compared with the characteristics of the EGFR wild-type, tumors with EGFR activating mutations were more common in women (P < 0.001), never smokers (P < 0.001), and in the upper lobes (P = 0.004). Among EGFR activating mutations, compared with the EGFR exon 19 deletion, L858R mutation were more common in women (P = 0.002), never smokers (P = 0.038), and the upper lobes P < 0.0005). The present study is the first to address that different pulmonary lobar locations might harbor different EGFR mutation subtypes. We demonstrated that adenocarcinomas with L858R mutation, rather than exon 19 deletion or wild-type EGFR gene, prefer to locate over the upper lungs. This phenomenon was more significant in females and never-smokers, implying the result of complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Therefore, EGFR L858R mutation and exon 19 deletion may not be identical disease entity from the point of carcinogenesis.

  17. Long-term psychological effects in children treated for intracranial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jannoun, L.; Bloom, H.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The results are reported of the psychological assessment of 62 children who presented with primary intracranial tumors and who received radiotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1963 and 1973. Evaluations were carried out 3-20 years after treatment. All patients were free from progressive tumor at testing. The average IQ of the total series was within the normal range (Full-Scale IQ 92) but 23% of the patients were functioning at an educationally subnormal level of intelligence (IQ less than 80). Sex, tumor type, tumor location and the radiotherapy volume and site of maximum dose were not found to have a significant effect on intellectual outcome. A significant correlation was found between intelligence and age at the time of treatment. Children who received treatment under the age of 5 years were more adversely affected (average IQ 72) than those who were aged 6-10 (average IQ 93) and those aged 11-15 years (average IQ 107). The incidence of neurological abnormalities and physical disability was significantly greater among patients with supratentorial tumors (72% of cases), compared with patients with infratentorial lesions (44% of cases). The results were discussed in terms of the management of young patients with intracranial tumors.

  18. Primary tumors of the patella.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Kai; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The patella is an uncommon location for cancerous occurrence and development. The majority of tumors of the patella are benign, with a significant incidence of giant cell tumors and chondroblastoma. With the development of modern diagnostic technologies, there appear however many other histological types which raise challenges of diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we review the reported histological types of primary patellar tumors. Specifically, epidemiology, symptomatology, imageology, histopathology, and treatment options for these histological lesions will be discussed, respectively. As there is an increasing focus on the diagnosis and the treatment of these lesions, the availability of the integrated information about primary patellar tumors becomes more significant. PMID:25906772

  19. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  20. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  1. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  2. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric {sup 239}Pu or to {sup 226}Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric {sup 239}Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 {+-} 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 {+-} 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults.

  3. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland: report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, I; Ayala, E; Caballero, C; De Miguel, C; Matias-Guiu, X; Cubilla, A L; Rosai, J

    2001-11-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a soft tissue neoplasm initially described in the pleura but subsequently reported in a wide variety of locations. The clinical behavior is usually benign, but the existence of aggressive cases has been documented both in the pleura and in extrapleural sites. In this report clinical and pathologic features of seven solitary fibrous tumors of the thyroid gland are presented. Patients' ages ranged from 43 to 64 years (mean 52 years), and tumor sizes varied from 2 to 6 cm. Grossly, the tumors were white-tan and well circumscribed. Microscopically, there was a variegated, wavy, storiform, hemangiopericytic or desmoid-like arrangement of spindle cells. Trapped thyroid follicles within the tumor and peripheral jagged tumor infiltration among follicles were common. There was immunohistochemical reactivity for CD34, CD99, and bcl-2, and ultrastructural analysis of one tumor was consistent with a fibroblastic lineage. The differential diagnosis included other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid, spindle cell follicular adenoma, Riedel's thyroiditis, the spindle cell, and paucicellular variants of anaplastic carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma with exuberant nodular fasciitis-like stroma, and the spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation. The cumulative data of 13 cases (comprised of the seven present cases and the six previously reported) suggest a benign clinical behavior for thyroid SFT.

  4. Liver Metastasis of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Kashkooe, Ali; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are potentially malignant tumors, and their most common location of metastasis is the liver. Objectives In this report, we will describe our experience with some clinical and pathologic findings of hepatic metastasis in a group of cases of GI-NETs at the largest referral center of GI and liver diseases in south Iran. Materials and Methods In this four-year study (2011 - 2014), all GI and liver NETs were extracted from the pathology files of hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. After classification based on the world health organization guidelines, the patients were evaluated according to their location, sex, age, and proliferative index. After studying the imaging and clinical charts of liver-NET cases with an unknown primary location, a complete panel of immunohistochemical markers (TTF-1, CDX-2, CK-7, CK-2, etc.) was used to find the primary GI location. Carcinoid tumors from other sites, such as the lung, were omitted from this study. Results The most common primary site of metastatic GI-NET to the liver in our center was the small intestine, which was also the most frequent location of GI-NET without liver metastasis. No cases of appendiceal-NET were found with liver metastasis. In 8 cases (11.6%) with liver-NETs, no primary location was identified. GI-NETs with liver metastasis had a significantly higher grade and proliferative index compared with NETs without liver metastasis. Conclusions Liver metastasis of neuroendocrine tumors in Iran presents in a very similar manner as that seen in western countries. In about 89% of cases with liver-NET, complete imaging, clinical, and pathological studies can help to identify the primary origin of the liver-NET, which is very important in the patient’s management. PMID:27330538

  5. Syringocystadenoma papilliferum in an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carneiro, Clívia Maria Oliveira; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Drago, Marion Guimarães; Freitas, Lívia Karlla Marinho

    2015-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a rare benign hamartomatous adnexal tumor of the apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Most patients present a solitary lesion in the head and neck region. Presentation outside the head and neck region is even more uncommon. We present a case of Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with papulonodular lesion located on the vulva of an infant girl. This case illustrates the atypical location of this rare disease and adds to the differential diagnosis of lesions on the vulva. PMID:26734876

  6. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  7. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. Pituitary tumors are common, but often they don't cause health ... tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your ...

  8. The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status?

    PubMed

    Kalifa, Chantal; Grill, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood [1]. Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients. In addition, sequelae from tumor and its treatment are more severe at this age [2]. Thus, malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neuro-oncology. Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group. Since the end of the 80s, noninvasive imaging procedures produce accurate diagnosis of brain tumors and improvement in neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia and perioperative intensive care permit safe tumor resections or at least biopsies. Consequently, the pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment. Before the development of specific approaches for this age group, these children received the same kind of treatment than the older children did, but their survival and quality of life were significantly worse. The reasons of these poor results were probably due in part to the fear of late effects induced by radiation therapy, leading to decrease the necessary doses of irradiation which increased treatment failures without avoiding treatment related complications [3]. At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients. Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors [4]. Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors

  9. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  10. Radiotherapy-induced tumors of the spine, peripheral nerve, and spinal cord: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise; Teixeira, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of a secondary malignancy in the field of radiation is a rare but well-recognized hazard of cancer treatment. The radiotherapy-induced (RT-I) tumors are even more aggressive and potentially lethal than the primary tumor. To goal of this article is to report a case of RT-I neural tumor located in the peripheral nerve and spinal cord and to perform a literature review of the subject. Case Reports: Thirty-year male with symptoms of hypoesthesia and dysesthesia of the L5 nerve root distribution and previous treatment of a testicular seminoma 20 years previously. The lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the growth of a nerve root tumor. Surgery was performed, and a fusiform tumor was resected with clear margins. The anatomopathological and immunohistochemical studies were compatible with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. A total of 30 cases were included in the review. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis of the induced tumor was 39.36 (±16.74) years. Most were male (63.3%). The main type of primary disease was neural tumors (30%). The most common type of histology was fibrosarcoma (20.0%). No difference was found in age, gender, and time of diagnosis between neural and nonneural tumors. The mean survival after the diagnosis of the secondary tumor was 10.7 months (±13.27), and neural tumors had a longer survival period (P = 0.031). Conclusion: The current gold standard therapy is complete resection with clear margins, since most tumors do not respond to chemotherapy and RT. The neural type of RT-I tumor presented a longer survival period. PMID:26958426

  11. Numerical variation of dark cells in normal and chemically induced hyperplastic epidermis with age of animal and efficiency of tumor promoter. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Slaga, T.J.

    1981-11-01

    The percentage of dark basal keratinocytes was quantitatively assessed in normal epidermis of Sencar mice before and after birth and in adult epidermis after topical application of several compounds of varying promoting efficiency. The percentage of dark keratinocytes reached a maximum at the 19th day of gestation (approx.40%) and fell abruptly after birth (approx.3%). Old animals exhibited a very low number of dark basal cells (0.2%). After topical application of the weak promoters resiniferotoxin, anthralin, ethylphenylpropiolate, and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-2,4,6-decatrienoate, the percentage of dark cells in young adult epidermis did not differ markedly from that in control (acetone-treated) specimens. The strong first-stage promoters 4-O-methyl-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and calcium ionophore A 23187, as well as the strong complete promoter 12-deoxyphorbol-13-deoxyphorbol-13-decanoate, induced the appearance of large numbers of dark keratinocytes, in a percentage similar to that seen after 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate application (approx.20%). The similarities between the dark keratinocytes seen after topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or other strong promoters and the dark cells observed in the fetal epidermis before the onset of the adult type of epidermal keratinization indicate that potent and/or first stage tumor promoters can be identified by their ability to induce cells resembling fetal-type dedifferentiated keratinocytes.

  12. Fusion genes in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Aman, P

    1999-08-01

    Tumor development in different cell types and tissue locations involves many pathways, distinct genes and exogenous factors. Tumor type-specific chromosome rearrangements resulting in fusion genes or promoter swapping are believed to be involved in the early development of many tumor types. They are present in almost all cases of a particular tumor type and cases have been described that carry only tumor type-specific translocations without any signs of other cytogenetic changes. The mechanisms behind chromosome rearrangements in solid tumors are largely unknown. Radiation is an important factor in thyroid carcinomas but no com-$bmon sequence motifs are made out in the break points of solid tumors. The fusion genes found in sarcomas are dominated by the transcription factor type of genes with the TLS/FUS and EWS series of fusion genes as the largest group. More than 50% of papillary thyroid carcinomas carry fusion proteins with tyrosine kinase activity. Rearrangements involving HMGIC, HMGIY, and PLAG1 are common in benign mesenchymal tumors and salivary gland adenomas. Many recurrent tumor translocations show a strict specificity for tumor type. This specificity can most likely be explained by the specific sets of target genes that are deregulated by the fusion gene products. Identification of the downstream target genes is currently the object of intense research and may provide us with information that will help design better diagnostic tools and eventually find a cure for these diseases.

  13. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients

  14. Locating Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasizes program location as an important component of the marketing plan for continuing education. Also discusses relations among program location and quality, costs, supportive services, and economies of scale. (CH)

  15. Cable-fault locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  16. [Adipocytic tumors].

    PubMed

    Stock, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adipocytic tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms, liposarcoma accounting for approximately 20% of soft tissue sarcomas. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors is often problematic and represents a significant proportion of consultation cases. The goal of this article is to review liposarcoma subtypes, the main benign adipocytic neoplasms: lipoblastoma, hibernoma, spindle/pleomorphic cell lipoma, chondroid lipoma, as well as non adipocytic neoplasms with a lipomatous component such as lipomatous solitary fibrous tumor, emphasizing on practical differential diagnosis issues, and immunohistochemical and molecular tools allowing their resolution.

  17. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  18. Simple resection of truncal desmoid tumors: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Hamada, Shunsuke; Kozawa, Eiji; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumors of the extra-abdominal and abdominal wall have been associated with morbidity due to the aggressive nature of the surgery and high recurrence rates. Surgery that does not cause functional impairment is desired for patients with desmoid tumors. In the present study, among patients with desmoid tumors who were prospectively and consecutively treated with identical conservative treatment with meloxicam, a selected patients of patients were treated with less invasive surgery than wide-resection. Out of 60 patients pathologically diagnosed with desmoid tumors, 9 patients with tumors refractory to conservative treatment and 4 patients who refused to receive this type of treatment were treated with planned simple resection. Subsequently, the clinical outcome of the patients and the mutational status of the catenin β-1 (CTNNB1) gene in the tumors were analyzed. The mean age of the 13 patients that underwent planned simple resection was 39 years, and the tumors were located in the abdominal wall in 6 cases, the chest wall in 4 cases and the neck in 3 cases. All excised specimens were evaluated and positive microscopic margins were identified; however, during the mean follow-up period of 30 months, 12/13 cases, 7 of which had T41A mutations and 5 of which had no mutations (wild-type), did not develop recurrence. Only 1 initial case with an S45F mutation in the CTNNB1 gene developed recurrence. The results of the present prospectively treated with simple resection and retrospectively analyzed study suggest that planned simple resection could serve as a therapeutic modality for extraperitoneal desmoid tumors, particularly truncal ones with a wild-type or T41A mutational status. PMID:27446472

  19. [Spindle-shaped hemangioma: an unusual location].

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Fatima Zahra; Baghad, Bouchra; Chiheb, Soumiya

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell hemangioma, formerly known as spindle cell hemangioendothelioma, was described by Weiss and Enzinger in 1986. Since the advent of immunohistochemical studies it is no longer considered as low grade angiosarcoma. It is a benign vascular tumor It almost exclusively affects the dermis at the distal ends. We report the first case of a patient with spindle cell hemangioma located in the scapular, breast, thighs and mandibular area. According to the literature, only 9 cases located in the head and neck were reported. We report a new case of this rare and poorly understood entity that can be confused with malignant tumors. Our patient suffered from spindle cell hemangioma located in the scapular, breast, thighs and mandibular area. He underwent excisional biopsy. The evolution was favorable with 6-month follow up, without relapse. PMID:27642429

  20. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, and the condition, or histology , of the cancer cells when observed under a microscope. "Favorable" histology is associated with a good chance of a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and ...

  1. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  2. Primary tracheobronchial tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Torre, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Primary tracheobronchial tumors are rare lesions that can be benign or malignant, with different location along the airway tree. Symptoms may include wheezing, chronic pneumonia, asthma, chest pain, recurrent cough, atelectasis, haemoptysis, and weight loss. Due to the heterogeneity of symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and the airway involvement can lead progressively to a bronchial or tracheal obstruction. Due to the rarity of primary tracheobronchial tumors in children, there are not any oncological guidelines on pre-operative work-up, treatment, and follow-up. Only few reports and multicentric studies are reported. In most cases, surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. Brachytherapy, endoscopic treatment, and chemotherapy are rarely described. In this article we present an overview on these rare tumors, including pathological aspects, clinical presentation, imaging assessment, and endoscopic or open surgical treatments. We discuss different surgical approaches, according with tumor location. PMID:27301601

  3. Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

  4. A modified method for locating parapharyngeal space neoplasms on magnetic resonance images: implications for differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Wang, Ling; Li, Hui; Zhang, Rong; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, De-Ling; Xie, Chuan-Miao

    2014-01-01

    The parapharyngeal space (PPS) is an inverted pyramid-shaped deep space in the head and neck region, and a variety of tumors, such as salivary gland tumors, neurogenic tumors, nasopharyngeal carcinomas with parapharyngeal invasion, and lymphomas, can be found in this space. The differential diagnosis of PPS tumors remains challenging for radiologists. This study aimed to develop and test a modified method for locating PPS tumors on magnetic resonance (MR) images to improve preoperative differential diagnosis. The new protocol divided the PPS into three compartments: a prestyloid compartment, the carotid sheath, and the areas outside the carotid sheath. PPS tumors were located in these compartments according to the displacements of the tensor veli palatini muscle and the styloid process, with or without blood vessel separations and medial pterygoid invasion. This protocol, as well as a more conventional protocol that is based on displacements of the internal carotid artery (ICA), was used to assess MR images captured from a series of 58 PPS tumors. The consequent distributions of PPS tumor locations determined by both methods were compared. Of all 58 tumors, our new method determined that 57 could be assigned to precise PPS compartments. Nearly all (13/14; 93%) tumors that were located in the pre-styloid compartment were salivary gland tumors. All 15 tumors within the carotid sheath were neurogenic tumors. The vast majority (18/20; 90%) of trans-spatial lesions were malignancies. However, according to the ICA-based method, 28 tumors were located in the pre-styloid compartment, and 24 were located in the post-styloid compartment, leaving 6 tumors that were difficult to locate. Lesions located in both the pre-styloid and the post-styloid compartments comprised various types of tumors. Compared with the conventional ICA-based method, our new method can help radiologists to narrow the differential diagnosis of PPS tumors to specific compartments. PMID:25104280

  5. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Part II-Management Options and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Dino; Gillis, Christopher C; Shih, Patrick; O'Toole, John E; Fessler, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    Study Design Broad narrative review. Objectives Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are uncommon lesions that can affect any age group or sex. However, numerous IMSCT exist and the clinical course of each tumor varies. The following article addresses the various management options and outcomes in patients with IMSCT. Methods An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, addressing management options and clinical outcomes of patients with IMSCT. Results Early diagnosis and intervention are essential to obtain optimal functional outcome. Each IMSCT have specific imaging characteristics, which help in the clinical decision-making and prognostication. A comprehension of the tumor pathology and the clinical course associated with each tumor can allow for the proper surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, and reduce any associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the operative management of such lesions have increased the success rate of tumor removal while minimizing iatrogenic-related trauma to the patient and, in tandem, improving patient outcomes. Conclusions Awareness and understanding of IMSCT is imperative to design proper management and obtain optimal patient outcomes. Meticulous operative technique and the use of surgical adjuncts are essential to accomplish proper tumor removal, diminish the risk of recurrence, and preserve neurologic function. Operative management of IMSCT should be individualized and based on tumor type, location, and dimensional extensions. To assist with preoperative and intraoperative decision-making, a general algorithm is provided. PMID:26933620

  6. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  7. Neuroimaging of pediatric brain tumors: from basic to advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    In this review, the basic magnetic resonance concepts used in the imaging approach of a pediatric brain tumor are described with respect to different factors including understanding the significance of the patient's age. Also discussed are other factors directly related to the magnetic resonance scan itself including evaluating the location of the tumor, determining if the lesion is extra-axial or intra-axial, and evaluating the contrast characteristics of the lesion. Of note, there are key imaging features of pediatric brain tumors, which can give information about the cellularity of the lesion, which can then be confirmed with advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The second part of this review will provide an overview of the major advanced MRI techniques used in pediatric imaging, particularly, magnetic resonance diffusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance perfusion. The last part of the review will provide more specific information about the use of advanced magnetic resonance techniques in the evaluation of pediatric brain tumors.

  8. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    PubMed

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used.

  9. Electroretinography and Visual Evoked Potentials in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Sari; Lenko, Hanna L; Oja, Sakari; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Pietilä, Timo; Mäkipernaa, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study evaluates the clinical value of electroretinography and visual evoked potentials in childhood brain tumor survivors. A flash electroretinography and a checkerboard reversal pattern visual evoked potential (or alternatively a flash visual evoked potential) were done for 51 survivors (age 3.8-28.7 years) after a mean follow-up time of 7.6 (1.5-15.1) years. Abnormal electroretinography was obtained in 1 case, bilaterally delayed abnormal visual evoked potentials in 22/51 (43%) cases. Nine of 25 patients with infratentorial tumor location, and altogether 12 out of 31 (39%) patients who did not have tumors involving the visual pathways, had abnormal visual evoked potentials. Abnormal electroretinographies are rarely observed, but abnormal visual evoked potentials are common even without evident anatomic lesions in the visual pathway. Bilateral changes suggest a general and possibly multifactorial toxic/adverse effect on the visual pathway. Electroretinography and visual evoked potential may have clinical and scientific value while evaluating long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and tumor treatment.

  10. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  11. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  12. Management of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

    PubMed

    von Mehren, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors had the reputation for poor outcomes because of their lack of response to nonsurgical interventions. The discovery of gain-of-function mutations involving receptor tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors altered the biological understanding and management. Beginning in 2000, management of these tumors has changed dramatically because of the availability of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The role of surgery continues to be refined. This article reviews how surgery and systemic therapy are being used, incorporating definitions of risk. Decisions on how to treat a patient is based on the risk of progression, pathologic characteristics, and tumor location. PMID:27542643

  13. Therapeutic management of uterine fibroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puchar, Anne; Feyeux, Cécile; Luton, Dominique; Koskas, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Fibroids, which are benign smooth-muscle tumors of clonal origin, are the most common gynecologic tumors occurring in about 20 to 25 % of women over 30 years of age. The most frequent symptoms are pelvic pain and heavy menstrual bleeding resulting in anemia. The role of fibroids in infertility remains debated but probably mostly related to submucosal location due to implantation impairment. Although most women are asymptomatic (80%), fibroids can have a considerable impact on quality of life. Considering this impact and the cost associated with their management, treatment of fibroids is a public health concern. Treatment options for symptomatic fibroids include medical, surgical and alternatives techniques. Medical management is mainly based on the use of progestogens, antifibrinolytics agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs selective progesterone receptor modulators. Surgical management includes myomectomy (hysteroscopic, laparoscopic, minilaparoscopic or laparotomic) and hysterectomy. The choice of surgery depends on several factors: the number, topography and size of myomas, the age of the patient and her desire for fertility, treatment history and her desire to keep the uterus. Alternatives techniques to surgery are mainly based on the uterine artery embolization. The aim of this article is to provide evidence based recommendations for the management of uterine fibroids. PMID:26698838

  14. Pediatric renal solitary fibrous tumor: report of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wu, William W; Chu, Julia T; Romansky, Stephen G; Shane, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unusual spindle cell neoplasms initially described in the pleura but have since been discovered in many extrapleural locations. SFT of the kidney is extremely rare, the majority occurring in middle-aged adults. To date, only two pediatric cases of renal SFT have been reported. We report a case of large SFT in the kidney of a 3-year-old boy that was clinically and radiologically thought to be a nephroblastoma. This case is the first pediatric renal SFT to be reported with detailed histopathologic and cytogenetic analyses. SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of pediatric renal tumors.

  15. Proton Beam Therapy for Aged Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Masaharu Tokuuye, Koichi; Sugahara, Shinji; Tohno, Eriko; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Mizumoto, Masashi; Abei, Masato; Shoda, Junichi; Minami, Manabu; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of proton beam therapy for aged patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients aged {>=}80 years with HCC underwent proton beam therapy. At the time of irradiation, patient age ranged from 80 to 85 years (median, 81 years). Hepatic tumors were solitary in 17 patients and multiple in 4. Tumor size ranged from 10 to 135 mm (median, 40 mm) in maximum diameter. Ten, 5, and 6 patients received proton beam irradiation with total doses of 60 Gy in 10 fractions, 66 Gy in 22 fractions, and 70 Gy in 35 fractions, respectively, according to tumor location. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 6-49 months (median, 16 months). Five patients showed new hepatic tumors outside the irradiated volume, 2-13 months after treatment, and 1 of them also had lung metastasis. The local progression-free and disease-free rates were 100% and 72% at 3 years, respectively. Of 21 patients, 7 died 6-49 months after treatment; 2 patients each died of trauma and old age, and 1 patient each died of HCC, pneumonia, and arrhythmia. The 3-year overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rates were 62%, 88%, and 51%, respectively. No therapy-related toxicity of Grade {>=} 3 but thrombocytopenia in 2 patients was observed. Conclusions: Proton beam therapy seems to be tolerable, effective, and safe for aged patients with HCC. It may contribute to prolonged survival due to tumor control.

  16. Recurrent intracranial solitary fibrous tumor with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Case report.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Fujisawa, Hironori; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2004-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a benign and rare neoplasm. To date, only 37 patients with intracranial SFTs have been reported. Although a number of the tumors were recurrent and some later underwent malignant transformation, none of these lesions progressed to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination. In this paper the authors report a case of SFT in which the lesion recurred several times and ultimately was disseminated by the CSF. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with multiple intracranial and spinal tumors. Fifteen years before this presentation, at the age of 48 she had been hospitalized for resection of a falcotentorial tumor. During the ensuing 15 years she underwent multiple surgeries and sessions of radiation therapy for recurrent lesions. The exclusive location of her tumors in the subarachnoid space at the end of this 15-year period indicate CSF dissemination of the tumor. The tumor that was resected when the patient was 48 years old and the latest resected lesion were analyzed by performing immunohistological CD34, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, S100 protein, and reticulin staining, and determining the MIB-1 labeling index (LI). Most of the results were identical, and both tumors were diagnosed as SFT according to a staining pattern that showed a strong and diffuse positive reaction for CD34. Nevertheless, the authors noted that the MIB-1 LI increased from less than 1% in the original tumor to 13% in the latest tumor. The increased proliferation of MIB-1 indicates that the malignant transformation could have occurred during tumor recurrence with CSF dissemination.

  17. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  18. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  19. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  20. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  1. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  2. Extramedullary foramen magnum tumors and their surgical management: An experience with 29 cases

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Kumar, Rajan; Ashish, Kumar; Bettaswamy, Guruprasad; Mehrotra, Anant; Jaiswal, Sushila; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical management of foramen magnum (FM) tumors is challenging by virtue of their location and vital neurovascular relationships. The ideal approach to anterior/anterolateral tumors continue to evoke controversy even in the modern era. In this article, we present and discuss our experience in the surgical management of these tumors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes 29 consecutive patients (mean age 36.6 years, M: F = 2.63:1) of extramedullary tumors at the surgical foramen magnum, operated at our center, between 2007 and 2012. Results: Their mean duration of symptoms was 14. 6 months. A majority of the patients presented with motor symptoms (quadri/paraparesis, n = 21, 72.4%), neck pain with/without suboccipital radiation (n = 16, 55.2%) and sensory symptoms like tingling/numbness (n = 16, 55.2%). There were nine extradural (31%) and 20 intradural tumors (69%). Most of the tumors were located posterolateral to the neuraxis (n = 13, 44.8%). Nerve sheath tumors (n = 11, 38%) and meningiomas (n = 5, 17.2%) were the most commonly encountered histologies in our series. The standard posterior approach was the most frequently employed surgical approach (n = 20, 69%). Operative mortality and morbidity were 3.4 and 18.9%, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 27.3 months, 13 out of the 18 available patients improved. Conclusion: A majority of the foramen magnum tumors are amenable to excision via the standard posterior approach. Small anterior dural-based meningiomas/recurrent tumors may require a lateral approach like the far lateral approach. PMID:25685220

  3. A multicenter study of oral malignant tumors from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dhanuthai, Kittipong; Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral malignant tumors in Thailand have not been extensively studied. Hence the following study was conducted. Aims: To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic data of the oral malignant tumors from Thailand. Subjects and Methods: Biopsy records of the Oral Pathology Department, Chulalongkorn University; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Chiang Mai University; Department of Oral Diagnosis, Khon Kaen University and Department of Stomatology, Prince of Songkla University, were reviewed for lesions diagnosed in the category of oral malignant tumors from 2005–2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results: Of the 22,639 accessioned cases, 1411 cases (6.23%) were diagnosed as oral malignant tumors. The mean age of the patients was 59.13 ± 17.32 years. A total of 651 cases (46.14%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 759 cases (53.79%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 0.86:1. The sites of predilection for oral malignant tumors were the gingiva, followed by tongue and alveolar mucosa. The three most common oral malignant tumors in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: This study provides extensive data on the oral malignant tumors from several university biopsy services located in virtually all parts of Thailand. The data from the present study show some similarities with previous studies; however, differences such as gender and site of predilection still exist. PMID:27721612

  4. [Suspicion of anorexia nervosa as a cause of delayed diagnosis of brain tumor. A case report].

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Ewa; Węcławek-Tompol, Jadwiga; Kazanowska, Bernarda; Barg, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most common solid tumors diagnosed in children. The most frequent symptoms of brain tumors in this age group are headaches and vomiting, regardless of the location of the lesions. These symptoms are non-specific, and in each case require differential diagnosis, especially if there is no gradual improvement in the patient's condition or progression. The most common signs of anorexia nervosa are chronic vomiting, weakness of the body, pain and in extreme cases cachexia. These symptoms are similar to the clinical image of CNS tumor. Teenager, described in our case report presented the following signs for several weeks prior to the diagnosis of a brain tumor: vomiting (especially after meals), non-specific headache and epigastric pain. No significant progression in the patient's condition oriented the diagnostic process towards anorexia nervosa. Although anorexia in this age group is much more common disease, compared to a brain tumor, it is vital to ruled out/ exclude organic disorders prior to diagnosis of psychogenic disorder. At the same time the waiting for the specialist consultations (ophthalmologist, neurologist) and test results (head CT, head NMR) should not prolong the patients referral to a specialist center. PMID:26615049

  5. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a demographic and histologic study of 200 cases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujita, S; Tsuda, N; Tezuka, F; Okabe, H

    1990-06-01

    In a demographic and histologic study of 200 intraoral minor salivary gland tumors seen in Japan (Nagasaki and Miyagi prefectures), 127 cases (63.5%) were classified as benign, comprising 124 pleomorphic adenomas and 3 monomorphic adenomas. The other 73 cases (36.5%) were malignant tumors, represented by 33 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 16 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 10 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas, 6 acinic cell carcinomas, 5 adenocarcinomas, one polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, one undifferentiated carcinoma and one clear cell carcinoma. There was an overall female preponderance (1.78/1). The mean age for females was 47.2 years and for males was 50.6 years. The mean age for patients with malignant tumors was 10 years greater than for patients with benign tumors and was statistically significant. The palate was the most common site for intraoral minor salivary gland tumors followed by the lip and buccal mucosa. These three sites accounted for 83% of all cases. Tumors arising in these three sites were predominantly benign. In contrast, those located in the gingiva, floor of the mouth and tongue were predominantly malignant. The results of this study were compared with other recent studies.

  6. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  7. Giant cystic pheochromocytoma located in the renal hilus.

    PubMed

    Melegh, Zsombor; Rényi-Vámos, Ferenc; Tanyay, Zoltán; Köves, István; Orosz, Zsolt

    2002-01-01

    A malignant tumor in the past medical history of a patient often makes the differential diagnosis of a second tumor more difficult, especially if one of the tumors does not show its characteristic features. The authors report a case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his left shoulder. A retroperitoneal giant cystic mass, 200 mm in diameter, was found incidentally. Adrenal origin was ruled out by imaging techniques. The absence of typical clinical symptoms made a correct preoperative diagnosis unlikely, and severe cardiovascular complications set in during surgery. Considering the characteristics of the cutaneous malignant melanoma, the metastatic origin of the giant retroperitoneal tumor was not likely either. During surgery the left kidney, with a cystic tumor located in the hilus, was removed. The postoperative pathologic diagnosis was pheochromocytoma located in the hilus of the left kidney.

  8. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  9. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  10. Tumor Treated by Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young; Kwak, Jae Man; Chung, So Hak; Jung, Gu Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the clinical usefulness and efficacy of endoscopic curettage on benign bone tumor. Methods Thirty-two patients (20 men and 12 women) with benign bone tumor were included in the study. The patients were aged between five and 76 years; the mean follow-up period was 27.05 months (range, 9.6 to 39.9 months). The primary sites include simple bone cyst (9 cases), fibrous dysplasia (6 cases), enchondroma (5 cases), non-ossifying fibroma (4 cases), bone infarct (3 cases), aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case), chondroblastoma (1 case), osteoblastoma (1 case), intraosseous lipoma (1 case), and Brodie abscess (1 case). A plain radiography was performed to assess the radiological recovery. Radiological outcomes, including local recurrence and bone union, were evaluated as excellent, good, poor, and recurred. Results In our series, there were 27 cases (84.4%) of good or better outcomes, six cases (18.8%) of complications (4 local recurrence, 1 wound infection, and 1 pathologic fracture). Conclusions Our results showed that endoscopic curettage and bone graft had a lower rate of recurrence and a higher cure rate in cases of benign bone tumor. It can, therefore, be concluded that endoscopic curettage and bone graft might be good treatment modalities for benign bone tumors. PMID:24605192

  11. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  12. Primary spinal tumors in childhood: A single institution 15 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Jaing, Tang-Her; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chou, Ming-Liang; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric primary spinal tumors (PST) are fairly uncommon, with little available data regarding incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the 22 consecutive patients less than 18 years old diagnosed with PST between March 1997 and May 2011 and treated at Chang Gung Children Hospital. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative evaluation and operations for PST. The extent of tumor removal was assessed by surgical report by the neurosurgeon or by post-operative MRI if available. Results: Ten of them had intramedullary tumors and 12 had intradural extramedullary tumors. All patients were treated with surgery to the primary site. A total of 15 patients underwent gross total tumor resection and seven patients received post-operative radiotherapy. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy for their primary tumor. Fourteen patients (64%) survived from study entry without tumor progression. Conclusions: PST encompassed a diverse group of pathologic entities that differ markedly based on the location and age of the children. Total resection of pediatric PST in children could be performed with acceptable risk and satisfactory long-term results.

  13. Primary spinal tumors in childhood: A single institution 15 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Jaing, Tang-Her; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chou, Ming-Liang; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric primary spinal tumors (PST) are fairly uncommon, with little available data regarding incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the 22 consecutive patients less than 18 years old diagnosed with PST between March 1997 and May 2011 and treated at Chang Gung Children Hospital. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative evaluation and operations for PST. The extent of tumor removal was assessed by surgical report by the neurosurgeon or by post-operative MRI if available. Results: Ten of them had intramedullary tumors and 12 had intradural extramedullary tumors. All patients were treated with surgery to the primary site. A total of 15 patients underwent gross total tumor resection and seven patients received post-operative radiotherapy. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy for their primary tumor. Fourteen patients (64%) survived from study entry without tumor progression. Conclusions: PST encompassed a diverse group of pathologic entities that differ markedly based on the location and age of the children. Total resection of pediatric PST in children could be performed with acceptable risk and satisfactory long-term results. PMID:27695552

  14. The effects of treatment for posterior fossa brain tumors on selective attention.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Donald J; Snyder, Janice J; Penkman, Louise; Witol, Adrienne

    2009-03-01

    We sought to identify whether deficits in selective attention are present in pediatric brain tumor patients. Selective attention was assessed with covert-orienting, filtering, and visual-search tasks in 54 patients with either (1) posterior fossa (PF) tumors treated with cranial radiation and surgery (n = 22); (2) PF tumors treated with surgery alone (n = 17); or (3) non-CNS tumors (n = 15), who served as a patient control group. To account for normal development, patient performance was also compared with that of healthy age-matched controls (n = 10). We found that in PF tumor patients selective attention was impaired, regardless of whether they were treated with cranial radiation and surgery or surgery alone. However, patients treated with cranial radiation were most impaired. These patients may have greater damage to posterior brain regions know to mediate selective attention as the result of tumor location, effects of surgery, and higher doses of radiation to the posterior regions of the brain. These findings help to elucidate the potential impact of pediatric brain tumors and their treatment on discrete attentional skills.

  15. Salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population: a retrospective study of 496 cases.

    PubMed

    Ito, F A; Ito, K; Vargas, P A; de Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A

    2005-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and the microscopical features can be complex. Epidemiological data of these tumors in the various parts of the world can be helpful for a better understanding of its biology and clinical characteristics. In this study, 496 epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of major and minor salivary glands diagnosed at Londrina Cancer Institute during the period from 1972 to 2001 were reviewed. Out of all cases, 335 (67.5%) were classified as benign and 161 (32.5%) as malignant. The majority of the cases occurred in the parotid gland (67.7%), followed by the minor salivary glands (22.8%) and submandibular gland (9.5%). Among the minor salivary gland tumors, the palate was the most frequent location (67%). The tumors affected more commonly adult patients with peak incidence between 40 and 50 years of age and with a slightly predominance in females. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent tumor representing 54.2% of all cases, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (13.5%), Warthin's tumor (8.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (7.9%).

  16. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  17. Clinical study on the influence of motion and other factors on stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingsheng; Li, Fengtong; Dong, Yang; Song, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the adrenal tumor motion law and influence factors in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor and provide a reference value basis for determining the planning target volume margins for therapy. Materials and methods The subjects considered in this study were 38 adrenal tumor patients treated with CyberKnife with the placement of 45 gold fiducials. Fiducials were implanted into each adrenal tumor using β-ultrasonic guidance. Motion amplitudes of gold fiducials were measured with a Philips SLS simulator and motion data in the left–right, anterior–posterior, and cranio–caudal directions were obtained. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze influencing factors. t-Test was used for motion amplitude comparison of different tumor locations along the z-axis. Results The motion distances were 0.1–0.4 cm (0.27±0.07 cm), 0.1–0.5 cm (0.31±0.11 cm), and 0.5–1.2 cm (0.87±0.21 cm) along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. Motion amplitude along the z-axis may be affected by tumor location, but movement along the other axes was not affected by age, height, body mass, location, and size. Conclusion The maximum motion distance was along the z-axis. Therefore, this should be the main consideration when defining the planning target volume safety margin. Due to the proximity of the liver, adrenal gland tumor motion amplitude was smaller on the right than the left. This study analyzed adrenal tumor motion amplitude data to evaluate how motion and other factors influence the treatment of adrenal tumor with a goal of providing a reference for stereotactic radiotherapy boundary determination. PMID:27486331

  18. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  19. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Statistical Analysis Used: Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Results: Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75–100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Conclusions: Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation. PMID:27601817

  20. Decoding Tumor Phenotypes for ALK, ROS1, and RET Fusions in Lung Adenocarcinoma Using a Radiomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Insuk; Cho, Jong Ho; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Hyeseung; Lee, Genehee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jhingook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative imaging using radiomics can capture distinct phenotypic differences between tumors and may have predictive power for certain phenotypes according to specific genetic mutations. We aimed to identify the clinicoradiologic predictors of tumors with ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1), or RET (rearranged during transfection) fusions in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 539 pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinomas were included in this retrospective study. The baseline clinicopathologic characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ medical records and the ALK/ROS1/RET fusion status was reviewed. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography imaging characteristics were evaluated using a radiomics approach. Significant features for the fusion-positive tumor prediction model were extracted from all of the clinicoradiologic features, and were used to calculate diagnostic performance for predicting 3 fusions’ positivity. The clinicoradiologic features were compared between ALK versus ROS1/RET fusion-positive tumors to identify the clinicoradiologic similarity between the 2 groups. The fusion-positive tumor prediction model was a combination of younger age, advanced tumor stage, solid tumor on CT, higher values for SUVmax and tumor mass, lower values for kurtosis and inverse variance on 3-voxel distance than those of fusion-negative tumors (sensitivity and specificity, 0.73 and 0.70, respectively). ALK fusion-positive tumors were significantly different in tumor stage, central location, SUVmax, homogeneity on 1-, 2-, and 3-voxel distances, and sum mean on 2-voxel distance compared with ROS1/RET fusion-positive tumors. ALK/ROS1/RET fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas possess certain clinical and imaging features that enable good discrimination of fusion-positive from fusion-negative lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26469915

  1. Geostar - Navigation location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, Donald A.

    The author describes the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS). The initial phase of the RDSS provides for a unique service enabling central offices and headquarters to obtain position-location information and receive short digital messages from mobile user terminals throughout the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. The system employs a spread-spectrum, CDMA modulation technique allowing multiple customers to use the system simultaneously, without preassigned coordination with fellow users. Position location is currently determined by employing an existing radio determination receiver, such as Loran-C, GPS, or Transit, in the mobile user terminal. In the early 1990s position location will be determined at a central earth station by time-differential ranging of the user terminals via two or more geostationary satellites. A brief overview of the RDSS system architecture is presented with emphasis on the user terminal and its diverse applications.

  2. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  3. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  4. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  5. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  6. Solid Tumors of the Mediastinum in Adults.

    PubMed

    Azizad, Shameem; Sannananja, Bhagya; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    A wide spectrum of solid tumors can develop in the mediastinum of adults. Like for any other tumor evaluation, the location and morphology play equally important role for lesion characterization. Compartmentalizing the mediastinal masses greatly narrows the number of possible differential diagnosis. Cross sectional imaging mainly with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the preferred modalities of choice as they can establish the presence, location and morphology of the lesion allowing to suggest a possible diagnosis.

  7. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...

  8. Location of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    Geothermal resources, which utilize the heat of the earth, are located throughout the plant's crust. Those closer to the surface are most commonly used because geothermal drilling costs are currently prohibitive below depths of between 10,000 and 15,000 feet.

  9. Birefringent Stress Location Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, R. B.; Torruellas, W.; Youngquist, R. C.

    1986-08-01

    A new type of stress location sensor is discussed in which the FMCW technique is used to detect the difference in propagation time between two optical paths in an optical fiber due to stress induced modal coupling. Two versions of the system are included, and experimental results are presented for each system.

  10. LOCATING AREAS OF CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledg...

  11. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  12. Uterine tumors in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R A; Nieberg, R; Boder, E

    1989-02-01

    Roughly one-third of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) develop malignant tumors, usually of lymphoid origin. AT patients also exhibit progeric changes. We describe three patients, between the ages of 27 and 32 years, with uterine tumors: one with a frank leiomyosarcoma and chronic T-cell leukemia, one with a multilobulated leiomyoma of uncertain malignant potential, and one with an unremarkable leiomyoma. Thus, the spectrum of tumors in AT patients beyond adolescence includes nonlymphoid malignancies and precocious, benign leiomyomas.

  13. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions.

  14. Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, Chris; Gray, Jonathan; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To compare intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) to noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Methods and Materials: Nine pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors, mean age 9 years (range, 6-15 years), treated using IMRT were chosen for this comparative planning study because of their tumor location. Each patient's treatment was replanned to receive 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) using five different methods: eight-field noncoplanar IMRT, single coplanar IMAT, double coplanar IMAT, single noncoplanar IMAT, and double noncoplanar IMAT. For each method, the dose to 95% of the PTV was held constant, and the doses to surrounding critical structures were minimized. The different plans were compared based on conformity, total linear accelerator dose monitor units, and dose to surrounding normal tissues, including the entire body, whole brain, temporal lobes, brainstem, and cochleae. Results: The doses to the target and critical structures for the various IMAT methods were not statistically different in comparison with the noncoplanar IMRT plan, with the following exceptions: the cochlear doses were higher and whole brain dose was lower for coplanar IMAT plans; the cochleae and temporal lobe doses were lower and conformity increased for noncoplanar IMAT plans. The advantage of the noncoplanar IMAT plan was enhanced by doubling the treatment arc. Conclusion: Noncoplanar IMAT results in superior treatment plans when compared to noncoplanar IMRT for the treatment of posterior fossa tumors. IMAT should be considered alongside IMRT when treatment of this site is indicated.

  15. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as ‘backbone’, largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. PMID:26464434

  16. [Tumor surgery].

    PubMed

    Hausamen, J E

    2000-05-01

    Surgery is still the primary therapeutic approach in treatment of tumors in the head and neck area, dating back to the early nineteenth century. More than 150 years ago, hemimaxillectomies and mandibular resections as well as hemiglossectomies were already performed by leading surgeons. The block principle we are now following dates back to Crile, who also established the principle of cervical lymph node dissection. Ablative oncologic surgery has always been closely linked with plastic and reconstructive surgery, rendering radical surgical interventions possible without disfiguring patients. The development of facial reconstructive surgery proceeded in stages, in the first instance as secondary reconstruction using tube pedicled flaps. The change to the concept of primary reconstruction occurred via arterialized skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps to the widely accepted and performed free tissue transfer. Free bone grafting, inaugurated earlier and still representing the majority of bone grafting, has been supplemented for certain reconstructive purposes by free vascularized bone transfer from various donor sites. Although the five-year-survival rate of carcinoma of the oral cavity has remained unchanged in the past 30 years, distinctive improvements in tumor surgery can be recorded. This is primarily based on improved diagnostics such as modern imaging techniques and the refinement of surgical techniques. The DOSAK has worked out distinctive guidelines for effective ablative oncologic surgery. Surgical approaches offering wide exposure and carrying low morbidity play a decisive role in radical resections. For this reason, midfacial degloving offers an essential improvement for the resection of midface tumors, especially from an aesthetic point of view. Tumors situated deep behind the viscerocranium at the skull base can be clearly exposed either through a lateral approach following a temporary osteotomy of the mandibular ramus or a transmandibular, transmaxillar, or

  17. [Pelvic actinomycosis simulating adnexal malignant tumor].

    PubMed

    Benkiran, L; Gamra, L; Lamalmi, N; Essouyeh, M; Regragui, A; Amrani, M; Souadka, A; Melabbas, M A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 35-year-old patient admitted to the National Oncology Institute in Rabat, Morocco for pelvic pain and deteriorating general status ongoing for 8 months. Clinical and ultrasonographic examination showed a heterogenous mass measuring 7 cm in maximum width located inferior and lateral to the inferior aspect of the right side of the uterus. These findings were suggestive of a malignant tumor of the right ovary. Ovariectomy and omentectomy were performed. Histological examination of surgical specimens demonstrated right tubo-ovarian actinomycosis associated with peritonitis. Genital tract actinomycosis is an uncommon finding in women of childbearing age. It is due to colonization by a pyogenic bacteria (Actinomyces) usually secondary to a gastrointestinal infection, e.g. ileocecum, and sometimes in association with the presence of an intrauterine device or foreign body. Based on this case report, the authors discuss abdominopelvic actinomyocosis with emphasis on tumor-like findings that can lead to misdiagnosis by clinicians and radiologists. PMID:12038184

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Kofina, Konstantinia; Bangeas, Petros; Tsiompanou, Fani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Basdanis, George

    2016-06-27

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor typically located in the pleura, but can also be found as an asymptomatic mass in other areas, including the liver, peritoneum, kidney and salivary glands. However, SFT rarely locates in the pancreas. We present such a case of pancreatic SFT, along with a review of all reported cases. A 55-year-old man was treated surgically for an asymptomatic pancreatic mass after a rigorous preoperative control. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed characteristics of an SFT. As only 15 cases of pancreatic SFT have been reported so far, an attempt to compare the cases was considered intriguing. We found that patients with pancreatic SFT were mainly women (81.25%), with a median age of 54 years at the time of diagnosis and a median tumor size of 5.83 cm. Pancreatic SFTs were revealed incidentally in 50% of cases, and all of them showed an enhancement through arterial computed tomography. All tumors were positive for CD34, ten were positive for Bcl-2, and twelve were negative for S100. The diagnosis of this pancreatic tumor is established by a combination of clinical suspicion, imaging procedures and histological findings, and is confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Although the behavior of SFTs is rather benign, close clinical follow-up is recommended due to a potentially malignant nature. PMID:27358679

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Kofina, Konstantinia; Bangeas, Petros; Tsiompanou, Fani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Basdanis, George

    2016-06-27

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor typically located in the pleura, but can also be found as an asymptomatic mass in other areas, including the liver, peritoneum, kidney and salivary glands. However, SFT rarely locates in the pancreas. We present such a case of pancreatic SFT, along with a review of all reported cases. A 55-year-old man was treated surgically for an asymptomatic pancreatic mass after a rigorous preoperative control. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed characteristics of an SFT. As only 15 cases of pancreatic SFT have been reported so far, an attempt to compare the cases was considered intriguing. We found that patients with pancreatic SFT were mainly women (81.25%), with a median age of 54 years at the time of diagnosis and a median tumor size of 5.83 cm. Pancreatic SFTs were revealed incidentally in 50% of cases, and all of them showed an enhancement through arterial computed tomography. All tumors were positive for CD34, ten were positive for Bcl-2, and twelve were negative for S100. The diagnosis of this pancreatic tumor is established by a combination of clinical suspicion, imaging procedures and histological findings, and is confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Although the behavior of SFTs is rather benign, close clinical follow-up is recommended due to a potentially malignant nature.

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Kofina, Konstantinia; Bangeas, Petros; Tsiompanou, Fani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Basdanis, George

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor typically located in the pleura, but can also be found as an asymptomatic mass in other areas, including the liver, peritoneum, kidney and salivary glands. However, SFT rarely locates in the pancreas. We present such a case of pancreatic SFT, along with a review of all reported cases. A 55-year-old man was treated surgically for an asymptomatic pancreatic mass after a rigorous preoperative control. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed characteristics of an SFT. As only 15 cases of pancreatic SFT have been reported so far, an attempt to compare the cases was considered intriguing. We found that patients with pancreatic SFT were mainly women (81.25%), with a median age of 54 years at the time of diagnosis and a median tumor size of 5.83 cm. Pancreatic SFTs were revealed incidentally in 50% of cases, and all of them showed an enhancement through arterial computed tomography. All tumors were positive for CD34, ten were positive for Bcl-2, and twelve were negative for S100. The diagnosis of this pancreatic tumor is established by a combination of clinical suspicion, imaging procedures and histological findings, and is confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Although the behavior of SFTs is rather benign, close clinical follow-up is recommended due to a potentially malignant nature. PMID:27358679

  1. Imaging Features of Primary Tumors and Metastatic Patterns of the Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors in Adults: A 17-Year Experience at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Joon; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Jong Seok; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively analyze the spectrum of imaging features of the primary tumors and metastatic patterns of the Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EES) in adults. Materials and Methods We performed a computerized search of our hospital's data-warehouse from 1996 to 2013 using codes for Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors as well as the demographic code for ≥ 18 years of age. We selected subjects who were histologically confirmed to have Ewing sarcoma of extraskeletal origin. Imaging features of the primary tumor and metastatic disease were evaluated for lesion location, size, enhancement pattern, necrosis, margin, and invasion of adjacent organs. Results Among the 70 patients (mean age, 35.8 ± 15.6 years; range, 18-67 years) included in our study, primary tumors of EES occurred in the soft tissue and extremities (n = 20), abdomen and pelvis (n = 18), thorax (n = 14), paravertebral space (n = 8), head and neck (n = 6), and an unknown primary site (n = 4). Most primary tumors manifested as large and bulky soft-tissue masses (mean size, 9.0 cm; range, 1.3-23.0 cm), frequently invading adjacent organs (45.6%) and showed heterogeneous enhancement (73.7%), a well-defined (66.7%) margin, and partial necrosis/cystic degeneration (81.9%). Notably, 29 patients had metastatic disease detected at their initial diagnosis. The most frequent site of metastasis was lymph nodes (75.9%), followed by bone (31.0%), lung (20.7%), abdominal solid organs (13.8%), peritoneum (13.8%), pleura (6.9%), and brain (3.4%). Conclusion Primary tumors of EES can occur anywhere and mostly manifest as large and bulky, soft-tissue masses. Lymph nodes are the most frequent metastasis sites. PMID:26175577

  2. Interferometric locating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for determining the position of a vehicle or other target that emits radio waves and which is of the type that senses the difference in time of arrival at spaced ground stations of signals from the vehicle to locate the vehicle on a set of intersecting hyperbolas. A network of four ground stations detects the radio emissions from the vehicle and by means of cross correlation derives the relative signal delay at the ground stations from which the vehicle position is deduced. Because the signal detection is by cross correlation, no knowledge of the emission is needed, which makes even unintentional radio noise emissions usable as a locator beacon. By positioning one of the four ground stations at an elevation significantly above the plane of the other three stations, a three dimensional fix on the vehicle is possible.

  3. Dipole Well Location

    1998-08-03

    The problem here is to model the three-dimensional response of an electromagnetic logging tool to a practical situation which is often encountered in oil and gas exploration. The DWELL code provide the electromagnetic fields on the axis of a borehole due to either an electric or a magnetic dipole located on the same axis. The borehole is cylindrical, and is located within a stratified formation in which the bedding planes are not horizontal. The anglemore » between the normal to the bedding planes and the axis of the borehole may assume any value, or in other words, the borehole axis may be tilted with respect to the bedding planes. Additionally, all of the formation layers may have invasive zones of drilling mud. The operating frequency of the source dipole(s) extends from a few Hertz to hundreds of Megahertz.« less

  4. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  5. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  6. Optimal Facility-Location

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall’s research at NBS/NIST. PMID:27274920

  7. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  8. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.

  9. Coso MT Site Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Blankenship

    2011-05-04

    This data includes the locations of the MT data collected in and around the Coso Geothermal field that covered the West Flank area. These are the data that the 3D MT models were created from that were discussed in Phase 1 of the West Flank FORGE project. The projected coordinate system is NAD 1927 State Plane California IV FIPS 0404 and the Projection is Lambert Conformal Conic. Units are in feet.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumor of the auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Sherif; Yousef, Mohammad; Zamansky, Marshall; Khan, Ashraf

    2004-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of increasing incidence that was originally described to be of pleural origin; however, more recently, SFT has been reported in extrapleural sites, including the orbit, liver, salivary glands, tongue, nose, paranasal sinuses, larynx, retroperitoneum, meninges, and thyroid. The increase in the number of SFTs does not necessarily mean increased incidence of this tumor but rather an increased understanding of this tumor, especially recognition of this tumor in extrapleural locations, which has been aided by immunohistochemical analysis. We report a case of SFT in the auditory canal, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported, as evident by morphologic findings and immunophenotype.

  11. Clinical applications of modern imaging technology: stereo image formation and location of brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Wang, Jinxiang

    1994-05-01

    It is very important to locate the tumor for a patient, who has cancer in his brain. If he only gets X-CT or MRI pictures, the doctor does not know the size, shape location of the tumor and the relation between the tumor and other organs. This paper presents the formation of stereo images of cancer. On the basis of color code and color 3D reconstruction. The stereo images of tumor, brain and encephalic truncus are formed. The stereo image of cancer can be round on X, Y, Z-coordinates to show the shape from different directions. In order to show the location of tumor, stereo image of tumor and encephalic truncus are provided on different angles. The cross section pictures are also offered to indicate the relation of brain, tumor and encephalic truncus on cross sections. In this paper the calculating of areas, volume and the space between cancer and the side of the brain are also described.

  12. Indian data on central nervous tumors: A summary of published work.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Archya; Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute approximately 2% of all malignancies. Although relatively rare, the associated morbidity and mortality and the significant proportion of affected young and middle-aged individuals has a major bearing on the death-adjusted life years compared to other malignancies. CNS tumors encompass a very broad spectrum with regards to age, location, histology, and clinical outcomes. Advances in diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, radiotherapy equipment, and generation of newer chemotherapeutic and targeted agents over the past few years have helped improving treatment outcome. Further insights into the molecular pathways leading to the development of tumors made in the past decade are being incorporated into routine clinical practice. Several focused groups within India have been working on a range of topics related to CNS tumors, and a significant body of work from India, in the recent years, is being increasingly recognized throughout the world. The present article summarizes key published work with particular emphasis on gliomas and medulloblastoma, the two commonly encountered tumors. PMID:27606302

  13. Indian data on central nervous tumors: A summary of published work

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Archya; Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute approximately 2% of all malignancies. Although relatively rare, the associated morbidity and mortality and the significant proportion of affected young and middle-aged individuals has a major bearing on the death-adjusted life years compared to other malignancies. CNS tumors encompass a very broad spectrum with regards to age, location, histology, and clinical outcomes. Advances in diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, radiotherapy equipment, and generation of newer chemotherapeutic and targeted agents over the past few years have helped improving treatment outcome. Further insights into the molecular pathways leading to the development of tumors made in the past decade are being incorporated into routine clinical practice. Several focused groups within India have been working on a range of topics related to CNS tumors, and a significant body of work from India, in the recent years, is being increasingly recognized throughout the world. The present article summarizes key published work with particular emphasis on gliomas and medulloblastoma, the two commonly encountered tumors. PMID:27606302

  14. Indian data on central nervous tumors: A summary of published work

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Archya; Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute approximately 2% of all malignancies. Although relatively rare, the associated morbidity and mortality and the significant proportion of affected young and middle-aged individuals has a major bearing on the death-adjusted life years compared to other malignancies. CNS tumors encompass a very broad spectrum with regards to age, location, histology, and clinical outcomes. Advances in diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, radiotherapy equipment, and generation of newer chemotherapeutic and targeted agents over the past few years have helped improving treatment outcome. Further insights into the molecular pathways leading to the development of tumors made in the past decade are being incorporated into routine clinical practice. Several focused groups within India have been working on a range of topics related to CNS tumors, and a significant body of work from India, in the recent years, is being increasingly recognized throughout the world. The present article summarizes key published work with particular emphasis on gliomas and medulloblastoma, the two commonly encountered tumors.

  15. Familial pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Alband, Neda; Korbonits, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern due to hormone overproduction and/or tumor mass effects. The majority of pituitary adenomas occur sporadically; however, familial cases are increasingly being recognized, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). Familial pituitary tumors appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts both in their genetic basis and in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, tumors are more aggressive and affect patients at a younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis, while in Carney complex pituitary hyperplasia is common. The genetic alterations responsible for the formation of familial pituitary syndromes include the MEN1 gene, responsible for about 80% of MEN1 cases, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A, responsible for about 70% of Carney complex cases, and AIP, the gene coding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein, responsible for about 20% of FIPA cases. Rarely other genes have also been found responsible for familial pituitary adenoma cases. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) also has a genetic origin due to mosaic mutations in the G protein-coupled α subunit coded by the GNAS1 gene. In this chapter, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary syndromes and MAS. PMID:25248598

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the skin.

    PubMed

    Hardisson, David; Cuevas-Santos, Jesús; Contreras, Félix

    2002-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon tumor initially reported in the pleura but recently described in other sites of the body. We report a SFT of the skin that presented as painless nodule located in the right cheek in a 56-year-old woman. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells arranged in a patternless pattern of short and narrow fascicles with interspersed bundles of thick collagen, and numerous blood vessels with a focally hemangiopericytoma-like appearance. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells strongly expressed vimentin, CD34 and bcl-2. The lesion was excised and the patient remains well at 16-month follow-up. This case presented some diagnostic difficulty because of its unusual location, and had to be distinguished from other superficial soft tissue tumors. Recognition of SFT in the skin is important to avoid possible confusion with a variety of spindle cell neoplasms with different biologic potential.

  17. Temperature control in deep tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sang w.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2003-10-01

    Tumor cells are more sensitive to temperature increase than normal tissue. Hyperthermia has been used as a potential modality for cancer treatment. Another benefit from the thermal interruption of tumor cells is the immunological reactions, caused by inflammation and other mechanisms, and more interestingly caused by antigen(s) release. The temperature control is crucial both in direct tumor destruction through acute thermal effect and in immune reactions. Low temperature may not achieve the desired tumor cell killing. High temperature could result in over heating of the tumor, hence introducing undesirable damage to surrounding normal tissue. High temperature could completely denature the cell proteins, hence rendering tumor antigen(s) useless in immunological stimulation. A combination of an 805-nm laser and in-situ indocyanine green (ICG) solutions were used in treating rat tumors. Temperature measured at different locations showed that the effective photothermal interaction could reach as deep as 1 cm below the treatment surface and the temperature inside the tumor can be controlled by the laser and dye parameters. Multiple beams were also used to irradiate the tumor. When the tumor is free of ICG, the temperature increase of the tumor was less significant under the laser irradiation with a power density of 0.33 W/cm2; tumor tissue at a depth of 1 cm only experienced a 7°C-temperature increase. However, when the tumor contained ICG solution, the temperature at 1-cm depth experienced more than 15°C-temperature increase. Multiple-fiber irradiation further enhanced the photothermal selectivity. Furthermore, when one fiber was used, the edge of the tumor experienced less impact by the laser beam, while multiple beams resulted in an almost uniform temperature increase over the entire tumor.

  18. [Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient tumors--a novel mechanism of tumor formation].

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric enzyme complex participating in the Krebs cycle and electron transfer of oxidative phosphorylation. These tumors, discovered during the past 15 years, often occur in young patients and include 15% of paragangliomas, 7% of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and <1% of renal cell carcinomas and pituitary adenomas. SDH-deficient tumors have lost SDH complex activity via bi-allelic genomic losses or epigenetic silencing. This deficiency is oncogenic, activating pseudohypoxia signaling. SDH deficiency has to be suspected in the above-cited tumor types presenting at a young age. Immunohistochemical testing of tumor tissue for SDHB loss is diagnostic. PMID:26749909

  19. Comparison of minimally invasive transspinous and open approaches for thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Raygor, Kunal P; Than, Khoi D; Chou, Dean; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Spinal tumor resection has historically been performed via open approaches, although minimally invasive approaches have recently been found to be effective in small cohort series. The authors compare surgical characteristics and clinical outcomes of surgery in patients undergoing mini-open and open approaches for intradural-extramedullary tumor resection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive intradural-extramedullary tumor resections performed at their institution from 2007 to 2014. Patients with cervical tumors or pathology demonstrating neurofibroma were excluded (n = 14). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS Fifty-one thoracolumbar intradural-extramedullary tumor resections were included; 25 were performed via the minimally invasive transspinous approach. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, preoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score, preoperative symptom duration, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class, tumor size, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to the duration of the operation or extent of resection, but the mean estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cohort (142 vs 320 ml, p < 0.05). In each group, the 2 most common tumor pathologies were schwannoma and meningioma. There were no statistically significant differences in length of hospitalization, ASIA score improvement, complication rate, or recurrence rate. The mean duration of follow-up was 2 years for the MIS group and 1.6 years for the open surgery group. CONCLUSIONS This is one of the largest comparisons of minimally invasive and open approaches to the resection of thoracolumbar

  20. Radiotherapy and death from cerebrovascular disease in patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Ayal A; Du, Rose; Wen, Patrick Y; Arvold, Nils D

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is often used in the management of primary brain tumors, but late cerebrovascular risks remain incompletely characterized. We examined the relationship between radiotherapy and the risk of death from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in this population. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify 19,565 patients of any age diagnosed with a primary brain tumor between 1983-2002. Multivariable competing risks analysis and an interaction model were used to determine whether receipt of radiotherapy was associated with an increased risk of CVD-specific death, adjusting for tumor proximity to central arterial circulations of the brain. The median follow up in surviving patients was 12.75 years. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients who did and did not receive radiotherapy. Ten-year CVD-specific mortality in patients with tumors near central arterial circulations who did and did not receive radiotherapy were 0.64 % (95 % CI 0.42-0.93 %) versus 0.16 % (95 % CI 0.055-0.40 %), p = 0.01. After adjustment for demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related covariates, patients with tumors near central arterial circulations were significantly more likely to experience CVD-specific mortality after radiotherapy (HR 2.81; 95 % CI 1.25-6.31; p = 0.01); no association was observed among patients with more distant tumors (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.50-1.16; p = 0.21). The interaction model showed that tumor location was a key predictor of the risk of radiotherapy-associated, CVD-specific mortality (p-interaction = 0.004). Patients receiving radiotherapy for tumors near but not distant from the central vasculature of the brain are at increased risk for death secondary to CVD, which should be considered when counseling patients.

  1. Inferring tumor progression from genomic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Navin, Nicholas; Krasnitz, Alexander; Rodgers, Linda; Cook, Kerry; Meth, Jennifer; Kendall, Jude; Riggs, Michael; Eberling, Yvonne; Troge, Jennifer; Grubor, Vladimir; Levy, Dan; Lundin, Pär; Månér, Susanne; Zetterberg, Anders; Hicks, James; Wigler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We have developed a method we call Sector-Ploidy-Profiling (SPP) to study the clonal composition of breast tumors. SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural variation: (1) monogenomic and (2) polygenomic. Monogenomic tumors appear to contain a single major clonal subpopulation with a highly stable chromosome structure. Polygenomic tumors contain multiple clonal tumor subpopulations, which may occupy the same sectors, or separate anatomic locations. In polygenomic tumors, we show that heterogeneity can be ascribed to a few clonal subpopulations, rather than a series of gradual intermediates. By comparing multiple subpopulations from different anatomic locations, we have inferred pathways of cancer progression and the organization of tumor growth. PMID:19903760

  2. Inferring tumor progression from genomic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Navin, Nicholas; Krasnitz, Alexander; Rodgers, Linda; Cook, Kerry; Meth, Jennifer; Kendall, Jude; Riggs, Michael; Eberling, Yvonne; Troge, Jennifer; Grubor, Vladimir; Levy, Dan; Lundin, Pär; Månér, Susanne; Zetterberg, Anders; Hicks, James; Wigler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We have developed a method we call Sector-Ploidy-Profiling (SPP) to study the clonal composition of breast tumors. SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural variation: (1) monogenomic and (2) polygenomic. Monogenomic tumors appear to contain a single major clonal subpopulation with a highly stable chromosome structure. Polygenomic tumors contain multiple clonal tumor subpopulations, which may occupy the same sectors, or separate anatomic locations. In polygenomic tumors, we show that heterogeneity can be ascribed to a few clonal subpopulations, rather than a series of gradual intermediates. By comparing multiple subpopulations from different anatomic locations, we have inferred pathways of cancer progression and the organization of tumor growth.

  3. Meningeal solitary fibrous tumor: report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Kemal; Kontas, Olgun; Tucer, Bulent; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm that most often involves the pleura. The increasing numbers of this neoplasm have also been reported to date in extrapleural sites. We report a case of a twenty-four-year-old female with right frontal mass. Histologically, the tumor composed of spindle cell proliferation. Tumor cells were found to be positive for CD34 and CD117 with immunohistochemical studies. Ten months follow-up was uneventful. Seventy seven cases of meningeal solitary fibrous tumor from the literature are analysed and pathological, immunohistochemical and clinical features are discussed. Solitary fibrous tumor has a slight female predominance, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. Age distribution is similar to meningioma ranging from 7-81 years. Approximately 23% of cases originate in the spine which is the most common meningeal location. Histopathologic examination shows uniform spindle cell proliferation with various amount of collagen. CD34-positivity usually allows discrimination from schwannomas, meningiomas and hemangiopericytomas. A differential diagnosis is important because most of the solitary fibrous tumors usually behave in a benign fashion. In this study, we also showed CD117 (Kit) expression in a case of meningeal SFT. CD117-positivity can be a good strategy for treatment in malignant and recurrent cases. Further investigations are necessary for therapeutic implication of CD117-positivity in SFT.

  4. Grading of complications of transurethral resection of bladder tumor using Clavien–Dindo classification system

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ankur; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Goel, Apul; Kumar, Manoj; Purkait, Bimalesh; Aeron, Ruchir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Clavien–Dindo classification system is used for grading complications of various oncological, renal, and endourological procedures. We applied this system for grading the severity of perioperative complications in patients undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and identify parameters predicting these complications. Materials and Methods: Data of 984 patients who underwent TURBT from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. All data was retrospectively collected and analyzed for complications occurring within the first postoperative month. All complications were classified according to the five grades of modified CCS (.Clavien classification system). Results: A total of 172 complications were observed in 138 patients. Majority were low grade complications (Grade 1 [77.3%] and Grade 2 [12.7%]). Higher grade complications were rare (Grade 3 [6.4%] and Grade 4 [3.0%]). There was one death (Grade 5 0.6%), with an overall mortality rate of 0.1%. The incidence of complications was significantly greater for age >60 years, baseline serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl, size of tumor >4 cm, tumor located at dome, resection time >60 min, incomplete resection and if surgery performed by a resident urologist. Conclusions: Clavien–Dindo classification system can be easily applied to grade the complications of TURBT, and it is easily reproducible. We observed that TURBT was a safe procedure. Majority of complications were Grade 1–2 (90%) and Grade 3–5 were rare (10%). Postoperative bleeding is the most common complication. A greater rate of complications of TURBT was associated with patient age, size of tumor, location of tumor, surgeon experience, resection time, and completion of tumor resection. PMID:27555684

  5. Sonar Locator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  6. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  7. Huntington's disease gene located.

    PubMed

    Kolata, G

    1983-11-25

    Investigators have found a restriction enzyme marker, a piece of DNA that can be located with recombinant DNA techniques, that is so close to the Huntington's disease gene that its presence can be used as an indicator for that gene. If this marker is used as a diagnostic test for Huntington's disease, people at risk for getting the disease will be able to learn whether or not they will in fact develop the disease. The ability to predict the inevitable onset of this progressive, degenerative disease raises ethical questions about counseling, screening, and disclosure of risk status to patients and family members.

  8. Parotid gland tumors in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Man; Choi, Hwan Jun; Kim, Joo Won; Kim, Jun Hyuk

    2012-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors occur in about 3% of the head and neck tumors, and among the salivary gland tumors, parotid gland tumor occurs in about 80%. Because of its low frequency and small cases, it is hard to establish the epidemiologic characteristics of the tumors. This study was performed retrospectively from February 1987 to August 2010. There were 95 male, and 76 female patients. Most of the patients complained of the painless and progressively enlarged mass in the preauricular area. Peak incidence of benign parotid gland tumor was at the fifth decade of life. In the malignant tumors, peak age in males was the eighth decade, and peak age in females was from the third to the fifth decade of life, which was relatively younger and has a broad range of spectrum. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor of the 93 cases (61.6%) followed by Warthin tumor, occurring in 20 cases (13.2%). Squamous cell carcinoma, reported in 6 cases (30%), is the most frequent. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the second leading tumor. In conclusion, parotid gland tumor incidence was found to be higher in males. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly encountered type of parotid gland neoplasms, which is in agreement with findings from all of the published literature from all over world. In contrast to most of the previous studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor found. Based on the data in this study, it has significant clinical respect and is helpful in the management of parotid gland tumors in Orientals.

  9. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  10. Secondary optic nerve tumors.

    PubMed

    Christmas, N J; Mead, M D; Richardson, E P; Albert, D M

    1991-01-01

    Secondary tumors of the optic nerve are more common than primary optic nerve tumors. The involvement of the optic nerve may arise from direct invasion from intraocular malignancies, from hematopoietic malignancy, from meningeal carcinomatosis, or from distant primary tumors. Orbital tumors rarely invade the optic nerve, and brain tumors involve it only in their late stages.

  11. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors related to Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Khaliq, Mohammed Israr Ul; Shah, Ajaz A.; Ahmad, Irshad; Hasan, Shahid; Jangam, Sagar S.; Farah; Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Background Assess clinicopathological features of patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) associated with Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in our institution from 2004 to 2015. Method After histopathological analyses of KCOT related to Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, 7 patients were assessed. These patients presented a total of 15 primary and 2 recurrent KCOT. Results All patients presented a multiple KCOT, and 13 lesions were located in mandible (77%) and 4 (23%) in maxilla. Most of the tumors presented a unilocular pattern (71%) and had tooth association (88%). Four patients (57%) were in the age group of 10–19 years and three patients (43%) were in the age group of 20–29 years. There were four male and three female patients. Conclusion KCOT is a frequent manifestation of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome and can be its first sign, mainly in young patients. The four patients presented with two lesions (57%) and three lesions in three patients (43%). PMID:27195205

  12. Cross-talk between tumors can affect responses to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Christel; John, Liza B; Westwood, Jennifer A; Yong, Carmen SM; Beavis, Paul A; Schwendener, Reto A; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Advanced stages of cancer often involve multiple tumors in different locations in the body. These tumors are associated with a microenvironment that can influence tumor responses to immunotherapy. Whether tumors and their disparate microenvironment can interact together at distance in a multiple tumor setting, through a form of cross-talk, and affect their responses to immunotherapy has never been described. Our study investigated the cross-talk between two tumors with disparate microenvironments in a mouse model. We demonstrated that immunosuppressive visceral tumors could influence distant subcutaneous (SC) tumors to render them resistant to immunotherapy. We observed distinct modifications in the SC tumor microenvironment following cross-talk with kidney tumors that exhibit a type-2 macrophage-related immunosuppressive microenvironment. Indeed, when a concomitant kidney tumor was present in the mouse, the SC tumors were highly infiltrated with M2 macrophages and had a reduced T cell and NK cell effector immune profile. Finally, blocking the M2-associated chemokine CCL2 or depleting macrophages, significantly improved the effect of immunotherapy on growth of SC tumors in the presence of concomitant kidney tumors. This work emphasizes the potential negative influence that a tumor, with a strong immunosuppressive microenvironment, can exert on distant tumors that would normally be treatment-responsive. This report may lead to a new vision of the prioritization in the treatment of advanced metastatic cancer. PMID:26140251

  13. Pregnancy of unknown location.

    PubMed

    Schuneman, Margaret; Von Wald, Tiffany; Hansen, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The development of highly sensitive and accurate human chorionic gonadotropin assays as well as the improvement of vaginal ultrasound have allowed for the early detection of pregnancy and have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic gestations. One of the byproducts of this increased sensitivity is pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), a term which is used to describe pregnancy in a woman with a positive pregnancy test but no signs of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy. A PUL can include an early intrauterine pregnancy, a failing intrauterine/extrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. Modern medical management has improved the diagnosis and treatment of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss. In the hemodynamically stable patient with PUL, expectant management has been shown to be safe and allows for confirmatory studies before proceeding with therapy.

  14. Quantum Image Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Dang, Yijie; Zhao, Na

    2016-10-01

    Quantum image processing has been a hot topic as a consequence of the development of quantum computation. Many quantum image processing algorithms have been proposed, whose efficiency are theoretically higher than their corresponding classical algorithms. However, most of the quantum schemes do not consider the problem of measurement. If users want to get the results, they must measure the final state many times to get all the pixels' values. Moreover, executing the algorithm one time, users can only measure the final state one time. In order to measure it many times, users must execute the algorithms many times. If the measurement process is taken into account, whether or not the algorithms are really efficient needs to be reconsidered. In this paper, we try to solve the problem of measurement and give a quantum image location algorithm. This scheme modifies the probability of pixels to make the target pixel to be measured with higher probability. Furthermore, it only has linear complexity.

  15. Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor: a clinicopathologic study of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Brunnemann, R B; Ro, J Y; Ordonez, N G; Mooney, J; El-Naggar, A K; Ayala, A G

    1999-11-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs), rare in extrapleural sites, can present difficulties in diagnosis at these locations. From the files of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, we accessed 24 cases of extrapleural SFT (14 females, 10 males, ages 19 to 85 yr) obtained for clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and follow-up findings. Tumor locations included the head and neck (n = 12), the abdomen (n = 10), and the extremities (n = 2). Tumors were 2 to 25 cm in greatest dimension (mean, 8.2 cm) and were well circumscribed or encapsulated. Histologic features were typical of their pleural counterparts, e.g., bland spindle cells with some hypercellular areas and myxoid to hyalinized backgrounds. A hemangiopericytic vascular pattern was present in 19 cases and prominent in 11. Mitotic activity ranged from 0 to 4 counts per 10 high-power fields. Necrosis was seen in two cases. Focally increased cellularity was seen in seven cases and margins were positive in another seven cases. Spindle cells were positive for vimentin (19 of 19) and CD34 (18 of 20), and negative for cytokeratin (0 of 19). Fibroblastic differentiation was present in the three cases studied by electron microscopy. Flow cytometry in three cases revealed diploid cell populations. Follow-up for 19 cases (9 to 99 mo) revealed no evidence of metastasis, although one patient had residual tumor after an incomplete excision, and one patient died of unrelated causes. Histologic findings such as mitotic counts, necrosis, cellularity, and marginal status were not associated with outcome. We conclude that extrapleural SFTs are clinically and histologically similar to their pleural counterparts. Although the length of clinical follow-up was short (mean follow-up, 41.4 mo), recognizing these lesions is important because they typically follow an indolent clinical course if completely excised. Although CD34 is nonspecific, it is usually positive in SFTs and may aid in their diagnosis.

  16. Tumors of the submaxillary gland.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R H; Hajdu, S I; Strong, E W

    1976-10-01

    This study reviews a thirty year experience with 217 patients who had a tumor of the submaxillary gland, comprising about 9 per cent of all patients with salivary neoplasms seen during the same period. Most of the tumors were malignant (56 per cent), with adenoid cystic carcinoma predominating, but the histologic type most frequently encountered was benign mixed tumor (43 per cent). Median age was fifty-four years in patients with malignant tumors compared with forty-six years in those with benign tumors, and 58 per cent were women. Asymptomatic swelling was the usual presenting complaint, and the clinical findings are summarized using a staging system recently proposed for patients with parotid tumors. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in at least 50 per cent of patients who had an adenocarcinoma or epidermoid, mucoepidermoid, or anaplastic carcinoma. Treatment was surgical and complete gland excision proved adequate in those with benign tumors. Radical neck dissection was performed in conjunction with submaxillary resection in most patients with malignant lesions, but radical en bloc resection was reserved for those few who had extensive or fixed disease. Net determinate "cure" rates at five and ten years (30 and 20 per cent, respectively) are distressingly low and compare unfavorably with those previously reported in patients treated for carcinoma of the parotid. The high local recurrence rate and the greater incidence in the submaxillary gland of more aggressive tumor types which metastasize readily suggest that current treatment should be more radical. It seems reasonable to expect that results might be improved if en bloc resections were more often performed in patients with less advanced disease, possibly in conjuction with intensive postoperative irradiation in selected cases.

  17. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  18. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells by Fluorescent Immunohistochemistry in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Ping; Guan, Quan-Lin; Zhao, Da; Pei, Guang-Jun; Su, Hong-Xin; Du, Lan-Ning; He, Jin-Xiang; Liu, Zhao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that leave the primary tumor site and enter the bloodstream, where they can spread to other organs; they are very important in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of malignant tumors. However, few studies have investigated CTCs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the CTCs in blood of ESCC patients and its potential relevance to clinicopathological features and prognosis. Material/Methods CTCs were acquired by a negative enrichment method that used magnetic activated cell sorting (MACSTM). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to identify the CTCs. Then, the positive CTC patients with ESCC were analyzed, after which the relationship between CTCs and clinicopathologic features was evaluated. Results In the present study, 62 out of 140 (44.3%) patients with ESCC were positive for CTCs. The positive rate of CTCs was significantly related with stage of ESCC patients (P=0.013). However, there was no relationship between CTC status and age, sex, smoking tumor history, tumor location, differentiation of tumor, lymphatic invasion, or lymph venous invasion (P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients positive for CTCs had significantly shorter survival time than patients negative for CTCs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that stage and CTC status were significant prognostic factors for patients with ESCC. Conclusions CTCs positivity is an independent prognostic biomarker that indicates a worse prognosis for patients with ESCC. PMID:27184872

  19. [Benign and borderline tumors of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Schem, Ch; Bauerschlag, D O; Meinhold-Heerlein, I; Fischer, D; Friedrich, M; Maass, N

    2007-07-01

    Alterations of the ovaries easily cause diagnostic uncertainty about relevance and consequence. Palpable or sonographic ovarian tumors are reason for various differential diagnoses. Therefore the clarification of ovarian lesions is one of the main duties in daily gynaecological practice. Although diagnostic procedures might be supplemented by CT-Scan or MRI techniques, classical bimanual examination and vaginal ultrasound scan will determine the diagnosis in most cases comparably accurate. The suspected diagnosis concerning benign or malignant lesions, should take the palpable and sonographic feature, as well as the information from the patients medical history (e.g. family history of malignant diseases (BRCA 1/2 mutations) into account. In this regard, there are no other additional parameters established. Serum tumormarkers (CA 12.5) or sonographic examinations (including Doppler) have low sensitivity and specificity. Clinical diagnostic experience seems to be crucial. Cystic lesions mostly occur in premenopausal women and commonly relapse. They are mostly normal follicle cysts, but may also be a tumor of low malignant potential (LMP-tumor) or even an invasive cancerous lesion. 20-30% of all ovarian tumors are malignant and by the time of primary diagnosis already in a about 60-70% incurable due to intraabdominal dissemination. Benign or malignant lesions may occur in every age group. Ovarian tumors at infantile age are malignant in about 15%. Most malignant tumors occur between the age of 50 to 70. The LMP-tumors occur in average 10 years earlier. Malignant ovarian lesions represent about 15-30% of all genital malignant tumors. Hormonal contraceptives, pregnancy and breast feeding seem to be protective. The persistence of ovarian cysts and tumors will be mostly examined by laparoscopic surgery. In that respect the diagnosis of LMP-tumors might be incidentally and will then have a substantial impact on the extent of the surgery and the follow up. This compilation

  20. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts. PMID:26917429

  1. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts.

  2. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  3. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Complications of these tumors include: Diabetes Hormone crises (if the tumor releases certain types of hormones) Severe low blood sugar (from insulinomas) Severe ulcers in the stomach and small intestine (from gastrinomas) Spread of the tumor to the liver

  4. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  5. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  6. [Tumor formation in plants].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, T V; Lutova, L A; Nester, Iu

    2001-09-01

    The data on genetic tumors in plant species and interspecific hybrids, as well as the problems of Agrobacterium-induced tumors are reviewed. The role of the horizontal gene transfer in the induction of genetic tumors is discussed. PMID:11642121

  7. Pathology of eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  8. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  9. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  10. Intrathoracic Desmoid Tumor Presenting as Multiple Lung Nodules 13 Years after Previous Resection of Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Kwak, Joo Hee; Oh, Chang Kyo; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyeon Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Oh, Young-Ha; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare soft tissue tumors considered to have locally infiltrative features without distant metastasis until now. Although they are most commonly intraabdominal, very few cases have extra-abdominal locations. The origin of intrathoracic desmoid tumors is predominantly the chest wall with occasional involvement of pleura. True intrathoracic primary desmoid tumors with no involvement of the chest wall or pleura are extremely rare. We recently experienced a case of true intrathoracic desmoid tumor presenting as multiple lung nodules at 13 years after resection of a previous intraabdominal desmoid tumor.

  11. Differences and Similarities in the Clinicopathological Features of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in China and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Ming; Tang, Laura; Qiao, Xin-Wei; Wolin, Edward; Nissen, Nicholas N.; Dhall, Deepti; Chen, Jie; Shen, Lin; Chi, Yihebali; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Ben, Qi-Wen; Lv, Bin; Zhou, Ya-Ru; Bai, Chun-Mei; Chen, Jie; Song, Yu-Li; Song, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chong-Mei; Yu, Run; Chen, Yuan-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The presentation, pathology, and prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) in Asian patients have not been studied in large cohorts. We hypothesized that the clinicopathological features of PNETs of Chinese patients might be different from those of US patients. The objectives of this study were to address whether PNETs in Chinese patients exhibit unique clinicopathological features and natural history, and can be graded and staged using the WHO/ENETS criteria. This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients with PNETs in multiple academic medical centers in China (7) and the United States (2). Tumor grading and staging were based on WHO/ENETS criteria. The clinicopathological features of PNETs of Chinese and US patients were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find associations between survival and patient demographics, tumor grade and stage, and other clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 977 (527 Chinese and 450 US) patients with PNETs were studied. In general, Chinese patients were younger than US patients (median age 46 vs 56 years). In Chinese patients, insulinomas were the most common (52.2%), followed by nonfunctional tumors (39.7%), whereas the order was reversed in US patients. Tumor grade distribution was similar in the 2 countries (G1: 57.5% vs 55.0%; G2: 38.5% vs 41.3%; and G3: 4.0% vs 3.7%). However, age, primary tumor size, primary tumor location, grade, and stage of subtypes of PNETs were significantly different between the 2 countries. The Chinese nonfunctional tumors were significantly larger than US ones (median size 4 vs 3 cm) and more frequently located in the head/neck region (54.9% vs 34.8%). The Chinese and US insulinomas were similar in size (median 1.5 cm) but the Chinese insulinomas relatively more frequently located in the head/neck region (48.3% vs 26.1%). Higher grade, advanced stage, metastasis, and larger primary tumor size were significantly associated with

  12. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  13. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  14. [Tumors as a cause of acute abdomen in children].

    PubMed

    Kushch, N L; Kononuchenko, V P; Simonov, E V; Iarosh, V I

    1979-07-01

    The authors share their experience in treating children aged 1 day to 14 years with acute processes in the abdomen induced by various tumors. During 10 years 51 patients have been observed. "Acute abdomen" was induced by tumors and cysts of ovaries (16 patients), lymphangiomas, cysts and tumors of the mesentery, greater and lesser omentum, retroperitoneal cavity (14 patients), intestinal tumors (7), small pelvis tumors (6), tumors of kidneys (4), liver (3), cyst of the pancreatic gland (1). The clinical picture of the disease, possible timely diagnosing and tactics are presented. All the patients were operated urgently. After operation 44 patients recovered and were discharged from the hospital, 7 patients died.

  15. Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding. PMID:23610714

  16. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  17. [About a case of calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura].

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Tronc, François; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2015-12-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare soft tissue benign tumor (OMS 2002). Some pleural localisations are described, which affect slightly older individuals than the other soft tissue forms. The calcifying fibrous tumor is included in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of pleural tumors. A pleural tumor located in the right inferior pulmonary lobe is diagnosed in a 59-year-old man. This pleural tumor is macroscopically well-circumscribed. Histologically, the rare spindle tumoral cells are located between bundles of a collagenous tissue, sometimes hyalinized, with psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications. The tumoral cells have a fibrohistiocytic origin. They stain positively for antibodies against vimentin, factor XIIIa, CD68, CD163, CD34. Antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, PS100, ALK1 and EBV are negative. Main differencial diagnoses are other benign pleural tumors (solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastique tumor), some malignant tumors (desmoplastic malignant pleural mesothelioma) and pleural pseudotumors (calcified pleural plaques, chronic fibrous pleuritis, amylose, hyalinizing granuloma). Our case is the 15th pleural calcifying fibrous tumor being reported. PMID:26608111

  18. Impact of macrophages on tumor growth characteristics in a murine ocular tumor model.

    PubMed

    Stei, Marta M; Loeffler, Karin U; Kurts, Christian; Hoeller, Tobias; Pfarrer, Christiane; Holz, Frank G; Herwig-Carl, Martina C

    2016-10-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAM), mean vascular density (MVD), PAS positive extravascular matrix patterns, and advanced patients' age are associated with a poor prognosis in uveal melanoma. These correlations may be influenced by M2 macrophages and their cytokine expression pattern. Thus, the effect of TAM and their characteristic cytokines on histologic tumor growth characteristics were studied under the influence of age. Ninety five CX3CR1(+/GFP) mice (young 8-12weeks, old 10-12months) received an intravitreal injection of 1 × 10(5) HCmel12 melanoma cells. Subgroups were either systemically macrophage-depleted by Clodronate liposomes (n = 23) or received melanoma cells, which were pre-incubated with the supernatant of M1- or M2-polarized macrophages (n = 26). Eyes were processed histologically/immunohistochemically (n = 75), or for flow cytometry (n = 20) to analyze tumor size, mean vascular density (MVD), extravascular matrix patterns, extracellular matrix (ECM) and the presence/polarization of TAM. Prognostically significant extravascular matrix patterns (parallels with cross-linkings, loops, networks) were found more frequently in tumors of untreated old compared to tumors of untreated young mice (p = 0.024); as well as in tumors of untreated mice compared to tumors of macrophage-depleted mice (p = 0.014). Independent from age, M2-conditioned tumors showed more TAM (p = 0.001), increased collagen IV levels (p = 0.024) and a higher MVD (p = 0.02) than M1-conditioned tumors. Flow cytometry revealed a larger proportion of M2-macrophages in old than in young mice. The results indicate that TAM and their cytokines appear to be responsible for a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Tumor favoring and pro-angiogenic effects can be directly attributed to a M2-dominated tumor microenvironment rather than to age-dependent factors alone. However, an aged immunoprofile with an increased number of M2-macrophages may provide a tumor-favoring basis

  19. Malignant fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor (so-called "lipomatous hemangiopericytoma"): clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2011-08-01

    Fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor is a rare variant of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Generally regarded as benign, very few fat-forming SFTs with malignant histologic features have been reported. Here, we report 14 histologically malignant fat-forming SFTs to better characterize this subset. Seven patients were female and 7 were male, with ages ranging 20 to 93 years (median, 57 y). Five tumors were located in the lower limb, 3 in the trunk, 3 in abdominopelvic locations, 2 in the head and neck region, and 1 in the upper limb. The tumor size ranged from 3.4 to 20 cm (median, 8.6 cm). Histologically, all exhibited at least focal hypercellularity; 12 tumors had mitoses >4/10 high-power fields (range, 2 to 37; median, 8), 12 showed at least moderate atypia, and 8 showed necrosis. It should be noted that 7 tumors contained only mature adipose tissue, whereas 5 contained multivacuolated lipoblasts and 2 had areas resembling atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT). Immunohistochemically, CD34 and CD99 were positive in most cases (11 of 14 and 8 of 10, respectively); MDM2 and CDK4 were both negative in all 4 cases tested (including both tumors with ALT-like areas). Follow-up data from 10 cases (median duration, 47.5 mo; range, 5 to 76) showed 2 patients with multiple metastases (both to lung and bones, and 1 each to breast and to soft tissue), both of whom died of disease. In conclusion, fat-forming SFTs exhibiting malignant histologic features have potential for aggressive behavior. The presence of lipoblasts and/or ALT-like areas, although described in some "benign" examples of fat-forming SFT, seems much more common in the malignant subset and may prompt a careful search for morphologic evidence of malignancy in any case of fat-forming SFT.

  20. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, J C; Hengge, M; Hengge, U R; Smith, J S; Miettinen, M

    1998-12-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had

  1. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, J C; Hengge, M; Hengge, U R; Smith, J S; Miettinen, M

    1998-12-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had

  2. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Hepatic Arteriography in Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Performance Depicting Tumors and Tumor Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Joon; Chung, Jin Wook Yin, Yong Hu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to analyze retrospectively the performance of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) hepatic arteriography in depicting tumors and their feeders and to investigate the related determining factors in chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsEighty-six patients with 142 tumors satisfying the imaging diagnosis criteria of HCC were included in this study. The performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography for chemoembolization per tumor and per patient was evaluated using maximum intensity projection images alone (MIP analysis) or MIP combined with multiplanar reformation images (MIP + MPR analysis) regarding the following three aspects: tumor depiction, confidence of tumor feeder detection, and trackability of tumor feeders. Tumor size, tumor enhancement, tumor location, number of feeders, diaphragmatic motion, portal vein enhancement, and hepatic artery to parenchyma enhancement ratio were regarded as potential determining factors.ResultsTumors were depicted in 125 (88.0 %) and 142 tumors (100 %) on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis, respectively. Imaging performances on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis were good enough to perform subsegmental chemoembolization without additional angiographic investigation in 88 (62.0 %) and 128 tumors (90.1 %) on per-tumor basis and in 43 (50 %) and 73 (84.9 %) on per-patient basis, respectively. Significant determining factors for performance in MIP + MPR analysis on per tumor basis were tumor size (p = 0.030), tumor enhancement (0.005), tumor location (p = 0.001), and diaphragmatic motion (p < 0.001).ConclusionsCBCT hepatic arteriography provided sufficient information for subsegmental chemoembolization by depicting tumors and their feeders in the vast majority of patients. Combined analysis of MIP and MPR images was essential to enhance the performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography.

  3. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in gastric serosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Chung, Jae-Joon; Yun, Seong Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of peritoneum, especially arising in gastric serosa, is extremely rare. A case of SFT arising in gastric serosa of a 70-year-old man is reported. On abdominal computed tomography scan, an approximate 8.0 x 5.3 cm-sized solid mass with multiple nodular calcifications was noted in the omentomesentery of right upper abdomen, which was abutting to the gastric antral wall. At laparotomy the tumor was tightly attached to the gastric serosa and was completely excised by wedge resection of the stomach. The cut surfaces of the tumor were pale brown to pale yellow, firm, with multifocal yellowish, gritty, stony-hard nodules and cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mildly cellular benign-appearing spindle-shaped cells and bands of hyalinized collagen in varying proportions. The tumor revealed predominantly sclerosing pattern with extensive hyalinized fibrosis and multifocal dystrophic calcifications. The tumor was mainly located at the gastric serosa and subserosa, and its growth pattern was expansile with entrapping of muscularis propria and submucosa in the periphery of the tumor. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and vimentin but negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD99 and c-kit. Although its occurrence is rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the stomach.

  5. Benign cardiac tumors of the pluripotent mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Butany, Jagdish W

    2008-02-01

    Among benign primary cardiac tumors, myxomas and papillary fibroelastomas are the most common. Cardiac myxomas arise from pluripotent mesenchymal cells and are seen as intracardiac, glistening polypoid masses arising most frequently from the interatrial septum in the left atrium. They are composed of stellate to polygonal myxoma cells in a mucopolysaccharide-rich matrix. These tumors can be sporadic or familial. On the other hand, papillary fibroelastomas are sporadic, seen as a mass of delicate papillary fronds ("sea anemone"-like) arising from a slender stalk, commonly located on diseased left-sided valves. They are lined by plump endothelial cells, which rest on stalks composed of mucopolysaccharides enclosing a collagen- and elastin-rich core. Embolism is often the mode of presentation for both of the tumors; myxomas are also associated with obstructive and constitutional symptoms. In contrast, neurogenic tumors (paraganglia or nerve sheath tumors) are exceedingly rare and occur as epicardial and infrequently as intracatdiac masses. The tumors are often incidentally diagnosed by the usual echocardiography, but magnetic resonance imaging is useful for further characterization of the tumors. The tumors are, in general, treated by surgical resection, but may require a little or at times more significant reconstruction. Among these tumors, the myxomas are associated with a higher rate of recurrences. PMID:18350919

  6. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  7. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  8. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma.

  9. Tumors in brown bullheads in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: analysis of survey data from 1992 through 2006.

    PubMed

    Pikney, Alfred E; Harshbarger, John C; Rutter, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Liver and skin tumor prevalences in brown bullheads Ameiurus nebulosus have been used in the North American Great Lakes to designate highly contaminated areas of concern and monitor their recovery. Here we interpret the results of six surveys conducted in the Chesapeake Bay watershed between 1992 and 2006, with data for 647 fish. The objective has been to develop an adequate database to critically evaluate the use of tumor prevalence as a habitat quality indicator within the watershed. Surveys featured randomized fish collection; recording of sex, length, weight, and age; and histopathology of all livers and all raised skin lesions. The Bayes information criterion was used to analyze all possible combinations of age, gender, length, and weight as covariates for logistic regression. Length and gender were the covariates that best described liver tumor prevalence. There were no covariates in the model for skin tumor prevalence. In some surveys, biomarkers, such as biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-like metabolites, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity, and hepatic DNA adducts, were used with sediment and tissue chemistry data to evaluate classes of chemicals as likely contributors to tumor prevalence. We highlight two surveys of the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. (average = 55% liver tumors, 23% skin tumors), where sediment PAHs, biliary PAH-like metabolites, and hepatic DNA adducts were high, suggesting that PAHs play a major role. We show that logistic regression is an appropriate procedure for comparing "contaminated" versus "reference" locations, and we evaluate the utility of tumor surveys as an environmental indicator for the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  10. Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Charhi, Hind; Bernoussi, Zakiya; Haddan, Azzouz; Mesmoudi, Siham; Elktaibi, Abderrahim; Mansouri, Fatima; Elktaibi, Rachid; Lahlou, Khalid; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat

    2011-09-28

    Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon neoplasm affecting adults and typically located in the pleura and can also occur in a large number of other extra thoracic sites. We present the case of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneum and describe their histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The identification of SFT in the retroperitoneum is of importance because its clinico-pathological behaviour is still unclear. The pathologist plays a fundamental role in establishing both the positive and differential diagnosis.

  11. Isolated intra-oral granular cell tumor: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Emanuel S S; Filho, José R Laureano; Rocha, Nelson S; Neto, Ivo C Pita; Camargo, Igor B

    2010-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively uncommon lesion occurring in almost any part of the body, including the orofacial region. The tongue and the buccal mucosa are common intra oral sites. Although aggressive and malignant variants of this neoplasm have been described, most GCTs are benign. The histogenesis of the lesion still remains unknown. However, histochemical and ultra-structural studies propose the origin of the lesion from Schwann cells, striated muscle, mesenchymal cells, histiocytes and epithelial cells. The tumor generally occurs in middle-aged or older adults. The lesion is typically seen as an uninflamed asymptomatic mass measuring about two cm in diameter with reddish surface coloring. As most granular cell tumors are benign, surgical excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice. In this study, 2 oral GCT cases are presented, corresponding to 2 male patients, with a mean age of 27 years and a mean time of evolution of the lesions of 8 months. Both lesions were located on the tongue. Differential diagnoses include fibrous hyperplasia, minor salivary gland tumor condyloma acuminatum and neurilemmoma. In all the cases a resection with safety margins of the lesions was carried out under local anesthesia. The samples were fixed and processed for histopathological study. The main clinical pathology and diagnostic features of this neoplasm are reviewed and discussed.

  12. [Radiofrequency ablation of an unresectable abdominal tumor].

    PubMed

    Sézeur, Alain; Fritsch, Sylvie; Louvet, Christophe; Kujas, Albert; Mosnier, Henri; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Grimberg, Sylvie

    2003-02-01

    Remnant malignant tissue is left behind after conventional surgery for an unresectable intraperitoneal malignant tumor. Standard radiotherapy or chemotherapy rarely enables good tumor control. We report the case of a 74-year-old man who developed a local recurrence of a sigmoid tumor located 5 to 6 cm from the anus. The tumor was fixed to the pelvic wall and could not be totally eradicated with conventional surgery. Preoperative peroperative assessment confirmed the absence of metastatic spread. Radiotherapy could not be performed due to risk of bowel injury. Peroperative radiofrequency ablation was followed by surgical colorectal resection without restoration of intestinal continuity, leaving only tumor tissue destroyed by radiofrequency. No adjuvant treatment was proposed because of intolerance to chemotherapy. Clinical assessment and thoracic and abdominal CT scan confirmed the absence of recurrence 26 months after radiofrequency ablation. Serum markers remained normal.

  13. Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Anca; Popescu, Carmen Florina; Pleşea, I E; Bădulescu, Adriana; Tănase, Florentina; Mateescu, Garofiţa

    2009-01-01

    The frequency of mesenchymal breast tumors is very low, being represented mostly by tumors with biphasic proliferation (phyllodes tumors) and less by other types of non-epithelial tumors. From clinical point of view, phyllodes tumors (PT) can mimic a breast carcinoma. Therefore, the preoperative diagnosis by cytological examination on material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) is very important for adequate treatment of these tumors. In current study, we assessed clinical aspects of 79 phyllodes tumors regarding patient's age and localization of the tumors. In 17 out of 79 cases, it has been performed FNA within the tumors with further cytological examination on the smears obtained. The median age of the patients was 46.07-year-old, being progressively higher with grade of the tumors with significant values between benign and borderline tumors (p=0.04954) and between benign and malignant ones (p=0.02890). The distinguish on the smears of stromal fragments and naked stromal nuclei with variable grade of atypia regarding the tumoral type, in detriment of epithelial elements have been conclusive for fibroepithelial lesion as cytopathological diagnosis. The preoperative differentiation between a breast phyllodes tumor and a breast carcinoma is extremely important for avoiding of a useless radical surgery for the patient. If the fine needle aspiration was correctly performed, the accuracy of the cytodiagnosis has been 82% in current study. PMID:19942954

  14. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs.

  15. Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run; Melmed, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common and mostly benign neoplasia which cause excess or deficiency of pituitary hormones and compressive damage to adjacent organs. Oncogene activation [e.g. PTTG (pituitary tumor-transforming gene) and HMGA2], tumor suppressor gene inactivation (e.g. MEN1 and PRKAR1A), epigenetic changes (e.g. methylation) and humoral factors (e.g. ectopic production of stimulating hormones) are all possible pituitary tumor initiators; the micro-environment of pituitary tumors including steroid milieu, angiogenesis and abnormal cell adhesion further promote tumor growth. Senescence, a cellular defence mechanism against malignant transformation, may explain the benign nature of at least some pituitary tumors. We suggest that future research on pituitary tumor pathogenesis should incorporate systems approaches, and address regulatory mechanisms for pituitary cell proliferation, development of new animal models of pituitary tumor and isolation of functional human pituitary tumor cell lines. PMID:20541667

  16. The use of breast conserving surgery: linking insurance claims with tumor registry data

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dhakal, Sanjaya; Yamashiro, Gladys; Issell, Brian F

    2002-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to use insurance claims and tumor registry data to examine determinants of breast conserving surgery (BCS) in women with early stage breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer cases registered in the Hawaii Tumor Registry (HTR) from 1995 to 1998 were linked with insurance claims from a local health plan. We identified 722 breast cancer cases with stage I and II disease. Surgical treatment patterns and comorbidities were identified using diagnostic and procedural codes in the claims data. The HTR database provided information on demographics and disease characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess determinants of BCS vs. mastectomy. Results The linked data set represented 32.8% of all early stage breast cancer cases recorded in the HTR during the study period. Due to the nature of the health plan, 79% of the cases were younger than 65 years. Women with early stage breast cancer living on Oahu were 70% more likely to receive BCS than women living on the outer islands. In the univariate analysis, older age at diagnosis, lower tumor stage, smaller tumor size, and well-differentiated tumor grade were related to receiving BCS. Ethnicity, comorbidity count, menopausal and marital status were not associated with treatment type. Conclusions In addition to developing solutions that facilitate access to radiation facilities for breast cancer patients residing in remote locations, future qualitative research may help to elucidate how women and oncologists choose between BCS and mastectomy. PMID:11879527

  17. Clinical outcomes of systemic therapy for patients with deep fibromatoses (desmoid tumors)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Veridiana Pires; Keohan, Mary L.; D’Adamo, David R.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Brennan, Murray F.; Singer, Samuel; Ahn, Linda S.; Maki, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined outcomes of patients with desmoid tumors receiving systemic therapy at a single institution to provide a basis for examination of newer agents. Methods We reviewed records of patients with desmoid tumors treated with chemotherapy at our institution. The activity of NSAIDs was not addressed. Patients without measurable disease, those receiving therapy we could not document, and those receiving prophylactic therapy were excluded. Results Sixty-eight patients received 157 lines of therapy. Nine patients died, 7 of progressive disease. The cohort was 62% female with median age 32.5, 32% with Gardner syndrome, median follow-up 63 months, and median of 2 lines of therapy. Intra-abdominal primary location was most common (44%). The greatest RECIST response rate was observed with anthracyclines and hormonal therapy and lowest with single agent dacarbazine/temozolomide or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, principally imatinib. In a multivariate analysis, only nodular gross morphology and presence of Gardner syndrome were the only tumor factors associated with greater time to progression. Conclusions Anti-estrogens and anthracycline-containing regimens are associated with a higher radiological response rate against desmoid tumors than other agents. Systemic therapy for desmoid tumors can be successful in patients with desmoids, and is a viable option in lieu of morbid or disabling surgery. PMID:20187095

  18. Survey radiography and computerized tomography imaging of the thorax in female dogs with mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate early diagnosis of lung metastases is important for establishing therapeutic measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare survey thoracic radiographs and computerized tomography (CT) scans to specifically identify lung metastases in female dogs with mammary tumors. Methods Twenty-one female dogs, weighing 3 to 34 kg and aged from 5 years to 14 years and 10 months, with mammary tumors were studied. In all dogs before the imaging examinations, fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mammary tumors was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Three-view thoracic radiographs were accomplished: right lateral, left lateral and ventrodorsal views. Sequential transverse images of the thorax were acquired on a spiral Scanner, before and after intravenous bolus injection of nonionic iodine contrast. Soft-tissue and lung windows were applied. All the mammary tumors were surgically removed and examined histologically. Results The correlation between the cytological and histological results regarding presence of malignancy was observed in only 17 cases. In radiographic examinations, no dog displayed signs of lung metastases or thorax chest lesions. CT detected lung metastasis in two cases, while small areas of lung atelectasis located peripherally were found in 28.57% of the dogs. Conclusion In this study population, spiral CT showed higher sensitivity than chest radiographies to detect lung metastasis; this indicates that CT should be performed on all female dogs with malignant mammary tumors. PMID:20214816

  19. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor in Brazil: clinicopathology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetics of 513 cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Ojopi, Elida B; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Brazil and compare them with cases from other countries. Five hundred and thirteen cases were retrospectively analyzed. HE-stained sections and clinical information were reviewed and the immunohistochemical expression of CD117, CD34, smooth-muscle actin, S-100 protein, desmin, CD44v3 adhesion molecule, p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 antigen was studied using tissue microarrays. Mutation analysis of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha genes was also performed. There was a slight female predominance (50.3%) and the median age at diagnosis was 59 years. The tumors were mainly located in the stomach (38.4%). Immunohistochemistry showed that CD117 was expressed in 95.7% of cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression was observed in 84.4% of tumors. p53 protein expression was found only in 2.6% of cases but all belonged to the high-risk group for aggressive behavior according to the National Institutes of Health consensus approach. No CD44v3 adhesion molecule expression was detected. KIT exon 11 mutations were the most frequent (62.2%). The present data confirm that gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Brazilian patients do not differ from tumors occurring in other countries.

  20. Malignant triton tumor (MTT) of the neck.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-03-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade. MTT's are very aggressive tumors with early metastases and the overall survival is poor (26%). Therefore, early diagnosis and correct treatment is of utmost importance. We report a case of MTT of the left supraclavicular region in a 41-year-old man. We present the pathological findings, both light and immunohistochemically. PMID:16185834

  1. [Single fibrous tumor of the parapharyngeal space].

    PubMed

    Galera-Ruiz, H; Martínez-Pozo, A; Alos, L L; Cardesa, A; Traserra, J

    2000-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the parapharyngeal space presented with local symptoms (hearing loss, nasal obstruction, and paralysis of the soft palate and tongue). SFT, originally described as a mesothelial tumor of the pleura, now is recognized as a mesenchymal tumor that occurs in different locations. In the head and neck region, about 50 cases have been reported. This is the fifth published report of an SFT of the parapharyngeal space. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical (positivity for vimentin, CD34, and CD99) and ultrastructural markers (fibroblastic characteristics).

  2. Parapharyngeal and deep lobe parotid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kassel, E E

    1982-12-01

    Lesions in the parapharyngeal region are more difficult to evaluate or differentiate clinically. Conventional films are of limited use in studying this area because of its soft tissue composition. Alternatively, CT can display the soft tissue structures, including the fascial planes and deeper tissues of this region extremely well. Differentiation between parapharyngeal and deep lobe parotid tumors can be made. Patterns of enhancement and tumor location are noted. Size and extent of tumors, including operability, can be assessed. Probable pathology may be suggested. Parapharyngeal anatomy and pathology are illustrated and discussed.

  3. Interventional digital subtraction angiography for small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors with bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao-Ting; Sun, Hong-Liang; Luo, Jiang-Hong; Ni, Jia-Yan; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Xiong-Ying; Zhou, Jing-Xing; Xu, Lin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of interventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for bleeding small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2013, small bowel tumors in 25 consecutive patients undergoing emergency interventional DSA were histopathologically confirmed as GIST after surgical resection. The medical records of these patients and the effects of interventional DSA and the presentation and management of the condition were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients with an age range from 34- to 70-year-old (mean: 54 ± 12 years), 8 were male and 17 were female. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, including tarry or bloody stool and intermittent melena, was observed in all cases, and one case also involved hematemesis. Nineteen patients required acute blood transfusion. There were a total of 28 small bowel tumors detected by DSA. Among these, 20 were located in the jejunum and 8 were located in the ileum. The DSA characteristics of the GISTs included a hypervascular mass of well-defined, homogeneous enhancement and early developed draining veins. One case involved a complication of intussusception of the small intestine that was discovered during surgery. No pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous malformations or fistulae, or arterial rupture were observed. The completely excised size was approximately 1.20 to 5.50 cm (mean: 3.05 ± 1.25 cm) in maximum diameter based on measurements after the resection. There were ulcerations (n = 8), erosions (n = 10), hyperemia and edema (n = 10) on the intra-luminal side of the tumors. Eight tumors in patients with a large amount of blood loss were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization with gelfoam particles during interventional DSA. CONCLUSION: Emergency interventional DSA is a useful imaging option for locating and diagnosing small bowel GISTs in patients with bleeding, and is an effective treatment modality. PMID:25548494

  4. Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the proximal humeral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Parisa; Dickman, Paul S; Seidel, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of bone is a rare childhood tumor most commonly located in the metadiaphysis. In skeletally immature patients, lesions of the epiphysis are rarely malignant, with the most common diagnosis being chondroblastoma. This article presents a case of ES/PNET of the proximal humeral epiphysis in a 12-year-old boy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of epiphyseal ES/PNET confirmed with molecular testing. Radiographs of the patient's painful shoulder showed a well-defined lytic lesion within the humeral epiphysis. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested a chondroid tumor with surrounding edema. Based on the imaging characteristics, the patient's age, and the lesion's location, a preliminary diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A trochar biopsy of the lesion demonstrated a small, round, blue cell tumor on frozen section. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining was uniformly positive in a membrane pattern for CD99, and molecular diagnostic testing demonstrated a EWSR1/FLI1 fusion transcript, confirming the pathologic diagnosis of ES/PNET. Although metadiaphyseal locations for ES/PNET are most common, this case adds to previously reported cases of epiphyseal ES/PNET, suggesting that the diagnosis be considered for pediatric epiphyseal tumors. This case also demonstrates why following rigorous oncologic treatment algorithms by obtaining a limited trochar biopsy, even in the case of a confident radiographic diagnosis, is critically important; the biopsy results can lead to a major change in treatment and avoid contamination of a larger area of soft tissue and bone. PMID:23276342

  5. Reirradiation of tumors in cats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Theon, A.P.

    1988-08-15

    Fifty-one cats and dogs with tumor recurrence after irradiation were treated with a second course of radiotherapy, using either teletherapy or brachytherapy. Eighty-six percent of the tumors had partial or complete response at 2 months after reirradiation. Tumor response was significantly (P = 0.041) affected when the interval between the 2 courses of irradiation was greater than 5 months. The estimated local tumor control rate was 38% at 1 year after reirradiation. Of all the factors examined, complete response at 2 months, reirradiation field size less than or equal to 10 cm2, and reirradiation dose greater than 40 gray emerged as predictors of local tumor control. The estimated overall survival rate was 47% at 2 years. Tumor location had a significant (P = 0.001) influence on overall survival; animals with cutaneous tumors had the longest survival times, and those with oral tumors had the shortest survival times. The other significant (P = 0.001) factor affecting overall survival time was the field size of the reirradiated site. Estimated survival time after reirradiation was 41% at 1 year. Favorable prognostic indicators were complete response at 2 months and location of tumor; animals with skin tumors had a favorable prognosis. The acute effects of reirradiation on normal tissues were acceptable, but 12% of the animals had severe delayed complications. Significant risk of complications after reirradiation was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.015) and reirradiated field size greater than 30 cm2 (P = 0.056). When the interval between irradiations was greater than 5 months, the risk of complications was significantly (P = 0.022) lower.

  6. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  7. Atypical rhabdoid tumor of lateral ventricle: Report of an unusual tumor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasmit; Kharosekar, Hrushikesh; Velho, Vernon; Survashe, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) of infancy and childhood are rare, highly malignant neoplasms, most common in the first 2 years of life. In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and multi-agent chemotherapy, the prognosis is very poor. The majority of these tumors are located in the cerebellum, cerebellopontine angle, pineal gland, spinal cord, and the suprasellar region; supratentorial location is relatively uncommon, and the intraventricular location is extremely rare. We report a rare case of AT/RT arising in the lateral ventricle in a 4-year-old patient. PMID:27195038

  8. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  9. Fibrobronchoscopic cryosurgery for secondary malignant tumors of the trachea and main bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianli; Tian, Yanchu; Liu, Deruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with secondary malignant tracheal and main bronchial tumors may suffer severe symptoms as a result of major airway obstruction. Curative surgical resection is usually not suitable because of the presence of metastatic disease and poor performance status. In this study, the use of bronchoscopic cryosurgery to reopen the airway is analyzed. Methods The clinical records of 37 patients who experienced secondary maglinancies from December 2001 to January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Low temperature cryotherapy (−50°C to −70°C) was delivered to the central part of the tumor by cryoprobe for four to six minutes causing destruction of the tumor mass (Cryo‐melt method). Subsequently, the edge of the tumor was frozen for 30 seconds to two minutes, followed by piecemeal removal of the frozen tumor tissue (Cryo‐resection method). Results The endpoints of the study were degree of symptomatic improvement and survival. The rates of dramatic and partial symptomatic alleviation were 57.1% and 28.6%, respectively, there were no intraoperative deaths, and median survival was 16.0 months. Prolonged survival was significantly correlated to age (under 60 years of age 22.2% vs. over 60 100%, P = 0.011), tumor location (main bronchi 0% vs. trachea 77.8%, P = 0.003), and cryorecanalization times (once 33.3% vs. twice or more 80.0%, P = 0.037). Conclusion Bronchoscopic cryorecanalization is a safe, effective, non‐invasive choice for improving the symptoms of malignant airway obstruction. In addition to achieving local‐regional control, the technique may also contribute to improved survival. PMID:27385989

  10. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  11. Ovarian tumors in pregnancy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Husseinzadeh, Nader; Sibai, Baha; Siddiqi, Tariq A

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian tumors first diagnosed during pregnancy often present a challenge for both the obstetrician and gynecologists providing pregnancy care and for the consulting subspecialists. Although the vast majority of these tumors is benign, on rare occasions, patients present with tumors that turn out to be malignant requiring more comprehensive and extensive surgical procedures that are more likely to lead to pregnancy loss. Hence accurate knowledge of tumor characteristics, especially the ultrasound appearance and gestational age at diagnosis, are key prerequisite for establishing the most effective management plan not just for the index but also for future pregnancies. The primary objective of the current review is to provide practical guidelines for the evaluation and management of ovarian tumors first diagnosed during pregnancy.

  12. Somatotroph pituitary tumors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Langohr, I M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2012-05-01

    A series of 11 pituitary tumors in budgerigars were classified on the basis of their clinical, gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Affected birds were young to middle-aged. Clinically, neurologic signs--including difficulties flying, ataxia, and blindness--were most commonly reported. Additional clinical signs included weight loss, abnormal feathers or molting, increased respiratory efforts, and exophthalmos. Nine birds were diagnosed with chromophobic pituitary adenomas, and 2 birds had chromophobic pituitary carcinomas. Only 1 tumor was delimited to the pituitary gland; the other 10 variably invaded the brain, skull, and retrobulbar space. Distant metastases were identified in 2 birds. All tumors were immunohistochemically strongly positive for growth hormone, consistent with the diagnosis of somatotroph tumors. The common occurrence and early onset may suggest a genetic predisposition of budgerigars to develop somatotroph pituitary tumors with a high incidence of local invasion and with metastatic potential. PMID:21900544

  13. Rare Tumors in Children: Progress Through Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Wayne L.; Schultz, Kris A.; Ferrari, Andrea; Helman, Lee; Krailo, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Rare pediatric tumors account for approximately 10% of all childhood cancers, which in themselves are a rare entity. The diverse histologies and clinical behaviors of rare pediatric tumors pose challenges to the investigation of their biologic and clinical features. National and international cooperative groups such as the Rare Tumor Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age Project, and European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors have developed several initiatives to advance knowledge about rare pediatric cancers. However, these programs have been only partially effective, necessitating the development of alternative mechanisms to study these challenging diseases. In this article, we review the current national and international collaborative strategies to study rare pediatric cancers and alternative methods under exploration to enhance those efforts, such as independent registries and disease-specific, National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinics. PMID:26304909

  14. DIORAMA Location Type User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, James Russell

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this report is to present the current design and implementation of the DIORAMA location type object (LocationType) and to provide examples and use cases. The LocationType object is included in the diorama-app package in the diorama::types namespace. Abstractly, the object is intended to capture the full time history of the location of an object or reference point. For example, a location may be speci ed as a near-Earth orbit in terms of a two-line element set, in which case the location type is capable of propagating the orbit both forward and backward in time to provide a location for any given time. Alternatively, the location may be speci ed as a xed set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude), in which case the geodetic location of the object is expected to remain constant for all time. From an implementation perspective, the location type is de ned as a union of multiple independent objects defi ned in the DIORAMA tle library. Types presently included in the union are listed and described in subsections below, and all conversions or transformation between these location types are handled by utilities provided by the tle library with the exception of the \\special-values" location type.

  15. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  16. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  17. Impact-Locator Sensor Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Byers, Terry; Gibbons, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Electronic sensor systems for detecting and locating impacts of rapidly moving particles on spacecraft have been invented. Systems of this type could also be useful on Earth in settings in which the occurrence of impacts and/or the locations of impacts are not immediately obvious and there are requirements to detect and quickly locate impacts to prevent or minimize damage.

  18. Salivary gland tumors in Turkey: demographic features and histopathological distribution of 510 patients.

    PubMed

    Kızıl, Yusuf; Aydil, Utku; Ekinci, Ozgür; Dilci, Alper; Köybaşıoğlu, Ahmet; Düzlü, Mehmet; Inal, Erdoğan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinicopathologic data of salivary gland tumors managed at a tertiary referral medical center in Turkey. The data of 510 patients with salivary gland tumors managed during the period of January 1984 to May 2012, were reviewed. Only primary neoplasms derived from salivary glands were included. Out of 510 neoplasms, 352 (69.0 %) were classified as benign and 158 (31.0 %) were classified as malignant. There was a male predominance and male:female ratio was 1.23 (281/229). The most common location was parotid gland (372/510, 72.9 %) followed by minor salivary glands (97/510, 19.0 %) and submandibular gland (40/510, 7.9 %). The malignancy rates were 21.5, 40.0, and 56.7 % in parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands locations, respectively. The most common location for minor salivary gland neoplasms was oral cavity (61/97, 62.9 %). Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common histopathological type (45.3 %) in the whole study group and also among pediatric patients. The most common malignant neoplasms were adenoid cystic carcinoma (39/510, 7.6 %) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (5.7 %). Salivary gland tumors are more common in men. The malignancy rate is almost three times higher in neoplasms derived from minor glands when compared to parotid gland. PA is the most common histopathological tumor type in all locations and in all age groups.

  19. Developmental aspects of memory for spatial location.

    PubMed

    Ellis, N R; Katz, E; Williams, J E

    1987-12-01

    The purpose was to show whether or not the encoding of location met criteria defining an automatic process (L. Hasher & R. T. Zacks, 1979, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 356-388; 1984, American Psychologist, 39, 1372-1388). Among other criteria, automatic processes are not expected to show developmental changes beyond an early age, to be unrelated to intelligence level, and to be unaffected by instructions. In the first experiment preschool through sixth-grade children were compared on a 40-picturebook task following incidental (remember the names of pictures) or intentional (remember location) instruction. Subjects viewed and named pictures in sets of four, arranged in quadrants in the opened book, and then attempted to recall names of the objects pictured and to relocate pictures on blank pages. In the second experiment, second and sixth graders, college students, elderly persons, and mentally retarded persons were compared on a 60-picturebook task following either incidental or semantic incidental instructions (give the function of objects pictured). Memory for location was invariant across age groups and intelligence level. The only exception was that 3 and 4 year olds were more accurate following intentional instructions. Otherwise there were no differences between intentional and incidental instructions. Semantic instructions resulted in slightly more accurate locations. The results were interpreted as supportive of the Hasher and Zacks' automaticity hypothesis. PMID:3694123

  20. [Tumor-induced immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Calmels, B; Régulier, E

    2002-01-01

    Tumor immunology is based on two essential concepts: immune surveillance, which implicate the host immune reactions against tumor cells, and tumor immune escape, which refers to the tumor-cell evasion process against the host immune system. The notion that a deficit in immune cell functions permits tumor growth has received experimental support with the discovery of several different biochemical defects in T lymphocytes that infiltrate cancers. Furthermore, expression of self-antigens on the tumor surface impose potential barriers to the development of effective immune response. Tumors are able to overcome immune surveillance by changing the polarity of effectors cells, thus down-regulating the proliferation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells, or altering the effector compositions of immune cells within the tumor milieu, or both. Understanding the interaction between cancer cells and host immune cells is of importance for clinical applications or immunotherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:11937439

  1. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  2. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  3. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A; Carinelli, Silvestro; Prat, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic characteristics of five cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and three cases of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, with emphasis on immunohistochemical markers of sex cord differentiation. The mean patient age was 42 years (range 19-69 years), and vaginal bleeding was the most common clinical presentation. The tumors were usually polypoid masses arising in the uterine fundus, with a mean tumor size of 6.7 cm. Sex cord patterns in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, including anastomosing cords, trabeculae, small nests, tubules, and in one case, a striking retiform architecture with Leydig-like cells, comprised from 70 to 100% of the tumor volume. All uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were positive for two or more markers of sex cord differentiation; all five cases showed strong immunoreactivity for calretinin, with coexpression of CD99 (four cases), Melan-A (two cases), and inhibin (two cases). Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements were less frequently positive for markers of sex cord differentiation, with each case positive for one marker (calretinin, two cases; CD99, one case). In addition, all eight cases were frequently positive for cytokeratin, CD10, vimentin, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor; desmin immunoreactivity, when present, was limited to minor foci of smooth muscle. Overall, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors strongly support that these unusual uterine tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.

  4. p16 expression predicts neoadjuvant tumor necrosis in osteosarcomas: reappraisal with a larger series using whole sections.

    PubMed

    Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Ardic, Fisun; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Kandemir, Olcay; Ozcan, Ayhan

    2016-04-01

    The presence of greater than or equal to 90% necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a favorable prognostic factor in osteosarcomas. A recent study using tissue microarrays of 40 conventional osteosarcomas showed that p16 expression independently predicted the necrotic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated this finding using whole sections in a larger group of osteosarcomas. Cases of 83 patients who had pretreatment biopsies and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection were collected from 3 reference hospital archives. Age, sex, tumor size, tumor subtype, location, and percentage of tumor necrosis were recorded; 4-μm sections from pretreatment biopsies were stained for p16. More than 30% strong nuclear staining was regarded as positive. The median age was 17 years (5-68 years), and male/female ratio was 2.3. The mean tumor diameter was 9.9 cm (2-30 cm). Tumors were most commonly of the osteoblastic type (60%) and located at the femur (47%). p16 positivity was seen in 66% of the patients. The median pathologic necrosis was 65%, and 39% of the patients responded favorably (≥%90 necrosis) to neoadjuvant therapy. In univariate analysis, p16 expression significantly correlated with greater than or equal to 90% response (P = .022). On multivariate analysis, p16 expression (odds ratio [OR], 7.71; P = .008), female sex (OR, 8.62; P = .006), and smaller tumor size (OR, 0.86; P = .023) were independent predictors of favorable response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We confirmed the finding that p16 expression predicts postchemotherapy necrotic response in conventional osteosarcomas. PMID:26997452

  5. Clinical and Pathologic Findings of Spitz Nevi and Atypical Spitz Tumors with ALK Fusions

    PubMed Central

    Busam, Klaus J; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Wiesner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Spitz tumors represent a group of melanocytic neoplasms that typically affects young individuals. Microscopically the lesions are composed of cytologically distinct spindle and epithelioid melanocytes, with a range in the architectural display or the cells, their nuclear features, and secondary epidermal or stromal changes. Recently, kinase fusions have been documented in a subset of Spitz tumors, but there is limited information on the clinical and pathologic features associated with those lesions. Here, we report a series of 17 patients (9 male, 8 female) with spitzoid neoplasms showing ALK fusions (5 Spitz nevi and 12 atypical Spitz tumors). The patients’ ages ranged from 2 years to 35 years (mean = 17; median = 16). Most lesions were located on the lower extremities and presented clinically as polypoid nodules. All tumors were compound melanocytic proliferations with a predominant intradermal growth. Tumor thickness ranged from 1.1 to 6 mm (mean = 2.9 mm; median = 2.5 mm). The most characteristic histopathologic feature of the tumors (seen in all but two lesions) was a plexiform dermal growth of intersecting fascicles of fusiform melanocytes. All but two tumors were amelanotic. All tumors were strongly immunoreactive for ALK. The ALK rearrangements were confirmed in all cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the fusion partner was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) in 11 cases and DCTN1 (dynactin 1) in 6 cases. None of the eight tumors, which were analyzed by FISH for copy number changes of 6p, 6q, 9p, or 11q met criteria for melanoma. Two patients underwent a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and in both cases melanocytes nests were found in the subcapsular sinus of the node. Array comparative genomic hybridization of these two tumors revealed no chromosomal gains or losses. In conclusion, our study revealed that Spitz nevi/tumors with ALK rearrangement show a characteristic plexiform morphology and that

  6. Role of Immunohistochemistry in the Diagnosis of Solitary Fibrous Tumor, a Review

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Marzban, Mahsa; Churg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor which is most commonly seen in the pleura; however it can be seen in other organs such as the meninge, gastrointestinal tract, soft tissue, bone, and skin. SFT should be differentiated from other mesenchymal tumors in these organs. Immunohistochemistry plays a pivotal role for the histopathologic diagnosis of this tumor. Currently, new markers have been introduced which has been very useful for definite diagnosis of SFT along with other markers in each specific location which are negative in SFT. Methods: Here we review the reported positive and negative immunohistochemical markers of SFT in the English literature with the emphasis on the useful markers in each specific organ. We explored the English literature from 1990 through 2015 via PubMed, Google, and Google scholar using the following search keywords: Solitary fibrous tumor, Solitary fibrous tumor and immunohistochemistry, Solitary fibrous tumor and diagnosis, Solitary fibrous tumor and histogenesis, Solitary fibrous tumor and prognosis, Solitary fibrous tumor and hemangiopericytoma, Solitary fibrous tumor and differential diagnosis, Solitary fibrous tumor and markers. Results: The most important and valuable positive markers in SFT are CD34, CD99, Bcl-2 and STAT-6.There are consistently negative markers in this tumor as well, used according to the tumor location, such as EMA and S100 Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry is very useful for the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor and for its differentiation with other spindle cell mesenchymal tumor in different locations. PMID:27799967

  7. Patterns of tumor initiation in choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Judge, H; Gragoudas, E S; Seddon, J M; Egan, K M

    2000-07-15

    This study attempts to document the occurrence of tumors with respect to clock hour location and distance from the macula and to evaluate tumor location in relation to retinal topography and light dose distribution on the retinal sphere. Analysis of patterns of tumor initiation may provide new evidence to clarify the controversy regarding the possible light-related etiology of choroidal melanoma. Incident cases of choroidal and ciliary body melanoma in Massachusetts residents diagnosed between 1984 and 1993 were the basis for analysis. Conventional fundus drawings and photos were used to assess the initiation site of each tumor. The initiation site was defined as the intersect between the largest tumor diameter and the largest perpendicular diameter of the tumor. Initiation sites were recorded using spherical coordinates. The retinal sphere was divided into 61 mutually exclusive sectors defined according to clock hour and anteroposterior distance from the macula. Rates of initiation were computed for each sector, overall, and according to gender and other clinical factors. Results were similar in left and right eyes; therefore, these were combined in analysis. Tumor initiation had a predilection for the macula (P < 0.0001). Overall, no significant clock hour preference was observed (P = 0.63). However, the parafoveal zone showed a strong circular trend (P < 0.01), with highest rates occurring in the temporal region, and the lowest rates occurring in the nasal region. Rates of occurrence in six progressively more anterior concentric zones (designated as the foveal, parafoveal, posterior, peripheral, anterior, and ciliary body zones) were 21.4, 14.2, 12.1, 8.9, 4.5, and 4.3 counts per spherical unit per 1000 eyes, respectively. Concentric zone location did not vary by gender (P = 0.93) or laterality (P = 0.78). However, posterior location was associated with light iris color (P = 0.01). Tumor diameters were largest in the peripheral region of the fundus and smallest

  8. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  9. Imaging features of primary anorectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors with clinical and pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Koch, M.R.; Jagannathan, J.P.; Krajewski, K.M.; Raut, C.P.; Hornick, J.L.; Ramaiya, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the imaging features of anorectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with clinical and histopathologic correlation. Materials and methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study, 16 patients (12 men; mean age 66 years (30–89 years)) with pathologically proven anorectal GISTs seen at our institution from January 2001 to July 2011 were identified. Electronic medical records were reviewed to obtain clinical data. Pretreatment imaging studies (computed tomography (CT) in 16 patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 9 patients and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in 8 patients) were evaluated by 2 radiologists until consensus. The location, size and imaging features of the primary tumor and metastases at presentation, if any, were recorded, and correlated with clinical data and pathologic features (histologic type, presence of necrosis, mitotic activity, risk category, immunohistochemical profile). Results: The mean tumor size was 6.9 × 6.0 cm. Of the 16 tumors, 11 (68.7%) were infralevator, 4 (25%) supra and infralevator and 1 (6.3%) supralevator; 9 (56.2%) were exophytic, 6 (37.5%) both exophytic and intraluminal, and 1 (6.3%) was intraluminal. The tumors were iso- to minimally hypoattenuating to muscle on CT, iso- to minimally hypointense on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on T2-weighted images and showed variable enhancement. Necrosis was seen in 4 (25%), and hemorrhage and calcification in 2 (12.5%) patients each. The tumors were FDG avid with a mean maximum standardized uptake value of 11 (8.4–16.8). All tumors were positive for KIT and CD34. Distant metastasis to liver was seen in 1 patient (6.3%) at presentation. Conclusion: Anorectal GISTs are well-circumscribed, non-circumferential, predominantly infralevator, intramural or exophytic, FDG-avid, hypoattenuating masses, and present without

  10. Management of gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Takeuchi, Manabu; Terai, Shuji

    2016-08-14

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis. Type II G-NETs (5%-6%) are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1-ZES). Both type I and II G-NETs are related to hypergastrinemia, are small in size, occur in multiple numbers, and are generally benign. In contrast, type III G-NETs (10%-15%) are not associated with hypergastrinemia, are large-sized single tumors, and are usually malignant. Therefore, surgical resection and chemotherapy are generally necessary for type III G-NETs, while endoscopic resection and follow-up, which are acceptable for the treatment of most type I and II G-NETs, are only acceptable for small and well differentiated type III G-NETs. D-NETs include gastrinomas (50%-60%), somatostatin-producing tumors (15%), nonfunctional serotonin-containing tumors (20%), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (< 3%), and gangliocytic paragangliomas (< 2%). Most D-NETs are located in the first or second part of the duodenum, with 20% occurring in the periampullary region. Therapy for D-NETs is based on tumor size, location, histological grade, stage, and tumor type. While endoscopic resection may be considered for small nonfunctional D-NETs (G1) located in the higher papilla region, surgical resection is necessary for most other D-NETs. However, there is no consensus regarding the ideal treatment of D-NETs. PMID:27570419

  11. Management of gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Manabu; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis. Type II G-NETs (5%-6%) are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1-ZES). Both type I and II G-NETs are related to hypergastrinemia, are small in size, occur in multiple numbers, and are generally benign. In contrast, type III G-NETs (10%-15%) are not associated with hypergastrinemia, are large-sized single tumors, and are usually malignant. Therefore, surgical resection and chemotherapy are generally necessary for type III G-NETs, while endoscopic resection and follow-up, which are acceptable for the treatment of most type I and II G-NETs, are only acceptable for small and well differentiated type III G-NETs. D-NETs include gastrinomas (50%-60%), somatostatin-producing tumors (15%), nonfunctional serotonin-containing tumors (20%), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (< 3%), and gangliocytic paragangliomas (< 2%). Most D-NETs are located in the first or second part of the duodenum, with 20% occurring in the periampullary region. Therapy for D-NETs is based on tumor size, location, histological grade, stage, and tumor type. While endoscopic resection may be considered for small nonfunctional D-NETs (G1) located in the higher papilla region, surgical resection is necessary for most other D-NETs. However, there is no consensus regarding the ideal treatment of D-NETs. PMID:27570419

  12. Hyponatremia with intracranial malignant tumor resection in children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cydni; Simon, Tamara D.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Bratton, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Object Intracranial neoplasms are the second most common childhood cancer, and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Hyponatremia is a complication associated with neurosurgical procedures, but children undergoing intracranial tumor resection have not been selectively studied. In this study, the authors aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with hyponatremia among children undergoing intracranial neoplasm resection. Methods A retrospective cohort was compiled using the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database to identify children younger than 21 years of age who underwent intracranial neoplasm resection. Hyponatremia was ascertained by diagnosis codes. Bivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate factors associated with hyponatremia in bivariate analyses. Results Hyponatremia occurred in 205 (8.7%) of 2343 annual weighted cases, and was independently associated with tumor location in the deep brain structures and ventricles compared with the cortical area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.4; 95% CI 1.17–5.3). Hyponatremia was also associated with obstructive hydrocephalus (aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7–4.3) and emergency department admission (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.4). Hyponatremia was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation, ventriculostomy placement, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and sepsis. Hyponatremia was also associated with a significantly longer average length of stay (24.6 vs 10.2 days), higher average charges ($191,000 vs $92,000), and a higher percentage of discharges to intermediate-care facilities. Conclusions Hyponatremia commonly occurs with resection of intracranial malignant tumors, especially for lesions located in the deep brain and in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. Hyponatremia was associated with higher morbidity. Further research is needed to develop targeted monitoring and intervention strategies to decrease

  13. Prognostic factors and survival in late adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Yeşim; Bavbek, Sevil; Başaran, Mert; Kaytan, Esra; Yaman, Fulya; Bilgiç, Bilge; Darendeliler, Emin; Onat, Haluk

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of 25 patients in the adult and late adolescent age group, diagnosed and treated with small round cell tumors involving soft tissues (extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, rhabdo-myosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and undiffer-entiated small round cell tumors). Additionally, survival and prognostic factors influencing the outcome with multimodality treatment are evaluated. There were 19 males (76%) and 6 females (24%). The median age was 26 years (range: 15-56 years). In 9 patients (36%), the tumor was located at an extremity, whereas 16 patients (64%) had central localizations. Tumor size was larger than 10 cm in 7 patients (29.2%). Six patients (24%) had metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48%) received radiation and 16 patients (64%) underwent surgery. Among the resected tumors, 2 were resected with contaminated margins (12.5%), whereas 2 were radically resected and 12 (75%) were resected with wide margins. All patients were given a median of 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (1-14 cycles). With preoperative chemotherapy, complete regression (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients (24%). In 4 patients (16%), a partial response was obtained. After the completion of multimodality treatment, 12 patients (48%) had a CR. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 25.0 +/- 10.8% at 1 year and 30.5 +/- 15.5% at 3 years, respectively. Nonmetastatic disease, wide and radical resection, and presence of CR to multimodality treatment were associated with a significantly longer PFS and OS by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, CR to multimodality treat-ment was the only independent predictive factor for a longer OS (p: 0.0036, relative risk [RR]: 23.6, 95% CI: 2.8; 198.7) and metastatic presentation was the only independent factor predic-tive for a shorter PFS (p: 0.017, RR. 15, 95% CI: 1.6; 141.2). Large-scale, multicenter studies are required for

  14. It’s all about location, location, location: Children’s memory for the “where” of personally experienced events

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Doydum, Ayzit O.; Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Güler, O. Evren; Burch, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the ability to recall specific past events located in a particular time and place. Over the preschool and into the school years, there are clear developmental changes in memory for when events took place. In contrast, little is known about developmental changes in memory for where events were experienced. In the present research we tested 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children’s memories for specific laboratory events, each of which was experienced in a unique location. We also tested the children memories for the conjunction of the events and their locations. Age-related differences were observed in all three types of memory (event, location, conjunction of event and location), with the most pronounced differences in memory for conjunctions of events and their locations. The results have implications for our understanding of the development of episodic memory, including suggestions of protracted development of the ability to contextualize events in their spatial locations. PMID:23010356

  15. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Yenigun, Alper; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  16. EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

  17. Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Odagiri, Kazumasa; Omura, Motoko; Hata, Masaharu; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Ogino, Ichiro; Kigasawa, Hisato; Adachi, Masataka; Inoue, Tomio

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with

  18. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  19. Methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island distinguishes spontaneous and plutonium-induced tumors from nitrosamine-induced lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Issa, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    CpG islands located in the promoter region of genes constitute one mechanism for regulating transcription. These islands are normally free of methylation, regardless of the expression state of the gene. Hypermethylation of CpG islands, the addition of a methyl group to the internal cytosine within CpG dinucleotides, can cause silencing of a gene. Hypermethylation has been detected as an early event at specific chromosome loci during the development of colon cancer and represents one mechanism used by neoplatic cells to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have demonstrated this mechanism in inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 19% of sporadic renal tumors and the p16 {sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in 30% of non-small cell lung cancers. A recent report indicates that the estrogen receptor gene could also be inactivated through methylation. In addition, estrogen receptor CpG island methylation arises as a direct function of age in normal colonic mucosa and is present in virtually all colonic tumors. In cultured colon cancer cells, methylation-associated loss of expression of the estrogen receptor gene results in deregulated growth, suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in colon cancer development. These results provide further evidence that gene silencing through methylation could be a predominant epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of many different types of cancer. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether estrogen receptor CpG island methylation is involved in the development of lung cancer. The frequency for methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island in rodent lung tumors is summarized.

  20. Refractory sacrococcygeal germ cell tumor in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Kenji; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Yonemaru, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tsujioka, Takao; Sano, Hirozumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yasuda, Kazue; Suzuki, Masahiko; Ando, Akiko; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Iizuka, Susumu; Uetake, Kimiaki; Kobayashi, Kunihiko

    2015-05-01

    We describe a boy with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome who developed refractory sacrococcygeal germ cell tumor with elements of embryonal carcinoma and immature teratoma. He developed local recurrence soon after tumor resection. The tumor was highly resistant to platinum-based combination chemotherapy, local irradiation, and salvage chemotherapy. Frequent infections resulted in a delay in treatment, although apparent fragility had not been observed clinically. He died from tumor progression at 32 months of age. Intensification of chemotherapy does not seem to be feasible for tumors in patients with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. PMID:25171454

  1. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  2. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  3. [Surgery for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Chikashi; Egawa, Shin-Ichi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Morikawa, Takanori; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasaki, Iwao

    2012-11-01

    Approximately half of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are nonfunctioning, and insulinoma and gastrinoma are frequent forms of functioning tumors. The treatment of patients with PNETs should be based on the consideration that more than half are malignant except for insulinomas. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is often complicated with gastrinoma. Endoscopic ultrasound and somatostain receptor scintigraphy are useful in diagnosing PNETs, and the selective arterial secretagogue injection test is performed if necessary. WHO2010 is available as a histopathologic grading system of malignancy. Although surgical resection should first be considered as a treatment for PNETs, liver metastasis is a major factor hindering resection. In Japan, the choices of drugs to treat liver metastases are too few. In patients with MEN1 in whom PNETS are frequently multiple, we should perform procedures that preserve pancreatic function, although some patients may require total pancreatectomy for the complete resection of tumors. The indications for total pancreatectomy should be determined individually based on the tumor status and patient age. PMID:23330458

  4. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  5. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  6. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...

  7. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... stress. Growth hormone helps control body growth and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do ...

  8. Tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  9. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  10. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Cancer Foundation joins the PBTF Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  11. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Ear Canals Read More ABTA News October 5, 2016 Largest American Brain Tumor Association Team Running in Bank of America Chicago Marathon Sunday, October 9 September 21, 2016 American Brain Tumor Association Awards 16 Grants to Support ...

  12. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  13. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  14. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  15. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT.

  16. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  17. [Skin tumors in facial plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Heppt, W

    2009-04-01

    As the incidence of facial skin tumors is rising, otorhinolaryngologists are becoming more and more involved in the field of facial plastic surgery. The most common tumor locations on the head are the sun-exposed areas such as the nose, forehead, cheek, and auricle. The most common histologic findings are actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. In planning tumor resection and defect repair, many factors, including histology, size, and localization of the tumor as well as conditions of the adjacent skin, must be considered. The key to defect repair after tumor resection is to choose the most appropriate technique from a range of possibilities. Because of skin laxity, most small and midsize facial defects can be closed directly or with high-tension sutures under skin expansion. More extensive defects and those located in critical areas require pedicled flaps or free grafts transferring skin from adjacent or distant areas. In patients with recurrent or deeply infiltrative tumors, reconstructive procedures of the facial nerve, parotid duct, and lacrimal duct might be needed. This is also true for reconstruction of the anatomic framework of the eyelids, the nose, and the pinna. PMID:19347378

  18. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity. PMID:26102546

  19. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity.

  20. Endoscopic palliation of colorectal benign and malignant tumors: YAG laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto, Lorenzo; Ranzato, Riccardo; Marino, Saverio; Angriman, Imerio; Vella, Vincenzo; Donadi, Michele; D'Amico, D. F.

    1997-12-01

    From November 1, 1992 to January 31, 1997, we treated 189 pts: 113 males and 76 females, of mean age 67 yrs. 148 pts were affected with colo-rectal cancer and 41 pts with extensive carpet benign tumors. Tumor location was: rectum in 115 pts, recto-sigmoid joint in 31 pts, colo-rectal anastomosis in 25 pts, sigmoid colon in 15 pts, descending colon in 2 pts and cecum in 1 pt. 26 pts were treated with diathermo-therapy, 15 pts with dilatation, 12 pts with radiotherapy, 5 pts with chemotherapy, 1 pt with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Yag-laser palliation gave good results in 90% (170 - 189) with an average survival of 24 weeks; there were complications due to the treatment in due pts (1%) without hospital mortality.

  1. The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hupp, J R; Topazian, R G; Krutchkoff, D J

    1981-12-01

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare childhood neoplasm with an alarming but classical clinical presentation. It appears as a rapidly enlarging mass in the jaws of skull of infants and unless MNTI is considered in the differential diagnosis, the lesion can easily be mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. Although possessing an aggressive growth rate and radiographic appearance, the MNTI almost always behaves in a benign fashion and can be treated with local excision. However, recent reports of malignant behavior as well as of occasional recurrences make close follow-up important. Approximately 139 cases of the MNTI have been reviewed and tabulated with respect to age at discovery, sex, tumor location, length of follow-up, and whether recurrence occurred, 2 additional cases, 1 of which was in the mandible, are presented along with theories of origin and recommended therapy.

  2. Regulation of Transport Pathways in Tumor Vessels: Role of Tumor Type and Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Susan K.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Yuan, Fan; Roberts, W. Gregory; Griffith, Linda; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    1998-04-01

    Novel anti-neoplastic agents such as gene targeting vectors and encapsulated carriers are quite large (approximately 100-300 nm in diameter). An understanding of the functional size and physiological regulation of transvascular pathways is necessary to optimize delivery of these agents. Here we analyze the functional limits of transvascular transport and its modulation by the microenvironment. One human and five murine tumors including mammary and colorectal carcinomas, hepatoma, glioma, and sarcoma were implanted in the dorsal skin-fold chamber or cranial window, and the pore cutoff size, a functional measure of transvascular gap size, was determined. The microenvironment was modulated: (i) spatially, by growing tumors in subcutaneous or cranial locations and (ii) temporally, by inducing vascular regression in hormone-dependent tumors. Tumors grown subcutaneously exhibited a characteristic pore cutoff size ranging from 200 nm to 1.2 μ m. This pore cutoff size was reduced in tumors grown in the cranium or in regressing tumors after hormone withdrawal. Vessels induced in basic fibroblast growth factor-containing gels had a pore cutoff size of 200 nm. Albumin permeability was independent of pore cutoff size. These results have three major implications for the delivery of therapeutic agents: (i) delivery may be less efficient in cranial tumors than in subcutaneous tumors, (ii) delivery may be reduced during tumor regression induced by hormonal ablation, and (iii) permeability to a molecule is independent of pore cutoff size as long as the diameter of the molecule is much less than the pore diameter.

  3. Early Limits on the Verbal Updating of an Object's Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by 30 months of age, children can successfully update their representation of an absent object's location on the basis of new verbal information, whereas 23-month-olds often return to the object's prior location. The current results show that this updating failure persisted even when (a) toddlers received visual and…

  4. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  5. [Rare locations of hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Tocchi, A; Mazzoni, G; Lepre, L; Liotta, G; Costa, G; Maggiolini, F; Miccini, M

    1999-04-01

    The authors report their experience with uncommon hydatid cyst locations. Between 1970 and 1995 a total of 16 patients suffering from hydatid cysts located in various organs other than liver and lungs were observed. There were 7 women and 9 men with a mean of 53.3 years. In 10 cases uncommon locations were found to be isolated and in 6 associated to contemporary or previously treated hepatic cystic disease. Pathogenesis of these uncommon locations, whether being primary or secondary, as well as specific items of diagnosis and surgery are discussed.

  6. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor): In these tumors, the look of the cancer cells varies widely, and the cells’ nuclei (the central parts that contain the DNA) tend to be very large and distorted. This is called anaplasia . The more anaplasia a tumor has, the harder it is to cure. Other types of kidney cancers in children Most ...

  7. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  8. Recurrent mixed tumor.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1986-01-01

    Recurrence of benign neoplasms can usually be attributed to incomplete excision. Such is the case with benign mixed tumors of salivary glands. Certain histopathologic features of mixed tumors, however, appear to facilitate recurrences. These are: a predominantly myxoid composition, and transcapsular extension by the tumor. Multicentric origin is possible, but it must be regarded as a much lower order of probability.

  9. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres Anibal; Malpica, Anais

    2009-04-01

    Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumors (PRMTs) are uncommon neoplasms occurring almost exclusively in women. PRMTs are divided into mucinous cystadenoma (MC), mucinous borderline tumors or tumors of low malignant potential (MLMP), and mucinous carcinomas (MCas). In this retrospective study, we present the clinicopathologic features of 18 such cases, the largest series to date. All patients were women, ranging in age from 20 to 63 years (mean 38.6 y). All except 2 patients presented with an enlarged mass during a routine examination or by self-palpation. All tumors were located exclusively in the retroperitoneum, with histologic or clinical confirmation of the lack of ovarian involvement. The tumors ranged from 7 to 26 cm (mean 13.2 cm). The gross appearance was variable: unilocular cyst with a thin wall (4 cases), predominantly cystic with papillary areas or nodule(s) (8 cases), multiloculated cyst with or without nodules (1 case each), and predominantly solid with cystic areas (4 cases). Histologically, there were 2 cases of MC, 7 of MLMP (7 cases; 3 of them with intraepithelial carcinoma and 1 with microinvasion), and 9 of MCas (9 cases, 5 of them associated with MLMP and 1 associated with MC). Three of the MCas had areas of anaplastic or sarcomatoid carcinoma whereas 1 had an associated sarcoma. Immunohistochemical studies were performed in 6 cases. Cytokeratin 7 was diffusely positive in all cases studied, whereas cytokeratin 20 and cytokeratin 17 were focally positive in 4 and 2 cases, respectively. All patients underwent surgical resection of the entire tumor. Two patients with MCa and sarcoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma received chemotherapy. Follow-up was available in 16 cases, ranging from 1 to 148 months (mean 40 mo, median 22 mo). Two patients died of disease at 5 and 9 months; both had MCa with anaplastic carcinoma or sarcoma. Three patients with MCa were alive with disease at 14, 26, and 58 months. The remaining patients were alive with no evidence of

  10. The epidemiological and clinical features of primary giant cell tumor around the knee: A report from the multicenter retrospective study in china

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fengsong; Hu, Yongcheng; Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Huilin; Yu, Xiuchun; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Zhaoming; Wu, Sujia; Guo, Shibing; Zhang, Guochuan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of giant cell tumor around the knee in China. Methods Between March 2000 and June 2014, patients with primary giant cell tumor around the knee were recruited from 6 institutions located in different regions of China, and were reviewed retrospectively the clinical features according to gender and age. Results 334 qualified patients were included in this study. The sex ratio was 1.14:1 (178/156), with mean ages of 36.9 years in men and 33.1 years in women, constituting a significant difference (P=0.007). The prevalence of pathological fracture was 32.9% overall (28.7% in men and 37.8% in women). The prevalence of simple fracture was significantly higher in women (26.3%) than in men (15.2%), P=0.042. Tumor location and staging did not differ significantly according to sex (P>0.05). However, comparing with >40 years old, those patients aged ≤40 were more likely to have a right knee tumor (56.7% vs. 44.7%, P=0.042), less likely to have Enneking stage 3 disease (18.6% vs. 35.0%, P=0.005), and less likely to have both soft-tissue extension and a mass (18.6% vs. 34.0%, P=0.009). Conclusions Giant cell tumor around the knee was more common in men than in women, although female patients were younger on average. Further, cases among patients ≤40 years old were observed to be milder than cases among older patients. The results suggest that efficient treatment and preservation of function should both be valued for young patients with giant cell tumor around the knee. PMID:26998425

  11. Neuroendoscopic biopsy and the treatment of tumor-associated hydrocephalus of the ventricular and paraventricular region in pediatric patients: a nationwide study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Tomoru; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro; Ohira, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    A neuroendoscopic biopsy is a minimally invasive and useful procedure for the diagnosis and initial management of tumor-associated hydrocephalus. We describe the nationwide investigation of the current status of neuroendoscopic biopsy for intra- and paraventricular tumors in children, as well as the treatment of tumor-associated hydrocephalus in pediatric patients. The main items examined included the patient's age and sex, location of the tumor, pathological diagnosis, complications, treatment and efficacy of treatment of the tumor-associated hydrocephalus, and the dissemination during the postoperative course. Two hundred twenty-one pediatric patients (mean 8.6 years) from 67 institutions were registered. Endoscopic tumor biopsies were performed in 206 patients (93.2 %), and a histopathological diagnosis could be performed in 195 of these 206 patients (94.7 %). The most frequently histopathologically diagnosed tumor was a germ cell tumor (41.5 %), followed by astrocytic tumors (24.1 %) and cystic lesions (15.9 %). Associated hydrocephalus was observed in 177 patients (80.1 %), 101 of whom underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The efficacy rate of the ETV in the perioperative period was 99.0 %, and the long-term response rate was 90.1 %. Perioperative complications other than fever were found in 24 patients (10.9 %). In the statistical analysis, pediatric long-term response rate to ETV (p = 0.025) showed significantly more favorable results for pediatric than adult patients (p < 0.05). Neuroendoscopic procedures involving pediatric intra- and paraventricular tumors were considered to be very useful, with a low incidence of complication, and were associated with higher safety.

  12. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  13. A retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor in ectopic pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Al-Bassiouni, Fahim; El-Ela, Monir Abo; Al-Gemeie, Emad Hamza; Ezzat, Reem

    2013-07-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. We report a case of abdominal pain due to retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor arising from heterotopic pancreatic tissue between the duodenal wall and the head of the pancreas. Patient underwent surgical enucleation of the tumor.

  14. A Retroperitoneal Neuroendocrine Tumor in Ectopic Pancreatic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Al-Bassiouni, Fahim; El-Ela, Monir Abo; Al-Gemeie, Emad Hamza; Ezzat, Reem

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. We report a case of abdominal pain due to retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor arising from heterotopic pancreatic tissue between the duodenal wall and the head of the pancreas. Patient underwent surgical enucleation of the tumor. PMID:24949389

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Weidner, N

    1991-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic anterior mediastinal mass. Clinically considered to be a thymoma, the tumor was solid, firm, and composed of hypocellular dense collagen and cytologically bland, spindled fibroblastlike cells growing in a patternless pattern. There was no apparent connection to pleura or pericardium, yet the clinicopathologic features clearly fit with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of mediastinum. SFTs occur most commonly in pleura but have been reported in other locations, including the mediastinum, where aggressive behavior has been more common when these tumors are compared to those occurring in pleura. Although it is difficult to predict behavior for all cases of SFT occurring in the mediastinum by cytologic features alone, morphologic criteria for benign and malignant forms have been described. Roughly half the malignant forms will progress, yet the single most important indicator of clinical outcome is whether the tumor can be initially totally excised.

  16. An unusual neck mass: the Warthin tumor.

    PubMed

    Scasso, C A; Papini, M; Eligi, C; Ghelardi, F; Cagno, M C; Bruschini, P

    1998-01-01

    The cystoadenolymphoma or Warthin's tumor is a benign lesion of the salivary glands and principally of the parotid gland. We report a case of a 62 year old white male seen at our Institute for evaluation of an asymptomatic right neck mass located 2 cm below the mandible at the anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The echography showed a lymphoid structure simulating a lymphoproliferative process. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed a Warthin's tumor. We discuss the importance of considering Warthin's tumor in the differential diagnosis of an isolated neck mass, and report our experience over a ten year period in the surgical management of neck masses. Additionally, the literature concerning extraparotid Warthin's tumors is reviewed.

  17. Tumors of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, E M; Friedman, M; Becker, S; Sisson, G A; Keyes, G A

    1977-06-01

    Tumors of the major salivary glands are reviewed according to classification, location, surgical procedure and end results. Our data of the incidence of benign and malignant tumors show that the most commonly involved area is the parotid gland and the most frequent is of the mixed variety. In the parotid region 80 percent are benign and 20 percent are malignant; whereas, in the submandibular gland, the malignant and benign tumors are equally distributed. The need for an extensive surgical attack and inclusion of contiguous structure is dictated by the nature of the malignant disease. The role of postoperative irradiation is discussed as is the indication for neck dissection. Management of the facial nerve, relative to malignant tumors of the parotid gland, is considered in detail.

  18. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy. PMID:24058812

  20. Neuroimaging of Spinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Merhemic, Zulejha; Stosic-Opincal, Tatjana; Thurnher, Majda M

    2016-08-01

    Intradural tumors are relatively rare neoplasms; however, when unrecognized in a timely manner, they can result in serious deficits and disability. These tumors lack obvious clinical symptoms until compression of the cord or neurologic deficits occur. The most common intramedullary lesions are ependymomas, astrocytomas, and hemangioblastomas. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors (schwannomas and neurofibromas) comprise most intradural-extramedullary tumors. Less common tumors are hemangiopericytoma, paraganglioma, melanocytoma, melanoma, metastases, and lymphoma. MR imaging is the imaging method of choice, helpful for localization and characterization of these lesions before treatment and for follow-up after treatment. PMID:27417401