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Sample records for age tumor location

  1. Is Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio Considered as a Prognostic Marker with Age and Tumor Location in Colorectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Khodapasand, Ehsan; Jafarzadeh, Narges; Farrokhi, Farid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bax and Bcl-2 are the major members of Bcl-2 family whose play a key role in tumor progression or inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of this family can determine the cellular fate. Methods: In this study, the relative level of mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes was determined using RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and RT-qPCR technique from 22 tumoral tissues and adjacent non-tumoral tissues from adenocarcinoma colorectal cancer. Results: The potential prognostic and predictive significance of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were demonstrated in colorectal cancer. The significant correlation between qPCR data and different clinicopathologic parameters of colorectal carcinoma, including age, gender, tumor size, tumor stage, tumor location, and tumor differentiation was also examined. Interestingly, no significant correlation was seen between Bax and Bcl-2 expressions and clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer. However, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was statistically correlated with age and tumor location. Patients with age above 50 showed decreased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly lower in tumors resected from colon compared to sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid and rectum tumors. Conclusion: This study indicates a significant correlation between age and tumor location with Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio, suggesting predictive value as a potential molecular marker of colorectal cancer. PMID:25864810

  2. A relationship to survival is seen by combining the factors of mismatch repair status, tumor location and age of onset in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Xiao, Zhitao; Braciak, Todd A.; Ou, Qingjian; Chen, Gong; Oduncu, Fuat S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) may differ depending on the location of the tumor and the age of onset of the disease. Previous studies also suggested that the molecular basis of CRC varies with tumor location, which could affect the clinical management of patients. Therefore, we performed survival analysis looking at different age groups and mismatch repair status (MMR) of CRC patients according to primary tumor location in an attempt to identify subgroups of CRC that might help in the prognosis of disease. Methods A group of 2233 patients operated on to remove their CRC tumors were analyzed (521 with right colon cancer, 740 with left colon cancer and 972 with rectal cancer). The expression of four MMR genes was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), independent of clinical criteria. From the data collected, a predictive model for overall survival (OS) could be constructed for some associations of tumor location and age of onset using Kaplan-Meier, logistic and Cox regression analysis. Results When tumor location was considered as the lone factor, we found no statistical difference in overall survival (OS) between right cancer (68%), left cancer (67%) or rectal cancer tumor locations (71%) (HR: 1.17, 95%CI (confidence interval): 0.97–1.43, P = 0.057). When age of onset was considered, middle age (40–59 years) and older (60–85 years) patients were found to have higher OS than younger onset cancer (20–39 years) patients (69% vs 71% vs 59%, HR: 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91–1.25, P = 0.008). When both age of onset and tumor location were considered in combination as disease factors, we found that the subgroup of patients with left colon cancer from middle age (69%) and older (67%) aged patients had higher OS than younger (54%) patients (HR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.68–1.16, P = 0.048). However in patients with right colon cancers, we found no statistical difference is OS between younger, middle age or older grouped patients (60% vs

  3. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  4. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression. PMID:24213465

  5. Totally laparoscopic anatomical liver resection for centrally located tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Joon; Kim, Ki-Hun; Shin, Min-Ho; Yoon, Young-In; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic major hepatectomy is a common procedure that has been reported frequently; however, laparoscopic resection of centrally located tumors involving segments 4, 5, and 8 remains a technically difficult procedure because it requires 2 transection planes and dissection of numerous branches of the hepatic vein and glissonean capsule compared to hemi-hepatectomy. Here, we present 7 cases of totally laparoscopic right anterior sectionectomy (Lap-RAS) and 3 cases of totally laparoscopic central bisectionectomy (Lap-CBS). Between May 2013 and January 2015, 10 totally laparoscopic anatomical resections of centrally located tumors were performed in our institution. The median age of the patients was 54.2 (38–72) years and the median ICG-R15 was 10.4 (3.9–17.4). There were 8 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 2 with metastatic colorectal cancer. All the HCC patients has the liver function impairment on the degree of Child-Pugh score A. The mean operation time was 330 ± 92.7 minutes with an estimated blood loss of 325 ± 234.5 mL. Only 1 patient required transfusion during surgery. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 9.5 ± 3.4 day and postop complication was reported only 1 case that has the fluid collection at the resection margin of the liver. Mean resection margin was 8.5 ± 6.1 mm and tumor size was 2.9 ± 1.9 cm. Totally lap-RAS and lap-CBS are feasible operative procedures in patients with centrally located tumor of the liver and particularly in patients with limited liver function such as those with cirrhosis. PMID:28121916

  6. Unusual Volar Pulp Location of Glomus Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Ian A.; Argenta, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Glomus tumors are benign, painful growths originating from glomus bodies and comprise just 1% of tumors arising in the hand, with fewer than 10% in the volar pulp of digits. Hallmark symptoms of glomus tumors include hypersensitivity to cold, heightened pinprick sensitivity, and paroxysmal pain. We report a 72-year-old, right-hand dominant man who presented with pain in the left middle finger, localized to the tip. The fingertip was incredibly sensitive to touch, and his pain increased at night. He reported no recollection of trauma. Palpation of the finger revealed no mass, although it did indicate a focal point of pain within the distal pulp of the digit. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left hand revealed a round 7.0 × 4.0 × 6.0-mm soft tissue lesion along the volar ulnar aspect of the distal third digit. An incision was made in the mid-axial plane, circumscribing and removing the mass bluntly. It was a tan-yellow, soft tissue nodule of 0.8-cm in diameter without stalk or adherences to joints. Pathology revealed the mass was a glomus tumor. Symptoms improved on removal, and he healed without complication. Glomus tumors in the volar digital pulp can be difficult to diagnose. However, the presence of localized pain in the fingertip was reason to consider glomus tumor and proceed with treatment. Complete surgical removal of a glomus tumor is necessary to resolve symptoms and prevent recurrence. PMID:28203512

  7. Glomus tumor of the back: a rare location.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il Jae; Yoo, Young Moon; Lim, Hyoseob; Park, Myong Chul

    2009-11-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of localized pain on his back, and a 1.5-cm round, touch-induced painful mass was palpated. A subsequent diagnostic evaluation revealed the presence of a glomus tumor. Glomus tumors are rare, benign, small vascular tumors, which originate from glomus bodies present in the reticular dermis. Glomus tumors constitute less than 2.0% of all primary soft tissue tumors, approximately 80% of the lesions are located in the upper extremity, and more than 75% are subungually located. However, many locations have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this glomus tumor that occurred on the back is very rare.

  8. Accelerated food source location in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Egenriether, Sada M; Chow, Eileen S; Krauth, Nathalie; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2015-10-01

    Adequate energy stores are essential for survival, and sophisticated neuroendocrine mechanisms evolved to stimulate foraging in response to nutrient deprivation. Food search behavior is usually investigated in young animals, and it is not known how aging alters this behavior. To address this question in Drosophila melanogaster, we compared the ability to locate food by olfaction in young and old flies using a food-filled trap. As aging is associated with a decline in motor functions, learning, and memory, we expected that aged flies would take longer to enter the food trap than their young counterparts. Surprisingly, old flies located food with significantly shorter latency than young ones. Robust food search behavior was associated with significantly lower fat reserves and lower starvation resistance in old flies. Food-finding latency (FFL) was shortened in young wild-type flies that were starved until their fat was depleted but also in heterozygous chico mutants with reduced insulin receptor activity and higher fat deposits. Conversely, food trap entry was delayed in old flies with increased insulin signaling. Our results suggest that the difference in FFL between young and old flies is linked to age-dependent differences in metabolic status and may be mediated by reduced insulin signaling.

  9. Brain tumor locating in 3D MR volume using symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Bartusek, Karel

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with the automatic determination of a brain tumor location in 3D magnetic resonance volumes. The aim of this work is not the precise segmentation of the tumor and its parts but only the detection of its location. This work is the first step in the tumor segmentation process, an important topic in neuro-image processing. The algorithm expects 3D magnetic resonance volumes of brain containing a tumor. The detection is based on locating the area that breaks the left-right symmetry of the brain. This is done by multi-resolution comparing of corresponding regions in left and right hemisphere. The output of the computation is the probabilistic map of the tumor location. The created algorithm was tested on 80 volumes from publicly available BRATS databases containing 3D brain volumes afflicted by a brain tumor. These pathological structures had various sizes and shapes and were located in various parts of the brain. The locating performance of the algorithm was 85% for T1-weighted volumes, 91% for T1-weighted contrast enhanced volumes, 96% for FLAIR and T2-wieghted volumes and 95% for their combinations.

  10. Accelerated aging in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pavlides, Stephanos; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is thought to be a disease associated with aging. Interestingly, normal aging is driven by the production of ROS and mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting in the cumulative accumulation of DNA damage. Here, we discuss how ROS signaling, NFκB- and HIF1-activation in the tumor micro-environment induces a form of “accelerated aging,” which leads to stromal inflammation and changes in cancer cell metabolism. Thus, we present a unified model where aging (ROS), inflammation (NFκB) and cancer metabolism (HIF1), act as co-conspirators to drive autophagy (“self-eating”) in the tumor stroma. Then, autophagy in the tumor stroma provides high-energy “fuel” and the necessary chemical building blocks, for accelerated tumor growth and metastasis. Stromal ROS production acts as a “mutagenic motor” and allows cancer cells to buffer—at a distance—exactly how much of a mutagenic stimulus they receive, further driving tumor cell selection and evolution. Surviving cancer cells would be selected for the ability to induce ROS more effectively in stromal fibroblasts, so they could extract more nutrients from the stroma via autophagy. If lethal cancer is a disease of “accelerated host aging” in the tumor stroma, then cancer patients may benefit from therapy with powerful antioxidants. Antioxidant therapy should block the resulting DNA damage, and halt autophagy in the tumor stroma, effectively “cutting off the fuel supply” for cancer cells. These findings have important new implications for personalized cancer medicine, as they link aging, inflammation and cancer metabolism with novel strategies for more effective cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:21654190

  11. [Adamantinoma of the clavicle: rare tumor for rare location].

    PubMed

    Rifi, M; Mahfoud, M; Zouaidia, F; El Yaacoubi, M

    2013-06-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare primary low-grade malignant tumor composed of cells with epithelial and fibrous characteristics. It represents 0.4% of all primitive malignant bone tumours. It is predominantly located in the mid-shaft of tibia. We report an adamantinoma of the clavicle, occurring in a 19-year-old female patient. The lateral half of the clavicle was excised. After a period of 3 years, she is still remaining free of local recurrence and metastatic disease.

  12. Racial variation in colorectal polyp and tumor location.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Julia Gore; Morris, Arden M.; Thornton, John Daryl; Flowers, Christopher R.; McCashland, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer among whites have decreased, but they have remained unchanged among African Americans. To explain this disparity, we used the multicenter endoscopy database of the Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative to compare the prevalence of proximal polyps and tumors among asymptomatic African Americans and whites undergoing routine screening colonoscopy. METHODS: African Americans and whites undergoing colonoscopy between January 1, 2002 and September 30, 2003 were considered for analysis. RESULTS: There were 145,175 index colonoscopy reports on unique patients. After applying exclusion criteria, 46,726 patients remained for analysis. Adjusting for age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists level, bowel preparation and endoscopic setting, African Americans were less likely to have polyps [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.84]. However, the odds of having proximal polyps was higher in African Americans (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.11-1.52) compared to whites. In regards to tumors, African Americans were more likely to have tumors (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.14-2.77) and more likely to have proximal tumors than whites (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.16-16.42). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for confounders, African Americans undergoing screening colonoscopy in multiple practice settings had higher odds of proximal polyps and tumors than whites, suggesting current colorectal cancer screening recommendations in African Americans should be expanded. PMID:17668638

  13. Association of tumor location, extent of resection, and neurofibromatosis status with clinical outcomes for 221 spinal nerve sheath tumors.

    PubMed

    Safaee, Michael; Parsa, Andrew T; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Chou, Dean; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Weinstein, Philip R; Tihan, Tarik; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Intradural extramedullary spine tumors represent two-thirds of all primary spine neoplasms. Approximately half of these are peripheral nerve sheath tumors, mainly neurofibromas and schwannomas. Given the rarity of this disease and, thus, the limited analyses of clinical outcomes, the authors examined the association of tumor location, extent of resection, and neurofibromatosis (NF) status with clinical outcomes. METHODS Patients were identified through a search of the University of California, San Francisco, neuropathology database and a separate review of current procedural terminology codes. Data recorded included patient age, patient sex, clinical presentation, presence of NF, tumor type, tumor location, extent of resection (gross-total resection [GTR] or subtotal resection [STR]), and clinical follow-up. RESULTS Of 221 tumors in 199 patients (mean age 45 years), 53 were neurofibromas, 163 were schwannomas, and 5 were malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The most common presenting symptom was spinal pain (76%), followed by weakness (36%) and sensory abnormalities (34%). Mean symptom duration was 16 months. In terms of spinal location, neurofibromas were more common in the cervical spine (74% vs 27%, p < 0.001), and schwannomas were more common in the thoracic and lumbosacral spine (73% vs 26%, p < 0.001). Rates of GTR were lower for neurofibromas than schwannomas (51% vs 83%, p < 0.001), regardless of location. Rates of GTR were lower for cervical (54%) than thoracic (90%) and lumbosacral (86%) lesions (p < 0.001). NF was associated with lower rates of GTR among all tumors (43% vs 86%, p < 0.001). The mean follow-up time was 32 months. Recurrence/progression was more common for neurofibromas than schwannomas (17% vs 7%, p = 0.03), although the mean time to recurrence/progression did not differ according to tumor type (45 vs 53 months, p = 0.63). As expected, GTR was associated with lower recurrence rates (4% vs 22%, p < 0.001). According to

  14. Enterobiasis in ectopic locations mimicking tumor-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Pampiglione, Silvio; Rivasi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Both the clinical and the histopathological diagnostic difficulties of oxyuriasis in unusual sites and their importance from a clinical point of view are pointed out. The authors report two ectoptic cases of enterobiasis observed in Northern Italy, one located in a fallopian tube of a 57-year-old woman and the other in a perianal subcutaneous tissue of a 59-year-old man, mimicking tumor-like lesions. The authors take advantage of the occasion to focus the attention of the medical world on this subject, lamenting the scarce importance given to this parasitosis in university courses of medical schools and in medical textbooks as it is incorrectly considered "out-of-fashion."

  15. Totally laparoscopic anatomical liver resection for centrally located tumors: A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan-Joon; Kim, Ki-Hun; Shin, Min-Ho; Yoon, Young-In; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic major hepatectomy is a common procedure that has been reported frequently; however, laparoscopic resection of centrally located tumors involving segments 4, 5, and 8 remains a technically difficult procedure because it requires 2 transection planes and dissection of numerous branches of the hepatic vein and glissonean capsule compared to hemi-hepatectomy. Here, we present 7 cases of totally laparoscopic right anterior sectionectomy (Lap-RAS) and 3 cases of totally laparoscopic central bisectionectomy (Lap-CBS).Between May 2013 and January 2015, 10 totally laparoscopic anatomical resections of centrally located tumors were performed in our institution. The median age of the patients was 54.2 (38-72) years and the median ICG-R15 was 10.4 (3.9-17.4). There were 8 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 2 with metastatic colorectal cancer. All the HCC patients has the liver function impairment on the degree of Child-Pugh score A.The mean operation time was 330 ± 92.7 minutes with an estimated blood loss of 325 ± 234.5 mL. Only 1 patient required transfusion during surgery. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 9.5 ± 3.4 day and postop complication was reported only 1 case that has the fluid collection at the resection margin of the liver. Mean resection margin was 8.5 ± 6.1 mm and tumor size was 2.9 ± 1.9 cm.Totally lap-RAS and lap-CBS are feasible operative procedures in patients with centrally located tumor of the liver and particularly in patients with limited liver function such as those with cirrhosis.

  16. Unusually Located Stroke After Chemotherapy in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Braulio Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a type of malignancy that affects young adults and has high rates of cure; however, as any malignancy, it is associated with an increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, given the systemic tumor effects or side effects of chemotherapy, which in turn increases morbidity, functional impairment, and additional risk of early death. PMID:26425644

  17. Racial Variations in Prostate Cancer Molecular Subtypes and Androgen Receptor Signaling Reflect Anatomic Tumor Location

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Farzana A.; Sundi, Debasish; Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Choeurng, Voleak; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Ross, Ashley E.; Klein, Eric; Den, Robert; Dicker, Adam; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai; Lotan, Tamara L.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) subtypes based on ETS gene expression have been described. Recent studies suggest there are racial differences in tumor location, with PCa located anteriorly more often among African-American (AA) compared to Caucasian-American (CA) men. In this retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional cohort treated by radical prostatectomy (179 CA, 121 AA), we evaluated associations among molecular subtype, race, anatomic tumor location, and androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Subtype (m-ERG+, m-ETS+, m-SPINK1+, or triple-negative) was determined using distribution-based outlier analysis. AR signaling was investigated using gene expression profiling of canonical AR targets. m-ERG+ was more common in CA than AA men (47% vs 22%, p < 0.001). AA men were more likely to be m-SPINK1+ (13% vs 7%; p = 0.069) and triple-negative (50% vs 37%; p = 0.043). Racial differences in molecular subtypes did not persist when tumors were analyzed by location, suggesting a biologically important relationship between tumor location and subtype. Accordingly, anterior tumor location was associated with higher Decipher scores and lower global AR signaling. Patient summary This study demonstrates associations among patient race, prostate cancer molecular subtypes, and tumor location. Location-specific differences in androgen regulation may further underlie these relationships. PMID:26443432

  18. Age, Tumor Characteristics, and Treatment Regimen as Event Predictors in Ewing: A Children's Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Neyssa; Granowetter, Linda; Grier, Holcombe E.; Womer, Richard B.; Randall, R. Lor; Marcus, Karen J.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Krailo, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To associate baseline patient characteristics and relapse across consecutive COG studies. Methods. We analyzed risk factors for LESFT patients in three randomized COG trials. We evaluated age at enrollment, primary site, gender, tumor size, and treatment (as randomized). We estimated event-free survival (EFS, Kaplan-Meier) and compared risk across groups (log-rank test). Characteristics were assessed by proportional hazards regression with the characteristic of interest as the only component. Confidence intervals (CI) for RR were derived. Factors related to outcome at level 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Results. Between 12/1988 and 8/2005, 1444 patients were enrolled and data current to 2001, 2004, or 2008 were used. Patients were with a median age of 12 years (0–45), 55% male and 88% Caucasian. The 5-year EFS was 68.3% ± 1.3%. In univariate analysis age, treatment, and tumor location were identified for inclusion in the multivariate model, and all remained significant (p < 0.01). Since tumor size was not collected in the last study, the other two were reanalyzed. This model identified age, treatment, tumor location, and tumor size as significant predictors. Conclusion. Age > 18 years, pelvic tumor, size > 8 cms, and chemotherapy without ifosfamide/etoposide significantly predict worse outcome. AEWS0031 is NCT00006734, INT0091 and INT0054 designed before 1993 (unregistered). PMID:26508901

  19. Location of tumor affects local and distant immune cell type and number

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Jonathan A.; Khattar, Vinayak; Ashton, Reading; Lee, Carnellia; Siegal, Gene P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Tumors comprise heterogeneous populations of cells, including immune infiltrates that polarize during growth and metastasis. Our preclinical studies on breast cancer (BCa) identified functional differences in myeloid‐derived suppressor cells based on tumor microenvironment (TME), prompting variations in host immune response to tumor growth, and dissemination based on tissue type. Methods In order to understand if such variations existed among other immune cells, and if such alteration occurs in response to tumor growth at the primary site or due to bone dissemination, we characterized immune cells, examining localized growth and in the tibia. In addition, immune cells from the spleen were examined from animals of both tumor locations by flow cytometry. Results The study demonstrates that location of tumor, and not simply the tumor itself, has a definitive role in regulating immune effectors. Among all immune cells characterized, macrophages were decreased and myeloid dendritic cell were increased in both tumor locations. This difference was more evident in subcutaneous tumors. Additionally, spleens from mice with subcutaneous tumors contained greater increases in both macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells than in mice with bone tumors. Furthermore, in subcutaneous tumors there was an increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T‐cell numbers, which was also observed in their spleens. Conclusions These data indicate that alterations in tumor‐reactive immune cells are more pronounced at the primary site, and exert a similar change at the major secondary lymphoid organ than in the bone TME. These findings could provide translational insight into designing therapeutic strategies that account for location of metastatic foci. PMID:28250928

  20. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-01-01

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690

  1. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-08-26

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults' preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public 'third' places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.

  2. Risk factors of gastric cancer specific for tumor location and histology in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Francia; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Koriyama, Chihaya; Serra, Mauricio; Carrascal, Edwin; Itoh, Tetsuhiko; Nomoto, Mitsuharu; Akiba, Suminori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine histology- and tumor-location specific risk factors of gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: This was a case-control study. The study subjects were 216 GC patients newly diagnosed during the period 2000-2002 and 431 controls selected from non-cancer patients matching in age, gender, and hospital. We obtained information on lifestyles, dietary habits, and others by a questionnaire. RESULTS: The subjects who were not eldest among his/her siblings were at a slightly elevated GC risk (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.0). Salting meals before tasting was related to an increased GC risk (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6- 7.3). Frequent consumptions of fruits (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-1.0) and vegetables (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-1.0) were related to decreased GC risks. On the other hand, frying foods (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.6) and cooking with coal (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6) were related to increased GC risks. Neither Lauren’s histological classification (intestinal and diffuse types) nor tumor location significantly affected those associations except birth order. The subjects who were not eldest among his/her siblings had an increased risk of GCs in the distal and middle thirds, and their ORs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (95% CI 0.8-4.3), respectively. The corresponding OR in the upper third stomach was 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.9). The differences of those three ORs were statistically significant (P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: The present study shows that birth order, salt intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables, the type of cooking, and cigarette smoking are related to GC risk. In histology and tumor-location specific analyses, non-eldest person among their siblings is related to an increased GC risk in the distal and middle thirds of the stomach, and is related to a decreased GC risk in the cardia. PMID:17007041

  3. Tumor histology and location predict deep nuclei toxicity: Implications for late effects from focal brain irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Plaga, Alexis; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Sun, David A.; Vitaz, Todd W.; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2012-10-01

    Normal tissue toxicity resulting from both disease and treatment is an adverse side effect in the management of patients with central nervous system malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that despite these improvements, certain tumors place patients at risk for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory late effects. Defining patient groups at risk for these effects could allow for development of preventive strategies. Fifty patients with primary brain tumors underwent radiation planning with magnetic resonance imaging scan and computed tomography datasets. Organs at risk (OAR) responsible for neurocognitive, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory function were defined. Inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy was optimized with priority given to target coverage while penalties were assigned to exceeding normal tissue tolerances. Tumor laterality, location, and histology were compared with OAR doses, and analysis of variance was performed to determine the significance of any observed correlation. The ipsilateral hippocampus exceeded dose limits in frontal (74%), temporal (94%), and parietal (100%) lobe tumor locations. The contralateral hippocampus was at risk in the following tumor locations: frontal (53%), temporal (83%), or parietal (50%) lobe. Patients with high-grade glioma were at risk for ipsilateral (88%) and contralateral (73%) hippocampal damage (P <0.05 compared with other histologies). The pituitary gland and hypothalamus exceeded dose tolerances in patients with pituitary tumors (both 100%) and high-grade gliomas (50% and 75%, P <0.05 compared with other histologies), respectively. Despite application of modern radiation therapy, certain tumor locations and histologies continue to place patients at risk for morbidity. Patients with high-grade gliomas or tumors located in the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobes are at risk for neurocognitive decline, likely because of larger target volumes and higher radiation doses. Data from this study

  4. Spinal Accessory Neuropathy Associated With the Tumor Located on the Jugular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Spinal accessory neuropathy is commonly caused by iatrogenic injury or secondary to trauma or infection. Nevertheless, the tumor related palsy is rare. We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient suffering from paralysis of his right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. An electrophysiologic diagnostic study confirmed the spinal accessory neuropathy of the proximal segment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed the location of tumor on the jugular foramen. However, the type of the tumor was not confirmed through biopsy because the patient refused surgical procedure. Based on the study, it is hypothesized that the tumor located on the jugular foramen should be considered as a cause of the spinal accessory nerve of the proximal segment. PMID:23526381

  5. Aging predisposes to acute inflammatory induced pathology after tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bouchlaka, Myriam N; Sckisel, Gail D; Chen, Mingyi; Mirsoian, Annie; Zamora, Anthony E; Maverakis, Emanual; Wilkins, Danice E C; Alderson, Kory L; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Weiss, Jonathan M; Monjazeb, Arta M; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L; Blazar, Bruce R; Wiltrout, Robert H; Redelman, Doug; Taub, Dennis D; Murphy, William J

    2013-10-21

    Cancer commonly occurs in the elderly and immunotherapy (IT) is being increasingly applied to this population. However, the majority of preclinical mouse tumor models assessing potential efficacy and toxicities of therapeutics use young mice. We assessed the impact of age on responses to systemic immune stimulation. In contrast to young mice, systemic cancer IT regimens or LPS given to aged mice resulted in rapid and lethal toxicities affecting multiple organs correlating with heightened proinflammatory cytokines systemically and within the parenchymal tissues. This inflammatory response and increased morbidity with age was independent of T cells or NK cells. However, prior in vivo depletion of macrophages in aged mice resulted in lesser cytokine levels, increased survival, and decreased liver histopathology. Furthermore, macrophages from aged mice and normal human elderly volunteers displayed heightened TNF and IL-6 production upon in vitro stimulation. Treatment of both TNF knockout mice and in vivo TNF blockade in aged mice resulted in significant increases in survival and lessened pathology. Importantly, TNF blockade in tumor-bearing, aged mice receiving IT displayed significant anti-tumor effects. These data demonstrate the critical role of macrophages in the age-associated hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses to systemic immunostimulation and underscore the importance of performing preclinical assessments in aged mice.

  6. Aging predisposes to acute inflammatory induced pathology after tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Chen, Mingyi; Mirsoian, Annie; Zamora, Anthony E.; Maverakis, Emanual; Wilkins, Danice E.C.; Alderson, Kory L.; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Redelman, Doug; Taub, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer commonly occurs in the elderly and immunotherapy (IT) is being increasingly applied to this population. However, the majority of preclinical mouse tumor models assessing potential efficacy and toxicities of therapeutics use young mice. We assessed the impact of age on responses to systemic immune stimulation. In contrast to young mice, systemic cancer IT regimens or LPS given to aged mice resulted in rapid and lethal toxicities affecting multiple organs correlating with heightened proinflammatory cytokines systemically and within the parenchymal tissues. This inflammatory response and increased morbidity with age was independent of T cells or NK cells. However, prior in vivo depletion of macrophages in aged mice resulted in lesser cytokine levels, increased survival, and decreased liver histopathology. Furthermore, macrophages from aged mice and normal human elderly volunteers displayed heightened TNF and IL-6 production upon in vitro stimulation. Treatment of both TNF knockout mice and in vivo TNF blockade in aged mice resulted in significant increases in survival and lessened pathology. Importantly, TNF blockade in tumor-bearing, aged mice receiving IT displayed significant anti-tumor effects. These data demonstrate the critical role of macrophages in the age-associated hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses to systemic immunostimulation and underscore the importance of performing preclinical assessments in aged mice. PMID:24081947

  7. Computerized method for estimation of the location of a lung tumor on EPID cine images without implanted markers in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, H.; Egashira, Y.; Shioyama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Yoshidome, S.; Anai, S.; Nomoto, S.; Honda, H.; Toyofuku, F.; Higashida, Y.; Onizuka, Y.; Terashima, H.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for estimation of the location of a lung tumor in cine images on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) without implanted markers during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Each tumor region was segmented in the first EPID cine image, i.e., reference portal image, based on a multiple-gray level thresholding technique and a region growing technique, and then the image including the tumor region was cropped as a 'tumor template' image. The tumor location was determined as the position in which the tumor template image took the maximum cross-correlation value within each consecutive portal image, which was acquired in cine mode on the EPID in treatment. EPID images with 512 × 384 pixels (pixel size: 0.56 mm) were acquired at a sampling rate of 0.5 frame s-1 by using energies of 4, 6 or 10 MV on linear accelerators. We applied our proposed method to EPID cine images (226 frames) of 12 clinical cases (ages: 51-83, mean: 72) with a non-small cell lung cancer. As a result, the average location error between tumor points obtained by our method and the manual method was 1.47 ± 0.60 mm. This preliminary study suggests that our method based on the tumor template matching technique might be feasible for tracking the location of a lung tumor without implanted markers in SBRT.

  8. Classifying early-onset colorectal cancer according to tumor location: new potential subcategories to explore

    PubMed Central

    Perea, José; Cano, Juana M; Rueda, Daniel; García, Juan L; Inglada, Lucía; Osorio, Irene; Arriba, María; Pérez, Jessica; Gaspar, Miriam; Fernández-Miguel, Tamara; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Benítez, Javier; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Urioste, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Early-onset Colorectal Cancer (ECRC) represents a significant and increasing proportion of Colorectal Cancer (CRC), but it is a heterogeneous entity that probably encompasses specific subclasses. On the premise that the carcinogenetic mechanism and progression of CRC may differ with location, we analyzed molecular and clinical characteristics of ECRC according to tumor location in order to identify more homogeneous subgroups of CRC. Right-sided ECRC is a subset in which most Lynch Syndrome cases are found, with earlier stages at diagnosis and better prognosis. At this location the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is predominant and Chromosomal Instability (CI) is rare. Left-sided ECRC appears as a transitional or intermediate location, except for CI tumors, that seem to predominate at this location. Finally, rectal ECRC shows Microsatellite Stability, CIMP low-0 and low CI - with recurrent altered chromosomal regions in common with left-sided ECRC-, possibly in relation with Microsatellite And Chromosomal Stable tumors, but with an unexpected familial component and worse prognosis. All this suggest that the molecular basis of ECRC varies with tumor location, which could affect the clinical management of patients. PMID:26328262

  9. Unusual liver locations of growing teratoma syndrome in ovarian malignant germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Domenica; Malaguti, Paola; Trivellizzi, Ilaria Nausica; Scambia, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    ► Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) with unusual liver locations are described after fertility preserving surgery and chemotherapy treatment for mixed malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MGCT). ► It's a rare syndrome of mixed malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and in both cases enlarged and growing liver masses appeared during cisplatin-etoposide-bleomicin (BEP) chemotherapy. ► Radiological exams (CT scan and MRI) were suggestive for secondary metastasis and serum markers became negative during chemotherapy.

  10. [INVITED] Time reversal optical tomography: Detecting and locating tumors in an ex vivo model human breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Alrubaiee, Mohammad; Gayen, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Time reversal optical tomography (TROT), a recently introduced diffuse optical imaging approach, is used to detect, locate, and obtain cross-section images of tumors inside a "model human breast." The model cancerous breast is assembled as a semi-cylindrical slab of uniform thickness using ex vivo human breast tissues with two pieces of tumors embedded in it. The experimental arrangement used a 750-nm light beam from a Ti:sapphire laser to illuminate an end face (source plane) of the sample in a multi-source probing scheme. A multi-detector signal acquisition scheme measured transmitted light intensity distribution on the other end face (detector plane). The perturbations in light intensity distribution in the detector plane were analyzed using TROT to obtain locations of the tumor pieces in three dimensions and estimate their cross sections. The estimated locations and dimensions of targets are in good agreement with the results of a corroborating magnetic resonance imaging experiment.

  11. Type, Density, and Location of Immune Cells Within Human Colorectal Tumors Predict Clinical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galon, Jérôme; Costes, Anne; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Kirilovsky, Amos; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Lagorce-Pagès, Christine; Tosolini, Marie; Camus, Matthieu; Berger, Anne; Wind, Philippe; Zinzindohoué, Franck; Bruneval, Patrick; Cugnenc, Paul-Henri; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Fridman, Wolf-Herman; Pagès, Franck

    2006-09-01

    The role of the adaptive immune response in controlling the growth and recurrence of human tumors has been controversial. We characterized the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers by gene expression profiling and in situ immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the immunological data (the type, density, and location of immune cells within the tumor samples) were found to be a better predictor of patient survival than the histopathological methods currently used to stage colorectal cancer. The results were validated in two additional patient populations. These data support the hypothesis that the adaptive immune response influences the behavior of human tumors. In situ analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells may therefore be a valuable prognostic tool in the treatment of colorectal cancer and possibly other malignancies.

  12. Optimal surface marker locations for tumor motion estimation in lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Jiang Graves, Yan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-12-01

    Using fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to predict the tumor location is a widely used approach in lung cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to propose an algorithm that automatically identifies a sparse set of locations on the patient’s surface with the optimal prediction power for the tumor motion. In our algorithm, it is assumed that there is a linear relationship between the surface marker motion and the tumor motion. The sparse selection of markers on the external surface and the linear relationship between the marker motion and the internal tumor motion are represented by a prediction matrix. Such a matrix is determined by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function contains a sparsity term that penalizes the number of markers chosen on the patient’s surface. Bregman iteration is used to solve the proposed optimization problem. The performance of our algorithm has been tested on realistic clinical data of four lung cancer patients. Thoracic 4DCT scans with ten phases are used for the study. On a reference phase, a grid of points are casted on the patient’s surfaces (except for the patient’s back) and propagated to other phases via deformable image registration of the corresponding CT images. Tumor locations at each phase are also manually delineated. We use nine out of ten phases of the 4DCT images to identify a small group of surface markers that are mostly correlated with the motion of the tumor and find the prediction matrix at the same time. The tenth phase is then used to test the accuracy of the prediction. It is found that on average six to seven surface markers are necessary to predict tumor locations with a 3D error of about 1 mm. It is also found that the selected marker locations lie closely in those areas where surface point motion has a large amplitude and a high correlation with the tumor motion. Our method can automatically select sparse locations on the patient’s external surface and

  13. Tumor LINE-1 methylation level and colorectal cancer location in relation to patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yin; Song, Mingyang; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Baba, Hideo; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal tumors arise with genomic and epigenomic alterations through interactions between neoplastic cells, immune cells, and microbiota that vary along the proximal to distal axis of colorectum. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation in colorectal cancer has been associated with worse clinical outcome. Utilizing 1,317 colon and rectal carcinoma cases in two U.S.-nationwide prospective cohort studies, we examined patient survival according to LINE-1 methylation level stratified by tumor location. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess a statistical interaction between LINE-1 methylation level and tumor location in colorectal cancer-specific mortality analysis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. A statistically significant interaction was found between LINE-1 methylation level and tumor location in colorectal cancer-specific mortality analysis (Pinteraction = 0.011). The association of LINE-1 hypomethylation with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality was stronger in proximal colon cancers (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.28) than in distal colon cancers (multivariable HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.72) or rectal cancers (multivariable HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.34). Our data suggest the interactive effect of LINE-1 methylation level and colorectal cancer location on clinical outcome. PMID:27391152

  14. A Correlative Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy Approach to Locating Nanoparticles in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Kircher, Moritz F.; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25464144

  15. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Accelerated aging in the tumor microenvironment: connecting aging, inflammation and cancer metabolism with personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Michael P; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pavlides, Stephanos; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica

    2011-07-01

    Cancer is thought to be a disease associated with aging. Interestingly, normal aging is driven by the production of ROS and mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting in the cumulative accumulation of DNA damage. Here, we discuss how ROS signaling, NFκB- and HIF1-activation in the tumor microenvironment induces a form of "accelerated aging," which leads to stromal inflammation and changes in cancer cell metabolism. Thus, we present a unified model where aging (ROS), inflammation (NFκB) and cancer metabolism (HIF1), act as co-conspirators to drive autophagy ("self-eating") in the tumor stroma. Then, autophagy in the tumor stroma provides high-energy "fuel" and the necessary chemical building blocks, for accelerated tumor growth and metastasis. Stromal ROS production acts as a "mutagenic motor" and allows cancer cells to buffer-at a distance-exactly how much of a mutagenic stimulus they receive, further driving tumor cell selection and evolution. Surviving cancer cells would be selected for the ability to induce ROS more effectively in stromal fibroblasts, so they could extract more nutrients from the stroma via autophagy. If lethal cancer is a disease of "accelerated host aging" in the tumor stroma, then cancer patients may benefit from therapy with powerful antioxidants. Antioxidant therapy should block the resulting DNA damage, and halt autophagy in the tumor stroma, effectively "cutting off the fuel supply" for cancer cells. These findings have important new implications for personalized cancer medicine, as they link aging, inflammation and cancer metabolism with novel strategies for more effective cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

  17. The impact of tumor location and multifocality on prognosis for patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, YunJian; Dong, Qiang; Liu, LiangRen; Han, Ping; Wei, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    There is lack of consensus regarding the prognostic significance of primary tumor location of upper tract urothelial carcinoma(UTUC). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of primary tumor location on prognosis in patients with UTUC who had undergone radical nephroureterectomy(RNU). We included eligible studies that reported hazard ratios(HRs) estimates with 95% confidence intervals(CIs) for the association between tumor location and recurrence-free survival(RFS) and cancer-specific survival(CSS) of UTUC. The local advanced tumors(pT3/4) and nodal positive(pN+) tumors in patients stratified by tumor location were also estimated. The review contained 17 studies including a total of 12094 patients were identified. Although it was not significant in univariable analysis, meta-analysis demonstrated that ureteral tumors had a worse prognosis than renal pelvic tumors on RFS and CSS in multivariable analysis after adjusted for all covariates. Multifocal tumors also showed a significantly association with both disease progression and cancer-specific mortality in univariable and multivariable analyses. However, no statistically significant differences were found between renal pelvic and ureteral tumors in presentation of pT3/4 and pN+ tumors. Our meta-analysis indicated that ureteral and multifocal tumors are independent prognosticators of disease progression and cancer-specific survival in patients with UTUC treated with RNU. PMID:25219390

  18. Two faces of p53: aging and tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Francis; Campisi, Judith; Bhaumik, Dipa

    2007-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein, often termed guardian of the genome, integrates diverse physiological signals in mammalian cells. In response to stress signals, perhaps the best studied of which is the response to DNA damage, p53 becomes functionally active and triggers either a transient cell cycle arrest, cell death (apoptosis) or permanent cell cycle arrest (cellular senescence). Both apoptosis and cellular senescence are potent tumor suppressor mechanisms that irreversibly prevent damaged cells from undergoing neoplastic transformation. However, both processes can also deplete renewable tissues of proliferation-competent progenitor or stem cells. Such depletion, in turn, can compromise the structure and function of tissues, which is a hallmark of aging. Moreover, whereas apoptotic cells are by definition eliminated from tissues, senescent cells can persist, acquire altered functions, and thus alter tissue microenvironments in ways that can promote both cancer and aging phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that increased p53 activity can, at least under some circumstances, promote organismal aging. Here, we discuss the role of p53 as a key regulator of the DNA damage responses, and discuss how p53 integrates the outcome of the DNA damage response to optimally balance tumor suppression and longevity. PMID:17942417

  19. Impact of gender and primary tumor location on outcome of patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    S, Voinea; A, Blidaru; E, Panaitescu; A, Sandru

    2016-01-01

    Background. The survival of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) depends on multiple factors whose role is continuously updated, as the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease progression are understood. This study intended to assess whether the patient's gender and tumor location affect the disease outcome. Methods. Between 2008 and 2012, 155 patients with cutaneous MM underwent various types of surgeries in our clinic. Patients were staged according to the 2009 TNM classification. There were 90 women and 65 men. Primary tumors were located as it follows head and neck region - 4.5%, limbs - 50.7% and trunk - 44.8%. The disease free and overall survival rates (DFS, OS) were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. Metastases developed in 52.3% of the males and 31.1% of the females (p=0.008). In univariate analysis, distant metastasis risk was significantly higher in men (p = 0.0472 for stage II patients and p = 0.0288 for stage III). In multivariate analysis, male gender almost doubled the risk of relapse (p = 0.044) and death (p = 0.022). Consequently, DFS and OS were significantly higher among females. Primary tumor location seemed to influence the melanoma spreading ability. Half of the trunk MM developed metastases while only a third of limbs MM did. The association between MM location and the recurrence risk was not random (p = 0.033). Conclusions. The patient gender represents an independent prognostic factor for both relapse and death. Although trunk MM had a significantly higher risk of metastasis than limbs MM, the location per se was not an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.078). Abbreviations: MM = malignant melanoma, DFS = disease free survival, OS = overall survival, p = p value, AJCC = American Joint Commission on Cancer, CI = confidence interval.

  20. Paediatric calcified intramedullary schwannoma at conus: A common tumor in a vicarious location

    PubMed Central

    Jagannatha, Aniruddha Tekkatte; Joshi, Krishna Chaitanya; Rao, Shilpa; Srikantha, Umesh; Varma, Ravi Gopal; Mahadevan, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Spinal schwannomas are commonly intradural extramedullary in location. As Schwann cells are not common in the central nervous system, intramedullary schwannomas are a rare entity. In adults, an estimated sixty cases have been reported in English literature. They are rarer in children (less than ten cases), and preoperative diagnosis becomes a prerogative in achieving total excision. Cervical cord is a common location and less commonly they occur in the conus. We report a rare case of calcified conus intramedullary schwannoma in a child without neurofibromatosis, who presented with conus-cauda syndrome of 1-year duration. Literature has been reviewed regarding its origin, pathophysiology, radiological features, and surgical management. This child underwent laminotomy and subtotal resection of the lesion. Histopathologically, tumor had typical features of schwannoma and was positive for S-100 immunoperoxidase. We believe that schwannoma needs to be considered in the preoperative differential diagnosis of a conus tumor in children as complete excision is possible in these benign tumors, thus affecting a cure. PMID:28217154

  1. Proton radiation therapy for retinoblastoma: Comparison of various intraocular tumor locations and beam arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco; Hug, Eugen B.; Adams, Judy A.; Smith, Alfred R.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Munzenrider, John E. . E-mail: jmunzenrider@partners.org

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the optimization of proton beam arrangements for various intraocular tumor locations; and to correlate isodose distributions with various target and nontarget structures. Methods and materials: We considered posterior-central, nasal, and temporal tumor locations, with straight, intrarotated, or extrarotated eye positions. Doses of 46 cobalt grey equivalent (CGE) to gross tumor volume (GTV) and 40 CGE to clinical target volume (CTV) (2 CGE per fraction) were assumed. Using three-dimensional planning, we compared isodose distributions for lateral, anterolateral oblique, and anteromedial oblique beams and dose-volume histograms of CTVs, GTVs, lens, lacrimal gland, bony orbit, and soft tissues. Results: All beam arrangements fully covered GTVs and CTVs with optimal lens sparing. Only 15% of orbital bone received doses {>=}20 CGE with a lateral beam, with 20-26 CGE delivered to two of three growth centers. The anterolateral oblique approach with an intrarotated eye resulted in additional reduction of bony volume and exposure of only one growth center. No appreciable dose was delivered to the contralateral eye, brain tissue, or pituitary gland. Conclusions: Proton therapy achieved homogeneous target coverage with true lens sparing. Doses to orbit structures, including bony growth centers, were minimized with different beam arrangements and eye positions. Proton therapy could reduce the risks of second malignancy and cosmetic and functional sequelae.

  2. Bone tumor location in dogs given skeletal irradiation by {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    Statistical analyses have indicated that there was a significant difference between dogs injected with bone volume-seeking {sup 226} Ra as compared to those given bone surface-seeking {sup 239}Pu with respect to location within the skeleton of 334 radiation-induced primary bone malignancies. Corresponding differences also were event when dogs given bone volume-seeking {sup 90}Sr or bone surface-seeking {sup 241}Am, {sup 228}Th {sup 248,252}Cf, or {sup 224}Ra (which decays mostly on bone surfaces because of its short, 3.6 d half time) were included along with the {sup 226}Ra or {sup 239}Pu, respectively (562 total tumors). Further analysis suggested that higher values of percent red marrow (M) and bone turnover rate (R) are correlated with increased probability. of tumor appearance at a particular location within the skeleton for the surface seekers. Proportionately higher values of M and R are associated with skeletal sites containing mostly trabecular bone as compared to those with mostly compact (cortical) bone. Coefficients of determination (r{sup 2}) for the relationship between percent of total tumors vs the combination of percent red marrow and turnover rate (= MR) was about 0.7 for the surface seekers but only about 0.1 for the volume seekers. This indicates that the neoplastic effects of surface seekers, but not volume seekers, are associated with the presence of trabecular bone at the various sites of radio nuclide deposition within the skeleton. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of Age and Location in Chinese Relative Clauses Processing.

    PubMed

    He, Wenguang; Xu, Na; Ji, Runqing

    2017-02-24

    Three experiments investigated Chinese relative clause processing with children, youths and elders using sentence-picture matching and self-paced reading methods. In Experiment 1, we found that object-extracted clause were easier to comprehend than subject-extracted clause , and object-modified relative clause (i.e., object-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]object-modified object-extracted clause) were difficult to comprehend than subject modified relative clause (subject-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]subject-modified object-extracted clause). Importantly, this paper also found 5-6.5 ages may be critical for children to comprehend RCs in Chinese. Experiment 2 also showed that S-ORCs were easier to comprehend than S-SRCs for youths and elders. Further, elders have more difficulty comprehending RCs than youths. Experiment 3 indicated that there were no significant differences in difficulty between O-SRCs and O-ORCs, and no differences were found between youths and elders. In general, our findings gave support to predictions of working memory-based theory, and also indicated that RCs processing has an intricate course. Many factors such as syntactic, language specificity, experience, personality, must all be considered in sentence processing.

  4. Computational identification of tumor anatomic location associated with survival in two large cohorts of human primary glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiffany T.; Achrol, Achal S.; Mitchell, Lex A.; Du, William A.; Loya, Joshua J.; Rodriguez, Scott A.; Feroze, Abdullah; Westbroek, Erick M.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tumor location has been shown to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). The purpose of this study is to characterize GBM lesions by identifying MRI voxel-based tumor location features that are associated with tumor molecular profiles, patient characteristics and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Preoperative T1 anatomic MR images of 384 GBM patients were obtained from two independent cohorts (N=253 from our local (name withheld to preserve anonymity) Medical Center for training and N=131 from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for validation). An automated computational image analysis pipeline was developed to determine the anatomic locations of tumor in each patient. Voxel-based differences in tumor location between good (overall survival (OS) > 17 months) and poor (OS < 11 months) survival groups identified in the training cohort were used to classify patients in the TCGA cohort into two brain location groups, for which clinical features, mRNA expression, and copy number changes were compared to elucidate the biological basis of tumors located in different brain regions. Results Tumors in the right occipito-temporal periventricular white matter were significantly associated with poor survival in both training and test cohorts (both log-rank P < 0.05) and had larger tumor volume compared to tumors in other locations. Tumors in the right peri-atrial location were associated with hypoxia pathway enrichment and PDGFRA amplification, making them potential targets for subgroup-specific therapies. Conclusion Voxel-based location in GBM is associated with patient outcome and may have a potential role for guiding personalized treatment. PMID:26744442

  5. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Arising in the External Ear: Unexpected Location. (Case Report)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Humidi, Ahmed; Al-Khamiss, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    We present an unexpected extremely rare case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the external ear. A 3-year-old boy presented with a mass arising on the posterior aspect of the left ear lobule and extending to the external auditory canal. This mass grew slowly and showed no skin changes. Radiologically, it was diagnosed as a vascular tumor. Surgical excision and primary closure was performed for the patient. Histopathologic examination demonstrated a circumscribed noncapsulated mass formed by a proliferation of spindle cells in deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The spindle cells were mixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration compatible with the IMT. Because it is very rare to arise in this location, we present this case as a case report with details histopathological examination and reviewed the English literature for similar cases. PMID:26309441

  6. Mucinous Borderline Ovarian Tumor in Very Old Aged Postmenopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Jeon, Dong-Su; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Yang, Yo-Sep

    2015-01-01

    Mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) occur most often in women between the ages of 20 and 30. Early-stage detection of the condition has a more favorable prognosis. In this case report, the authors present an elderly 93-year old woman who visited our hospital due to severe abdominal pain after being diagnosed with a pelvic mass 2 years ago and not undergoing any treatment since the diagnosis was made. She underwent emergency left salpingo-oophorectomy and was diagnosed with mucinous BOT according to biopsy results. PMID:26793682

  7. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  8. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted.

  9. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  10. SU-E-J-107: The Impact of the Tumor Location to Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Y; Tachibana, H; Kadoya, N; Jingu, K; Kitamura, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For four-dimensional planning and adaptive radiotherapy, the accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) is essential. We evaluated the accuracy of an in-house program with the free-downloadable DIR software library package (NiftyReg) and two commercially available DIR software programs (MIM Maestro and Velocity AI) in lung SBRT cancer patients. In addition to it, the relationship between the tumor location and the accuracy of the DIRs was investigated. Methods: The free-form deformation was implemented in the in-house program and the MIM. The Velocity was based on the B-spline algorithm. The accuracy of the three programs was evaluated in comparison for the structures on 4DCT image datasets between at the peak-inhale and at the peak-exhale. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and normalized DSC (NDSC) were measured for the gross tumor volumes from 19 lung SBRT patients. Results: The DSC measurement showed the median values of the DSC were 0.885, 0.872 and 0.798 for the In-house program, the MIM and the Velocity, respectively. The Velocity showed significant difference compared to the others. The median NDSC values were 1.027, 1.005 and 0.946 for the In-house, the MIM and the Velocity, respectively. This indicated that the spatial overlap agreement between the reference and the deformed structure for the in-house and MIM was comparable with the accuracy within 1mm uncertainty. There was larger discrepancy within 1–2mm uncertainty for the Velocity. The In-house and the MIM showed the higher NDSC values than the median values when the GTV was not attached to the chest wall and diaphragm(p < 0.05). However, there is no relationship between the accuracy and the tumor location in the Velocity. Conclusion: The difference of the DIR program would affect different accuracy and the accuracy may be reduced when the tumor is located or attached to chest wall or diaphragm.

  11. Aging, tumor suppression and cancer: High-wire act!

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Judith

    2004-08-15

    Evolutionary theory holds that aging is a consequence of the declining force of natural selection with age. We discuss here the evidence that among the causes of aging in complex multicellular organisms, such as mammals, is the antagonistically pleiotropic effects of the cellular responses that protect the organism from cancer. Cancer is relatively rare in young mammals, owing in large measure to the activity of tumor suppressor mechanisms. These mechanisms either protect the genome from damage and/or mutations, or they elicit cellular responses--apoptosis or senescence--that eliminate or prevent the proliferation of somatic cells at risk for neoplastic transformation.We focus here on the senescence response, reviewing its causes, regulation and effects. In addition, we describe recent data that support the idea that both senescence and apoptosis may indeed be the double-edged swords predicted by the evolutionary hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy--protecting organisms from cancer early in life, but promoting aging phenotypes, including late life cancer, in older organisms.

  12. Primary pediatric mid-brain lymphoma: Report of a rare pediatric tumor in a rare location

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Rony; Mallick, Supriya; Purkait, Suvendu; Suri, Vaishali; Haresh, K P; Gupta, Subhash; Sharma, Dayanand; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease in pediatric age group. A thirteen-year-old male child presented with complaints of headache for six months, vomiting and diplopia for three days. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a single lesion of 1.7 cm × 1.6 cm × 1.6 cm in the mid brain and tectum. He underwent a gross total resection of the tumor. The histopathological evaluation revealed B cell high grade non Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient was treated with High dose methotrexate and cranio spinal radiation. The patient was alive without disease 12 mo after completion of treatment. This case highlights importance of keeping PCNSL as differential in brain stem lesions of pediatric patients also. Radiation and chemotherapy remains the most important treatment for such patients. PMID:28035316

  13. The pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor variation with disease progression and aggressiveness in colorectal cancer depends on tumor location

    PubMed Central

    PAPAGIORGIS, PETROS C.; ZIZI, ADAMANTIA E.; TSELENI, SOPHIA; OIKONOMAKIS, IOANNIS N.; NIKITEAS, NIKOLAOS I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis remains unclear despite the recent development of anti-EGFR treatments for metastatic disease. The heterogeneity of CRC may account for this discrepancy; proximal and distal CRC has been found to be genetically and clinicopathologically different. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tumor location on the association of EGFR with the conventional prognostic indicators (stage and grade) in CRC. Immunohistochemical assessment of EGFR was retrospectively performed in 119 primary CRC specimens and data were correlated with tumor stage and grade in the proximal and distal tumor subset. The molecular combination of EGFR with p53 (previously assessed in this sample) was similarly analyzed. EGFR positivity was detected in 34, 30 and 35% of the entire cohort, proximal and distal tumors, respectively. The pattern of EGFR clinicopathological correlation was found to differ by site. A reduction in the frequency of EGFR(+) with progression of stage and/or worsening of grade was observed proximally, whereas an opposite trend was recorded distally. Proximal tumors with stage I or with indolent features (stage I, well-differentiated) exhibited a significantly higher proportion of EGFR positivity than other tumors of this location (p=0.023 and p=0.022, respectively) or corresponding distal tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.035, respectively). Moreover, the co-existence of EGFR and high p53 staining (accounting for 11% of cases) was found in a significantly higher proportion of stage IV tumors compared to other stages (p=0.004), although only for the distal subset. Proximal and distal tumors showed various patterns of EGFR variation with disease progression and aggressiveness. This disparity provides further support to the hypothesis that these particular subsets of CRC are distinct tumor entities. It may also be suggestive of a potentially different therapeutic approach according to

  14. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD.

  15. A simple technique for hemostasis control after enucleation of deep located liver tumors or after liver trauma

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Marcel A.; Surjan, Rodrigo C.; Basseres, Tiago; Makdissi, Fábio F.

    2016-01-01

    Modern liver techniques allowed the development of segment-based anatomical liver resections. Nevertheless, there is still a place for nonanatomical liver resections. However, in some cases, there is a need for enucleation of deep located liver tumors. The main problem with enucleation of a liver tumor deeply located in the middle of the liver is the control of bleeding resulting from the rupture of small or medium vessels. The authors describe a simple way to control the bleeding without the use of any special instrument or material. This technique can also be used to control bleeding from penetrating liver injury. PMID:26846270

  16. Caveolin-1 and Accelerated Host Aging in the Breast Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Isabelle; Camacho, Jeanette; Titchen, Kanani; Gonzales, Donna M.; Quann, Kevin; Bryant, Kelly G.; Molchansky, Alexander; Milliman, Janet N.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Sotgia, Federica; Jasmin, Jean-François; Schwarting, Roland; Pestell, Richard G.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing chronological age is the most significant risk factor for human cancer development. To examine the effects of host aging on mammary tumor growth, we used caveolin (Cav)-1 knockout mice as a bona fide model of accelerated host aging. Mammary tumor cells were orthotopically implanted into these distinct microenvironments (Cav-1+/+ versus Cav-1−/− age-matched young female mice). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1–deficient tumor microenvironment have an increased stromal content, with vimentin-positive myofibroblasts (a marker associated with oxidative stress) that are also positive for S6-kinase activation (a marker associated with aging). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1–deficient tumor microenvironment were more than fivefold larger than tumors grown in a wild-type microenvironment. Thus, a Cav-1–deficient tumor microenvironment provides a fertile soil for breast cancer tumor growth. Interestingly, the mammary tumor-promoting effects of a Cav-1–deficient microenvironment were estrogen and progesterone independent. In this context, chemoprevention was achieved by using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor and anti-aging drug, rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin treatment of mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1–deficient microenvironment significantly inhibited their tumor growth, decreased their stromal content, and reduced the levels of both vimentin and phospho-S6 in Cav-1–deficient cancer-associated fibroblasts. Since stromal loss of Cav-1 is a marker of a lethal tumor microenvironment in breast tumors, these high-risk patients might benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin or other rapamycin-related compounds (rapalogues). PMID:22698676

  17. Assessment of gingival thickness with regards to age, gender and arch location

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, Rajashri; Kolte, Abhay; Mahajan, Aaditi

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable intra and inter-individual variation in both width and thickness of the facial gingiva. As the attached gingiva is an important anatomic and functional landmark in the periodontium, the identification of gingival biotype is important in clinical practice since differences in gingival and osseous architecture have been shown to exhibit a significant impact on the outcome of restorative therapy. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the variation in width and thickness of facial gingiva in the anterior segment with respect to age, gender and dental arch location. Materials and Methods: 120 subjects were divided into three age groups: The younger age group (16-24 years), the middle age group (25-39 years) and the older age group (>40 years) with 20 males and 20 females in each group. The width of the gingiva was assessed by William's graduated probe and the thickness was determined using transgingival probing in the maxillary and mandibular anterior segment. Results: It was observed that the younger age group had significantly thicker gingiva but less width than that of the older age group. The gingiva was found to be thinner and with less width in females than males. The mandibular arch had thicker gingiva with less width compared to the maxillary arch. Conclusion: In the present study, we concluded that gingival thickness and width varies with age, gender and dental arch location. PMID:25210263

  18. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  19. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath: a rare periungual location simulating myxoid cyst*

    PubMed Central

    Minotto, Renan; Rodrigues, Camila Britto; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Furian, Roque

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumor most frequent between the third and fifth decades of life. It can mimic and make differential diagnoses with several hand tumors. Definitive diagnosis and the treatment of choice are reached with complete resection and histopathological examination. Here we describe a case with clinical presentation similar to that of a myxoid cyst. PMID:28225971

  20. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  1. Age, Sex, and Verbal Abilities Affect Location of Linguistic Connectivity in Ventral Visual Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Douglas D.; Minas, Taylor; Bolger, Donald J.; Booth, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the "strength" of connectivity between regions can vary depending upon the cognitive demands of a task. In this study, the "location" of task-dependent connectivity from the primary visual cortex (V1) was examined in 43 children (ages 9-15) performing visual tasks; connectivity maxima were identified for a visual…

  2. P53 Staining Correlates with Tumor Type and Location in Sebaceous Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Shalin, Sara C.; Sakharpe, Aniket; Lyle, Stephen; Lev, Dina; Calonje, Eduardo; Lazar, Alexander J.

    2010-01-01

    Sebaceous neoplasms are commonly considered in their relationship to the Muir-Torre Syndrome and the now well-documented loss of DNA mismatch repair proteins leading to microsatellite instability. However, sebaceous neoplasms showing microsatellite instability comprise only a subset of this group of tumors, and thus alternative tumorigenic mechanisms must exist. This paper explores the relationship of p53, a tumor suppressor implicated in other cutaneous malignancies, and sebaceous neoplasia. We examined 94 sebaceous tumors from 92 patients. Tumors with strong nuclear p53 staining were significantly associated with the diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma compared to benign sebaceous lesions, most notably for periocular carcinomas. Importantly, nuclear mismatch repair protein expression was intact in all lesions showing p53 alterations, suggesting that p53 dysfunction may represent a divergent pathway in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:22441365

  3. Pain Measurement in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project: Presence, Intensity, and Location

    PubMed Central

    Tiedt, Andrew D.; Grant, Kaelin; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the rationale for the pain presence, location, and intensity measures in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Method. Responses to the pain presence, location (pain map), and intensity (verbal descriptor scale) items were analyzed by gender and age (62–69, 70–79, and 80–91). Pain intensity was dichotomized (none to mild vs moderate or higher) and compared by demographics, physical function, mood, and self-rated health. All analyses used Wald tests to compare sample means. Results. Participants completed the pain presence (n = 2,430/2,799), location (n = 2,558/2,799), and intensity (n = 2,589/2,799) items. Pain items varied by gender with women reporting more head, arm, hip/buttock, leg, and foot pain compared to men, (p < .05) at each individual site. Women also reported more intense pain compared to men—2.13 versus 1.94, respectively (p < .05). Pain items demonstrated remarkable similarity among age cohorts. Health indicators were significant and in the expected direction (p < .001). An increase in comorbidity, ADL and IADL dependence, worse self-rated health, and more depressive symptoms were each significantly more common among participants who reported moderate or greater pain compared to none to mild pain. Discussion. Pain presence, location, and intensity measures were successfully integrated into NSHAP Wave 2 and exhibit construct and external validity. PMID:25360020

  4. [Relation between location of elements in periodic table and affinity for the malignant tumor (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Hisada, K; Ando, I

    1977-10-01

    Affinity of many inorganic compounds for the malignant tumor was examined, using the rats which were subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. And the relations between the uptake rate into the malignant tumor and in vitro binding power to the protein were investigated in these compounds. In these experiments, the bipositive ions and anions had not affinity for the tumor tissue with a few exceptions. On the other hand, Hg, Au and Bi, which have strong binding power to the protein, showed high uptake rate into the malignant tumor. As Hg++, Au+ and Bi+++ are soft acids according to classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these elements would bind strongly to soft base (R-SH, R-S-) present in the tumor tissue. In many hard acids (according to classification of Lewis acids), the uptake rate into the tumor was shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. It is presumed that the chemical bond of these hard acids in the tumor tissue is ionic bond to hard base (R-COO-, R-PO3(2-), R-SO3-, R-NH2).

  5. Intraprostatic locations of tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic prostate biopsy among potential candidates for active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangmo; Lee, Jung Keun; Choe, Gheeyoung; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    To establish optimal biopsy scheme for selection of candidates for active surveillance (AS) among prostate cancer (PCa) patients, information on topographical distribution of tumor foci of higher grade missed by contemporary biopsy amongst potential candidates of AS would certainly be useful. Thus we analyzed topographic distribution of tumor foci by examining prostatectomy specimens in 444 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for low risk PCa. Anterior and posterior prostate areas were demarcated by a horizontal line drawn at midpoint of prostatic urethra. Among 444 subjects, patients with upgrading showed relatively higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading, though not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.252). Meanwhile, among 135 (30.4%) patients with very low risk PCa, patients with upgrading showed significantly higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading (52.2% vs 33.8%; p = 0.031). In conclusions, tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic biopsy were mostly located in anterior prostate among very low risk PCa patients. Such finding would be concrete evidence to support the notion that more efforts are needed to increase accuracy in detecting tumor foci in anterior prostate among potential candidates for AS. PMID:27827421

  6. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  7. Characteristics of intraoperative abnormal hemodynamics during resection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor located on the dorsal medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Kajiwara, Koji; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal hemodynamics during extirpation of a para-medulla oblongata (MO) tumor is common and may be associated with direct vagal stimulation of the medullary circuit. However, resection of tumors on the dorsal MO may also induce hemodynamic instability without direct vagal stimulus. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of hemodynamic instability unrelated to vagal stimulus during dissection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor with attachment to the dorsal MO. A retrospective analysis was performed in 13 patients. Abnormal hemodynamics were defined as a > 20% change from the means of the intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Relationships of intraoperative hemodynamics were evaluated with various parameters, including the volume of the MO. Six patients (46.2%) had intraoperative hypertension during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The maximum MAP and HR in these patients were significantly greater than those in patients with normal hemodynamics (116.0 ± 18.0 mmHg versus 85.6 ± 6.5 mmHg; 124.3 ± 22.8 bpm versus 90.5 ± 14.7 bpm). All six cases with abnormal hemodynamics showed hemodynamic fluctuation during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The preoperative volume of the MO in these patients was 1.11 cc less than that in patients with normal hemodynamics, but the volume after tumor resection was similar in the two groups (5.23 cc and 5.12 cc). This suggests that the MO was compressed by the conglutinate tumor bulk, with resultant fluctuation of hemodynamics. Recognition of and preparation for this phenomenon are important for surgery on a tumor located on the dorsal MO.

  8. Age-related location of manifest accessory pathway and clinical consequences

    PubMed Central

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Huttin, Olivier; Olivier, Arnaud; Sellal, Jean Marc; Villemin, Thibaut; Manenti, Vladimir; Moulin-Zinsch, Anne; Marçon, François; Simon, Gauthier; Andronache, Marius; Beurrier, Daniel; de Chillou, Christian; Girerd, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Accessory pathway (AP) ablation is not always easy. Our purpose was to assess the age-related prevalence of AP location, electrophysiological and prognostic data according to this location. Methods Electrophysiologic study (EPS) was performed in 994 patients for a pre-excitation syndrome. AP location was determined on a 12 lead ECG during atrial pacing at maximal preexcitation and confirmed at intracardiac EPS in 494 patients. Results AP location was classified as anteroseptal (AS)(96), right lateral (RL)(54), posteroseptal (PS)(459), left lateral (LL)(363), nodoventricular (NV)(22). Patients with ASAP or RLAP were younger than patients with another AP location. Poorly-tolerated arrhythmias were more frequent in patients with LLAP than in other patients (0.009 for ASAP, 0.0037 for RLAP, <0.0001 for PSAP). Maximal rate conducted over AP was significantly slower in patients with ASAP and RLAP than in other patients. Malignant forms at EPS were more frequent in patients with LLAP than in patients with ASAP (0.002) or PSAP (0.001). Similar data were noted when AP location was confirmed at intracardiac EPS. Among untreated patients, poorly-tolerated arrhythmia occurred in patients with LLAP (3) or PSAP (6). Failures of ablation were more frequent for AS or RL AP than for LL or PS AP. Conclusions AS and RLAP location in pre-excitation syndrome was more frequent in young patients. Maximal rate conducted over AP was lower than in other locations. Absence of poorly-tolerated arrhythmias during follow-up and higher risk of ablation failure should be taken into account for indications of AP ablation in children with few symptoms. PMID:27134439

  9. Predicting the location of the hip joint centres, impact of age group and sex

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Reiko; McGinley, Jennifer; Briggs, Chris; Baker, Richard; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical gait analysis incorporating three-dimensional motion analysis plays a key role in planning surgical treatments in people with gait disability. The position of the Hip Joint Centre (HJC) within the pelvis is thus critical to ensure accurate data interpretation. The position of the HJC is determined from regression equations based on anthropometric measurements derived from relatively small datasets. Current equations do not take sex or age into account, even though pelvis shape is known to differ between sex, and gait analysis is performed in populations with wide range of age. Three dimensional images of 157 deceased individuals (37 children, 120 skeletally matured) were collected with computed tomography. The location of the HJC within the pelvis was determined and regression equations to locate the HJC were developed using various anthropometrics predictors. We determined if accuracy improved when age and sex were introduced as variables. Statistical analysis did not support differentiating the equations according to sex. We found that age only modestly improved accuracy. We propose a range of new regression equations, derived from the largest dataset collected for this purpose to date. PMID:27883044

  10. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Crown Gall Tumor Induction in Aging Primary Pinto Bean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vinod K.; Bauer, Chris; Heberlein, Gary T.

    1975-01-01

    Gibberellic acid was tested for its effect on tumor induction by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in primary pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves in various stages of development. The hormone was found to promote tumor induction in partially aged leaves but did not effect tumor induction in very young leaves or in fully matured leaves. It is suggested that the natural loss of susceptibility to tumor induction in maturing pinto bean leaves is associated with a concomitant loss of endogenous gibberellins and/or a sensitivity to gibberellins. PMID:16659201

  11. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  12. Simultaneous estimation of size, radial and angular locations of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast - A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    This article reports a numerical study pertaining to simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast. The breast skin surface temperature profile is specific to a tumor of specific size and location. The temperature profiles are always the Gaussian one, though their peak magnitudes and areas differ according to the size and location of the tumor. The temperature profiles are obtained by solving the Pennes bioheat equation using the finite element method based solver COMSOL 4.3a. With temperature profiles known, simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of the tumor is done using the curve fitting method. Effect of measurement errors is also included in the study. Estimations are accurate, and since in the inverse analysis, the curve fitting method does not require solution of the governing bioheat equation, the estimation is very fast.

  13. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Perkins, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 {degrees}C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  14. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgrande, N. K.; Durbin, P. F.; Perkins, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses, and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  15. Multiple Tumors Located in the Same Section Are Associated with Better Outcomes After Hepatic Resection for HCC Patients Meeting the Milan Criteria.

    PubMed

    Lv, Tao; Jiang, Li; Yan, Lunan; Yang, Jiayin; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Zeng, Yong; Wang, Wentao; Xu, Mingqing

    2015-12-01

    The impact of the tumor location on the outcome after hepatic resection (HR) in multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of HR patients with multifocal tumors meeting the Milan criteria and tumors located in the same or different sections. A total of 219 consecutive HR patients with multifocal tumors meeting the Milan criteria were divided into group SS (n = 97; same section) and group DS (n = 122; different sections) according to their anatomical location (Couinaud's segmentation). The prognostic predictors were evaluated, and a subgroup analysis was performed. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were significantly higher in group SS than group DS. The subgroup analysis showed that patients with two tumors in the same section and patients undergoing en bloc resection had better OS and RFS. A multivariate analysis revealed that tumors located in different sections and macrovascular invasion were independent predictors of poor prognosis. In HCC patients with multifocal tumors meeting the Milan criteria, tumors located in the same hepatic section may lead to better long-term survival and lower HCC recurrence rates than tumors in different sections after HR.

  16. Visual-somatosensory integration in aging: does stimulus location really matter?

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Wang, Cuiling; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Individuals are constantly bombarded by sensory stimuli across multiple modalities that must be integrated efficiently. Multisensory integration (MSI) is said to be governed by stimulus properties including space, time, and magnitude. While there is a paucity of research detailing MSI in aging, we have demonstrated that older adults reveal the greatest reaction time (RT) benefit when presented with simultaneous visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. To our knowledge, the differential RT benefit of visual and somatosensory stimuli presented within and across spatial hemifields has not been investigated in aging. Eighteen older adults (Mean = 74 years; 11 female), who were determined to be non-demented and without medical or psychiatric conditions that may affect their performance, participated in this study. Participants received eight randomly presented stimulus conditions (four unisensory and four multisensory) and were instructed to make speeded foot-pedal responses as soon as they detected any stimulation, regardless of stimulus type and location of unisensory inputs. Results from a linear mixed effect model, adjusted for speed of processing and other covariates, revealed that RTs to all multisensory pairings were significantly faster than those elicited to averaged constituent unisensory conditions (p < 0.01). Similarly, race model violation did not differ based on unisensory spatial location (p = 0.41). In summary, older adults demonstrate significant VS multisensory RT effects to stimuli both within and across spatial hemifields.

  17. Predicting location of recurrence using FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET in canine sinonasal tumors treated with radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Tyler; Fu, Rau; Bowen, Stephen; Zhu, Jun; Forrest, Lisa; Jeraj, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Dose painting relies on the ability of functional imaging to identify resistant tumor subvolumes to be targeted for additional boosting. This work assessed the ability of FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM PET imaging to predict the locations of residual FDG PET in canine tumors following radiotherapy. Nineteen canines with spontaneous sinonasal tumors underwent PET/CT imaging with radiotracers FDG, FLT, and Cu-ATSM prior to hypofractionated radiotherapy. Therapy consisted of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy to the sinonasal cavity with or without an integrated boost of 0.8 Gy to the GTV. Patients had an additional FLT PET/CT scan after fraction 2, a Cu-ATSM PET/CT scan after fraction 3, and follow-up FDG PET/CT scans after radiotherapy. Following image registration, simple and multiple linear and logistic voxel regressions were performed to assess how well pre- and mid-treatment PET imaging predicted post-treatment FDG uptake. R2 and pseudo R2 were used to assess the goodness of fits. For simple linear regression models, regression coefficients for all pre- and mid-treatment PET images were significantly positive across the population (P < 0.05). However, there was large variability among patients in goodness of fits: R2 ranged from 0.00 to 0.85, with a median of 0.12. Results for logistic regression models were similar. Multiple linear regression models resulted in better fits (median R2 = 0.31), but there was still large variability between patients in R2. The R2 from regression models for different predictor variables were highly correlated across patients (R ≈ 0.8), indicating tumors that were poorly predicted with one tracer were also poorly predicted by other tracers. In conclusion, the high inter-patient variability in goodness of fits indicates that PET was able to predict locations of residual tumor in some patients, but not others. This suggests not all patients would be good candidates for dose painting based on a single biological target.

  18. Primary Tumor Location as a Predictive Factor for First-line Bevacizumab Effectiveness in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Wen-Zhuo; Liao, Fang-Xin; Jiang, Chang; Kong, Peng-Fei; Yin, Chen-Xi; Yang, Qiong; Qiu, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Bei; Xia, Liang-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Published papers reported contradictory results about the correlation between bevacizumab effectiveness and primary tumor location of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: 740 mCRC patients treated with chemotherapy (CT group) and 244 patients treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as first-line setting (CT + B group) were included. Propensity score analyses were used for patients' stratification and matching. Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank tests were used to detect different overall survival (OS). Results: Patients in CT + B group had similar OS comparing with CT group only when the primary tumor located at right-side colon (20.2 for CT + B versus 19.7 months for CT group, p = 0.269). For left-side colon and rectal cancer patients, significantly longer OS were observed in CT + B than CT group. Conclusion: Our data suggested only patients with left-side colon or rectal cancer could get survival benefit from the addition of bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy. PMID:28261339

  19. Metals in albatross feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of species, age, and nest location

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the authors examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. They collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. The authors test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression they found significant models accounting for the variation in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. They also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated.

  20. Bone Fractures Following External Beam Radiotherapy and Limb-Preservation Surgery for Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Relationship to Irradiated Bone Length, Volume, Tumor Location and Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Parent, Amy L.; Griffin, Anthony M.; Fung, Sharon; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between tumor location, bone dose, and irradiated bone length on the development of radiation-induced fractures for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma (LE-STS) patients treated with limb-sparing surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Of 691 LE-STS patients treated from 1989 to 2005, 31 patients developed radiation-induced fractures. Analysis was limited to 21 fracture patients (24 fractures) who were matched based on tumor size and location, age, beam arrangement, and mean total cumulative RT dose to a random sample of 53 nonfracture patients and compared for fracture risk factors. Mean dose to bone, RT field size (FS), maximum dose to a 2-cc volume of bone, and volume of bone irradiated to >=40 Gy (V40) were compared. Fracture site dose was determined by comparing radiographic images and surgical reports to fracture location on the dose distribution. Results: For fracture patients, mean dose to bone was 45 +- 8 Gy (mean dose at fracture site 59 +- 7 Gy), mean FS was 37 +- 8 cm, maximum dose was 64 +- 7 Gy, and V40 was 76 +- 17%, compared with 37 +- 11 Gy, 32 +- 9 cm, 59 +- 8 Gy, and 64 +- 22% for nonfracture patients. Differences in mean, maximum dose, and V40 were statistically significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.01). Leg fractures were more common above the knee joint. Conclusions: The risk of radiation-induced fracture appears to be reduced if V40 <64%. Fracture incidence was lower when the mean dose to bone was <37 Gy or maximum dose anywhere along the length of bone was <59 Gy. There was a trend toward lower mean FS for nonfracture patients.

  1. Old age at diagnosis increases risk of tumor progression in nasopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao-Xuan; Chen, Xiao-Di; Zhang, Guo-Ye; Li, Zhi-Kun; Hong, Jing; Xie, Dan; Cai, Mu-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Age at diagnosis has been found to be a prognostic factor of outcomes in various cancers. However, the effect of age at diagnosis on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) progression has not been explored. We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between age and disease progression in 3,153 NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy between 2007 and 2009. Patients were randomly assigned to either a testing cohort or a validation cohort by computer-generated random assignment. X-tile plots determined the optimal cut-point of age based on survival status to be ≤61 vs. >61 years. Further correlation analysis showed that age >61 years was significantly correlated with the tumor progression and therapeutic regimen in both testing and validation cohorts (P <0.05). In the present study, we observed that older age (>61 years) was a strong and independent predictor of poor disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Age was also found to be a significant prognostic predictor as well (P <0.05) when evaluating patients with the same disease stage. ROC analysis confirmed the predictive value of age on NPC-specific survival in both cohorts (P <0.001) and suggested that age may improve the ability to discriminate outcomes in NPCs, especially regarding tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests that older age at NPC diagnosis is associated with a higher incidence of tumor progression and cancer-specific mortality. Age is a strong and independent predictor of poor outcomes and may allow for more tailored therapeutic decision-making and individualized patient counseling. PMID:27463012

  2. Caveolin-1 and accelerated host aging in the breast tumor microenvironment: chemoprevention with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and anti-aging drug.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Isabelle; Camacho, Jeanette; Titchen, Kanani; Gonzales, Donna M; Quann, Kevin; Bryant, Kelly G; Molchansky, Alexander; Milliman, Janet N; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Sotgia, Federica; Jasmin, Jean-François; Schwarting, Roland; Pestell, Richard G; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    Increasing chronological age is the most significant risk factor for human cancer development. To examine the effects of host aging on mammary tumor growth, we used caveolin (Cav)-1 knockout mice as a bona fide model of accelerated host aging. Mammary tumor cells were orthotopically implanted into these distinct microenvironments (Cav-1(+/+) versus Cav-1(-/-) age-matched young female mice). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1-deficient tumor microenvironment have an increased stromal content, with vimentin-positive myofibroblasts (a marker associated with oxidative stress) that are also positive for S6-kinase activation (a marker associated with aging). Mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1-deficient tumor microenvironment were more than fivefold larger than tumors grown in a wild-type microenvironment. Thus, a Cav-1-deficient tumor microenvironment provides a fertile soil for breast cancer tumor growth. Interestingly, the mammary tumor-promoting effects of a Cav-1-deficient microenvironment were estrogen and progesterone independent. In this context, chemoprevention was achieved by using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor and anti-aging drug, rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin treatment of mammary tumors grown in a Cav-1-deficient microenvironment significantly inhibited their tumor growth, decreased their stromal content, and reduced the levels of both vimentin and phospho-S6 in Cav-1-deficient cancer-associated fibroblasts. Since stromal loss of Cav-1 is a marker of a lethal tumor microenvironment in breast tumors, these high-risk patients might benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin or other rapamycin-related compounds (rapalogues).

  3. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC-male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging.

  4. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  5. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Test Lines...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Test Lines...

  7. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    PubMed Central

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  8. Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery with carbon nanoparticles: implication in tumor location and lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Huang, Sheng; Lin, Chongping; Jin, Na; Zhang, Zaizhong; Ke, Jun; Yu, Yinghao; Zhu, Jianping; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To examine the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to track nonpalpable breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery. During breast-conserving surgery, it is often very challenging to determine the boundary of tumor and identify involved lymph nodes. Currently used methods are useful in identifying tumor location, but do not provide direct visual guidance for resection margin during surgery. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Fuzhou General Hospital (Fuzhou, China). The current retrospective analysis included 16 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery under the guidance of preoperative marking using a carbon nanoparticle, as well as 3 patients receiving carbon nanoparticle marking followed by neoadjuvant treatment and then breast-conserving surgery. The Tumor Node Metastasis stage in the 16 cases included: T1N0M0 in 7, T1N1M0 in 2, T2N0M0 in 4, and T2N1M0 in the remaining 3 cases. The nanoparticle was injected at 12 sites at 0.5 cm away from the apparent edge under colored ultrasonography along 6 tracks separated by 60 degrees (2 sites every track). Lymph node status was also examined. The resection edge was free from cancer cells in all 16 cases (and the 3 cases with neoadjuvant treatment). Cancer cells were identified in majority of stained lymph nodes, but not in any of the unstained lymph nodes. No recurrence or metastasis was noticed after the surgery (2 to 22-month follow-up; median: 6 months). Tracking nonpalpable breast cancer with carbon nanoparticle could guide breast-conserving surgery.

  9. Location, Age, and Tectonic Significance of the Western Idaho Suture Zone (WISZ)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Robert J.; Criss, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The Western Idaho Suture Zone (WISZ) represents the boundary between crust overlying Proterozoic North American lithosphere and Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic intraoceanic crust accreted during Cretaceous time. Highly deformed plutons constituted of both arc and sialic components intrude the WISZ and in places are thrust over the accreted terranes. Pronounced variations in Sr, Nd, and O isotope ratios and in major and trace element composition occur across the suture zone in Mesozoic plutons. The WISZ is located by an abrupt west to east increase in initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, traceable for over 300 km from eastern Washington near Clarkston, east along the Clearwater River thorough a bend to the south of about 110? from Orofino Creek to Harpster, and extending south-southwest to near Ola, Idaho, where Columbia River basalts conceal its extension to the south. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages of hornblende and biotite from Jurassic and Early Cretaceous plutons in the accreted terranes are highly discordant within about 10 km of the WISZ, exhibiting patterns of thermal loss caused by deformation, subsequent batholith intrusion, and rapid rise of the continental margin. Major crustal movements within the WISZ commenced after about 135 Ma, but much of the displacement may have been largely vertical, during and following emplacement of batholith-scale silicic magmas. Deformation continued until at least 85 Ma and probably until 74 Ma, progressing from south to north.

  10. The sensitivity of Flemish citizens to androstenone: influence of gender, age, location and smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, K M; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; De Brabander, H F; Aluwé, M; Millet, S; Vandendriessche, F; Vanhaecke, L

    2011-07-01

    Skatole and androstenone are the main boar taint compounds. Whereas nearly everybody is sensitive to skatole, the sensitivity to androstenone is genetically determined and differs between countries. In this study the methodology for testing androstenone sensitivity was refined and applied to 1569 consumers that were approached at six shopping malls in Flanders. Participants were asked to smell the contents of four bottles (three were filled with water and one with androstenone solved in water) and to identify and describe the odour of the strongest smelling bottle. This test was performed twice. 45.3% of the respondents were classified as sensitive to androstenone (i.e. the percentage of participants that identified the correct bottle in both tests minus a guess correction). Sensitivity differed between sexes (men: 38.3%-women: 51.1%, P<0.001), according to age (older people were less sensitive, P<0.001), and between the test locations (P<0.001), but not between smokers versus non-smokers.

  11. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  12. Location, age, and rock type of volcanic rocks younger than 5 million years in Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J. Jr.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-04-01

    As part of the assessment of the Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy potential of Arizona and New Mexico, a compilation of the locations and ages of volcanic rocks less than 5 Myr was made. The locations of those rocks less than 3 Myr are shown on a map of the region. Because the compiled information has many uses in addition to geothermal exploration, the entire compilation is presented as a tabulation. The table is organized first by state and secondly by latitude and longitude within each state. Rock type, age and error, method of dating, and original reference are also given. The K-Ar dates have not been recalculated using the most recent decay constants for /sup 40/K. A few references gave only verbal descriptions of sample location; these locations were converted to approximate latitude and longitude.

  13. The effects of tumor location on diagnostic criteria for canine malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) and the markers for distinction between canine MPNSTs and canine perivascular wall tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H

    2014-07-01

    Canine malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) occur not only in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) but also in soft tissue and various organs (non-PNS). The most important diagnostic criterion is proof of peripheral nerve sheath origin. This is difficult in non-PNS MPNSTs, and its differential diagnosis is challenging. Canine perivascular wall tumors (PWTs) also commonly arise in soft tissue. Their histopathological features are quite similar to those of canine MPNSTs, making their differential diagnosis challenging. To elucidate whether the morphological features are applicable to diagnose non-PNS MPNSTs and to demonstrate useful markers for distinction between canine MPNSTs and PWTs, the authors examined 30 canine MPNSTs and 31 PWTs immunohistochemically for S100, nestin, NGFR, Olig2, claudin-1, CD57, PRX, α-SMA, desmin, and calponin. Among canine MPNSTs, the PNS tumors displayed significantly higher S100 and Olig2 expression than the non-PNS tumors. The expression levels of the other markers did not differ significantly, suggesting that the same morphological diagnostic criteria are applicable regardless of their location. The PWT cells displayed significantly weaker immunoreactivity than MPNSTs to markers used except α-SMA and desmin. Cluster analysis sorted most canine MPNSTs and PWTs into 2 distinctly different clusters, whereas 3 MPNSTs and 6 PWTs were assigned to the opposing cluster. These 3 MPNSTs were negative for almost all markers, while these 6 PWTs were positive for only neuronal markers. In particular, NGFR and Olig2 were almost negative in the rest of PWT cases. These findings suggest that NGFR and Olig2 are useful to distinguish these 2 tumors.

  14. Transformation resistance in a premature aging disorder identifies a tumor-protective function of BRD4.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Patricia; Scaffidi, Paola; Markert, Elke; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Rane, Sushil; Misteli, Tom

    2014-10-09

    Advanced age and DNA damage accumulation are prominent risk factors for cancer. The premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) provides a unique opportunity for studying the interplay between DNA damage and aging-associated tumor mechanisms, given that HGPS patients do not develop tumors despite elevated levels of DNA damage. Here, we have used HGPS patient cells to identify a protective mechanism to oncogenesis. We find that HGPS cells are resistant to neoplastic transformation. Resistance is mediated by the bromodomain protein BRD4, which exhibits altered genome-wide binding patterns in transformation-resistant cells, leading to inhibition of oncogenic dedifferentiation. BRD4 also inhibits, albeit to a lower extent, the tumorigenic potential of transformed cells from healthy individuals. BRD4-mediated tumor protection is clinically relevant given that a BRD4 gene signature predicts positive clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer. Our results demonstrate a protective function for BRD4 and suggest tissue-specific roles for BRD4 in tumorigenesis.

  15. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) and less than 33 gestational weeks (GW) with term-born children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born < 26 GW; 49 born 26-33 GW) and 126 term-born. Six measures were obtained: naming, trials-to-criterion, errors-to-criterion, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention. After age correction, ELBW children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (< 26 GW and 26-33 GW) groups performed worse than term-born children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (< 26 GW) and ELBW are significant risk factors for spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  16. MUC1 Positive, Kras and Pten Driven Mouse Gynecologic Tumors Replicate Human Tumors and Vary in Survival and Nuclear Grade Based on Anatomical Location

    PubMed Central

    Elishaev, Esther; Zhang, Lixin; Mony, Jyothi T.; Brozick, Joan; Edwards, Robert P.; Vlad, Anda M.

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations of Kras oncogene and deletions of Pten tumor suppressor gene play important roles in cancers of the female genital tract. We developed here new preclinical models for gynecologic cancers, using conditional (Cre-loxP) mice with floxed genetic alterations in Kras and Pten. The triple transgenic mice, briefly called MUC1KrasPten, express human MUC1 antigen as self and carry a silent oncogenic KrasG12D and Pten deletion mutation. Injection of Cre-encoding adenovirus (AdCre) in the ovarian bursa, oviduct or uterus activates the floxed mutations and initiates ovarian, oviductal, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Anatomical site-specific Cre-loxP recombination throughout the genital tract of MUC1KrasPten mice leads to MUC1 positive genital tract tumors, and the development of these tumors is influenced by the anatomical environment. Endometrioid histology was consistently displayed in all tumors of the murine genital tract (ovaries, oviducts, and uterus). Tumors showed increased expression of MUC1 glycoprotein and triggered de novo antibodies in tumor bearing hosts, mimicking the immunobiology seen in patients. In contrast to the ovarian and endometrial tumors, oviductal tumors showed higher nuclear grade. Survival for oviduct tumors was significantly lower than for endometrial tumors (p = 0.0015), yet similar to survival for ovarian cancer. Oviducts seem to favor the development of high grade tumors, providing preclinical evidence in support of the postulated role of fallopian tubes as the originating site for high grade human ovarian tumors. PMID:25078979

  17. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  18. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  19. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig....

  20. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  1. [Testosterone production by tumor tissue in partial androgen deficiency in aged men (PADAM)].

    PubMed

    Pecherskiĭ, A V; Semiglazov, V F; Komiakov, B K; Guliev, B G; Gorelov, A I; Novikov, A I; Pecherskiĭ, V I; Simonov, N N; Guliaev, A V; Samusenko, I A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was examination of cause-effect relationships between PADAM, extragonadal production of androgens and high proliferative activity in aged men. The study group included 15 patients aged between 53 and 79 years with prostatic cancer (n = 5), urinary bladder cancer (n = 5) and cancer of the rectum (n = 5). Control samples of tissues of the prostatic gland, urinary bladder and rectum were obtained from dead bodies of men at the age between 18 and 29 years killed in the accidents at the age from 18 to 29 years. Testosterone levels in the tissues of peritumor zone of the prostate, in tumor tissue of patients with cancer of the prostate, urinary bladder and the rectum were higher than in blood serum. In prostatic cancer, testosterone in the tumor tissue was higher than in the tissues of prostatic peritumor zone. The values of Histochemical score AR of the peritumor zone in prostatic cancer patients were higher than those of the control group. It was detected that ER, PR, bcl-2, Ki-67 and p53 in prostatic tissue of young controls were absent while in patients with prostatic cancer these factors were expressed in the peritumor zone. In cancer of the urinary bladder, peritumor zone showed expression of PR, bcl-2, Ki-67 and p53, while no such expression was in the controls. ER, bcl-2, Ki-67 and p53 were registered in the peritumor zone of patients with cancer of the rectum but the controls had neither ER, bcl-2 nor p53 while Ki-67 expression in rectal cancer was higher than in the controls. The results of the study suggest that testosterone production by some tumors and tissues of the peritumor zone accompanied with high proliferative activity and dysregulation of the cell cycle is secondary to PADAM. These changes arise to compensate testicular deficiency and are manifestations of metabolic syndrome (X-syndrome). In this situation immune system fails to utilize all atypical cells.

  2. Prediction of hardness minimum locations during natural aging in an aluminum alloy 6061-T6 friction stir weld

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Choo, Hahn; Feng, Zhili; Withers, Prof Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a simple model that can predict the evolution of hardness distribution as a function of natural aging time in a heat-treatable 6061-T6 Al alloy plate subjected to friction stir welding (FSW). First, two dimensional thermal distributions were simulated as a function of time in the FSW plate by finite element modeling. Second, the hardness changes during natural aging were measured as a function of aging time for a number of Al specimens that had been previously isothermally heat-treated to different hold temperatures in order to determine the natural aging kinetics. Finally, the simulated temperature profiles and the natural aging kinetics were correlated to predict the hardness profiles in the FSW plate. The predicted hardness variations are consistent with measured hardness profiles in that the location of minimum hardness moves away from the centerline as the aging time and/or heat input increases. The hardness variation was also related to the location of failure in cross-weld tensile samples.

  3. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy.

  4. Pilocarpine Seizures Cause Age-Dependent Impairment in Auditory Location Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, John C.; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this…

  5. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-03

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2.

  6. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real-time tumor tracking in external-beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study.

    PubMed

    Nankali, Saber; Esmaili Torshabi, Ahmad; Samadi Miandoab, Payam; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-08

    In external-beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation-based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two "Genetic" and "Ranker" searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F-test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation-based feature selection algorithm, in

  7. [Utilization of Werner syndrome mouse model in studying premature aging and tumor].

    PubMed

    Jia, Shu-Ting; Yang, Shi-Hua; Luo, Ying

    2009-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in human. It is considered as a good model disease in studying human premature syndrome. Werner protein (WRN) is a nuclear protein mutated in WS. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicated that WRN plays important roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reviewed the molecular genetics of WS and the importance of telomere and WRN in the development of WS. Knocking out both telomerase and Wrn genes in mouse faithfully manifests human WS. The mouse model provides a unique genetic platform to explore the crosstalk of premature aging and tumor.

  8. Association Between Shigella Infection and Diarrhea Varies Based on Location and Age of Children.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A S G; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2015-11-01

    Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case-control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24-35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3-15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3-23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD.

  9. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some throat ...

  10. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  11. A mitochondrial location for haemoglobins--dynamic distribution in ageing and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Freya; Greville-Heygate, Oliver; Marsh, Oliver; Anderson, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Haemoglobins are iron-containing proteins that transport oxygen in the blood of most vertebrates. The mitochondrion is the cellular organelle which consumes oxygen in order to synthesise ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegeneration and ageing. We find that α and β haemoglobin (Hba and Hbb) proteins are altered in their distribution in mitochondrial fractions from degenerating brain. We demonstrate that both Hba and Hbb are co-localised with the mitochondrion in mammalian brain. The precise localisation of the Hbs is within the inner membrane space and associated with inner mitochondrial membrane. Relative mitochondrial to cytoplasmic ratios of Hba and Hbb show changing distributions of these proteins during the process of neurodegeneration in the pcd(5j) mouse brain. A significant difference in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb content in the mitochondrial fraction is seen at 31 days after birth, this corresponds to a stage when dynamic neuronal loss is measured to be greatest in the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mouse. We also report changes in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb levels in ageing brain and muscle. Significant differences in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb can be seen when comparing aged brain to muscle, suggesting tissue specific functions of these proteins in the mitochondrion. In muscle there are significant differences between Hba levels in old and young mitochondria. To understand whether the changes detected in mitochondrial Hbs are of clinical significance, we examined Parkinson's disease brain, immunohistochemistry studies suggest that cell bodies in the substantia nigra accumulate mitochondrial Hb. However, western blotting of mitochondrial fractions from PD and control brains indicates significantly less Hb in PD brain mitochondria. One explanation could be a specific loss of cells containing mitochondria loaded with Hb proteins. Our study opens the door to an examination of the role of Hb function, within the context of the mitochondrion

  12. Haploinsufficiency of the Myc regulator Mtbp extends survival and delays tumor development in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Brian C.; Boyd, Kelli; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Eischen, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of specific genes can modulate aging. Myc, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of many genes involved in critical cellular functions was shown to have a role in controlling longevity. Decreased expression of Myc inhibited many of the deleterious effects of aging and increased lifespan in mice. Without altering Myc expression, reduced levels of Mtbp, a recently identified regulator of Myc, limit Myc transcriptional activity and proliferation, while increased levels promote Myc-mediated effects. To determine the contribution of Mtbp to the effects of Myc on aging, we studied a large cohort of Mtbp heterozygous mice and littermate matched wild-type controls. Mtbp haploinsufficiency significantly increased longevity and maximal survival in mice. Reduced levels of Mtbp did not alter locomotor activity, litter size, or body size, but Mtbp heterozygous mice did exhibit elevated markers of metabolism, particularly in the liver. Mtbp+/− mice also had a significant delay in spontaneous cancer development, which was most prominent in the hematopoietic system, and an altered tumor spectrum compared to Mtbp+/+ mice. Therefore, the data suggest Mtbp is a regulator of longevity in mice that mimics some, but not all, of the properties of Myc in aging. PMID:27803394

  13. Aging-associated B7-DC+ B cells enhance anti-tumor immunity via Th1 and Th17 induction.

    PubMed

    Tomihara, Kei; Shin, Takako; Hurez, Vincent J; Yagita, Hideo; Pardoll, Drew M; Zhang, Bin; Curiel, Tyler J; Shin, Tahiro

    2012-02-01

    Because most patients with cancer are aged and because immunological functions are altered during aging, it is important to account for aging-associated immunological alterations in the design of new cancer immunotherapies. We thus compared immune populations in young and aged mice and found that B7-DC(+) (PD-L2/CD273) B cells, a minor population in young mice, were significantly increased in aged mice. Induction of both Th1 and Th17 cells was significantly augmented by B7-DC(+) B cells from aged mice, and this effect was blocked with anti-B7-DC antibodies in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, retardation of tumor growth in aged mice was largely B7-DC dependent. Tumor growth in young mice was significantly inhibited by immunization with B7-DC(+) B cells from aged mice owing to increased induction of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These data indicate that B7-DC(+) B cells could play an important role in aging-associated cancer immunopathology as well as in other aging-associated diseases and further suggest that B7-DC(+) B cells have potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Preliminary location and age database for invertebrate fossils collected in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John M.; West, William B.; Malmborg, William T.; Brabb, Earl E.

    2003-01-01

    Most geologic maps published for central California in the past century have been made without the benefit of microfossils. The age of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the structurally complex sedimentary formations of the Coast Ranges is critical in determining stratigraphic succession and in determining whether the juxtapositon of similar appearing formations means that a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of sedimentary rocks. This information has been confidential, but in the past 20 years the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and much material is now available. We report here on approximately 4,700 samples, largely foraminifers, from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The information contained here can be used to update geologic maps, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, and for solving other geologic problems.

  15. MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Human Astrocytes in Relation to Anatomical Location and Age.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Ludwin, Samuel K; Fuh, Shih-Chieh; Sawaya, Robin; Moore, Craig S; Ho, Ming-Kai; Bedell, Barry J; Sarnat, Harvey B; Bar-Or, Amit; Antel, Jack P

    2016-02-01

    Anatomic distribution and age are variables linked to functions of astrocytes under physiologic and pathologic conditions. We measured the relative expression of a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in astrocytes captured by laser micro-dissection from normal human adult white and grey matter, human fetal white matter and germinal matrix samples. Although expression of most miRNAs was comparable between adult and fetal samples, regional differences were observed. In the adult cerebral cortex, expression of miRNAs in morphologically distinct inter-laminar astrocytes underlying the glial limitans differed from those in deeper cortical layers, suggesting functional specialization possibly related to structural stability and defense from potentially harmful factors in the cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between adult white and grey matter miRNA expression included higher expression of pro-inflammatory miRNAs in the former, potentially contributing to differences in inflammation between grey and white matter plaques in multiple sclerosis. Lower expression of miRNAs in fetal versus adult white matter astrocytes likely reflects the immaturity of these migrating cells. Highly expressed miRNAs in the fetal germinal matrix are probably relevant in development and also recapitulate some responses to injury. Future studies can address regional alterations of miRNA expression in pathological conditions.

  16. Frontal Bone Hemangioma in an 8-year-old Female: A Common Tumor in a Rare Location

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhimanyu; Singh, Usha Rani; Sihag, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangioma is a rare bone tumor accounting for 0.7%–1.0% of all bone tumors. In the skull, frontal bone is the commonly involved bone. An 8-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with complaints of pain and swelling over forehead for 4 months. X-ray revealed a lytic expansile lesion involving frontal bone with sunburst pattern of bony spicules radiating to periphery of the lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a well-circumscribed lesion with both intra as well as extracranial components. Histopathology revealed a vascular tumor consisting of both small (capillary) and large (cavernous) sized vessels. A diagnosis of mixed type of hemangioma of the frontal bone was given. Recognition of hemangioma on radiology and confirmation by histopathology is essential for proper management as it might be confused clinically with other locally aggressive/malignant lesions. PMID:28163515

  17. Statewide School-located Influenza Vaccination Program for Children 5–13 Years of Age, Hawaii, USA

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Carl; He, Howard; Gaynor, Kate; Sakamoto, Steve; Nagao, Marcia; Mendez, Lisa; Park, Sarah Y.

    2010-01-01

    New guidance recommends annual influenza vaccination for all children 5–18 years of age in the United States. During 2007–2008, Hawaii offered inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccine at school-located clinics for grades kindergarten through 8. Most (90%) public and private schools participated, and 622 clinics were conducted at 340 schools. Of 132,775 children 5–13 years of age, 60,760 (46%) were vaccinated. The proportion vaccinated peaked at 54% for those 6 years of age and declined for older cohorts. More than 90% of schoolchildren transited the clinic in <10 minutes. A total of 16,920 staff-hours were expended; estimated cost per dose administered was $27 and included vaccine purchase and administration, health staffing resources, printing costs, data management, and promotion. This program demonstrates the feasibility of conducting mass school-located influenza vaccination programs in public and private schools statewide, as might be indicated to respond to pandemic influenza. PMID:20113554

  18. Influence of Tumor Thrombus Location on the Outcome of External-beam Radiation Therapy in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Macrovascular Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Jiazhou; Zeng Zhaochong; Zhang Jianying; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The present study evaluates the influence of portal vein (PV) vs. inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombosis sites on the effectiveness of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 181 HCC patients with PV and/or IVC tumor thrombi who were referred for EBRT at our institution between 2000 and 2009. EBRT was designed to focus on the tumor thrombi with or without primary intrahepatic tumors to deliver a median total conventional dose of 50 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy). Predictors of survival were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median survival was 10.2, 7.4, 17.4, and 8.5 months for patients with PV branch, PV trunk, IVC, and PV plus IVC tumor thrombosis, respectively. Unfavorable pretreatment predictors were associated by multivariate analysis with lower albumin and higher {alpha}-fetoprotein levels, poorer Child-Pugh liver function classification, multiple intrahepatic foci, lymph node metastases, thrombus location, less chance to receive post-EBRT transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the two-dimensional EBRT technique. In comparison to patients with PV tumor thrombosis, patients with IVC thrombi had a higher occurrence of solitary intrahepatic lesions (p = 0.027), well-controlled intrahepatic tumors (p < 0.001), and a better response to EBRT (p < 0.001), and they were more likely to receive post-EBRT TACE (p = 0.033). Conclusions: In HCC, patients with IVC thrombus treated with EBRT had a better response rate and longer survival than those with PV thrombus.

  19. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) expression decreases with aging, acute liver injuries and tumors in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Terai, Shuji; Hirose, Yoshikazu; Takami, Taro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging. {yields} Decreased expression was observed in liver tumors as compared to the surrounding area. {yields} SMP30/RGN is important for liver proliferation and tumorigenesis. -- Abstract: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/regucalcin (RGN) is known to be related to aging, hepatocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, expression and function of non-mammalian SMP30/RGN is poorly understood. We found that zebrafish SMP30/RGN mRNA expression decreases with aging, partial hepatectomy and thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury. SMP30/RGN expression was also greatly decreased in a zebrafish liver cell line. In addition, we induced liver tumors in adult zebrafish by administering diethylnitrosamine. Decreased expression was observed in foci, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocellular carcinomas and mixed tumors as compared to the surrounding area. We thus showed the importance of SMP30/RGN in liver proliferation and tumorigenesis.

  20. Tumor Location, Interval Between Surgery and Radiotherapy, and Boost Technique Influence Local Control After Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation: Retrospective Analysis of Monoinstitutional Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Knauerhase, Hellen; Strietzel, Manfred; Gerber, Bernd; Reimer, Toralf; Fietkau, Rainer

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To obtain long-term data on local tumor control after treatment of invasive breast cancer by breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), in consideration of the interstitial high-dose-rate boost technique. Patients and Methods: A total of 263 women with 268 mammary carcinomas (International Union Against Cancer Stage I-IIB) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant RT between 1990 and 1994 were included. The potential risk factors for local recurrence-free survival were investigated. Results: During a median follow-up period of 94 months, 27 locoregional recurrences, 25 of which were in breast, were diagnosed. The cumulative rate of in-breast recurrence was 4.1% {+-} 1.4% at 5 years of follow-up and 9.9% {+-} 2.4% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis identified medial tumor location and delayed RT (defined as an interval of >2 months between surgery and the start of RT) as significant risk factors for in-breast recurrence in the overall study population. Medial tumor location vs. lateral/central location (hazard ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-5.84) resulted in a cumulative in-breast recurrence rate of 22.5% {+-} 8.3% vs. 6.9% {+-} 2.3% at 10 years. Delayed RT (hazard ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-7.13) resulted in a cumulative in-breast recurrence rate of 18.5% {+-} 6.2% vs. 6.8% {+-} 2.4% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis also showed that the risk of in-breast recurrence was lower after high-dose-rate boost therapy than after external beam boost therapy in patients with laterally/centrally located tumors (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-11.65). Conclusion: Tumor location, interval between surgery and RT, and boost technique might influence local control of breast cancer treated by breast-conserving surgery and RT.

  1. Dense and Non-dense Mammographic Area and Risk of Breast Cancer by Age and Tumor Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Scott, Christopher G.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron D.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Couch, Fergus J.; Shepherd, John; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Fan, Bo; Wu, Fang-Fang; Ma, Lin; Beck, Andrew H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor. We previously reported associations of percent MD with larger and node-positive tumors across all ages, and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative status among women ages <55 years. To provide insight into these associations, we examined the components of percent MD (dense area (DA) and non-dense area (NDA) with breast cancer subtypes. Methods Data were pooled from six studies including 4095 breast cancers and 8558 controls. DA and NDA were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms and standardized across studies. Breast cancer odds by density phenotypes and age according to histopathological characteristics and receptor status were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results DA was associated with increased breast cancer risk [odds ratios (OR) for quartiles: 0.65, 1.00(Ref), 1.22, 1.55; p-trend <0.001] and NDA was associated with decreased risk [ORs for quartiles: 1.39, 1.00(Ref), 0.88, 0.72; p-trend <0.001] across all ages and invasive tumor characteristics. There were significant trends in the magnitude of associations of both DA and NDA with breast cancer by increasing tumor size (p-trend<0.001) but no differences by nodal status. Among women <55 years, DA was more strongly associated with increased risk of ER+ vs. ER− tumors [p-heterogeneity (het) = 0.02] while NDA was more strongly associated with decreased risk of ER− vs. ER+ tumors [p-het = 0.03]. Conclusions DA and NDA have differential associations with ER+ vs. ER− tumors that vary by age. Impact DA and NDA are important to consider when developing age- and subtype-specific risk models. PMID:25716949

  2. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bo Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  3. Swiss Feline Cancer Registry 1965-2008: the Influence of Sex, Breed and Age on Tumour Types and Tumour Locations.

    PubMed

    Graf, R; Grüntzig, K; Boo, G; Hässig, M; Axhausen, K W; Fabrikant, S; Welle, M; Meier, D; Guscetti, F; Folkers, G; Otto, V; Pospischil, A

    2016-01-01

    Cancer registries are valuable sources for epidemiological research investigating risk factors underlying different types of cancer incidence. The present study is based on the Swiss Feline Cancer Registry that comprises 51,322 feline patient records, compiled between 1965 and 2008. In these records, 18,375 tumours were reported. The study analyses the influence of sex, neutering status, breed, time and age on the development of the most common tumour types and on their locations, using a multiple logistic regression model. The largest differences between breeds were found in the development of fibrosarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas, as well as in the development of tumours in the skin/subcutis and mammary gland. Differences, although often small, in sex and neutering status were observed in most analyses. Tumours were more frequent in middle-aged and older cats. The sample size allowed detailed analyses of the influence of sex, neutering status, breed and age. Results of the study are mainly consistent with previous analyses; however, some results cannot be compared with the existing literature. Further investigations are necessary, since feline tumours have not been investigated in depth to date. More accurate comparisons would require the definition of international standards for animal cancer registries.

  4. Plasma electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein reference intervals in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) and influences of age, sex, season, and location.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Byrd, John; Cray, Carolyn; Allender, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of plasma electrophoretic profiles and acute phase protein concentrations may play a valuable role in health assessment of reptiles; however, little is known about reference intervals in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals of protein electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein ([HBP] as determined by a haptoglobin assay) in free-ranging eastern box turtles and to assess any possible correlations between varying age class (adults vs. juvenile), sex (male, female, or unknown), season (spring, summer, or fall), or location (Tennessee vs. Illinois). Blood samples were obtained from 324 eastern box turtles from 2010 to 2012 at three sites in Illinois and one site in Tennessee, USA. Significant differences were observed with total protein (sex, season, state, Illinois location), albumin (age class, season, state, Illinois location), α-1 globulins (sex, season, Illinois location), α-2 globulins (sex, season, state, Illinois location), β globulins (age class, sex, season, state, Illinois location), γ globulins (sex, season state, Illinois location), and hemoglobin binding protein (age class, sex, state, Illinois location). The use of electrophoretic profiles and acute phase proteins is a relatively new concept in reptilian medicine, and this study allowed for establishment of references intervals in the eastern box turtle and emphasized differences that occured based on age, sex, season, and location. Future research in this area can now build on these data to determine changes in population health over time or alterations due to specific environmental or disease threats.

  5. Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumors: Effects on Gynecomastia, Growth Velocity, and Bone Age

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCT) present in isolation or, especially in children, in association with Carney Complex (CNC) or Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). These tumors overexpress aromatase (CYP19A1), which leads to increased conversion of delta-4-androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. Prepubertal boys may present with growth acceleration, advanced bone age, and gynecomastia. Objective: To investigate the outcomes of aromatase inhibitor therapy (AIT) in prepubertal boys with LCCSCTs. Design: Case series of a very rare tumor and chart review of cases treated at other institutions. Setting: Tertiary care and referral center. Patients: Six boys, five with PJS and one with CNC, were referred to the National Institutes of Health for treatment of LCCSCT. All patients had gynecomastia, testicular enlargement, and advanced bone ages, and were being treated by their referring physicians with AIT. Interventions: Patients were treated for a total of 6–60 months on AIT. Main Outcome Measures: Height, breast tissue mass, and testicular size were all followed; physical examination, scrotal ultrasounds, and bone ages were obtained, and hormonal concentrations and tumor markers were measured. Results: Tumor markers were negative. All patients had decreases in breast tissue while on therapy. Height percentiles declined, and predicted adult height moved closer to midparental height as bone age advancement slowed. Testicular enlargement stabilized until entry into central puberty. Only one patient required unilateral orchiectomy. Conclusions: Patients with LCCSCT benefit from AIT with reduction and/or elimination of gynecomastia and slowing of linear growth and bone age advancement. Further study of long-term outcomes and safety monitoring are needed but these preliminary data suggest that mammoplasty and/or orchiectomy may be foregone in light of the availability of medical therapy. PMID:25226294

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Polymorphisms in Advanced Non-exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein Jabbarpoor; Bonyadi, Morteza; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Fotuhi, Nikoo; Shoeibi, Nasser; Saadat, Saeed; Yagubi, Zakieh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene polymorphisms in advanced dry-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a population from Northeastern Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, 50 patients with geographic macular atrophy and 73 gender-matched controls were enrolled. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the peripheral blood. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze 2 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene, namely −1031 thymine (T)/cytosine (C) and −308 guanine (G)/adenine (A). Results: The distribution of the - 1031 T/C genotype was TT, 62%; TC, 36%; CC, 2% in the patients and TT, 60%; TC, 36%; CC, 4% in the controls (P = 0.94). Genotype analysis of TNF-α −308 also revealed no significant difference in distribution between patients (G, 78%; GA, 22%; AA, 0%) and controls (GG, 74%; GA, 23%; AA, 3%) (P = 0.51). None of the haplotypes nor alleles of studied TNF-α polymorphisms were significantly associated with advanced dry-type AMD. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene, do not play an important role in dry-type AMD in the studied population. PMID:26425318

  7. Anatomic Tumor Location Influences the Success of Contemporary Limb-Sparing Surgery and Radiation Among Adults With Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Korah, Mariam P.; Deyrup, Andrea T.; Monson, David K.; Oskouei, Shervin V.; Weiss, Sharon W.; Landry, Jerome; Godette, Karen D.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of anatomic location in the upper extremity (UE) vs. lower extremity (LE) on the presentation and outcomes of adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2008, 118 patients underwent limb-sparing surgery (LSS) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent for nonrecurrent extremity STS. RT was delivered preoperatively in 96 and postoperatively in 22 patients. Lesions arose in the UE in 28 and in the LE in 90 patients. Patients with UE lesions had smaller tumors (4.5 vs. 9.0 cm, p < 0.01), were more likely to undergo a prior excision (43 vs. 22%, p = 0.03), to have close or positive margins after resection (71 vs. 49%, p = 0.04), and to undergo postoperative RT (32 vs. 14%, p = 0.04). Results: Five-year actuarial local recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates for the entire group were 85 and 74%, with no difference observed between the UE and LE cohorts. Five-year actuarial probability of wound reoperation rates were 4 vs. 29% (p < 0.01) in the UE and LE respectively. Thigh lesions accounted for 84% of the required wound reoperations. The distribution of tumors within the anterior, medial, and posterior thigh compartments was 51%, 26%, and 23%. Subset analysis by compartment showed no difference in the probability of wound reoperation between the anterior and medial/posterior compartments (29 vs. 30%, p = 0.68). Neurolysis was performed during resection in (15%, 5%, and 67%, p < 0.01) of tumors in the anterior, medial, and posterior compartments. Conclusions: Tumors in the UE and LE differ significantly with respect to size and management details. The anatomy of the UE poses technical impediments to an R0 resection. Thigh tumors are associated with higher wound reoperation rates. Tumor resection in the posterior thigh compartment is more likely to result in nerve injury. A better understanding of the inherent differences between tumors in various extremity sites will assist in

  8. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Gastric Resection for Primary Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors >5 cm: A Size-Matched and Location-Matched Comparison.

    PubMed

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Genova, Pietro; Amiot, Aurelien; Charpy, Cecile; Disabato, Mara; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Chahrour, Ali; Legou, Francois; Azoulay, Daniel; Brunetti, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    This study compared robotic (RR) and laparoscopic resection (LR) for primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach >5 cm. Twelve consecutive patients who underwent RR from 2012 to 2015 were matched for tumor size and location with 24 patients who underwent LR from 2000 to 2012. The median tumor size was 7.1 cm (range, 5.5 to 11.5). GISTs were resected by wedge resection (91.7%) or distal gastrectomy. The median RR operative time was longer than that of LR (162.5 vs. 130 min, respectively; P=0.004). Only 1 LR patient required conversion. The time to flatus and hospital stay were similar between groups. Overall, 3 patients developed minor postoperative complications that were medically treated. Mortality was nil. All resections were R0. No difference was observed in the incidence of recurrence. RR was significantly more expensive (+21.6%) than LR. RR appears to be safe and feasible for GISTs>5 cm, but is associated with longer operative times and greater costs.

  9. A treatment-planning comparison of three beam arrangement strategies for stereotactic body radiation therapy for centrally located lung tumors using volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Okada, Wataru; Ogino, Ryo; Kubo, Kazuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Nakahara, Ryuta; Kawamorita, Ryu; Ishii, Yoshie; Tada, Takuhito; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine appropriate beam arrangement for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of patients with centrally located lung tumors. Fifteen consecutive patients with centrally located lung tumors treated at our institution were enrolled. For each patient, three VMAT plans were generated using two coplanar partial arcs (CP VMAT), two non-coplanar partial arcs (NCP VMAT), and one coplanar full arc (Full VMAT). All plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Target coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared across techniques. PTV coverage was almost identical for all approaches. The whole lung V10Gy was significantly lower with CP VMAT plans than with NCP VMAT plans, whereas no significant differences in the mean lung dose, V5Gy, V20Gy or V40Gy were observed. Full VMAT increased mean contralateral lung V5Gy by 12.57% and 9.15% when compared with NCP VMAT and CP VMAT, respectively. Although NCP VMAT plans best achieved the dose–volume constraints for mediastinal OARs, the absolute differences in dose were small when compared with CP VMAT. These results suggest that partial-arc VMAT may be preferable to minimize unnecessary exposure to the contralateral lung, and use of NCP VMAT should be considered when the dose–volume constraints are not achieved by CP VMAT. PMID:26951076

  10. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement

  11. Comparison of the social contact patterns among school-age children in specific seasons, locations, and times.

    PubMed

    Luh, Dih-Ling; You, Zhi-Shin; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-03-01

    Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. This study explored how people interact in specific seasons (flu season and non-flu season), environmental settings (city and county), and times (weekend and weekday). We conducted a survey of junior high school students (grades 7-8) using an established questionnaire during May-June 2013 and December 2013. The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the times (weekday/weekend) and stratification by location and seasons were 75, 87, 105 and 106, respectively. The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. Conversation and skin-to-skin contact behaviors were surveyed through diary-based questionnaires, of which 665 valid questionnaires were returned. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D.=12.9) and 14.6 (S.D.=9.5) people, respectively. However, statistical analysis showed that the average number of contacts in Taichung City and Yilan County were significantly different (p<0.001). Weekdays were associated with 23-28% more contacts than weekend days during both the non-flu and flu seasons (p<0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Our work has important implications for the dynamic modeling of infectious diseases and performance analysis of human contact numbers and contact characteristics for schoolchildren in specific seasons, places, and times.

  12. Feline Malignant Lymphoma: A Multiway Frequency Analysis of a Population Involving Sex, Age, Cell Type, and Tumor Location.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Feline Leukemia Virus ( FeLV ). 2𔃻 2 Since its discovery, two other viruses have come to be recognized as close relatives of FeLV . Feline cellular DNA...incidence of lymphosarcoma (leukemia) and feline leukemia virus ( FeLV ) in cats in The Netherlands (author’s travel. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 100(18):976-986, 1975. f* A’ V.- •’- : ; r - L T: ’. . . . T - T T-I T - : ...AD-A106 825 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AF8 OH F/ A6/5 FELINE MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA: A MULTIWAY

  13. Predictive Value of Stemness Factor Sox2 in Gastric Cancer Is Associated with Tumor Location and Stage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Li, Ai-Qin; Jin, Peng; Wang, Xin; He, Yu-Qi; Li, Na; Cheng, Tao; Sheng, Jian-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be the "root" of cancer. Although stemness-related factors ALDH1A1 and Sox2 have been used as markers to identify gastric CSCs, the expression pattern and significance of these factors in gastric cancer have not been sufficiently demonstrated. In this study, the expressions of ALDH1A1 and Sox2 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 122 gastric cancer specimens. And the correlation between Sox2 or ALDH1A1 expression and clinicopathological parameters and overall survival data were analyzed. The positive rate of ALDH1A1 expression was 60%, but there was no significant difference between survival rates of ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative patients. Sox2 was expressed in 42% of specimens and was associated with poor prognosis of patients (P = 0.015). Stratified analysis showed that Sox2 expression correlated with shorter lifespan only in patients with cardiac gastric cancers (P = 0.002) or stage I or II gastric cancers (P = 0.002); but not in patients with non-cardiac cancers (P = 0.556) or stage III or IV gastric cancers (P = 0.121). Analysis on a database cohort validated the correlation between Sox2 expression and poor prognosis in stage II cancer. Also, expression of Sox2 was associated with lymphnode metastasis in patients with cardiac gastric cancer (P = 0.037). A multivariate analysis revealed that Sox2 was an independent prognostic factor in cardiac gastric cancer. Our results indicate that predictive value of Sox2 in gastric cancer is associated with cardiac cancer location and with early cancer stages (I and II). PMID:28046028

  14. NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion and STAT6 immunoexpression in extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors: the association between fusion variants and locations.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Kao, Yu-Chien; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Chen, Ko-Chin; Lan, Jui; Lin, Po-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm harboring NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which drives STAT6 nuclear relocation. For extrathoracic SFTs, the clinical relevance of this molecular hallmark remains obscure. We assessed STAT6 immunoexpression for 61 extrathoracic SFTs exclusive of the meninges and head and neck, and 25 had analyzable RNAs to distinguish fusion variants by RT-PCR. The immunohistochemical and molecular findings were correlated with clincopathological features and disease-free survival (DFS). Twenty-eight males and 33 females had SFTs in the body cavities (n = 31), extremities (n = 17), and trunk (n = 13), categorized into 53 non-malignant and 8 malignant tumors. The vast majority (n = 57, 93%) exhibited distinctive STAT6 nuclear expression, including malignant ones. The common fusion variants were NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17 in 13 SFTs and NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 in 8, while miscellaneous variants were detected only in 4 SFTs in the limbs and trunk but not in any body cavity-based cases (P = 0.026). The worse DFS was univariately associated with malignant histology (P = 0.04) but unrelated to tumor size, location, or fusion variant. Conclusively, extrathoracic SFTs mostly harbor NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17, followed by NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2. Miscellaneous variants are significantly rare in SFTs within the body cavities. The clinical aggressiveness of extrathoraic SFTs is associated with malignant histology but unrelated to the NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants.

  15. PLASMA ELECTROPHORETIC PROFILES IN THE EASTERN MASSASAUGA (SISTRURUS CATENATUS) AND INFLUENCES OF AGE, SEX, YEAR, LOCATION, AND SNAKE FUNGAL DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Junge, Randall E; Baker-Wylie, Sarah; Hileman, Eric T; Faust, Lisa J; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals of the protein electrophoretic fractions and the acute-phase proteins hemoglobin binding protein (as determined by the haptoglobin assay) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and assess any possible correlations between varying age class, sex, location (Illinois or Michigan), year, or presence of snake fungal disease (SFD). Banked plasma samples were assayed from 130 eastern massasaugas from 2009 to 2014 in Illinois and Michigan. Snakes from Michigan had higher total protein (mean: 5.50 g/dl), albumin/globulin ratio (0.42), albumin (1.59 g/dl), and gamma globulins (0.55 g/dl) than from snakes in Illinois (4.72 g/dl, 0.29, 1.03 g/dl, 0.38 g/dl, respectively). Snakes in Illinois (22.19 g/ml) had higher CRP than snakes in Michigan (10.89 mg/ml). Adults had higher gamma globulins (0.47 g/dl) than juveniles (0.28 g/dl). Males had higher alpha-2 globulins (0.98 g/dl) and CRP (21.4 mg/ml) than females (0.85, 11.6, respectively). There were no significant differences in absolute plasma proteins in SFD-positive snakes, but the percentage of gamma globulins was significantly higher in positive snakes. Future research in this area can now build on this data to determine changes in population health over time or due to specific environmental or disease threats.

  16. Mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported.

  17. LIDAR-based coastal landscape reconstruction and harbour location: The Viking-age royal burial site of Borre (Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Doneus, Michael; Gansum, Terje

    2013-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has found wide application in archaeological research for the detection and documentation of archaeological and palaeo-environmental features. In this study we demonstrate the analysis of an LIDAR derived 1x1 m digital elevation model (DTM) combined with geoarchaeological research of the coastal Viking-age burial site in Borre, Olso Fjord (Norway). Borre is an exceptional burial site in Scandinavia, containing burial mounds up to 40 m in diameter and 6 m height, mentioned in Nordic Sagas, especially in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal, as the burial place of one or two kings of the Ynglinga dynasty. Archaeological findings and radiocarbon ages indicate that the Borre burial ground had been in use broadly between 600-1000 AD. Despite the reasonable expectation that a coastal site connected with the Viking kings of Vestfold, with hall buildings and ship graves demands a harbour, up to now no harbour has not been found with traditional archaeological surveys. Since the area of Borre is affected by a continuous land uplift related to glacial rebound of Scandinavia, any former harbour site is expected to be exposed to the land surface today. The present day vertical crustal uplift is calculated around 2.5 mm/yr in the area of Borre. Burial mounds and surrounding borrow pits as well as geomorphological features of the uplifted coast of Borre have been analysed by the 1x1 m LIDAR-DTM, using hillshade, slope and local relief model for visualisation. Altogether, 41 burial mounds and further 6 potential mounds are visible in the high-resolution DTM. A succession of more than 14 beach ridges, cross-cut by the burial mounds, is visible from the present shore line up to 18 m asl. They are more or less parallel and similar in size, except between at ca. 4-6 m asl, where the most prominent ridge is located, which probably has been enforced artificially. Using published shoreline displacement curves from nearby areas, the shore-line at

  18. Central nervous system tumors in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    De la Torre Mondragón, L; Ridaura Sanz, C; Reyes Mujica, M; Rueda Franco, F

    1993-08-01

    Five hundred and seventy primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors from the Department of Pathology at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City, collected from 1970 to 1989, were histologically reclassified in order to find out their relative incidence as well as their outstanding features. With this, we could establish a frame of reference for our local population, contributing to the epidemiological analysis of these entities. All the tumors were examined independently by two pathologists (C.R. and M.R.), using the classification of Rorke et al. Histological type, patient age and sex, and tumor location were analyzed. CNS tumors were the secondmost frequently encountered solid tumors, after lymphomas, and were increasing in incidence at a rate of 2.2 annually. Children in the age group 0-9 years were most often affected, and there was a predominance of male patients. Astrocytoma and medulloblastoma were the most common tumor types. The infratentorial region was the most frequent tumor location in the 2- to 9-year age group. By contrast, in the under 2-year-olds a supratentorial location was more frequent, and the incidence of germ cell tumors was proportionally high. In general, some histological types seemed to be associated with particular age groups. Although we found primitive neuroectodermal tumors to be the fifth most common at all ages (except for medulloblastoma), many other authors do not report a similar finding.

  19. MDL-1, a growth- and tumor-suppressor, slows aging and prevents germline hyperplasia and hypertrophy in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Michèle; Feyst, Inna; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Ezcurra, Marina; Tullet, Jennifer M A; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Au, Catherine; Gilliat, Ann F; Hellberg, Josephine; Thornton, Janet M; Gems, David

    2014-02-01

    In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. Here we describe the role of mdl-1 in C. elegans germline proliferation and aging. The deletion allele mdl-1(tm311) shortened lifespan, and did so significantly more so in long-lived daf-2 mutants implying that mdl-1(+) contributes to effects of daf-2 on lifespan. mdl-1 mutant hermaphrodites also lay increased numbers of unfertilized oocytes. During aging, unfertilized oocytes in the uterus develop into tumors, whose development was accelerated by mdl-1(tm311). Opposite phenotypes were seen in daf-2 mutants, i.e. mdl-1 and daf-2 mutant germlines are hyperplastic and hypoplastic, respectively. Thus, MDL-1, like its mammalian orthologs, is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and growth that slows progression of an age-related pathology in C. elegans (uterine tumors). In addition, intestine-limited rescue of mdl-1 increased lifespan but not to wild type levels. Thus, mdl-1 likely acts both in the intestine and the germline to influence age-related mortality.

  20. MDL-1, a growth- and tumor-suppressor, slows aging and prevents germline hyperplasia and hypertrophy in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Riesen, Michèle; Feyst, Inna; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Ezcurra, Marina; Tullet, Jennifer M.A.; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Au, Catherine; Gilliat, Ann F.; Hellberg, Josephine; Thornton, Janet M.; Gems, David

    2014-01-01

    In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. Here we describe the role of mdl-1 in C. elegans germline proliferation and aging. The deletion allele mdl-1(tm311) shortened lifespan, and did so significantly more so in long-lived daf-2 mutants implying that mdl-1(+) contributes to effects of daf-2 on lifespan. mdl-1 mutant hermaphrodites also lay increased numbers of unfertilized oocytes. During aging, unfertilized oocytes in the uterus develop into tumors, whose development was accelerated by mdl-1(tm311). Opposite phenotypes were seen in daf-2 mutants, i.e. mdl-1 and daf-2 mutant germlines are hyperplastic and hypoplastic, respectively. Thus, MDL-1, like its mammalian orthologs, is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and growth that slows progression of an age-related pathology in C. elegans (uterine tumors). In addition, intestine-limited rescue of mdl-1 increased lifespan but not to wild type levels. Thus, mdl-1 likely acts both in the intestine and the germline to influence age-related mortality. PMID:24531613

  1. Comparison study of the partial-breast irradiation techniques: Dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, electron beam therapy, and helical tomotherapy depending on various tumor locations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Joo; Park, So-Hyun; Son, Seok-Hyun; Cheon, Keum-Seong; Choi, Byung-Ock; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2013-10-01

    The partial-breast irradiation (PBI) technique, an alternative to whole-breast irradiation, is a beam delivery method that uses a limited range of treatment volume. The present study was designed to determine the optimal PBI treatment modalities for 8 different tumor locations. Treatment planning was performed on computed tomography (CT) data sets of 6 patients who had received lumpectomy treatments. Tumor locations were classified into 8 subsections according to breast quadrant and depth. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), electron beam therapy (ET), and helical tomotherapy (H-TOMO) were utilized to evaluate the dosimetric effect for each tumor location. Conformation number (CN), radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and dose delivered to healthy tissue were estimated. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis. The ET approach showed good sparing effects and acceptable target coverage for the lower inner quadrant—superficial (LIQ-S) and lower inner quadrant—deep (LIQ-D) locations. The H-TOMO method was the least effective technique as no evaluation index achieved superiority for all tumor locations except CN. The ET method is advisable for treating LIQ-S and LIQ-D tumors, as opposed to 3D-CRT or H-TOMO, because of acceptable target coverage and much lower dose applied to surrounding tissue.

  2. Comparison study of the partial-breast irradiation techniques: dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, electron beam therapy, and helical tomotherapy depending on various tumor locations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Joo; Park, So-Hyun; Son, Seok-Hyun; Cheon, Keum-Seong; Choi, Byung-Ock; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2013-01-01

    The partial-breast irradiation (PBI) technique, an alternative to whole-breast irradiation, is a beam delivery method that uses a limited range of treatment volume. The present study was designed to determine the optimal PBI treatment modalities for 8 different tumor locations. Treatment planning was performed on computed tomography (CT) data sets of 6 patients who had received lumpectomy treatments. Tumor locations were classified into 8 subsections according to breast quadrant and depth. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), electron beam therapy (ET), and helical tomotherapy (H-TOMO) were utilized to evaluate the dosimetric effect for each tumor location. Conformation number (CN), radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and dose delivered to healthy tissue were estimated. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis. The ET approach showed good sparing effects and acceptable target coverage for the lower inner quadrant-superficial (LIQ-S) and lower inner quadrant-deep (LIQ-D) locations. The H-TOMO method was the least effective technique as no evaluation index achieved superiority for all tumor locations except CN. The ET method is advisable for treating LIQ-S and LIQ-D tumors, as opposed to 3D-CRT or H-TOMO, because of acceptable target coverage and much lower dose applied to surrounding tissue.

  3. Up-regulating telomerase and tumor suppressors: focusing on anti-aging interventions at the population level.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bertoldi, Daniel; Larangeira, Martin; Wagner, Mônica Silveira

    2014-02-01

    Most human populations are undergoing a demographic transition regarding their age structure. This transition is reflected in chronic non-communicable diseases featuring among the main contributors to burden of disease. Considering that the aging process is a major risk factor for such conditions, understanding the mechanisms underlying aging and age-related diseases is critical to develop strategies to impact human health at population and/or individual-levels. Two different aspects of aging process (namely, telomere shortening and DNA damage accumulation) were shown to interact in positively impacting mice median survival. However, strategies aimed at translating such knowledge into actual human health benefits have not yet been discussed. In this manuscript, we present potential exposures that are suited for population-level interventions, and contextualize the roles of population (based on behavioral exposures) and individual-level (based on small-molecule administration) anti-aging interventions in different levels of disease prevention. We suggest that exposures such as moderate wine consumption, reducing calorie intake and active lifestyle are potentially useful for primordial and primary prevention, while small-molecules that activate telomerase and/or tumor suppression responses are more suited for secondary and tertiary prevention (although important for primary prevention in specific population subgroups). We also indicate the need of studying the impacts, on aging and age-related diseases, of different combinations of these exposures in well-conducted randomized controlled trials, and propose Mendelian randomization as a valuable alternative to gather information in human populations regarding the effects of potential anti-aging interventions.

  4. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  5. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-02-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of /sup 35/S-labeled NaSO/sub 4/ into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage.

  6. Effect of extended postmortem aging and steak location on myofibrillar protein degradation and Warner-Bratzler shear force of beef M. semitendinosus steaks.

    PubMed

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Silva, M B; Miranda, L D F; Ebarb, S M; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; O'Quinn, T G; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of steak location and postmortem aging on cooked meat tenderness and myofibrillar protein degradation of steaks from M. semitendinosus (ST). Following harvest and a 6 d chill period, the left ST was removed from carcasses of crossbred feedlot steers ( = 60, average hot carcass weight 427 ± 24 kg). Each ST was fabricated into ten 2.54-cm thick steaks originating from the proximal to distal end of the muscle. Steaks cut adjacent to each other were paired, vacuum packaged, and randomly assigned to 7, 14, 21, 42, or 70 d of aging at 2 ± 1°C. After aging, within each steak pair, steaks were randomly assigned to Warner-Bratzler shear force or myofibrillar proteolysis analysis (calpain activity and desmin and troponin-T degradation). Muscle fiber type and size were also determined at the 2 ends of the muscle. There was no location × d of aging interaction ( = 0.25) for ST steak WBSF. Steak location affected (quadratic, < 0.01) WBSF. As steaks were fabricated from the proximal to distal end, WBSF values decreased toward the middle of the muscle and then increased toward the distal end. Activity of all calpains and myofibrillar protein proteolysis were unaffected by steak location ( > 0.13). Type I, IIA, and IIX muscle fibers were larger at the proximal end of the muscle than the distal end ( < 0.01). Increasing d of aging improved WBSF (quadratic, < 0.01) for the duration of the 70 d postmortem period. As d of aging increased, intact calpain-1 activity decreased (quadratic, < 0.01) with activity detected through 42 d. Day of aging affected autolyzed calpain-1 (linear, < 0.01) and calpain-2 activity (quadratic, < 0.01). Through d 70 of aging, the intensity of intact 55 kDa desmin band decreased (linear, < 0.01), while there was an increase (linear, < 0.01) in the degraded 38 kDa band. Similarly, d of aging increased troponin-T proteolysis, indicated by a decrease (quadratic, < 0.01) in intensity of the intact 40 k

  7. Constraining Age and Locations of Active and Paleofluid Flow Systems in Dixie Valley, Nevada, with Apatite (U-Th)/He Thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNamee, A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first constraints on transient fluid flow using the novel application of apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry (AHe) in the geothermally active Dixie Valley area of central Nevada, western United States. The valley is bound to the west by a high angle normal fault, along which the adjacent Stillwater Range has been recently exhumed in the footwall. Zones of elevated shallow geothermal gradients (geothermal anomalies) occur in dilational corners along the range front and therefore make Dixie Valley an ideal site to test the sensitivity of the AHe thermochonometer to fluid flow in the shallow crust. Apatites yield (U-Th)/He ages ca. 0.2-16 Ma and three elevation transects record advective cooling of the footwall during exhumation commencing at 3-5 Ma. Many AHe ages are significantly younger (<4 Ma) and do not overlap exhumational cooling ages within error. Consequently, the younger AHe ages are distinguishable as hydrothermally reset and demonstrate the ability of this method to resolve conductive cooling ages from overprinted, fluid-reheated cooling ages. Interpolation of AHe ages shows that the youngest ages correspond with remarkable accuracy to the spatial extents of previously mapped geothermal anomalies. The capability of the AHe thermochronometer to constrain the timing and location of paleofluid flow recommends this technique as a powerful and cost-effective tool in geothermal exploration and petroleum systems evaluations.

  8. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that

  9. Cognitive Outcome following Unilateral Arterial Ischaemic Stroke in Childhood: Effects of Age at Stroke and Lesion Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmacott, Robyn; Askalan, Rand; MacGregor, Daune; Anderson, Peter; deVeber, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Plasticity in the developing brain is a controversial issue. Although language and motor function often recover remarkably well following early brain injury, recent evidence suggests that damage to the developing brain results in significant long-term neuropsychological impairment. Our aim was to investigate the relationship among age at…

  10. IMMMUNOPHENOTYPE OF SPONTANEOUS HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS OCCURRING IN YOUNG AND AGING FEMALE CD-1 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Rehg, Jerold E.; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not be published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in young female CD-1 mice used as health monitoring sentinels and aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80 wk carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice 12 mo or less of age, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic T-cell lymphomas were common in mice > 12 mo old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic MuLV genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of MuLV protein by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods. PMID:26224701

  11. Age- and location-dependent differences in store depletion-induced h-channel plasticity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Ann M; Johnston, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Disruptions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) homeostasis are heavily linked to neuronal pathology. Depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores can result in cellular dysfunction and potentially cell death, although adaptive processes exist to aid in survival. We examined the age and region dependence of one postulated, adaptive response to ER store-depletion (SD), hyperpolarization-activated cation-nonspecific (h)-channel plasticity in neurons of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (DHC and VHC, respectively) from adolescent and adult rats. With the use of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the soma and dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, we observed a change in h-sensitive measurements in response to SD, induced by treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, a sarcoplasmic reticulum/ER Ca(2+)-ATPase blocker. We found that whereas DHC and VHC neurons in adolescent animals respond to SD with a perisomatic expression of SD h plasticity, adult animals express SD h plasticity with a dendritic and somatodendritic locus of plasticity in DHC and VHC neurons, respectively. Furthermore, SD h plasticity in adults was dependent on membrane potential and on the activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that cellular responses to the impairment of ER function, or ER stress, are dependent on brain region and age and that the differential expression of SD h plasticity could provide a neural basis for region- and age-dependent disease vulnerabilities.

  12. Is cancer a metabolic rebellion against host aging? In the quest for immortality, tumor cells try to save themselves by boosting mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ertel, Adam; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Birbe, Ruth C; Pavlides, Stephanos; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-01-15

    Aging drives large systemic reductions in oxidative mitochondrial function, shifting the entire body metabolically towards aerobic glycolysis, a.k.a, the Warburg effect. Aging is also one of the most significant risk factors for the development of human cancers, including breast tumors. How are these two findings connected? One simplistic idea is that cancer cells rebel against the aging process by increasing their capacity for oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). Then, local and systemic aerobic glycolysis in the aging host would provide energy-rich mitochondrial fuels (such as L-lactate and ketones) to directly "fuel" tumor cell growth and metastasis. This would establish a type of parasite-host relationship or "two-compartment tumor metabolism", with glycolytic/oxidative metabolic-coupling. The cancer cells ("the seeds") would flourish in this nutrient-rich microenvironment ("the soil"), which has been fertilized by host aging. In this scenario, cancer cells are only trying to save themselves from the consequences of aging, by engineering a metabolic mutiny, through the amplification of mitochondrial metabolism. We discuss the recent findings of Drs. Ron DePinho (MD Anderson) and Craig Thomspson (Sloan-Kettering) that are also consistent with this new hypothesis, linking cancer progression with metabolic aging. Using data mining and bioinformatics approaches, we also provide key evidence of a role for PGC1a/NRF1 signaling in the pathogenesis of (1) two-compartment tumor metabolism, and (2) mitochondrial biogenesis in human breast cancer cells.

  13. Age-related macular degeneration phenotypes are associated with increased tumor necrosis-alpha and subretinal immune cells in aged Cxcr5 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Lei; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The role of chemokine receptor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains elusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of chemokine receptor Cxcr5 in the pathogenesis of AMD. Cxcr5 gene expression levels (mRNA and protein) are higher in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of aged C57BL/6 wild type mice than younger ones. Vascular and glial cells express Cxcr5 and its ligand Cxcl13 in mouse retina. Aged Cxcr5 knockout (-/-) mice develop both early and late AMD-like pathological features. White and yellow spots, which look like drusen in humans, were identified with fundscopic examination. Drusen-like sub-RPE deposits with dome-shaped morphology were characterized on the sections. RPE vacuolization, swelling, and sub-RPE basal deposits were illustrated with light and transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM further illustrated degenerated and disorganized RPE basal infoldings, phagosomes and melanosomes inside RPE, as well as abnormal photoreceptor outer segments. Lipofuscin granules and lipid droplets in the subretinal space, RPE, and choroid were revealed with fluorescence microscope and oil-red-O staining. Increased IgG in RPE/choroid were determined with Western blots (WB). WB and immunofluorescence staining determined RPE zona occuldens (ZO)-1 protein reduction and abnormal subcellular localization. TUNEL staining, outer nuclear layer (ONL) measurement and electroretinogram (ERG) recording indicated that photoreceptors underwent apoptosis, degeneration, and functional impairment. Additionally, spontaneous neovascularization (NV)-like lesions develop in the subretinal space of aged Cxcr5-/- mice. The underlying mechanisms are associated with increased subretinal F4/80+ immune cells, some of which contain RPE marker RPE65, and up-regulation of the multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in RPE/choroid and retina. These findings suggest that Cxcr5 itself may be involved in the protection of RPE and

  14. Age-related macular degeneration phenotypes are associated with increased tumor necrosis-alpha and subretinal immune cells in aged Cxcr5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Lei; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The role of chemokine receptor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains elusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of chemokine receptor Cxcr5 in the pathogenesis of AMD. Cxcr5 gene expression levels (mRNA and protein) are higher in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of aged C57BL/6 wild type mice than younger ones. Vascular and glial cells express Cxcr5 and its ligand Cxcl13 in mouse retina. Aged Cxcr5 knockout (-/-) mice develop both early and late AMD-like pathological features. White and yellow spots, which look like drusen in humans, were identified with fundscopic examination. Drusen-like sub-RPE deposits with dome-shaped morphology were characterized on the sections. RPE vacuolization, swelling, and sub-RPE basal deposits were illustrated with light and transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM further illustrated degenerated and disorganized RPE basal infoldings, phagosomes and melanosomes inside RPE, as well as abnormal photoreceptor outer segments. Lipofuscin granules and lipid droplets in the subretinal space, RPE, and choroid were revealed with fluorescence microscope and oil-red-O staining. Increased IgG in RPE/choroid were determined with Western blots (WB). WB and immunofluorescence staining determined RPE zona occuldens (ZO)-1 protein reduction and abnormal subcellular localization. TUNEL staining, outer nuclear layer (ONL) measurement and electroretinogram (ERG) recording indicated that photoreceptors underwent apoptosis, degeneration, and functional impairment. Additionally, spontaneous neovascularization (NV)-like lesions develop in the subretinal space of aged Cxcr5-/- mice. The underlying mechanisms are associated with increased subretinal F4/80+ immune cells, some of which contain RPE marker RPE65, and up-regulation of the multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in RPE/choroid and retina. These findings suggest that Cxcr5 itself may be involved in the protection of RPE and

  15. The Anti-Aging and Tumor Suppressor Protein Klotho Enhances Differentiation of a Human Oligodendrocytic Hybrid Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ci-Di; Liang, Jennifer; Hixson, Kathryn; Zeldich, Ella; Abraham, Carmela R.

    2016-01-01

    Klotho functions as an aging suppressor, which, in mice, extends lifespan when overexpressed and accelerates development of aging-like phenotypes when disrupted. Klotho is mainly expressed in brain and kidney and is secreted into the serum and CSF. We have previously shown that Klotho is reduced in brains of old monkeys, rats, and mice. We further reported the ability of Klotho to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Here, we examined the signaling pathways induced by Klotho in MO3.13, a human oligodendrocytic hybrid cell line. We show that exogenous Klotho affects the ERK and Akt signaling pathways, decreases the proliferative abilities and enhances differentiation of MO3.13 cells. Furthermore, microarray analysis of Klotho-treated MO3.13 cells reveals a massive change in gene expression with 80 % of the differentially expressed genes being downregulated. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we predicted potential transcription factors involved in regulating Klotho-treated MO3.13 cells and found that these cells are highly enriched in the gene sets, that are similarly observed in cancer, cardiovascular disease, stress, aging, and hormone-related chemical and genetic perturbations. Since Klotho is downregulated in all brain tumors tested to date, enhancing Klotho has therapeutic potential for treating brain and other malignancies. PMID:24907942

  16. Breastfeeding and nutrition to 2 years of age and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Bailey, Helen D; Miller, Margaret; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Downie, Peter; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and childhood brain tumors (CBT) are 2 of the most common forms of childhood cancer, but little is known of their etiology. In 2 nationwide case-control studies we investigated whether breastfeeding, age of food introduction, or early diet are associated with the risk of these cancers. Cases aged 0-14 years were identified from Australian pediatric oncology units between 2003 and 2007 (ALL) and 2005 and 2010 (CBT) and population-based controls through nationwide random-digit dialing. Mothers completed questionnaires giving details of infant feeding up to the age of 2 yr. Data from 322 ALL cases, 679 ALL controls, 299 CBT cases, and 733 CBT controls were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of ALL [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.84), regardless of duration. Introduction of artificial formula within 14 days of birth was positively associated with ALL (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.37), as was exclusive formula feeding to 6 mo (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.05). No associations were seen between breastfeeding or formula use and risk of CBT. Our results suggest that breastfeeding and delayed introduction of artificial formula may reduce the risk of ALL but not CBT.

  17. Changes in sex and non-sex hormones and distribution of erythrocyte antigens in reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus in Adjara.

    PubMed

    Nakashidze, I; Kotrikadze, N; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M; Ramishvili, L

    2013-04-01

    The aim the research was to study the hormonal state of reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus. The quantitative changes of sex steroid hormones: progesterone (P), estradiol (E), testosterone (T), gonadotropine -Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were investigated. Distribution of ABO blood group antigens and Rh-Hr systems genetic variants in the blood of women living in Adjara Region was also studied. For study was used reproductive age women's blood with benign (fibromioma) and malignant (endometrial cancer) tumors of body of uterus (the middle age was 20-45 years). The determination of hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA). For the research of blood groups, were used the immunoserologic methods. The study have revealed that in blood of reproductive age women with benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus, level of estradiol was increased while levels of progesterone and testosterone were sharply reduced. Amount of Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone were also increased. It's significant that, both hormones were sharply increased in case of cancer of body of uterus, in comparison with control group and benign tumor. According to distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes - O (I) phenotypic group of ABO system has its highest frequency in blood of women with cancer of body of uterus. Cancer of body of uterus is associated with O (I) phenotypic groups; benign tumor of body of uterus - with A(II) and AB(IV) phenotypic groups. Women with cc and EE genetic variants of Rh-Hr system have sensitivity to the development of benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus; women with ee genetic variant have lower sensitivity towards body of uterus cancer and sharply expressed sensitivity to uterus benign tumors. In women with malignant tumors of body of uterus the frequency of distribution of Rh-Hr system CC genetic variant was sharply reduced.

  18. Age-Dependency of Location of Epileptic Foci in "Continuous Spike-and-Waves during Sleep": A Parallel to the Posterior-Anterior Trajectory of Slow Wave Activity.

    PubMed

    Heinzle, Bigna Katrin Bölsterli; Bast, Thomas; Critelli, Hanne; Huber, Reto; Schmitt, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Background Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep (CSWS) occurs during childhood and is characterized by an activation of spike wave complexes during slow wave sleep. The location of epileptic foci is variable, as is etiology. A relationship between the epileptic focus and age has been shown in various focal epilepsies following a posterior-anterior trajectory, and a link to brain maturation has been proposed.We hypothesize that in CSWS, maximal spike wave activity, corresponding to the epileptic focus, is related to age and shows a posterior-anterior evolution. Findings In a retrospective cross-sectional study on CSWS (22 EEGs of 22 patients aged 3.1-13.5 years), the location of the epileptic focus is related to age and follows a posterior-anterior course. Younger patients are more likely to have posterior foci than older ones. Conclusions We propose that the posterior-anterior trajectory of maximal spike waves in CSWS might reflect maturational changes of maximal expression of sleep slow waves, which follow a comparable course. Epileptic spike waves, that is, "hyper-synchronized slow waves" may occur at the place where the highest and therefore most synchronized slow waves meet brain tissue with an increased susceptibility to synchronization.

  19. Causal Therapy of Breast Cancer Irrelevant of Age, Tumor Stage and 
ER-Status: Stimulation of Estrogen Signaling Coupled With Breast 
Conserving Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Results of long-term studies justify that the rate of breast cancer recurrence and tumor-related mortality remains quite unpredictable, regardless of the use of any current therapeutic measures. Objective Since the application of standard therapies, such as surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and antiestrogen administration does not work as might be expected; our therapeutic practice requires thorough rethinking. Method Published long-term therapeutic results on breast cancer cases were analyzed in correlation with stage at diagnosis, ER-status of tumors and patients’ age. The effectiveness of current therapeutic measures was also compared by estimating the rate of tumor-free survival, breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer-specific mortality. Results Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer at an early stage cannot improve the rate of tumor-free survival. Poor differentiation of tumors, ER-negativity in particular, defines poor prognosis even after applying aggressive therapies. In patients treated with in situ breast cancer, the recurrence-rate of invasive tumor increased directly with ageing irrespective of tumor size or ER-status at diagnosis. Women who underwent lumpectomy without adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy exhibited significantly better overall and breast cancer specific survival rates than those receiving mastectomy, regardless of stage and ER-status of tumors. Antiestrogen treatment exhibited unforeseeable effectiveness even on targeted ER-positive tumors. Recent patents propose the detection of ESR1-gene amplification or restoration of ER-alpha expression for prediction of effective antiestrogen treatment, suggesting a crucial inhibitory role of estrogen-signaling against tumor-growth. Conclusion Estradiol-induced upregulation of estrogen signaling coupled with sparing of the estrogen-rich mammary fatpad are the most effective strategies against breast cancer. PMID:27087654

  20. Slaughter plant location, USDA quality grade, external fat thickness, and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef loin strip steak.

    PubMed

    Miller, M F; Kerth, C R; Wise, J W; Lansdell, J L; Stowell, J E; Ramsey, C B

    1997-03-01

    A boneless beef strip loin (IMPS #180) was fabricated from each of 320 carcasses to study the effects of slaughter plant location, quality grade, fat thickness, and aging time on beef tenderness and palatability. Carcasses were selected for fat thickness (< .5 cm or > or = .5 cm fat thickness) and USDA quality grade (Select or Low Choice) from two slaughter facilities (IBP, Inc., Garden City, KS or Excel Inc., Plainview, TX), and the strips were aged for either 7 or 14 d. Aging steaks 14 d improved all sensory traits and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values regardless of all other main effects (P < .05). Steaks from Choice carcasses that were processed in Kansas had higher initial and sustained tenderness ratings than steaks from carcasses that were processed in Texas or Select steaks from Kansas after 7 d of aging (P < .05). However, aging for 14 d removed differences from all sensory characteristics of steaks from Kansas and Texas. All sensory scores for steaks from carcasses that graded Choice were higher than those from carcasses that graded Select (P < .05). The USDA quality grade did not affect WBS values, and fat thickness did not affect sensory characteristics or WBS values (P > .05). Therefore, aging beef strip loin steaks for 14 compared with 7 d improved sensory score and decreased WBS values, but fat thickness had no effect on the palatability of loin strip steaks processed under these conditions.

  1. High-dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Saudi Children Less Than 3 Years of Age With Embryonal Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Musa; Al-Dandan, Sadeq; Bayoumi, Yasser; Alharbi, Talal; Alsudairy, Reem; Alomari, Ali; Aljamaan, Khalid; Musleh, Othman; Alharbi, Qasim; Jarrar, Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDC/ASCR) has been used in children under the age of 3 years with embryonal brain tumors to avoid or delay the use of radiation. We reviewed the medical records of 10 Saudi children less than 3 years of age with embryonal brain tumors who underwent HDC/ASCR. All 10 patients underwent surgical resection followed by 3 to 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and 1 to 3 cycles of HDC/ASCR using carboplatin and thiotepa. Isotretinoin was used as a maintenance therapy in 4 patients. Five patients had medulloblastoma, 3 had atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, 1 had an embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes, and 1 had pineoblastoma. The median age of the patients was 1.9 years. A total of 19 HDC/ASCR procedures were performed. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered to 5 patients after HDC/ASCR and as a salvage therapy in 1 patient. The progression-free survival rate was 50% at 1 year and at 2 years, with a median follow-up of 24 months. All 5 patients with medulloblastoma are still alive without evidence of disease, but the other patients died secondary to tumor progression. This experience suggests that strategies combining myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue appear to be feasible for children with embryonal brain tumors in the Middle East.

  2. SU-E-J-55: Dosimetric Evaluation of Centrally Located Lung Tumors: A Monte Carlo (MC) Study of Lung SBRT Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Estes, C; Park, J; Kumar, P; Wang, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions calculated using the iPlan XVMC algorithm and heterogeneities corrected/uncorrected Pencil Beam (PB-hete/PB-homo) algorithms for SBRT treatments of lung tumors. Methods: Ten patients with centrally located solitary lung tumors were treated using MC-based SBRT to 60Gy in 5 fractions for PTVV100%=95%. ITV was delineated on MIP-images based on 4D-CT scans. PTVs(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 10.1–106.5cc(mean=48.6cc). MC-SBRT plans were generated with a combination of non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan-XVMC-algorithm (BrainLABiPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX consisting of HD-MLCs and 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) mode, following RTOG 0813 dosimetric criteria. For comparison, PB-hete/PB-homo algorithms were used to re-calculate dose distributions using same beam configurations, MLCs/monitor units. Plans were evaluated with isocenter/maximal/mean doses to PTV. Normal lung doses were evaluated with V5/V10/V20 and mean-lung-dose(MLD), excluding PTV. Other OAR doses such as maximal spinal cord/2cc-esophagus/max bronchial tree (BT/maximal heart doses were tabulated. Results: Maximal/mean/isocenter doses to PTV calculated by PB-hete were uniformly larger than MC plans by a factors of 1.09/1.13/1.07, on average, whereas they were consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.9/0.84/0.9, respectively. The volume covered by 5Gy/10Gy/20Gy isodose-lines of the lung were comparable (average within±3%) when calculated by PB-hete compared to XVMC, but, consistently lower by PB-homo by a factors of 0.90/0.88/0.85, respectively. MLD was higher with PB-hete by 1.05, but, lower by PB-homo by 0.9, on average, compared to XVMC. XVMC max-cord/max-BT/max-heart and 2cc of esophagus doses were comparable to PB-hete; however, PB-homo underestimates by a factors of 0.82/0.89/0.88/0.86, on average, respectively. Conclusion: PB-hete significantly overestimates dose to PTV relative to XVMC -hence underdosing the target. MC is more complex and accurate with

  3. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-07-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats.

  4. Linkage of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of age at onset to a genetic location on chromosome 10q in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Duggirala, R; Blangero, J; Almasy, L; Dyer, T D; Williams, K L; Leach, R J; O'Connell, P; Stern, M P

    1999-01-01

    Since little is known about chromosomal locations harboring type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes, we conducted a genomewide scan for such genes in a Mexican American population. We used data from 27 low-income extended Mexican American pedigrees consisting of 440 individuals for whom genotypic data are available for 379 markers. We used a variance-components technique to conduct multipoint linkage analyses for two phenotypes: type 2 diabetes (a discrete trait) and age at onset of diabetes (a truncated quantitative trait). For the multipoint analyses, a subset of 295 markers was selected on the basis of optimal spacing and informativeness. We found significant evidence that a susceptibility locus near the marker D10S587 on chromosome 10q influences age at onset of diabetes (LOD score 3.75) and is also linked with type 2 diabetes itself (LOD score 2.88). This susceptibility locus explains 63.8%+/-9.9% (P=. 000016) of the total phenotypic variation in age at onset of diabetes and 65.7%+/-10.9% (P=.000135) of the total variation in liability to type 2 diabetes. Weaker evidence was found for linkage of diabetes and of age at onset to regions on chromosomes 3p, 4q, and 9p. In conclusion, our strongest evidence for linkage to both age at onset of diabetes and type 2 diabetes itself in the Mexican American population was for a region on chromosome 10q. PMID:10090898

  5. [Combined spinal epidural anesthesia during endoprosthetic surgeries for bone tumors in old-age children].

    PubMed

    Matinian, N V; Saltanov, A I

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-five patients (ASA II-III) aged 12 to 17 years, diagnosed as having osteogenic sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma localizing in the femur and tibia, were examined. Surgery was performed as sectoral resection of the affected bone along with knee joint endoprosthesis. Surgical intervention was made under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) with sedation, by using the methods for exact dosing of propofol (6-4 mg/kg x h). During intervention, a child's respiration remains is kept spontaneous with oxygen insufflation through a nasal catheter. CSEA was performed in two-segmental fashion. The epidural space was first catheterized. After administration of a test dose, 0.5% marcaine spinal was injected into dermatomas below the subarachnoidal space, depending on body weight (3.0-4.0 ml). Sensory blockade developed following 3-5 min and lasted 90-120 min, thereafter a local anesthetic (bupivacaine) or its mixture plus promedole was epidurally administered. ??Anesthesia was effective in all cases, motor blockade. During surgery, there was a moderate arterial hypotension that did not require the use of vasopressors. The acid-alkali balance suggested the adequacy of spontaneous respiration. The only significant complication we observed was atony of the bladder that requires its catheterization till the following day. An epidural catheter makes it possible to effect adequate postoperative analgesia.

  6. Mercury Accumulation in Harbour Seals from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: The Role of Transplacental Transfer, Lactation, Age and Location.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Jeffries, Steven; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Telmer, Kevin; Macdonald, Robie; Ross, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain in the form of methylmercury, a compound well known for its neurotoxicity. We analyzed total mercury (THg) in hair collected from 209 harbour seals captured at 10 sites in British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (USA) between 2003 and 2010. In addition, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) allowed for a highly refined analysis of THg accumulation over time by examining nine whiskers taken from 4- to 6-week-old pups. We estimate that THg concentrations in pups increased sharply at a point corresponding to mid- to late gestation of their time in utero (4.7 ± 0.8 and 6.6 ± 1.3 µg/g dry weight (dw), respectively), and then again at the onset of nursing (8.1 ± 1.3 µg/g dw). These abrupt changes highlight the importance of both pre- and post-natal THg transfer from the mother to the growing fetus and the newborn pup. While THg levels varied among sites, hair analyses from seals collected at the same site demonstrated the influence of age in THg accumulation with pups (5.3 ± 0.3 µg/g) and juveniles (4.5 ± 0.5 µg/g) having lower levels than those in adults (8.3 ± 0.8 µg/g). Our results revealed that 33 % of the pups sampled (n = 167) had THg levels that surpassed a mammalian hair threshold for neurochemical alterations. This study suggests that Hg could represent a health concern to marine wildlife, especially as atmospheric emissions of this toxic element from human activities in the Pacific Rim and worldwide continue.

  7. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  8. Honeybee Colony Thermoregulation – Regulatory Mechanisms and Contribution of Individuals in Dependence on Age, Location and Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Brodschneider, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Honeybee larvae and pupae are extremely stenothermic, i.e. they strongly depend on accurate regulation of brood nest temperature for proper development (33–36°C). Here we study the mechanisms of social thermoregulation of honeybee colonies under changing environmental temperatures concerning the contribution of individuals to colony temperature homeostasis. Beside migration activity within the nest, the main active process is “endothermy on demand” of adults. An increase of cold stress (cooling of the colony) increases the intensity of heat production with thoracic flight muscles and the number of endothermic individuals, especially in the brood nest. As endothermy means hard work for bees, this eases much burden of nestmates which can stay ectothermic. Concerning the active reaction to cold stress by endothermy, age polyethism is reduced to only two physiologically predetermined task divisions, 0 to ∼2 days and older. Endothermic heat production is the job of bees older than about two days. They are all similarly engaged in active heat production both in intensity and frequency. Their active heat production has an important reinforcement effect on passive heat production of the many ectothermic bees and of the brood. Ectothermy is most frequent in young bees (<∼2 days) both outside and inside of brood nest cells. We suggest young bees visit warm brood nest cells not only to clean them but also to speed up flight muscle development for proper endothermy and foraging later in their life. Young bees inside brood nest cells mostly receive heat from the surrounding cell wall during cold stress, whereas older bees predominantly transfer heat from the thorax to the cell wall. Endothermic bees regulate brood comb temperature more accurately than local air temperature. They apply the heat as close to the brood as possible: workers heating cells from within have a higher probability of endothermy than those on the comb surface. The findings show that thermal

  9. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Tumor Occurrence in Children with Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    King, Benjamin A.; Parra, Carlos; Li, Yimei; Helton, Kathleen J.; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Wilson, Matthew W.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To accurately map the retinal area covered by tumor in a prospectively enrolled cohort of children diagnosed with retinoblastoma. Methods Orbital MRI in 106 consecutive retinoblastoma patients (44 bilateral) was analyzed. For MRI-visible tumors, the polar angle and angle of eccentricity of points defining tumor perimeter on the retina were determined by triangulation from images in three orthogonal planes. The centroid of the mapped area was calculated to approximate tumor origin, and the location and cumulative tumor burden were analyzed in relation to mutation type (germline vs. somatic), tumor area, and patient age at diagnosis. Location of small tumors undetected by MRI was approximated with fundoscopic images. Results Mapping was successful for 129 tumors in 91 eyes from 67 patients (39 bilateral, 43 germline mutation). Cumulative tumor burden was highest within the macula and posterior pole and was asymmetrically higher within the inferonasal periphery. Tumor incidence was lowest in the superotemporal periphery. Tumor location varied with age at diagnosis in a complex pattern. Tumor location was concentrated in the macula and superonasal periphery in patients <5.6 months, in the inferotemporal quadrant of the posterior pole in patients 5.6-8.8 months, in the inferonasal quadrant in patients 8.8-13.2 months, and in the nasal and superotemporal periphery in patients >13.2 months. The distribution of MRI-invisible tumors was consistent with the asymmetry of mapped tumors. Conclusions MRI-based mapping revealed a previously unrecognized pattern of retinoblastoma localization that evolves with age at diagnosis. The structured spatiotemporal distribution of tumors may provide valuable clues about cellular or molecular events associated with tumorigenesis in the developing retina. PMID:26230335

  10. Association between diet and lung cancer location.

    PubMed

    Lee, B W; Wain, J C; Kelsey, K T; Wiencke, J K; Christiani, D C

    1998-10-01

    Lung cancers occur more commonly in the upper lobes than in the lower lobes, but its pathophysiologic basis is not well understood. Because numerous studies have reported a consistent inverse relationship between lung cancer risk and intake of certain vegetables and fruits, we hypothesized that the balance between diet-derived protective substances delivered via the circulation and cigarette-derived carcinogenic substances delivered via the airways would be less favorable in the upper lobes compared with the lower lobes, hence accounting for the upper lobe predominance of tumors among smokers. Thus, we examined the association between diet and tumor location in 328 patients with lung cancer. The ratio of upper to lower lobe tumors was 2.5:1.0. In univariate analysis, age, height, weight, sex, race, family history of cancer, education level, tumor histology, calories consumed per day, and intake of animal fat did not differ significantly between patients with upper versus lower lobe tumors. Predictors of tumor location in univariate analysis were family history of lung cancer; smoking history; history of asbestos exposure; and intakes of yellow-orange vegetables, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamins A, C, and E. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of upper lobe tumor location were family history of lung cancer (p = 0.03), history of asbestos exposure (p = 0.02), less intake of yellow-orange vegetables (p < 0.04), and less intake of vitamin E (p = 0.05). Our results show a strong inverse association between upper lobe location of lung cancer and intake of yellow-orange vegetables and vitamin E.

  11. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  12. The effects of hearing impairment, age, and hearing aids on the use of self motion for determining front/back location

    PubMed Central

    Owen Brimijoin, W.; Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are two cues that listeners use to disambiguate the front/back location of a sound source: high-frequency spectral cues associated with the head and pinnae, and self-motion-related binaural cues. The use of these cues can be compromised in listeners with hearing impairment and users of hearing aids. Purpose To determine how age, hearing impairment, and the use of hearing aids affects a listener’s ability to determine front from back based on both self motion and spectral cues. Research Design We utilized a previously published front/back illusion: signals whose physical source location is rotated around the head at twice the angular rate of the listener’s head movements are perceptually located in the opposite hemifield from where they physically are. In normal hearing listeners the strength of this illusion decreases as a function of low-pass filter cutoff frequency; this is the result of a conflict between spectral cues and dynamic binaural cues for sound source location. The illusion was used as an assay of self-motion processing in listeners with hearing impairment and users of hearing aids. Study Sample We recruited 40 hearing impaired subjects, with an average age of 62 years. The data for three listeners were discarded because they did not move their heads enough during the experiment. Data Collection and Analysis Listeners sat at the center of a ring of 24 loudspeakers, turned their heads back and forth, and used a wireless keypad to report the front/back location of statically presented signals and of dynamically moving signals with illusory locations. Front/back accuracy for static signals, the strength of front/back illusions, and minimum audible movement angle was measured for each listener in each condition. All measurements were made in each listener both aided and unaided. Results Hearing impaired listeners were less accurate at front/back discrimination for both static and illusory conditions. Neither static nor illusory

  13. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  14. Tumor Suppressor and Aging Biomarker p16INK4a Induces Cellular Senescence without the Associated Inflammatory Secretory Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Rodier, Francis; Patil, Christopher K.; Freund, Adam; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by preventing the proliferation of cells that experience potentially oncogenic stimuli. Senescent cells often express p16INK4a, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, tumor suppressor, and biomarker of aging, which renders the senescence growth arrest irreversible. Senescent cells also acquire a complex phenotype that includes the secretion of many cytokines, growth factors, and proteases, termed a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP is proposed to underlie age-related pathologies, including, ironically, late life cancer. Here, we show that ectopic expression of p16INK4a and another cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1, induces senescence without a SASP, even though they induced other features of senescence, including a stable growth arrest. Additionally, human fibroblasts induced to senesce by ionizing radiation or oncogenic RAS developed a SASP regardless of whether they expressed p16INK4a. Cells induced to senesce by ectopic p16INK4a expression lacked paracrine activity on epithelial cells, consistent with the absence of a functional SASP. Nonetheless, expression of p16INK4a by cells undergoing replicative senescence limited the accumulation of DNA damage and premature cytokine secretion, suggesting an indirect role for p16INK4a in suppressing the SASP. These findings suggest that p16INK4a-positive cells may not always harbor a SASP in vivo and, furthermore, that the SASP is not a consequence of p16INK4a activation or senescence per se, but rather is a damage response that is separable from the growth arrest. PMID:21880712

  15. The content and composition of lipids in the digital cushion of the bovine claw with respect to age and location--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Räber, M; Scheeder, M R L; Ossent, P; Lischer, Ch J; Geyer, H

    2006-07-01

    The pads of the bovine digital cushion, which serves as a shock absorber, have specific anatomical structures to cope with the substantial forces acting within the claw. To gain more information on the lipid composition and content of the pads, horn shoes from 12 slaughtered heifers and cows were removed and different samples of the pads excised with a scalpel. Pad lipids were extracted and the fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography. Fat from perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues served as a comparison. Overall, this fat contained a higher quantity of extracted lipids than that of the claw pads and did not differ between heifers and cows. In contrast, lipid content in the pads was significantly higher in the cows than in the heifers. In both groups, the lipid content of the middle and abaxial pads, which are situated directly under the distal phalanx, was lower than in the pads of the other locations. The lipids in all pads contained >77% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), differing sharply from the adipose tissue with values <51%. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) a significantly higher proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) was found in the heifer pads than in those of the cows, whereas the proportion of AA was similar in the adipose tissue of all animals. The proportion of AA in the pad lipids also varied between the defined locations with the highest proportion found in locations that showed the lowest lipid content and was related to the age of the animal.

  16. Helminth parasites in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway with special emphasis on nematodes: variation with age, sex, diet, and location of host.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Carina E; Lydersen, Christian; Aspholm, Paul E; Haug, Tore; Kovacs, Kit M

    2010-10-01

    Complete gastrointestinal tracts from 257 ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway, were examined for helminth parasites. Three different helminth groups were recorded (acanthocephalans 61.1%; nematodes 38%; cestodes 0.9%). Acanthocephalans (Polymorphidae) and cestodes (Anophryocephalus and Diphyllobothrium sp(p)., as well as unidentified species, were confined to the intestines. The anisakid nematodes Phocascaris phocae, Pseudoterranova sp(p)., Anisakis sp(p)., and Phocascaris/Contracaecum sp(p). were recorded in both stomachs and the anterior part of the small intestines. The abundance of nematodes and acanthocephalans varied significantly with sampling location of the seal hosts. This is likely due to the relative prevalence of Arctic versus Atlantic water in the different fjord systems, which strongly influences the age class and species of fish available as prey for the seals. Adult male ringed seals had significantly higher abundances of nematodes than did adult females or juveniles. Adult males also had significantly higher abundances of acanthocephalans than did adult females, but were not significantly different from juveniles in this regard. Nematode abundance increased significantly with age of male hosts, but this trend was lacking in female seals. Infection parameters appeared to be related to differences in the age of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) exploited by male, female, and juvenile seals.

  17. Caffeine suppresses exercise-enhanced long-term and location memory in middle-aged rats: Involvement of hippocampal Akt and CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; da Rocha, Juliana T; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Gai, Bibiana M; Soares, Félix A A; Bresciani, Guilherme; Royes, Luiz F F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-11-05

    The cognitive function decline is closely related with brain changes generated by age. The ability of caffeine and exercise to prevent memory impairment has been reported in animal models and humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether swimming exercise and caffeine administration enhance memory in middle-aged Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (18months) received caffeine at a dose of 30mg/kg, 5days per week by a period of 4weeks. Animals were subjected to swimming training with a workload (3% of body weight, 20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that caffeine suppressed exercise-enhanced long-term (ORT) and spatial (OLT) memory in middle-aged and this effect may be related to a decrease in hippocampal p-CREB signaling. This study also provided evidence that the effects of this protocol on memory were not accompanied by alterations in the levels of activated Akt. The [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampus of rats administered with caffeine and submitted to swimming protocol.

  18. Location of P-II and AlPCS4 in human tumor LOX in vitro and in vivo by means of computer-enhanced video fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Q; Moan, J; Farrants, G W; Danielsen, H E; Rimington, C

    1991-06-14

    The patterns of in vitro intracellular and in vivo intratumoral localization of Photofrin II (P-II) and aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPCS4) in human melanoma LOX were studied by means of computer-enhanced video fluorescence microscopy (CEVFM). The hydrophobic drug P-II localized diffusely in the perinuclear fraction of the cytoplasm of the LOX cells cultivated in vitro. Light exposure did not result in any observable change in the localization pattern. The hydrophilic dye AlPCS4 was distributed as granular and grain patterns in the cytoplasm before light exposure, in exactly the same pattern as that of acridine orange incubated in the same cells, which is known to emit red fluorescence from lysosomes, thus indicating that AlPCS4 was also primarily localized in the lysosomes of the LOX cells. After light exposure the distribution of the intracellular AlPCS4 fluorescence was altered and the intensity increased. In vivo, P-II had a combined cellular localization pattern (i.e. a strongly cytoplasmic membrane-localizing pattern and a weakly intracellular distribution pattern) and an extracellular distribution pattern in the tumor tissue, while the AlPCS4 fluorescence was seen mainly in the stroma of the tumor. The total fluorescence intensity of P-II and AlPCS4 in the LOX tumor tissue at different times after injection was quantitatively determined by means of CEVFM.

  19. Adaptive Memory of Human NK-like CD8+ T-Cells to Aging, and Viral and Tumor Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Pita-López, María Luisa; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK)-like CD8+ T-cells are singular T-cells that express both T and NK cell markers such as CD56; their frequencies depend on their differentiation and activation during their lifetime. There is evidence of the presence of these innate CD8+ T-cells in the human umbilical cord, highlighting the necessity of investigating whether the NK-like CD8+ T-cells arise in the early stages of life (gestation). Based on the presence of cell surface markers, these cells have also been referred to as CD8+KIR+ T-cells, innate CD8+ T-cells, CD8+CD28−KIR+ T-cells or NKT-like CD8+CD56+ cells. However, the functional and co-signaling significance of these NK cell receptors on NK-like CD8+ T-cells is less clear. Also, the diverse array of costimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors are spatially and temporally regulated and may have distinct overlapping functions on NK-like CD8+ T-cell priming, activation, differentiation, and memory responses associated with different cell phenotypes. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the functional properties and phenotypic characterization of human NK-like CD8+ T-cells. Environmental factors, such as aging, autoimmunity, inflammation, viral antigen re-exposure, or the presence of persistent tumor antigens have been shown to allow differentiation (“adaptation”) of the NK-like CD8+ T-cells; the elucidation of this differentiation process and a greater understanding of the characteristics of these cells could be important for their eventual in potential therapeutic applications aimed at improving protective immunity. This review will attempt to elucidate an understanding of the characteristics of these cells with the goal toward their eventual use in potential therapeutic applications aimed at improving protective immunity. PMID:28066426

  20. Adaptive Memory of Human NK-like CD8(+) T-Cells to Aging, and Viral and Tumor Antigens.

    PubMed

    Pita-López, María Luisa; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK)-like CD8(+) T-cells are singular T-cells that express both T and NK cell markers such as CD56; their frequencies depend on their differentiation and activation during their lifetime. There is evidence of the presence of these innate CD8(+) T-cells in the human umbilical cord, highlighting the necessity of investigating whether the NK-like CD8(+) T-cells arise in the early stages of life (gestation). Based on the presence of cell surface markers, these cells have also been referred to as CD8(+)KIR(+) T-cells, innate CD8(+) T-cells, CD8(+)CD28(-)KIR(+) T-cells or NKT-like CD8(+)CD56(+) cells. However, the functional and co-signaling significance of these NK cell receptors on NK-like CD8(+) T-cells is less clear. Also, the diverse array of costimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors are spatially and temporally regulated and may have distinct overlapping functions on NK-like CD8(+) T-cell priming, activation, differentiation, and memory responses associated with different cell phenotypes. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the functional properties and phenotypic characterization of human NK-like CD8(+) T-cells. Environmental factors, such as aging, autoimmunity, inflammation, viral antigen re-exposure, or the presence of persistent tumor antigens have been shown to allow differentiation ("adaptation") of the NK-like CD8(+) T-cells; the elucidation of this differentiation process and a greater understanding of the characteristics of these cells could be important for their eventual in potential therapeutic applications aimed at improving protective immunity. This review will attempt to elucidate an understanding of the characteristics of these cells with the goal toward their eventual use in potential therapeutic applications aimed at improving protective immunity.

  1. Tumors of the foot and ankle: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristina P; Casanova, José M; Guerra, Marta G; Santos, António L; Portela, Maria I; Tavares, Paulo F

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the foot and ankle are rare, and the particular clinicopathologic features, therapeutic approach, and outcomes in this setting are not well established. From January 2000 to December 2010, 72 patients with primary musculoskeletal tumors of the foot and ankle, both benign and malignant, were treated at a single institution. Of the 72 patients, 56% were female. The median age was 52 years. Of the 72 tumors, 62 (86.11%) were located in the foot and 10 were located in the ankle; 63 (87.5%) were soft tissue tumors and 9 (12.5%) were bone tumors. Overall, 56 (78%) were benign tumors and 16 (22%) were malignant tumors. The most frequent soft tissue and bone diagnosis was giant cell tumor. The median follow-up period was 49 months. The vast majority of the tumors were located in the foot. Benign tumors were dominant, outnumbering malignant tumors by more than 3 to 1. The diversity of the histologic benign types was evident, with giant cell tumor, angiomyoma, and lipoma the most frequent. Regarding the malignant tumors, a clear male predominance was present, the median age was 45 years, and the most frequent tumor was synoviosarcoma. The 9-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 65% and 40%, respectively.

  2. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  3. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  4. Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  5. 3pK, a new mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase located in the small cell lung cancer tumor suppressor gene region.

    PubMed Central

    Sithanandam, G; Latif, F; Duh, F M; Bernal, R; Smola, U; Li, H; Kuzmin, I; Wixler, V; Geil, L; Shrestha, S

    1996-01-01

    NotI linking clones, localized to the human chromosome 3p21.3 region and homozygously deleted in small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H740 and NCI-H1450, were used to search for a putative tumor suppressor gene(s). One of these clones, NL1G210, detected a 2.5-kb mRNA in all examined human tissues, expression being especially high in the heart and skeletal muscle. Two overlapping cDNA clones containing the entire open reading frame were isolated from a human heart cDNA library and fully characterized. Computer analysis and a search of the GenBank database to reveal high sequence identity of the product of this gene to serine-threonine kinases, especially to mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2, a recently described substrate of mitogen-activated kinases. Sequence identitiy was 72% at the nucleotide level and 75% at the amino acid level, strongly suggesting that this protein is a serine-threonine kinase. Here we demonstrate that the new gene, referred to as 3pK (for chromosome 3p kinase), in fact encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated protein serine-threonine kinase with a novel substrate specificity. PMID:8622688

  6. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  7. Sleep fragmentation and sepsis differentially impact blood-brain barrier integrity and transport of tumor necrosis factor-α in aging.

    PubMed

    Opp, Mark R; George, Amrita; Ringgold, Kristyn M; Hansen, Kim M; Bullock, Kristin M; Banks, William A

    2015-11-01

    The factors by which aging predisposes to critical illness are varied, complex, and not well understood. Sepsis is considered a quintessential disease of old age because the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis increases in old and the oldest old individuals. Aging is associated with dramatic changes in sleep quality and quantity and sleep increasingly becomes fragmented with age. In healthy adults, sleep disruption induces inflammation. Multiple aspects of aging and of sleep dysregulation interact via neuroimmune mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), a cytokine involved in sleep regulation and neuroimmune processes, exerts some of its effects on the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study we examined the impact of sepsis, sleep fragmentation, and aging on BBB disruption and TNF transport into brain. We used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in young and aged mice that were either undisturbed or had their sleep disrupted. There was a dichotomous effect of sepsis and sleep disruption with age: sepsis disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in young mice but not in aged mice, whereas sleep fragmentation disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in aged mice, but not in young mice. Combining sleep fragmentation and CLP did not produce a greater effect on either of these BBB parameters than did either of these manipulations alone. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which sleep fragmentation and sepsis alter BBB functions are fundamentally different from one another and that a major change in the organism's responses to those insults occurs with aging.

  8. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts drives lactate production, promoting breast cancer tumor growth: understanding the aging and cancer connection.

    PubMed

    Balliet, Renee M; Capparelli, Claudia; Guido, Carmela; Pestell, Timothy G; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Chiavarina, Barbara; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Increasing chronological age is the most significant risk factor for cancer. Recently, we proposed a new paradigm for understanding the role of the aging and the tumor microenvironment in cancer onset. In this model, cancer cells induce oxidative stress in adjacent stromal fibroblasts. This, in turn, causes several changes in the phenotype of the fibroblast including mitochondrial dysfunction, hydrogen peroxide production, and aerobic glycolysis, resulting in high levels of L-lactate production. L-lactate is then transferred from these glycolytic fibroblasts to adjacent epithelial cancer cells and used as "fuel" for oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.  Here, we created a new pre-clinical model system to directly test this hypothesis experimentally. To synthetically generate glycolytic fibroblasts, we genetically-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by knocking down TFAM using an sh-RNA approach.  TFAM is mitochondrial transcription factor A, which is important in functionally maintaining the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Interestingly, TFAM-deficient fibroblasts showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, with the loss of certain mitochondrial respiratory chain components, and the over-production of hydrogen peroxide and L-lactate. Thus, TFAM-deficient fibroblasts underwent metabolic reprogramming towards aerobic glycolysis.  Most importantly, TFAM-deficient fibroblasts significantly promoted tumor growth, as assayed using a human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) xenograft model. These increases in glycolytic fibroblast driven tumor growth were independent of tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistically, TFAM-deficient fibroblasts increased the mitochondrial activity of adjacent epithelial cancer cells in a co-culture system, as seen using MitoTracker. Finally, TFAM-deficient fibroblasts also showed a loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a known breast cancer stromal biomarker. Loss of stromal fibroblast Cav-1 is associated with early tumor recurrence, metastasis

  9. Comparison of the effectiveness of high and low LET radiations for the proportion of survivals with liver tumors at every age in (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN) F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yumiko; Satoh, Kenichi; Suga, Shinji; Endo, Satoru; Nitta, Kohsaku

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the late effects of neutrons at the energy below 1 MeV on the liver carcinogenesis as a function of age, one-week old mice were exposed to 1.0 Gy monoenergetic neutrons (0.317, 0.525 and 1.026 MeV) or 137Cs gamma rays. Survival and carcinogenesis were examined by 18 months of age. Following radiation, tumor incidences in liver, Harderian gland, lung, ovary and pituitary gland were compared. The proportion of the lifespan with liver tumors exposed to neutrons to that exposed to gamma rays was calculated as a function of age. Survival rates among the three groups exposed to neutrons of different energies were not significantly different from one another but shorter than those treated with gamma rays for both sexes. With regard to liver tumor incidence evaluated at 18 months of age, the effectiveness of neutrons to gamma rays was 2.54 for females, and 2.08 for males by the factor. Levels of estrogen in the serum were similar between mice bearing liver tumors and those devoid of tumors. In conclusion, all three energies of neutrons induced similar effectiveness with respect to liver carcinogenicity. Proportions of the lifespan with liver tumors of neutron-exposed to gamma-exposed were shorter in females than males along with ages over 12 months. To obtain this factor at every age contributed for the evaluation of the biological effectiveness of radiations with the parameter of tumor incidence and latency simultaneously.

  10. Growth-inhibiting effect of tumor necrosis factor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells is enhanced with advancing age in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Y.; Kaji, K.; Ito, H.; Noda, K.; Matsuo, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the effects of in vitro aging on the growth capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under the influence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) with or without interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The growth and colony-forming abilities of control cells were impaired with advancing age in vitro, especially at later stages (more than 70-80% of life span completed). It was found that treatment with TNF inhibited growth and colony-forming efficiency at any in vitro age. The effects of TNF were shown to increase with increasing in vitro age, as reflected by a more pronounced increase in doubling times, a decrease in saturation density, and a reduction in colony-forming efficiency. However, the characteristics of TNF receptors, including the dissociation constant, and the number of TNF-binding sites per cell-surface area remained rather constant. The effect of TNF was augmented by IFN-gamma at a dose that alone affected growth and colony formation only slightly. The augmentation by IFN-gamma was also found to depend on in vitro age; the synergy with TNF in the deterioration of colony-forming ability was observed only in aged cells. These results suggest that the intrinsic responsiveness of HUVECs to growth-inhibiting factors, as well as to growth-stimulating factors, changes during aging in vitro.

  11. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

  12. Use of nano-sized clay crystallites to restore adhesion among tumor and aging stem cells - a molecular simulations approach

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Habib-ur-Rehman; Abduljauwad, Sahel N

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion of cells to the ECM is key to the regulation of cellular morphology, migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The decrease in or loss of the cell’s ability of mutual adhesiveness has been considered as one of the specific abnormalities in the surface properties of malignant cells. A change in the association of plasma membrane with cytoskeletal structures also seems to have a close relation with these abnormalities. Similar to the role of adhesions in tumor cells, stem cells’ self-renewal is also tightly controlled by the concerted action of stem cell-intrinsic factors and signals within the niche. This study has demonstrated through molecular simulations the potential use of smectite (Na-montmorillonite) clay crystallites to create adhesions among tumor and stem cells. High electrostatic energies and cohesive energy densities measured in the simulations after the sorption of clay crystallites on cell-cell and cell-ECM complexes validate the concept of using these crystallites for the purposes. As results of this study are quite promising and clay crystallites could be considered as an option to restore adhesions in tumor and stem cells, other confirmatory tests and live cell culture studies are in process for the final validation. PMID:28078181

  13. Ependymoma: a heterogeneous tumor of uncertain origin and limited therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Dorfer, Christian; Tonn, Joerg; Rutka, James T

    2016-01-01

    Ependymomas are tumors that typically occur with an age-based site preference, with adults harboring supratentorial and spinal tumors and pediatric tumors being mainly in the posterior fossa. Despite their similar histologic appearance, the prognosis varies significantly by age and tumor location, with a better prognosis in increasing age. The mainstay of treatment remains surgical excision with or without radiation therapy as the tumor biology is poorly understood and chemotherapy is generally considered to be ineffective. More recently, molecular biology data have increased our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive these tumors, but still it will take a lot of effort to find effective chemotherapeutic regimens. Currently, we are trying to define a subset of tumors, for which radiation therapy can be avoided.

  14. Age-Specific Gene Expression Signatures for Breast Tumors and Cross-Species Conserved Potential Cancer Progression Markers in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Dilek; Nofal, Asmaa; AlBakheet, AlBandary; Nirmal, Maimoona; Jeprel, Hatim; Eldali, Abdelmoneim; AL-Tweigeri, Taher; Tulbah, Asma; Ajarim, Dahish; Malik, Osama Al; Kaya, Namik; Park, Ben H.; Bin Amer, Suad M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA) associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative genomic and cross

  15. Imaging features of primary tumors of the spine: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sujata; Jyotsnarani, Y; Uppin, Shantiveer G; Susarla, Rammurti

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumors of spine are rare accounting for less than 5% of new bone tumors diagnosed every year. These tumors may exhibit characteristic imaging features that can help in early diagnosis and improved prognosis. Plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma and lymphoproliferative tumors are the most common malignant primary spinal tumors. Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the spine. Computed tomography is useful to assess tumor matrix and osseous change. Magnetic resonance is useful to study associated soft tissue extension, marrow infiltration, and intraspinal extension. Confusing one tumor with the other based on only imaging findings is not uncommon. However, radiologic manifestations of these tumors need to be correlated with the age, sex, location, and presentation to arrive at a close clinical diagnosis. PMID:27413280

  16. Posterior Fossa Tumors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Lara A; Young Poussaint, Tina

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types. Here we discuss the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, including typical imaging findings on CT, cMR imaging, and advanced MR imaging studies.

  17. SU-E-T-179: Exploring Appropriate Offset Values for Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo Dose Optimization in Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Encompassing the Effects of Respiration and Tumor Location

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G; Shang, C; Leventouri, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Exploring appropriate offset values in dose optimization with pencil beam (PB) algorithm to minimize dosimetric differences with plans calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) for lung cancer treatment with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: 20 cases of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, treated with gated full motion range SBRT were selected. According to the proximity of the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) to the chest wall, two groups are defined: peripherally located when GTV merges with the chest wall for at least 50% of the lesion diameter, and centrally located when the GTV is surrounded by lung tissue. Treatment plans were created on 4D average intensity projection (AIP) CT set with Brainlab iPlanDose 4.1.2 planning system. The D97 of PTV was normalized to 50Gy using the fast PB and compared with MC. The optimized plan was then recomputed over each 4D respiratory phase, and compared with MC using the same plan MU's. Results: The mean difference in the PB and MC D97 of the ITV was 10.5% (±0.8%) of the prescription dose (50Gy). PB algorithm showed 2.3–2.4% less overestimation to the D97 of the ITV, when comparing to MC, in the maximum exhalation phase than in the maximal inhalation phase. Significantly smaller dose difference between PB and MC is also shown in plans for peripheral lesions (7.7 ± 0.7%) versus for central lesions (12.7±0.8%) (p< 0.01). Conclusion: The dosimetric differences between PB and MC can be reasonably predicted depending on the location of lesion in the lung, and may be used as offset value in dose optimization with PB. Since the maximal exhalation phase demonstrates less dose discrepancy between the two algorithms than that in maximal inhalation phase, caution is suggested when the latter is included as a major phase portion in the respiration gated lung SBRT.

  18. Thalamic rosette-forming a glioneuronal tumor in an elderly patient: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Chibbaro, S; Santin, M N; Kremer, S; Chaussemy, D; Proust, F

    2016-02-01

    The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) is a novel type of brain tumor recently listed in the WHO 2007 classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman harboring a thalamic RGNT with third ventricle dissemination. Age and location make the present case exceptional and which has never previously been reported. A review of the clinical, pathological and radiological features is presented along with the relevant literature.

  19. Eldercare Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by Topic Adult Day Program Alzheimer’s Disease Behavioral Health Caregiver Elder Abuse Prevention Financial Assistance Food & Nutrition Health Insurance Healthy Aging Home Repair & Modification Housing Options In-Home Services Legal Assistance Long ...

  20. The time-course of hindbrain neuronal activity varies according to location during either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous tumor growth in rats: single Fos and dual Fos/dopamine β-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lackovicova, Lubica; Gaykema, Ronald P; Banovska, Lucia; Kiss, Alexander; Goehler, Lisa E; Mravec, Boris

    2013-07-15

    Neuronal activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral medulla, area postrema, and parabrachial nucleus was studied in rats with intraperitoneal or subcutaneous tumors on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after injection of fibrosarcoma tumor cells. We found that the number of Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons differs between animals with intraperitoneal and subcutaneous tumors and also between tumor-bearing rats at different times following injection. Our data indicate that responses of the brainstem structures to peripheral tumor growth depend on the localization as well as the stage of the tumor growth.

  1. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  2. CNS and spinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Andre D; Panigrahy, Ashok; Fitz, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Primary CNS tumors consist of a diverse group of neoplasms originating from various cell types in the CNS. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancy in children under the age of 15 years and the second leading cause of cancer death after leukemia. The most common brain neoplasms in children differ consistently from those in older age groups. Pediatric brain tumors demonstrate distinct patterns of occurrence and biologic behavior according to sex, age, and race. This chapter highlights the imaging features of the most common tumors that affect the child's CNS (brain and spinal cord).

  3. The presence of JC virus in gastric carcinomas correlates with patient's age, intestinal histological type and aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Ksiaa, Feryel; Ziadi, Sonia; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok; Trimeche, Mounir

    2010-04-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus and the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. A role for JCV in gastrointestinal malignancies has been recently suggested. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of polyomaviruses including JCV, BKV and SV40 in gastric cancers in Tunisia and to determine the clinicopathological characteristics of virus-associated gastric carcinomas. The presence of polyomaviruses DNA sequences was surveyed in 61 cases of primary gastric carcinomas and in 53 paired non-tumor gastric mucosa by PCR. Findings were correlated to clinicopathological parameters, p53 expression and methylation status of 11 tumor-related genes. Using PCR assays, JCV T-antigen sequence was more frequently detected in gastric carcinomas than in non-tumor gastric mucosa (26 vs 6%, P=0.03), while those of SV40 and BKV were not detected in any cases. Correlation analysis showed that JCV had higher frequency in patients older than 55 years (P=0.034) and in the intestinal histological type (P=0.04). With regard to methylation status, P16 and P14 showed significantly higher methylation frequencies in JCV-positive gastric carcinomas than in JCV-negative cases (P=0.007 and P=0.003, respectively). Moreover, the mean of the methylation index was significantly higher in JCV-positive than in JCV-negative cases (P=0.024). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age of patients and the methylation index are only the two independent factors associated with JCV infection. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a trend toward better survival for JCV-associated gastric carcinomas patients (log-rank, P=0.11). Our study suggests a role of JCV as cofactor in the pathogenesis of the intestinal type of gastric carcinomas in older persons.

  4. MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) on Pediatric Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-27

    Relapsed Pediatric Solid Tumors; Refractory Pediatric Solid Tumors; Tumors Located in Bone or Soft Tissue in Close Proximity to Bone; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Ewing Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Neuroblastoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatic Tumor; Germ Cell Tumor

  5. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%–2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%–30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality

  6. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: challenges and search for solutions.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Kashyap, Lakhan; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sarkar, Chitra; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal central nervous system tumor commonly affecting children <3 years of age. It roughly constitutes 1%-2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Recent data show that it is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children <6 months of age. Management of this aggressive tumor is associated with a myriad of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the basis of radiology and histopathology alone, distinction of AT/RT from medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor is difficult, and hence this tumor has been commonly misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor for decades. Presence of a bulky heterogeneous solid-cystic mass with readily visible calcification and intratumor hemorrhage, occurring off-midline in children <3 years of age, should alert the radiologist toward the possibility of AT/RT. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT. The optimal management comprises maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy and multiagent intensive systemic chemotherapy. Gross total excision is difficult to achieve in view of the large tumor size and location and young age at presentation. Leptomeningeal spread is noted in 15%-30% of patients, and hence craniospinal irradiation followed by boost to tumor bed is considered standard in children older than 3 years. However, in younger children, craniospinal irradiation may lead to long-term neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequel, and hence focal radiation therapy may be a pragmatic approach. In this age group, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue may also be considered to defer radiation therapy, but this approach is also associated with significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Novel

  7. HER3 comes of age: new insights into its functions and role in signaling, tumor biology, and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marcia R; Amin, Dhara; Moasser, Mark M

    2010-03-01

    The human epidermal growth family (HER) of tyrosine kinase receptors underlies the pathogenesis of many types of human cancer. The oncogenic functions of three of the HER proteins can be unleashed through amplification, overexpression, or mutational activation. This has formed the basis for the development of clinically active targeted therapies. However, the third member HER3 is catalytically inactive, not found to be mutated or amplified in cancers, and its role and functions have remained shrouded in mystery. Recent evidence derived primarily from experimental models now seems to implicate HER3 in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer. Furthermore, the failure to recognize the central role of HER3 seems to underlie resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)- or HER2-targeted therapies in some cancers. Structural and biochemical studies have now greatly enhanced our understanding of signaling in the HER family and revealed the previously unrecognized activating functions embodied in the catalytically impaired kinase domain of HER3. This renewed interest and mechanistic basis has fueled the development of new classes of HER3-targeting agents for cancer therapy. However, identifying HER3-dependent tumors presents a formidable challenge and the success of HER3-targeting approaches depends entirely on the development and power of predictive tools.

  8. Neurologic sequelae of brain tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nicole J

    2009-11-01

    Neurologic signs and symptoms are often the initial presenting features of a primary brain tumor and may also emerge during the course of therapy or as late effects of the tumor and its treatment. Variables that influence the development of such neurologic complications include the type, size, and location of the tumor, the patient's age at diagnosis, and the treatment modalities used. Heightened surveillance and improved neuroimaging modalities have been instrumental in detecting and addressing such complications, which are often not appreciated until many years after completion of therapy. As current brain tumor therapies are continually refined and newer targeted therapies are developed, it will be important for future cooperative group studies to include systematic assessments to determine the incidence of neurologic complications and to provide a framework for the development of novel strategies for prevention and intervention.

  9. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  10. Aging affect the anti-tumor potential of dendritic cell vaccination, but it can be overcome by co-stimulation with anti-OX40 or anti-4-1BB.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay; Dominguez, Ana Lucia; Lustgarten, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    It has been well established that there is a decline in immune function with age resulting in a diminished capacity to respond to infections or tumors. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of autologous dendritic cells (DC) vaccines in stimulating an anti-tumor immune response in the young, almost none of these reports consider the effect that aging has on the immune system or test whether DC-vaccination is effective in old hosts. In this study we compared the efficacy of DC-vaccination in young and old mice. Our results showed that DC-vaccination in young animals induced an anti-tumor response resulting in approximately 60% tumor growth inhibition, while minimal protection was observed in old animals. DC vaccination plus rIL-2 further enhanced the anti-tumor response in young animals (approximately 70-75% inhibition), while ineffective in old animals. In contrast, co-administration of anti-OX-40 or anti-4-1BB mAbs vigorously enhanced the anti-tumor immune response in both young (approximately 85-90% inhibition) and old mice (approximately 70-75% inhibition). Our data indicate that although old mice have a decline in immune function, they have the capacity to develop strong anti-tumor responses as long as they are provided with efficient co-stimulation.

  11. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient’s age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results. PMID:26751577

  12. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Sarah; Darlix, Amélie; Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient's age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results.

  13. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  14. The effect of age at exposure on the inactivating mechanisms and relative contributions of key tumor suppressor genes in radiation-induced mouse T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sunaoshi, Masaaki; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Hirano-Sakairi, Shinobu; Blyth, Benjamin J; Morioka, Takamitsu; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Shang, Yi; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Tachibana, Akira; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-09-01

    Children are considered more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer than adults, yet any differences in genomic alterations associated with age-at-exposure and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We assessed genome-wide DNA copy number and mutation of key tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphomas arising after weekly irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice with 1.2Gy X-rays for 4 consecutive weeks starting during infancy (1 week old), adolescence (4 weeks old) or as young adults (8 weeks old). Although T-cell lymphoma incidence was similar, loss of heterozygosity at Cdkn2a on chromosome 4 and at Ikaros on chromosome 11 was more frequent in the two older groups, while loss at the Pten locus on chromosome 19 was more frequent in the infant-irradiated group. Cdkn2a and Ikaros mutation/loss was a common feature of the young adult-irradiation group, with Ikaros frequently (50%) incurring multiple independent hits (including deletions and mutations) or suffering a single hit predicted to result in a dominant negative protein (such as those lacking exon 4, an isoform we have designated Ik12, which lacks two DNA binding zinc-finger domains). Conversely, Pten mutations were more frequent after early irradiation (60%) than after young adult-irradiation (30%). Homozygous Pten mutations occurred without DNA copy number change after irradiation starting in infancy, suggesting duplication of the mutated allele by chromosome mis-segregation or mitotic recombination. Our findings demonstrate that while deletions on chromosomes 4 and 11 affecting Cdkn2a and Ikaros are a prominent feature of young adult irradiation-induced T-cell lymphoma, tumors arising after irradiation from infancy suffer a second hit in Pten by mis-segregation or recombination. This is the first report showing an influence of age-at-exposure on genomic alterations of tumor suppressor genes and their relative involvement in radiation-induced T-cell lymphoma. These data are important for considering the risks

  15. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Sertoli-stromal cell tumor; Arrhenoblastoma; Androblastoma; Ovarian cancer - Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor ... The Sertoli cells are normally located in the male reproductive glands (the testes). They feed sperm cells. The Leydig cells, also ...

  16. Effects of enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d evaluated at different locations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Juan, María; Realini, Carolina E; Barahona, Marta; Sarriés, Maria Victoria; del Mar Campo, Maria; Beriain, María José; Vitale, Mauro; Gil, Marta; Albertí, Pere

    2014-11-01

    The effect of different animal diets supplemented with linseed (source of omega-3 fatty acids: n-3) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CON: control, LIN: 10% linseed, CLA: 2% conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: 10% linseed plus 2% CLA) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d was assessed in 3 Spanish cities. Overall, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor liking of beef were evaluated by consumers (n = 720) using 9-point scales. Hedonic scores assigned by consumers did not differ (P > 0.05) for beef from animals fed the different diets and aged for 7 or 21 d. Consumer scores showed an increasing trend in beef liking with aging time. Consumers from Pamplona assigned lower (P < 0.05) hedonic scores for beef liking than consumers from Barcelona and Zaragoza. Linseed and/or CLA can be fed to improve the fatty acid profile in beef with minimal impact on consumer liking. Consumer ratings seem to depend on regional tastes and preferences.

  17. Habits of sun exposure and risk of malignant melanoma: an analysis of incidence rates in Norway 1955-1977 by cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site

    SciTech Connect

    Magnus, K.

    1981-11-15

    Incidence data on malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway from 1955-1977, comprising a total of 5108 new cases, were analyzed according to cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site. A continuous increase in incidence of approximately 7% per year was observed for both sexes during the study period. For trunk and lower limb melanomas, the increase and cohort variations in incidence were much greater than for face and neck melanoma. A difference between these site groups was also observed in the shape of the cohort curves of age-specific rates. This indicated that the trend in carcinogenic exposure through life was different for the face--neck and the trunk--lower limb. For the generations born 1930-1949, the incidence of malignant melanoma per area unit of skin was greater for the trunk and lower limb than for the face--neck. It is suggested that not only the cumulated dose, but also the intensity of solar radiation may be significant in the cause of malignant melanoma.

  18. Expression profiles of 151 pediatric low-grade gliomas reveal molecular differences associated with location and histological subtype

    PubMed Central

    Bergthold, Guillaume; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Hoshida, Yujin; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Ramkissoon, Lori; Rich, Benjamin; Maire, Cecile L.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Tabak, Barbara; Ferrer-Luna, Ruben; Ozek, Memet; Sav, Aydin; Santagata, Sandro; Wen, Patrick Yung; Goumnerova, Liliana C.; Ligon, Azra H.; Stiles, Charles; Segal, Rosalind; Golub, Todd; Grill, Jacques; Ligon, Keith L.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kieran, Mark W.; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs), the most frequent pediatric brain tumor, comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. Recent genomic analyses suggest that these tumors are mostly driven by mitogene-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics inherent to their clinical and histological heterogeneity. Methods We performed gene expression profiling on 151 paraffin-embedded PLGGs from different locations, ages, and histologies. Using unsupervised and supervised analyses, we compared molecular features with age, location, histology, and BRAF genomic status. We compared molecular differences with normal pediatric brain expression profiles to observe whether those patterns were mirrored in normal brain. Results Unsupervised clustering distinguished 3 molecular groups that correlated with location in the brain and histological subtype. “Not otherwise specified” (NOS) tumors did not constitute a unified class. Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) were significantly enriched with genes involved in pathways related to inflammatory activity compared with infratentorial tumors. Differences based on tumor location were not mirrored in location-dependent differences in expression within normal brain tissue. We identified significant differences between supratentorial PAs and diffuse astrocytomas as well as between supratentorial PAs and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors but not between supratentorial PAs and gangliogliomas. Similar expression patterns were observed between childhood and adolescent PAs. We identified differences between BRAF-duplicated and V600E-mutated tumors but not between primary and recurrent PLGGs. Conclusion Expression profiling of PLGGs reveals significant differences associated with tumor location, histology, and BRAF genomic status. Supratentorial PAs, in particular, are enriched in inflammatory pathways that appear to be tumor-related. PMID:25825052

  19. Klinefelter Syndrome with Poor Risk Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Konheim, Jeremy A; Israel, Jonathan A; Delacroix, Scott E

    2017-01-01

    Germ cell tumors are the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years old, with a small percentage presenting in an extragonadal location. These tumors are seldom identified in the gastrointestinal tract. There is increased risk of extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCT) in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We report a rare case of a 37-year-old male with KS and EGCT discovered in the duodenum and pelvis. After treatment with Bleomycin-Etoposide-Cisplatin (BEP), he developed growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) and myelodysplasia. Despite surgical excision of the pelvic growing teratoma, he unfortunately died secondary to complications of severe bone marrow suppression.

  20. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1: an epithelial tumor suppressor essential to prevent spontaneous prostate cancer in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Kladney, Raleigh D; Cardiff, Robert D; Kwiatkowski, David J; Chiang, Gary G; Weber, Jason D; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhi Hong

    2010-11-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates mammalian cell growth, survival, and motility and plays a major pathogenetic role in human prostate cancer (PCa). However, the oncogenic contributions downstream of the PI3K pathway made by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-mediated cell growth signal transduction in PCa have yet to be elucidated in detail. Here, we engineered constitutive mTORC1 activation in prostate epithelium by a conditional genetic deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1), a potent negative regulator of mTORC1 signaling. Epithelial inactivation was not immediately tumorigenic, but Tsc1-deficient mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) in lateral and anterior prostates by 6 months of age, with increasing disease penetrance over time. Lateral prostate lesions in 16- to 22-month-old mutant mice progressed to two types of more advanced lesions, adenomatous gland forming lesion (Type 1) and atypical glands embedded in massively expanded reactive stroma (Type 2). Both Type 1 and Type 2 lesions contained multiple foci of microinvasive carcinoma. Epithelial neoplastic and atypical stromal lesions persisted despite 4 weeks of RAD001 chemotherapy. Rapalogue resistance was not due to AKT or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. Expression of the homeobox gene Nkx3.1 was lost in Tsc1-deficient mPIN, and it cooperated with TSC1 loss in mPIN initiation in doubly mutant Tsc1:Nkx3.1 prostatic epithelial knockout mice. Thus, TSC1 inactivation distal to PI3K and AKT activation is sufficient to activate a molecular signaling cascade producing prostatic neoplasia and focal carcinogenesis.

  1. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: relationship with age, sex and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Houde, Magali; Hulsey, Thomas C; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Balthis, Len; Muir, Derek C G

    2012-01-01

    Plasma PFCs were measured in 157 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled from two US southeast Atlantic sites (Charleston (CHS), SC and Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL) during 2003-2005. ∑PFCs, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (∑PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (∑PFSAs) and individual compounds were significantly higher in CHS dolphins for all age/sex categories compared to IRL dolphins. Highest ∑PFCs concentrations occurred in CHS juvenile dolphins (2340 ng/g w.w.); significantly higher than found in adults (1570 ng/g w.w. males; 1330 ng/g w.w. females). ∑PFCAs were much greater in CHS dolphins (≈ 21%) compared to IRL dolphins (≈ 7%); ∑PFSAs were 79% in CHS dolphins versus 93% in IRL dolphins. PFOS, the dominant compound, averaged 72% and 84%, respectively, in CHS and IRL dolphins. Decreasing PFC levels occurred with age on the bioaccumulation of PFCs in both sites. These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins.

  2. Current diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in children. Experience with 22 consecutive tumors in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caty, M.G.; Coran, A.G.; Geagen, M.; Thompson, N.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of childhood. In comparison with adults with pheochromocytomas, children have a higher incidence of bilaterality, familial association, and extra-adrenal location. Fourteen children with 22 tumors were treated during the period 1970 through 1988. Children presented at a mean age of 13 years. Most children (10 of 14) presented with sustained hypertension. The majority of tumors were located with a combination of computed tomography and iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning. Eight adrenal and six extra-adrenal tumors were resected. Four children underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Follow-up data are available on 9 of the 14 children. All of these patients remain normotensive without medication. Preoperative examination of children with pheochromocytoma using the iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan provides an accurate diagnosis of adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors, thus making feasible resection of this rare tumor with complete cure.

  3. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... be associated with the type, size, and/or location of the tumor, as well as the treatments used to manage it. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and other treatments all have the potential to ... American ...

  4. Host location, survival and fecundity of the Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in relation to black rat Rattus rattus (Rodentia: Muridae) host age and sex.

    PubMed

    Mears, S; Clark, F; Greenwood, M; Larsen, K S

    2002-10-01

    Host choice and fecundity are two factors that may contribute to the variation in flea counts observed when assessing the potential risk of flea-borne transmission of pathogens from rodents to humans. Using the black rat, Rattus rattus Linnaeus, as host the effects of age and sex on host choice and fecundity of the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild, were examined experimentally at 25 degrees C and 80% rh. During the first two days of emergence from cocoons, female fleas dominated the sex ratio by 4:1 but from the third day onwards this switched to a male-dominated sex ratio of 4:1. The sex of the flea did not influence their host-seeking behaviour. Newly emerged fleas of both sexes were not influenced by the rat's presence and at seven days old both sexes demonstrated similar levels of attraction toward the rat host. The sex of the rat did not affect flea host-seeking behaviour. There was a 50-70% decline in the initial number of adult fleas during the first week after their release onto a rat host, and this decline was greatest on juvenile rats. Flea fecundity was also significantly lower on juvenile rat hosts but no differences due to the sex of the rat were observed. This experimental study supports the hypothesis that differences in flea count due to host sex, reported in field surveys, result from sexual differences in host behaviour and not from discriminatory host-seeking behaviour by X. cheopis. Differences in flea count due to host age may be affected by differences in X. cheopis fecundity, which may itself be mediated by host behaviour such as grooming.

  5. Analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment of pancreatic cystic tumors

    PubMed Central

    You, Lei; Xiao, Jianchun; Cao, Zhe; Zhang, Wanying; Liao, Quan; Dai, Menghua; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize experience in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Methods This is a retrospective study of 207 patients who were diagnosed with pancreatic cystic tumors at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between Jan 2009 and Mar 2014. Clinical data, such as clinical manifestations, radiological and pathological images and surgical recordings, were collected. Results Of the 207 included patients, females accounted for 76.81%, and the mean patient age was 52.04 years. Malignancy was more common in older patients who presented with marasmus and jaundice. Other risk factors included solid components in the tumor, a large tumor size, and elevated levels of tumor markers. Surgical treatment was required when a malignant tumor was suspected. The operation approach was selected based on the location, size and characteristics of the tumor. The position of the tumor relative to the pancreatic duct also played a significant role. Conclusions No specific symptoms were observed for the patients with pancreatic cystic tumors. Imaging played an important role in making a differential diagnosis. Furthermore, surgical treatment should be proposed for patients with significant symptoms and potentially malignant tumors. The tumor resection rate is high, suggestive of good prognosis. PMID:27877011

  6. Location and age of foraminifer samples examined by Chevron Petroleum Company paleontologists from more than 2,500 oil test wells in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.

    2011-01-01

    Chevron Petroleum Company in 2001 donated an estimated 50,000 foraminifer slides, 5,000 well logs, geologic and surface locality maps, and paleontologic reports to the California Academy of Sciences and Stanford University for safekeeping, because they stopped or cut back exploration for petroleum deposits in California. The material was loaned to Earl Brabb temporarily so that information useful to the U.S. Geological Survey could be extracted. Among the estimated 5,000 well logs, more than 2,500 were printed on fragile Ozalid paper that had deteriorated by turning brown and hardening so that they could be easily damaged. These 2,516 well logs were scanned to provide a digital copy of the information. The 2,516 wells extend over an area from Eureka in Humboldt County south to the Imperial Valley and from the Pacific Ocean east to the eastern side of the Great Valley and the Los Angeles Basin. The wells are located in 410 7.5-minute quadrangle maps in 42 counties. The digital information herein preserves the data, makes the logs easily distributed to others interested in subsurface geology, and makes previously proprietary information widely available to the public for the first time.

  7. Nonfunctioning Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Ryoko; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare renal tumor characterized by excessive renin secretion causing intractable hypertension and hypokalemia. However, asymptomatic nonfunctioning JGCT is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of nonfunctioning JGCT in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a left renal tumor without hypertension or hypokalemia. Under a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumor was located in the middle portion adjacent to the renal pelvis, measuring 2 cm in size. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of cuboidal cells forming a solid arrangement, immunohistochemically positive for renin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as JGCT. In cases with hyperreninism, preoperative diagnosis of JGCT is straightforward but difficult in nonfunctioning case. Generally, JGCT presents a benign biological behavior. Therefore, we should take nonfunctioning JGCT into the differential diagnoses for renal tumors, especially in younger patients to avoid excessive surgery. PMID:23607027

  8. Incidence of gliomas by anatomic location

    PubMed Central

    Larjavaara, Suvi; Mäntylä, Riitta; Salminen, Tiina; Haapasalo, Hannu; Raitanen, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Juha; Auvinen, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    The anatomic location of a glioma influences prognosis and treatment options. The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of gliomas in different anatomic areas of the brain. A representative population-based sample of 331 adults with glioma was used for preliminary analyses. The anatomic locations for 89 patients from a single center were analyzed in more detail from radiologic imaging and recorded on a three-dimensional 1 × 1 × 1– cm grid. The age-standardized incidence rate of gliomas was 4.7 per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent subtypes were glioblastoma (47%) and grade II–III astrocytoma (23%), followed by oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. The gliomas were located in the frontal lobe in 40% of the cases, temporal in 29%, parietal in 14%, and occipital lobe in 3%, with 14% in the deeper structures. The difference in distribution between lobes remained after adjustment for their tissue volume: the tumor:volume ratio was 4.5 for frontal, 4.8 for temporal, and 2.3 for parietal relative to the occipital lobe. The area with the densest occurrence was the anterior subcortical brain. Statistically significant spatial clustering was found in the three-dimensional analysis. No differences in location were found among glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the anatomic distribution of gliomas within the brain. PMID:17522333

  9. Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zamecnik, Michal; Voltr, Lubomir; Stuk, Jan; Chlumska, Alena

    2008-04-01

    An unusual case of bilateral Krukenberg tumor with foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation occurring in a 50-year-old patient is reported. The primary tumor was in the gastric antrum, and it showed morphology of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse and solid growth pattern. A component of typical YST was not found in the gastric primary and lymph node metastases, although some cells in these locations were positive for alpha-fetoprotein. In the ovarian metastases, YST element showed microcystic/reticular and solid patterns, whereas the adenocarcinoma component was of diffuse type with signet ring cells and with some undifferentiated areas. The case represents further example of the somatic cell-derived tumor with focal germ cell-type differentiation and the first report of YST differentiation in Krukenberg tumor.

  10. Leydig cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cells in the testicles that release the male hormone, testosterone . ... seem to be linked to undescended testes . Leydig cell tumors make up a very small number of all testicular tumors. They are most often found in men between 30 and 60 years of age. This ...

  11. Heterogeneity of nervous system mitochondria: location, location, location!

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Janet M

    2009-08-01

    Mitochondrial impairments have been associated with many neurological disorders, from inborn errors of metabolism or genetic disorders to age and environmentally linked diseases of aging (DiMauro S., Schon E.A. 2008. Mitochondrial disorders in the nervous system. Annu. Rev., Neurosci. 31, 91-123.). In these disorders, specific nervous system components or brain regions appear to be initially more susceptible to the triggering event or pathological process. Such regional variation in susceptibility to multiple types of stressors raises the possibility that inherent differences in mitochondrial function may mediate some aspect of pathogenesis. Regional differences in the distribution or number of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzyme activities, enzyme expression levels, mitochondrial genes or availability of necessary metabolites become attractive explanations for selective vulnerability of a nervous system structure. While regionally selective mitochondrial vulnerability has been documented, regional variations in other cellular and tissue characteristics may also contribute to metabolic impairment. Such environmental variables include high tonic firing rates, neurotransmitter phenotype, location of mitochondria within a neuron, or the varied tissue perfusion pressure of different cerebral arterial branches. These contextual variables exert regionally distinct regulatory influences on mitochondria to tune their energy production to local demands. Thus to understand variations in mitochondrial functioning and consequent selective vulnerability to injury, the organelle must be placed within the context of its cellular, functional, developmental and neuroanatomical environment.

  12. Changes with age in leucocyte counts, protein and IgG content of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with inflammatory, ischemic, and hemorrhagic diseases or tumors of the central nervous system (CNS).

    PubMed

    Kleine, T O; Weber, L; Zöfel, P

    1988-01-01

    Parameters of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and of humoral and cellular immune response were determined in lumbar CSF and blood serum samples from 717 patients and statistically compared to "healthy" controls (n = 190). Leucocyte counts (mainly mononuclear cells), total protein and IgG levels in CSF were significantly higher, and prealbumin fraction mostly lower in patients, besides other alterations of protein electrophoresis. Serum fractions (median) of protein electrophoresis were within the reference range. When parameters were correlated with age, a significant increase of total protein of 1.62 mg/dl and of IgG of 0.13 mg/dl per 10 years of age was found in lumbar CSF of controls. Elevated leucocyte counts did not correlate with age of patients, but they increased significantly with age, with respect to controls, to a higher extent in patients with polyneuritis, ischemia and injury; they decreased in patients with brain tumors and polyneuropathy. When compared to controls, elevated total protein levels significantly increased with age only with tumors and injury patients. In multiple sclerosis, IgG increased and beta-globulin fraction decreased significantly in CSF with age. The findings point to age-dependent alterations of BBB and immune response only in some patients groups which were different from those of controls.

  13. Papillary glioneuronal tumor--a new tumor entity.

    PubMed

    Broholm, H; Madsen, F F; Wagner, A A; Laursen, H

    2002-01-01

    Glioneuronal neoplasms of the CNS comprises a heterogeneous group of generally low-grade tumors expressing glial and neuronal cells of varying differentiation. Recently, a new variant of the glioneuronal tumors has been identified. We present a case of a glioneuronal tumor located in the left frontal lobe of a 16-year-old boy who developed seizures 6 months after brain concussion. MR scan demonstrated an irregular, but well circumscribed, mixed cystic and solid tumor with contrast enhancement in the solid part. Histology showed a papillary glioneuronal tumor. The tumor is indolent with no sign of recurrence after gross total resection.

  14. Blockade of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha: A Role for Adalimumab in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Refractory to Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vega, Beatriz; Fernández-Vega, Álvaro; Rangel, Carlos Mario; Nicieza, Javier; Villota-Deleu, Eva; Vega, José A.; Sanchez-Avila, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To report a case of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD) refractory to intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy in a patient who showed visual and anatomical improvement and stabilization after starting a subcutaneous treatment course with adalimumab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) drug, for concomitant Crohn's disease. Methods Observational case report of a female patient. Ophthalmological evaluation was performed by slit lamp and ophthalmoscopy (posterior pole and anterior segment). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was determined, and imaging was performed by fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intravitreal therapies used and treatment with anti-TNF-α were recorded. Results A 64-year-old woman with wet-AMD was treated with fourteen intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (0.5 mg) for a period of 40 months with intervals of 1–6 months. She initially showed a good visual and anatomical response to periodic anti-VEGF treatment but during check visits, anatomical and functional responses deteriorated. At the 40-month follow-up, the patient had developed Crohn's disease, and her rheumatologist started treatment with adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks). During the 25 months of treatment with adalimumab, the patient did not require any additional intravitreal anti-VEGF treatments because her BCVA, clinical, and OCT findings improved and remained stable. Conclusions We described a case of a patient with wet-AMD refractory to anti-VEGF therapy, which clinically benefited from subcutaneous adalimumab therapy. Treatment with subcutaneous anti-TNF-α in combination with anti-VEGF therapy avoids the high cost and risks related to multiple intravitreal anti-VEGF injections with good functional and anatomic outcomes. PMID:27065854

  15. Educational Attainment and Residential Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2006-01-01

    The effects of residential location at age 16 and current residential location on measures of educational attainment are estimated. Particular attention is given to the effects of migration and family background on educational outcomes. It is shown that central cities and suburbs of large metropolitan areas in the United States have significantly…

  16. [Evaluation of cardiac tumors by multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Mercado-Guzman, Marcela P; Meléndez-Ramírez, Gabriela; Castillo-Castellon, Francisco; Kimura-Hayama, Eric

    Cardiac tumors, are a rare pathology (0.002-0.3%) in all age groups, however, they have a clinic importance, due the affected organ. They are classified in primary (benign or malignant) and secondary (metastasis) types. Among primary type, mixoma, is the most common benign tumor, and sarcoma represents most of the malignant injuries. Cardiac metastasis are more frequent than primary tumors. Clinic effects of cardiac tumors are unspecific and vary according their location, size and agresivity. The use of Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) assist on the location, sizing, anatomical relationships and the compromise of adyacents structures, besides, MRI is useful for tissue characterization of the tumor. Due to the previous reasons, studies based on noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, have an important role on the characterization of these lesions and the differential diagnosis among them.

  17. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  18. Neuroendocrine tumors involving the gastroenteropancreatic tract: a clinicopathological evaluation of 773 cases

    PubMed Central

    Estrozi, Bruna; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Description of some of the clinical pathological characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic tract in Brazilian patients. INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine tumors arise in many organs and share common pathological features. In 2010, the World Health Organization published a new classification for neuroendocrine tumors using a three-tiered system that applies the terms neuroendocrine tumor Grade 1, neuroendocrine tumor Grade 2, and neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumor grades are based on their mitotic rate and the Ki-67 index. In Brazil, information on neuroendocrine tumors of gastroenteropancreatic tract is scarce. METHODS: This study investigated clinicopathological features of 773 Brazilian gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cases from all the geographic regions of Brazil. All of the cases emerged from the files of a single institution (a large pathology reference laboratory) between 1997 and 2009. In addition, the gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were graded according to the new 2010 World Health Organization classification. RESULTS: Overall there were a higher number of neuroendocrine tumors in female over male. The lower ages were seen in patients with appendiceal tumors. The most common anatomic location involved was stomach followed by small and large intestines. All cases involving the appendix were of grade 1 and 92.1% of the neuroendocrine tumors of the esophagus were neuroendocrine carcinomas (grade 3). CONCLUSIONS: In this series, the proportion of NET cases in the total number of surgical pathology cases at our institution over the past 12 years is increasing. PMID:22012036

  19. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Tools & Publications Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors World Health Organization (WHO) Updates Official Classification of Tumors ... Central Nervous System On May 9, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an official reclassification of ...

  20. Prognostic impact of second primary tumors in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Patrucco, Marta S; Aramendi, Marina V

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Second Primary Tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract varies from 5 to 30 %. Most of them are located either in the same anatomical region or in the lungs, and are related to a poor overall survival. Our objective is to assess the incidence of Second Primary Tumors, factors related to its outcome, frequent associations, and impact on overall survival. 27 patients with Second Primary Tumors were reviewed out of 307 with head and neck cancer, between 2002 and 2011. Patients had a minimum follow-up period of 3 years, or until their death after the last treatment. Sex: 85.2 % were male; male:female ratio of 23:4. The mean age of appearance for the primary tumor was 66.8 years. Only 1 patient had a synchronous Second Primary Tumor, while 26 had metachronous Second Primary Tumors. Second neoplasms were grouped into synchronous and metachronous for statistical analysis. The following parameters were considered: age at diagnosis of the first tumor, gender, smoking and persistence of the habit, primary tumor's location in the larynx, association between two squamous cell carcinomas (index and second primary tumor), and radiotherapy for the primary tumor. The incidence of Second Primary Tumors was 8.79 %. Overall survival of metachronous tumors was 95 months (7.9 years). The primary tumor's location that prevailed when developing a Second Primary Tumor was the larynx. Regarding the histology, the most common association was head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (9 patients). The Second Primary Tumor was the cause of death in 51.9 % of the patients and its most frequent location was the lungs. 19 patients underwent radiotherapy. Second Primary Tumors are common in the head and neck. The authors would like to enforce the importance of an extended follow-up, since second neoplasms worsen considerably the patient's prognosis. Patients who keep on smoking after treatment decrease even more their overall survival.

  1. Investigation of the age trends in patients with breast cancer and different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mehdi; Dehkordi, Zahra Fazeli; Babazadeh, Shadi; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Rezaei, Parisa; Faghihi, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women in the age range of 35-55 years. Each year, one or two cases of breast cancer per 1000 women are diagnosed as new cases. Despite the serious prognosis and high rate of morbidity, mortality, and pathogenicity, in the case of early diagnoses, the prognosis will be better. The aim of this study was to investigate the age trends in breast cancer patients with different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010. Materials and Methods: The information in radiotherapy and oncology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Milad Hospital from 2001 to 2010 were coded and analyzed. Frequency of patients’ age groups, tumor sizes and the year of cancer diagnosis were calculated. Correlation test was used for data analysis in statistical analysis in social science (SPSS) software version 18. Findings: Among the 3722 patients with breast cancer, the highest relative frequency distribution, respectively was observed in the age of 40-49 years (34.4%), 50-59 years (26.6%), 30-39 years (17.7%), 60-69 years (13.2%), 20-29 years (2.5%), 70 years and older (5.2%) and less than 20 years. Relative frequency distribution of tumor sizes in a variety of 5 cm (T2) was with the frequency of 59.8%, and then 26% at 5 cm (T3), 10.5% at 2 cm (T1), 3.1% at T4 and 0.6 at In-situ, respectively. Conclusion: The investigation of age trends showed that diagnosis rate of breast cancer increased from 2001 to 2004. It reached its highest value in 2006 at the age range of 30-39 years. Then, the trend has been downward, and it has continued to decline until 2010, which could be the result of the equipping screening system and recording the malignant cases. 85.8% of the examined tumors in T2 and T3 group were visible and may be disturbing. Comparing the frequency distribution of the infected population showed that the highest incidence of breast cancer diagnosis were in the

  2. Merkel cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H

    1987-06-01

    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  3. Liver resection associated with better outcomes for single large hepatocellular carcinoma located in the same section.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Yongqiong; Jiang, Li; Yan, Lunan; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Yang, Jiayin

    2017-03-01

    The influence of the anatomical location of single large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on outcomes following hepatic resection (HR) is still unclear. This study examined the role of anatomical location profiles as prognostic markers for patients with single large HCC undergoing HR.A total of 374 consecutive patients with single large HCC undergoing HR between January 2009 and July 2013 were included. They were divided into group same section (SS) group (n = 171) and different sections (DS) group (n = 203) according to their tumor's anatomical location. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups.More patients in group DS had intraoperative blood loss of >1000 mL and needed intraoperative blood transfusion than those in group SS. There were no significant differences regarding postoperative complications and 30-and 90-day mortality between the two groups. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were significantly higher in group SS than group DS. The subgroup analysis showed that tumor in the same section was associated with better prognosis than those in different sections for both patients with tumor of ≤8 cm and of > 8 cm. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <60 years, portal hypertension, alpha-fetoprotein ≥400 ng/mL, tumor in different sections, microvascular invasion and poorly differentiated tumor are independent predictors of poor prognosis in patient with single large HCC.For patients with single large HCC, a tumor located in the same section may lead to better long-term survival and lower tumor recurrence rates than those in different sections following HR.

  4. Liver resection associated with better outcomes for single large hepatocellular carcinoma located in the same section

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Yongqiong; Jiang, Li; Yan, Lunan; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Yang, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The influence of the anatomical location of single large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on outcomes following hepatic resection (HR) is still unclear. This study examined the role of anatomical location profiles as prognostic markers for patients with single large HCC undergoing HR. A total of 374 consecutive patients with single large HCC undergoing HR between January 2009 and July 2013 were included. They were divided into group same section (SS) group (n = 171) and different sections (DS) group (n = 203) according to their tumor's anatomical location. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. More patients in group DS had intraoperative blood loss of >1000 mL and needed intraoperative blood transfusion than those in group SS. There were no significant differences regarding postoperative complications and 30-and 90-day mortality between the two groups. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were significantly higher in group SS than group DS. The subgroup analysis showed that tumor in the same section was associated with better prognosis than those in different sections for both patients with tumor of ≤8 cm and of > 8 cm. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <60 years, portal hypertension, alpha-fetoprotein ≥400 ng/mL, tumor in different sections, microvascular invasion and poorly differentiated tumor are independent predictors of poor prognosis in patient with single large HCC. For patients with single large HCC, a tumor located in the same section may lead to better long-term survival and lower tumor recurrence rates than those in different sections following HR. PMID:28272222

  5. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  6. Management of Frontal Sinus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Selleck, Anne Morgan; Desai, Dipan; Thorp, Brian D; Ebert, Charles S; Zanation, Adam M

    2016-08-01

    The most common primary tumors of the frontal sinus are osteomas and inverted papillomas, although a variety of other tumors involving this space have been reported. With the advent of new surgical techniques and instrumentation, an endoscopic approach to this region has become feasible. The preoperative assessment and decision making must take into account the complexity of frontal sinus anatomy, tumor type, tumor location, and associated attachments. These procedures allow adequate visualization, tumor removal, and postoperative monitoring, and preserve fairly normal sinus function. Open techniques may also be required and should be in the surgeon's armamentarium.

  7. [Aging and gynecologic cancer].

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Arturo A

    2005-01-01

    The interrelation between cancer and ageing in women is emphasized, on its increased incidence, in their molecular background, into the particular biological characteristics of the different tumors and the effects of ageing in the affected women.

  8. Tracheal and bronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Luca; Brandigi, Elisa; Paraboschi, Irene; Khen-Dunlop, Nazhia; Hervieux, Erik; Muller, Cecile; Mattioli, Girolamo; Sarnacki, Sabine; Torre, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Although primary tracheobronchial tumors are extremely rare in children, recurrent respiratory symptoms resistant to conventional therapy require further investigations to exclude possible malignant obstructive causes. As the matter of fact, early diagnosis may allow minimally invasive surgeries, improving the standard of living and the globally survival rate. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of diagnosis and management of tracheobronchial tumors in the early age, since only few reports are reported in the worldwide literature. PMID:28149577

  9. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  10. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Wilms Tumor KidsHealth > For Parents > Wilms Tumor Print A A A What's in this article? ... their child has cancer. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor, a rare kidney cancer, survive and go on ...

  12. Mortality and Embolic Potential of Cardiac Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramires, Félix José Alvarez; Mady, Charles; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. Objectives To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Methods Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years). In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%). The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Results Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%), followed by fibromas (6.9%), thrombi (6.4%) and sarcomas (6.4%). Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm) 37 (19.8%) patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001). The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002) and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006), but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months), there were 2 deaths (1.1%) and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Conclusion Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event. PMID:25029470

  13. Intramural esophageal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Katarzyna; Rębowski, Marek; Kozak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intramural esophageal tumors (IET) are located between unchanged mucous membrane and muscularis mucosae. They can be both benign and malignant. Aim To evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of IET. Material and methods During the years 2010–2015, 11 patients with IET were treated in our clinic. Diagnostics included gastroscopy, computed tomography of the chest, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle biopsy, and positron emission tomography (PET) of the esophagus in cases with no histopathological confirmation. Results Based on the conducted analysis we diagnosed 1 case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), 1 case of adenocarcinoma, and 2 cases of esophageal cysts. In another 7 cases radiological images resembled leiomyoma but with no histopathological confirmation. Esophagectomy was performed in 2 cases of malignant tumors and 1 case of a large benign tumor. In other cases surgical enucleation of tumors was performed. Postoperatively we diagnosed 6 cases of leiomyoma, 1 case of schwannoma, 2 esophageal cysts, 1 case of GIST and 1 of esophageal cancer. Conclusions Intramural esophageal tumors is a very diverse group of tumors, both malignant and benign. In every case of IET we should seek histopathological conformation. Treatment of IET depends on localization, size and histopathological type of lesion. PMID:28096828

  14. Epididymal Adenomatoid Tumor: A Very Rare Paratesticular Tumor of Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kaselas, Christos; Theocharides, Constantine; Kalogirou, Maria; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Feidantsis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is an uncommon benign mesothelial neoplasm, usually localized in the epididymis. It is the most common paratesticular tumor of middle-aged patients (average age of clinical presentation: 36 years). However, these tumors in pediatric and pubertal patients are extremely rare. Due to their rarity, we present a case of adenomatoid tumor of the tail of the epididymis in a 16-year-old patient. After systematic research of the current literature, we did not find another case report of epididymal adenomatoid tumor in a male patient aged 16 years old or less. This notice and our concern, as well, about the patient's surveillance protocol during the postoperative period were the motive for this case study. PMID:28003830

  15. Tracheobronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Branislava

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of trachea and bronchi are uncommon and can occur in the form of benign or low- and high-grade malignant tumors. Although tracheobronchial tumors (TBTs) represent only 0.6% of all pulmonary tumors, they are clinically significant. Delays in diagnosis of these tumors commonly occur because the signs and symptoms caused by these tumors are nonspecific and chest radiographs are often considered unremarkable. Therefore, novel radiological techniques and better access to flexible bronchoscopy enable detection of larger number of TBT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of tracheal and bronchial tumors and discuss significant aspects of the different TBT with focus on clinical manifestations and diagnostic procedures. PMID:28066620

  16. Radiology of juxtaglomerular tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Hartman, D.S.; Ford, K.K.; Davis, C.J. Jr.; Amis, E.S. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Nine cases of proven juxtaglomerular tumor of the kidney are reviewed. Each patient presented with hypertension; elevated peripheral renin levels were found in four patients. As in past studies, this tumor occurred more frequently in women (7/9 cases). Although the patients tended to be younger (mean age, 31 years) than those with essential hypertension, all but two patients were more than 20 years of age. In all cases, the tumor was solitary, well-defined, and curable by surgery. The tumor was identified by excretory urography in 5/8 patients who underwent this procedure. A solid renal mass was detected in each of the seven patients examined by ultrasound. Since the tumor tends to be isodense with normal renal parenchyma, it is sometimes not seen on computed tomography without intravenouse contrast material. Arteriography revealed a hypovascular mass in each of the nine patients. The combination of a hypovascular solid renal mass in a patient with elevated renin but no renal artery lesions should suggest the diagnosis of a juxtaglomerular cell tumor.

  17. EGFR mutation and lobar location of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Hua; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Ho, Chao-Chi; Hsia, Te-Chun; Su, Kang-Yi; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Chien-Ming; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Chi-Sheng; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Wei-Yu; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yu, Sung-Liang; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations among lung cancer location, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status. Treatment-naive, pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinomas with tumor specimens available for genetic analysis were included from 2011 through 2014. Overall, 1771 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were included for analysis, after excluding those with carcinoma not otherwise specified, or synchronous multiple primary lung cancers. The median age was 64 years, and the female:male and never smoker:ever smoker ratios were 930:855 (52:48%) and 1167:604 (65:35%), respectively. The EGFR mutation rate was 56%. Among patients, 1093 (62%) had primary tumors in the upper lobes. Compared with the characteristics of the EGFR wild-type, tumors with EGFR activating mutations were more common in women (P < 0.001), never smokers (P < 0.001), and in the upper lobes (P = 0.004). Among EGFR activating mutations, compared with the EGFR exon 19 deletion, L858R mutation were more common in women (P = 0.002), never smokers (P = 0.038), and the upper lobes P < 0.0005). The present study is the first to address that different pulmonary lobar locations might harbor different EGFR mutation subtypes. We demonstrated that adenocarcinomas with L858R mutation, rather than exon 19 deletion or wild-type EGFR gene, prefer to locate over the upper lungs. This phenomenon was more significant in females and never-smokers, implying the result of complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Therefore, EGFR L858R mutation and exon 19 deletion may not be identical disease entity from the point of carcinogenesis.

  18. Long-term psychological effects in children treated for intracranial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jannoun, L.; Bloom, H.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The results are reported of the psychological assessment of 62 children who presented with primary intracranial tumors and who received radiotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1963 and 1973. Evaluations were carried out 3-20 years after treatment. All patients were free from progressive tumor at testing. The average IQ of the total series was within the normal range (Full-Scale IQ 92) but 23% of the patients were functioning at an educationally subnormal level of intelligence (IQ less than 80). Sex, tumor type, tumor location and the radiotherapy volume and site of maximum dose were not found to have a significant effect on intellectual outcome. A significant correlation was found between intelligence and age at the time of treatment. Children who received treatment under the age of 5 years were more adversely affected (average IQ 72) than those who were aged 6-10 (average IQ 93) and those aged 11-15 years (average IQ 107). The incidence of neurological abnormalities and physical disability was significantly greater among patients with supratentorial tumors (72% of cases), compared with patients with infratentorial lesions (44% of cases). The results were discussed in terms of the management of young patients with intracranial tumors.

  19. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects.

  20. Age-related trends in injection site reaction incidence induced by the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors etanercept and adalimumab: the Food and Drug Administration adverse event reporting system, 2004-2015

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Toshinobu; Umetsu, Ryogo; Kato, Yamato; Hane, Yuuki; Sasaoka, Sayaka; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Abe, Junko; Fukuda, Akiho; Naganuma, Misa; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly being used as treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the administration of these drugs carries the risk of inducing injection site reaction (ISR). ISR gives rise to patient stress, nervousness, and a decrease in quality of life (QoL). In order to alleviate pain and other symptoms, early countermeasures must be taken against this adverse event. In order to improve understanding of the risk factors contributing to the induction of ISR, we evaluated the association between TNF-α inhibitors and ISR by applying a logistic regression model to age-stratified data obtained from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. The FAERS database contains 7,561,254 reports from January 2004 to December 2015. Adjusted reporting odds ratios (RORs) (95% Confidence Intervals) were obtained for interaction terms for age-stratified groups treated with etanercept (ETN) and adalimumab (ADA). The adjusted RORs for ETN* ≥ 70 and ADA* ≥ 70 groups were the lowest among the age-stratified groups undergoing the respective monotherapies. Furthermore, we found that crude RORs for ETN + methotrexate (MTX) combination therapy and ADA + MTX combination therapy were lower than those for the respective monotherapies. This study was the first to evaluate the relationship between aging and ISR using the FAERS database. PMID:28260984

  1. Esophageal granular cell tumors: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Qun; Liu, Ai-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We reported 5 cases of granular cell tumors (GCTs) of esophagus and reviewed the literature. There were 4 females and 1 male with a median age of 43 years and an average age of 44 years. All of the cases had solitary tumors. Tumor size was 0.4-2.5 cm in diameter. Gastroscopy revealed that 2 cases were located in the middle esophagus, 1 case in the upper esophagus, and 2 cases in the distal one. Five cases displayed gray-white, pink, yellow mucosal uplifts of esophagus, 3 cases had smooth surface, 1 case was slightly concave, and the biggest tumor had erosion. Tumor cells were large and polygonal with rich granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and small oval nuclei. Cells were arranged in nest or aciniform. Immunohistochemistry and histochemistry staining showed S-100+, neuron specific enolase+, Vim+, CD68+, smooth muscle actin-, Des-, CK-, CD117-, CD34-, Ki67-or ≤ 5%+. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction and epithelial membrane antigen were both weakly positive. GCTs of esophagus are rare and most of the cases have good prognosis. PMID:26306145

  2. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  3. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  4. Pediatric Upper Cervical Spine Giant Cell Tumor: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alfawareh, Mohammad D.; Shah, Irfanullah D.; Orief, Tamer I.; Halawani, Mohammad M.; Attia, Walid I.; Almusrea, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this work is to report the case of a giant cell tumor involving the second cervical vertebra in a pediatric patient. Surgical management included a combined posterior and anterior cervical approach. There has been no recurrence in 2 years of follow-up. Case Report A 13-year-old girl presented with scoliosis with incidentally lytic lesion involving the second cervical vertebra. The radiologic investigations and biopsy result indicated a giant cell tumor of the bone. A combined posterior and anterior cervical approach was performed to resect the lesion, reconstruct the spine, and restore stability. Two years of follow-up revealed no recurrence of the lesion with stable reconstruction of the spine. Results The lesion was surgically managed for excision and spinal fusion by combining a posterior occipitocervical arthrodesis with an anterior retropharyngeal cervical approach. The final histopathology result confirmed a giant cell tumor of the bone. Conclusions Giant cell tumor involving the second cervical vertebra is uncommon; this tumor can be managed surgically by using a combined posterior and anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach. The presented case was unique in terms of the tumor location, patient age, and surgical management. PMID:26225290

  5. A series of collision tumors in the genitourinary tract with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Anani, Waseem; Amin, Milon; Pantanowitz, Liron; Parwani, Anil V

    2014-04-01

    Collision tumors, characterized by the coexistence of phenotypically and genotypically distinct tumors at the same site, are distinctly rare in the genitourinary tract and pose a diagnostic challenge. The goal of this study is to present a series of such cases from a single institution highlighting the unusual clinicopathologic features of these tumors. Six cases were retrospectively identified from our surgical pathology files and included internal and consultation cases (2006-2012). All tumors were identified by H&E and selected immunohistochemistry. There were 5 males and 1 female patients ranging in age from 57 to 84 years (average 73 years). The sites of these collision tumors were located in the kidney (3 cases), bladder (2 cases), and prostate. All collision tumors involved at least one malignant neoplasm. The diagnosis of collision tumors in the genitourinary tract is a perplexing task. Awareness of these rare entities, thorough sampling of the tumor mass, and appropriate use of ancillary techniques to demonstrate the different tumor components can help avoid an incorrect diagnosis, as well as with pathologic staging.

  6. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD56 and ALDH1 in Common Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Gholinia, Hemmat; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Natural killer (NK) cells, of which CD56 is a specific marker, play an important role in host defense against tumors. Cancer stem cells, of which aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1) is an immunohistochemical marker, are a group of tumorigenic cells which are involved in migration and tumor recurrences. We aimed to evaluate the expression of ALDH1 and CD56 in common salivary gland tumors, as well as their relationship with each other and with a number of clinicopathologic factors. Materials and Methods: Forty-five paraffin blocks of salivary gland tumors (pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, 15 samples each) were selected. Malignant tumors were classified into two groups: low-grade (including mucoepidermoid carcinoma grade I) and high-grade (including mucoepidermoid carcinoma grade III and adenoid cystic carcinoma). Immunohistochemical staining for ALDH1 and CD56 markers was performed. Data were analyzed using SPSS (20) and the Chi-square test. Results: CD56 expression was significantly higher in benign and high-grade malignant tumors (P=0.01). ALDH1 overexpressed in all three salivary tumors, but not to statistically significant degree (P=0.54). There was no statistically significant correlation between ALDH1 and CD56 expression with demographic factors (age, gender, or location of tumor; P>0.05). Conclusion: It appears that the number of NK cells and their function change in different types of salivary gland tumors (benign/malignant) and stroma. NK cells are important components of the anti-tumor system; therefore immune dysfunction is associated with tumor progression in tumors of the salivary gland. ALDH1 overexpression suggests its role in tumorogenesis, but ALDH1 is not involved in the morphogenesis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:28008389

  7. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric {sup 239}Pu or to {sup 226}Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric {sup 239}Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 {+-} 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 {+-} 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults.

  8. The Acquisition of Locative Constructions in Cantonese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Sik Lee

    A study investigated how Cantonese children acquire word order in the locative system, which is very complex in their native language. Focus was on three semantic categories: static location, locative source, and locative goal. Subjects were 32 monolingual Cantonese children aged 2.5 to 5.9 in four age groups. Each subject performed four tasks,…

  9. Sleeping at work: not all about location, location, location.

    PubMed

    Jay, Sarah M; Aisbett, Brad; Sprajcer, Madeline; Ferguson, Sally A

    2015-02-01

    Working arrangements in industries that use non-standard hours sometimes necessitate an 'onsite' workforce where workers sleep in accommodation within or adjacent to the workplace. Of particular relevance to these workers is the widely held (and largely anecdotal) assumption that sleep at home is better than sleep away, particularly when away for work. This narrative review explores the idea that sleep outcomes in these unique work situations are the product of an interaction between numerous factors including timing and duration of breaks, commute length, sleeping environment (noise, movement, vibration, light), circadian phase, demographic factors and familiarity with the sleep location. Based on the data presented in this review, it is our contention that the location of sleep, whilst important, is secondary to other factors such as the timing and duration of sleep periods. We suggest that future research should include measures that allow conceptualisation of other critical factors such as familiarity with the sleeping environment.

  10. Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or in the lungs. They grow ... trouble breathing. Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven't spread to other parts of the body, surgery can cure the cancer.

  11. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. Pituitary tumors are common, but often they don't cause health ... tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your ...

  12. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  13. Intrawound Vancomycin Powder for Spine Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Richard; Molinari, William; Molinari, Robert; Mesfin, Addisu

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective To evaluate infection rates following intrawound vancomycin powder application during spine tumor surgery. Methods Patients ≥18 years old undergoing spine tumor surgery and receiving intrawound vancomycin powder at a single center between January 2008 and January 2015 were enrolled. Patient demographics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), tumor type (metastatic, primary) and location, surgical data (estimated blood loss [EBL], levels fused, type of decompression, length of surgery and hospitalization, discharge status from hospital), radiation therapy use, and infection rates (surgery to a minimum of 30 days postoperative) were evaluated. Results Forty patients (46 procedures) undergoing spine tumor surgery and intrawound vancomycin powder application were identified. Five were excluded because of death less than 30 days postoperatively, and 35 patients (41 procedures) were enrolled: 11 women and 24 men with an average age of 61.4 years (range 19 to 92) and average BMI of 27.3 (range 17.4 to 36.8). Three cases were primary spine tumors. Five were hematologic malignancies, and 27 were metastatic cancers. Twenty-one tumors were in the thoracic spine, 12 in the lumbar spine, and 8 in the cervical spine. Average EBL was 899 mL (range 25 to 3,500), average length of surgery was 241 minutes (range 78 to 495), and average hospital stay was 15.1 days (range 3 to 49). Two culture-proven infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae) were noted in 41 procedures (4.9%). Ten patients (28.6%) had preoperative radiation only; 14 (40%) had postoperative radiation only, 5 (14.3%) had both preoperative and postoperative radiation, and 6 (17.1%) had no radiation. There were no associations between radiation treatment and postsurgical infections (p = 0.19). Conclusion In this first study evaluating intrawound vancomycin powder for spine tumor surgery, we report an infection rate

  14. Intrawound Vancomycin Powder for Spine Tumor Surgery.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Richard; Molinari, William; Molinari, Robert; Mesfin, Addisu

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective To evaluate infection rates following intrawound vancomycin powder application during spine tumor surgery. Methods Patients ≥18 years old undergoing spine tumor surgery and receiving intrawound vancomycin powder at a single center between January 2008 and January 2015 were enrolled. Patient demographics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), tumor type (metastatic, primary) and location, surgical data (estimated blood loss [EBL], levels fused, type of decompression, length of surgery and hospitalization, discharge status from hospital), radiation therapy use, and infection rates (surgery to a minimum of 30 days postoperative) were evaluated. Results Forty patients (46 procedures) undergoing spine tumor surgery and intrawound vancomycin powder application were identified. Five were excluded because of death less than 30 days postoperatively, and 35 patients (41 procedures) were enrolled: 11 women and 24 men with an average age of 61.4 years (range 19 to 92) and average BMI of 27.3 (range 17.4 to 36.8). Three cases were primary spine tumors. Five were hematologic malignancies, and 27 were metastatic cancers. Twenty-one tumors were in the thoracic spine, 12 in the lumbar spine, and 8 in the cervical spine. Average EBL was 899 mL (range 25 to 3,500), average length of surgery was 241 minutes (range 78 to 495), and average hospital stay was 15.1 days (range 3 to 49). Two culture-proven infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae) were noted in 41 procedures (4.9%). Ten patients (28.6%) had preoperative radiation only; 14 (40%) had postoperative radiation only, 5 (14.3%) had both preoperative and postoperative radiation, and 6 (17.1%) had no radiation. There were no associations between radiation treatment and postsurgical infections (p = 0.19). Conclusion In this first study evaluating intrawound vancomycin powder for spine tumor surgery, we report an infection rate

  15. The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status?

    PubMed

    Kalifa, Chantal; Grill, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood [1]. Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients. In addition, sequelae from tumor and its treatment are more severe at this age [2]. Thus, malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neuro-oncology. Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group. Since the end of the 80s, noninvasive imaging procedures produce accurate diagnosis of brain tumors and improvement in neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia and perioperative intensive care permit safe tumor resections or at least biopsies. Consequently, the pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment. Before the development of specific approaches for this age group, these children received the same kind of treatment than the older children did, but their survival and quality of life were significantly worse. The reasons of these poor results were probably due in part to the fear of late effects induced by radiation therapy, leading to decrease the necessary doses of irradiation which increased treatment failures without avoiding treatment related complications [3]. At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients. Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors [4]. Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors

  16. Locative terms and Warlpiri acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bavin, E L

    1990-02-01

    Cognitive complexity and complexity of linguistic structure have been found to influence the order of acquisition of locatives. In Warlpiri, locative terms are nominals and they are used in combination with a locative case marker on the reference object; directional affixes may be added to them. Data from a series of tests of Warlpiri children's comprehension and production of the Warlpiri expressions that may be translated as 'in', 'on', 'under', 'in front of', 'behind' and 'between' indicate that the locative case forms are used first without the more specific locative nominals; young children distinguish an 'up-down' dimension but not 'in', and the reference object influences how the locative term is interpreted; kamparru-pirdangirli ('front-behind') is not one dimension for children aged four to five years; kulkurru 'between' is understood before kamparru 'front' and pirdangirli 'behind'; the use of features on a reference object for orientation develops at around six, but the orientation of the reference object, as well as features on the placed object may affect interpretation.

  17. Familiality in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familiality in brain tumors is not definitively substantiated. Methods: We used the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a genealogy representing the Utah pioneers and their descendants, record-linked to statewide cancer records, to describe the familial nature of primary brain cancer. We examined the familial clustering of primary brain tumors, including subgroups defined by histologic type and age at diagnosis. The UPDB includes 1,401 primary brain tumor cases defined as astrocytoma or glioblastoma, all with at least three generations of genealogy data. We tested the hypothesis of excess relatedness of brain tumor cases using the Genealogical Index of Familiality method. We estimated relative risks for brain tumors in relatives using rates of brain tumors estimated internally. Results: Significant excess relatedness was observed for astrocytomas and glioblastomas considered as a group (n = 1,401), for astrocytomas considered separately (n = 744), but not for glioblastomas considered separately (n = 658). Significantly increased risks to first- and second-degree relatives for astrocytomas were identified for relatives of astrocytomas considered separately. Significantly increased risks to first-degree relatives, but not second degree, were observed for astrocytoma and glioblastoma cases considered together, and for glioblastoma cases considered separately. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a familial contribution to primary brain cancer risk. There is evidence that this familial aspect includes not only shared environment, but also a heritable component. Extended high-risk brain tumor pedigrees identified in the UPDB may provide the opportunity to identify predisposition genes responsible for familial brain tumors. GLOSSARY GBM = glioblastoma; GIF = Genealogical Index of Familiality; HGG = high-grade gliomas; ICD-O = International Classification of Disease–Oncology; LGG = low-grade gliomas; RR = relative risks; SEER = Surveillance

  18. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  19. Locatives in Kpelle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuha, Mai

    This paper examines the differences between locative expressions in Kpelle and English, based on the dialect of one native speaker of Kpelle. It discusses the crucial role of the reference object in defining the meaning of locatives in Kpelle, in contrast to English, where the characteristics of the object to be located are less important. An…

  20. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of exposure and response in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Anacostia River, Washington, DC and Tuckahoe River, Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Alfred E; Harshbarger, John C; May, Eric B; Reichert, William L

    2004-03-01

    We evaluated liver and skin tumor prevalence and biomarkers of exposure and response in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from three locations in the Anacostia River (Washington, DC, USA), a Chesapeake Bay region of concern. The Tuckahoe River (Maryland, USA) served as a reference. Each river was sampled in fall 2000 and spring 2001. In the Anacostia, prevalence of liver tumors was 50 to 68%, and prevalence of skin tumors was 13 to 23% in large (> or = 260 mm, age > or = 3 years) bullheads. Liver and skin tumor prevalence was 10 to 17% and 0%, respectively, in small (150-225 mm, age 1-2 years) bullheads. Tuckahoe bullhead liver tumor prevalence was 0 to 3% (large) and 0% (small); none had skin tumors. Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-like fluorescent metabolites and liver DNA adduct concentrations were elevated in large and small Anacostia bullheads. Mean adduct concentrations were 16 to 28 times higher than those in Tuckahoe fish. Chromatograms revealed a diagonal radioactive zone, indicating polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC)-DNA adducts. The biomarker data and the 10 to 17% liver tumor prevalence at ages 1 to 2 suggest that these year classes are likely to have a high prevalence as they reach age 3 and older. This study provides the strongest evidence to date of the role of PAHs in tumor development in Anacostia bullheads.

  1. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice.

  2. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  3. Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... team and have training in child development, recreation, psychology or social work. If your child must remain ... conditions/wilms-tumor/basics/definition/CON-20043492 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  4. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  5. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 49. Read More Brain tumor - children Hodgkin lymphoma Metastasis Spinal cord trauma Review Date 8/15/2016 Updated by: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review ...

  6. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of kidney cancer that occurs in children. Causes WT is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in most children is unknown. A missing iris of the eye ( ...

  7. Pituitary tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  8. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Part II—Management Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Gillis, Christopher C.; Shih, Patrick; O'Toole, John E.; Fessler, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Broad narrative review. Objectives Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are uncommon lesions that can affect any age group or sex. However, numerous IMSCT exist and the clinical course of each tumor varies. The following article addresses the various management options and outcomes in patients with IMSCT. Methods An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, addressing management options and clinical outcomes of patients with IMSCT. Results Early diagnosis and intervention are essential to obtain optimal functional outcome. Each IMSCT have specific imaging characteristics, which help in the clinical decision-making and prognostication. A comprehension of the tumor pathology and the clinical course associated with each tumor can allow for the proper surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, and reduce any associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the operative management of such lesions have increased the success rate of tumor removal while minimizing iatrogenic-related trauma to the patient and, in tandem, improving patient outcomes. Conclusions Awareness and understanding of IMSCT is imperative to design proper management and obtain optimal patient outcomes. Meticulous operative technique and the use of surgical adjuncts are essential to accomplish proper tumor removal, diminish the risk of recurrence, and preserve neurologic function. Operative management of IMSCT should be individualized and based on tumor type, location, and dimensional extensions. To assist with preoperative and intraoperative decision-making, a general algorithm is provided. PMID:26933620

  9. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  10. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    PubMed

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used.

  11. Alterations of lymph nodes evaluation after colon cancer resection: patient and tumor heterogeneity should be taken into consideration

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xu; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuai; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Zhixun; Wang, Song; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xishan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the adequacy of nodal evaluation was gradually improved for colon cancer (CC), rare attention has been paid for the effect of patient and tumor heterogeneity on nodal evaluation. We identified 109902 CC patients in stage I-III from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database during 2004-2013. The lymph nodes evaluations were separately assessed in different patient- and tumor-related features, including gender, age, T stage, histology, tumor differentiation, tumor size and tumor location. The 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) was calculated with Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests were used to compare the differences of CSS in patients with ≥12 and <12 lymph nodes examined. Here, we identified features including gender, age, T stage, tumor differentiation, tumor size and location were independently associated with the median number of lymph node, the rate of ≥12 lymph nodes and the rate of node positivity of CC patients. We then divided CC patients into 29 subgroups according to different patient- and tumor-related features. The median number of lymph node presented a large variance from 12 to 24, the rate of ≥12 lymph nodes increased from 53.2% to 91.2% under the combined effect of patient and tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, the positive association between increased lymph nodes count and improved survival couldn't be observed in 8261 CC patients with the effect of this heterogeneity. In conclusion, the tumor and patient heterogeneity lead to large alterations of nodal evaluation; we should pay more attention to this effect in clinical practice. PMID:27577077

  12. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  13. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  14. Electroretinography and Visual Evoked Potentials in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Sari; Lenko, Hanna L; Oja, Sakari; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Pietilä, Timo; Mäkipernaa, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study evaluates the clinical value of electroretinography and visual evoked potentials in childhood brain tumor survivors. A flash electroretinography and a checkerboard reversal pattern visual evoked potential (or alternatively a flash visual evoked potential) were done for 51 survivors (age 3.8-28.7 years) after a mean follow-up time of 7.6 (1.5-15.1) years. Abnormal electroretinography was obtained in 1 case, bilaterally delayed abnormal visual evoked potentials in 22/51 (43%) cases. Nine of 25 patients with infratentorial tumor location, and altogether 12 out of 31 (39%) patients who did not have tumors involving the visual pathways, had abnormal visual evoked potentials. Abnormal electroretinographies are rarely observed, but abnormal visual evoked potentials are common even without evident anatomic lesions in the visual pathway. Bilateral changes suggest a general and possibly multifactorial toxic/adverse effect on the visual pathway. Electroretinography and visual evoked potential may have clinical and scientific value while evaluating long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and tumor treatment.

  15. Intracranial epidermoid tumor; microneurosurgical management: An experience of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Forhad Hossain; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Sarker, Mainul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: An intracranial epidermoid tumor is relatively a rare tumor, accounting for approximately 0.1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. These are also known as pearly tumor due to their pearl like appearance. In this series, the localization of the tumor, presenting age and symptoms, imaging criteria for diagnosis, surgical management strategy with completeness of excision and overall outcome were studied prospectively. Here, we report our short experience of intracranial epidermoid as a whole. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 to December 2010, 23 cases of intracranial epidermoid were diagnosed preoperatively with almost certainty by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain in plain, contrast and other relevant studies. All of them underwent operation in Dhaka Medical College Hospital and in some Private Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. All patients were followed-up routinely by clinical examination and neuroimaging. Average follow-up was 39 (range-71-11months) months. Patients of the series were prospectively studied. Results: Supratentorial epidermoids were 04 cases and infratemporal epidermoids were 19 cases. Clinical features and surgical strategy varies according to the location and extension of the tumors. Age range was 19-71 years (37.46 years). Common clinical features were headache, cerebellar features, seizure, vertigo, hearing impairment and features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Investigation was CT scan or/+ MRI of brain in all cases. Pre-operative complete excision was 20 cases, but post-operative images showed complete excision in 17 cases. Content of tumor was pearly white/white material in all cases except one, where content was putty material. Re-operation for residual/recurrent tumor was nil. Complications included pre-operative mortality one case, persisted sixth nerve palsy in one case, transient memory disturbance one case, and extra dural hematoma one case. One senior patient

  16. Spinal Cord Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal cord tumor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your ... as vertebral tumors. Tumors that begin within the spinal cord itself are called spinal cord tumors. There are ...

  17. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Wilms Tumor About Wilms Tumor What Is Wilms Tumor? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... live normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Wilms tumors Wilms tumors are the most common cancers in ...

  18. Reversible micromachining locator

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  19. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  20. Pre- and postoperative neurocognitive deficits in brain tumor patients assessed by a computer based screening test.

    PubMed

    Hoffermann, Markus; Bruckmann, Lukas; Mahdy Ali, Kariem; Zaar, Karla; Avian, Alexander; von Campe, Gord

    2017-02-01

    Neurocognitive assessment becomes increasingly important in neuro-oncology. The presence and degree of neurocognitive deficits in patients with brain tumors appear to be important not only as outcome measures but also in treatment planning and as possible prognostic markers for tumor-progression. Common screening methods for neurocognitive deficits are often insufficient in uncovering subtle changes or harbor the risk of being observer-dependent and time-consuming. We present data of brain tumor patients screened by a computer-based neurocognitive assessment tool before and after surgery. 196 patients with tumor resections were tested at our institution using the NeuroCog Fx® software 2days before and 3-4months after surgery. Additionally to the test results, patient-related information, such as age, sex, handedness, level of education, pre- and postoperative neurological status, KPS, location and histopathological diagnosis were recorded. These prospectively collected results were correlated in the here presented retrospective study. The majority of patients with malignant gliomas, metastases and meningiomas showed significant deficits in various neurocognitive domains, most of them improved or did not decline in their postoperative neurocognitive performances. Interestingly, there was no significant correlation of neurocognitive deficits and brain tumor location. In future, standardized neuropsychological assessment should become an essential part of the management and care of patients with brain tumors to provide a more personalized and tailored treatment. Further studies will improve the understanding of the influence of various treatment modalities on neuro-cognition.

  1. Proton Beam Therapy for Aged Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Masaharu Tokuuye, Koichi; Sugahara, Shinji; Tohno, Eriko; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Mizumoto, Masashi; Abei, Masato; Shoda, Junichi; Minami, Manabu; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of proton beam therapy for aged patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients aged {>=}80 years with HCC underwent proton beam therapy. At the time of irradiation, patient age ranged from 80 to 85 years (median, 81 years). Hepatic tumors were solitary in 17 patients and multiple in 4. Tumor size ranged from 10 to 135 mm (median, 40 mm) in maximum diameter. Ten, 5, and 6 patients received proton beam irradiation with total doses of 60 Gy in 10 fractions, 66 Gy in 22 fractions, and 70 Gy in 35 fractions, respectively, according to tumor location. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 6-49 months (median, 16 months). Five patients showed new hepatic tumors outside the irradiated volume, 2-13 months after treatment, and 1 of them also had lung metastasis. The local progression-free and disease-free rates were 100% and 72% at 3 years, respectively. Of 21 patients, 7 died 6-49 months after treatment; 2 patients each died of trauma and old age, and 1 patient each died of HCC, pneumonia, and arrhythmia. The 3-year overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rates were 62%, 88%, and 51%, respectively. No therapy-related toxicity of Grade {>=} 3 but thrombocytopenia in 2 patients was observed. Conclusions: Proton beam therapy seems to be tolerable, effective, and safe for aged patients with HCC. It may contribute to prolonged survival due to tumor control.

  2. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  3. Visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sefi-Yurdakul, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the visual findings as primary manifestations in patients with intracranial tumors. METHODS The medical charts of the patients with intracranial tumors who initially admitted to the Neuro-ophthalmology and Strabismus Department with ocular complaints between August 1999 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The detailed clinical history and the findings of neuro-ophthalmologic examination were recorded. Ocular symptoms and signs, the types and locations of intracranial tumors, and the duration of symptoms before the diagnosis were evaluated. RESULTS The mean age of 11 women (61.1%) and 7 men (38.9%) was 42.2±11.0 (range 20-66y) at the time of intracranial tumor diagnosis. Initial symptoms were transient visual obscurations, visual loss or visual field defect in 16 cases (88.9%), and diplopia in 2 cases (11.1%). Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed normal optic discs in both eyes of 6 patients (33.3%), paleness, atrophy or edema of optic disc in 12 patients (66.7%), and sixth cranial nerve palsy in 2 patients (11.1%). Visual acuity ranged between normal vision and loss of light perception. Cranial imaging demonstrated craniopharyngioma (n=1), plasmacytoma (n=1), meningioma (n=6; olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae, pontocerebellar angle, anterior cranial fossa, frontal vertex, suprasellar region), and pituitary macroadenoma (n=10). The mean duration between the onset of visual disturbances and the diagnosis of intracranial tumor was 9.8±18mo (range 3d-6y). CONCLUSION The ophthalmologist is frequently the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of intracranial tumors that may cause neurological and ocular complications. Neuro-ophthalmologic findings should be carefully evaluated to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors. PMID:26309882

  4. A multicenter study of oral malignant tumors from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dhanuthai, Kittipong; Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral malignant tumors in Thailand have not been extensively studied. Hence the following study was conducted. Aims: To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic data of the oral malignant tumors from Thailand. Subjects and Methods: Biopsy records of the Oral Pathology Department, Chulalongkorn University; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Chiang Mai University; Department of Oral Diagnosis, Khon Kaen University and Department of Stomatology, Prince of Songkla University, were reviewed for lesions diagnosed in the category of oral malignant tumors from 2005–2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results: Of the 22,639 accessioned cases, 1411 cases (6.23%) were diagnosed as oral malignant tumors. The mean age of the patients was 59.13 ± 17.32 years. A total of 651 cases (46.14%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 759 cases (53.79%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 0.86:1. The sites of predilection for oral malignant tumors were the gingiva, followed by tongue and alveolar mucosa. The three most common oral malignant tumors in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: This study provides extensive data on the oral malignant tumors from several university biopsy services located in virtually all parts of Thailand. The data from the present study show some similarities with previous studies; however, differences such as gender and site of predilection still exist. PMID:27721612

  5. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  6. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost always benign (not cancerous), but can cause hormonal imbalances and interfere with the normal function of the pituitary gland. Because the pituitary affects so many functions of the body, ... the tumor mass or hormonal changes (either too much or too little hormone). ...

  7. Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Runjan; Klimstra, David S; Henson, Donald E; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix. Histologically they have been categorized as classical, tubular, or goblet cell types. Goblet cell carcinoid has been regarded as a distinctive tumor type, not related to classic carcinoids, and to our knowledge combinations of these 2 tumor types have not been described in detail. In this report, we describe 5 cases of combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumors of the appendix. Four men and 1 woman, (mean age 53.4 y) presented with acute appendicitis (4 cases), whereas 1 presented with a pelvic mass owing to widespread pelvic disseminated disease. The tumors (0.6 to 6.0 cm) were located in the mid-portion and the tip of the appendix. Four patients were treated with right hemicolectomies (the patient with disseminated pelvic and ovarian metastases also had a pelvic exenteration), and 1 was treated with an appendectomy only. Four patients are alive and asymptomatic, whereas the patient with disseminated pelvic disease died 6 months after surgery. All 5 appendiceal tumors had microscopic features of both classical carcinoid and GCC, either intimately admixed or separate but closely apposed. The extent of the 2 components varied, with classical carcinoid representing 60% to 90% of the tumor. Both components stained for the general neuroendocrine markers, however, staining in the classic component was greater. The Mib-1 proliferation index varied from 1-15%, again with higher Mib-1 indices seen in the GCC component of all 5 cases. The pelvic soft tissue and ovarian metastases in case 4 consisted predominantly of a signet ring cell carcinoma with a minor component of goblet cells and was interpreted as an adenocarcinoma ex-GCC. In view of the fact that these combined carcinoid tumors appear to behave more as goblet cell carcinoids, detailed microscopic examination of classical carcinoid tumors of the appendix is suggested and larger series with longer follow-up is required to

  8. Electronic apex locators.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  9. Smart Location Mapping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  10. Uranium Location Database Compilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.

  11. Pediatric Suprasellar Tumors.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Heather J; George, Emilie; Settler, Allison; Schwartz, Theodore H; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-10-01

    The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct, present similar clinical and surgical challenges as a result of their common anatomic location. These lesions are in close proximity to or may invade the optic nerve and chiasm, pituitary gland and infundibulum, hypothalamus, and third ventricle, leading to presenting features including visual field loss, impairment in visual acuity, endocrine dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Though many suprasellar lesions are relatively benign in pathology, treatment may be complicated by high surgical morbidity resulting from damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Here we review the most frequent pediatric lesions occurring in the suprasellar region: craniopharyngioma, chiasmatic glioma, germ cell tumor, Rathke cleft and arachnoid cysts, pituitary adenoma, and histiocytosis. This review outlines both common presenting features and differentiating aspects of these lesions. It also includes classic radiographic presentations and treatment considerations for each lesion.

  12. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  13. Primary spinal tumors in childhood: A single institution 15 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Jaing, Tang-Her; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chou, Ming-Liang; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric primary spinal tumors (PST) are fairly uncommon, with little available data regarding incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the 22 consecutive patients less than 18 years old diagnosed with PST between March 1997 and May 2011 and treated at Chang Gung Children Hospital. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative evaluation and operations for PST. The extent of tumor removal was assessed by surgical report by the neurosurgeon or by post-operative MRI if available. Results: Ten of them had intramedullary tumors and 12 had intradural extramedullary tumors. All patients were treated with surgery to the primary site. A total of 15 patients underwent gross total tumor resection and seven patients received post-operative radiotherapy. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy for their primary tumor. Fourteen patients (64%) survived from study entry without tumor progression. Conclusions: PST encompassed a diverse group of pathologic entities that differ markedly based on the location and age of the children. Total resection of pediatric PST in children could be performed with acceptable risk and satisfactory long-term results. PMID:27695552

  14. [Granular cell tumor of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, M; Wróbel, B; Zawisza, E; Drozd, K

    1999-09-01

    Granular cell tumor is an unusual growth of probably neuroectodermal histogenesis, first reported by Abrikossoff in 1926 with the name of myoblastenmyoma. Authors described a case of a 54 year man with laryngeal seat of granular-cell myoblastoma. In this case Abrikossoff tumor was located in the right vocal chord. The tumor was treated successfully surgically by microlaryngoscopy. The etiology, clinical features and diagnostic difficulties are discussed.

  15. Clinical study on the influence of motion and other factors on stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingsheng; Li, Fengtong; Dong, Yang; Song, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the adrenal tumor motion law and influence factors in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor and provide a reference value basis for determining the planning target volume margins for therapy. Materials and methods The subjects considered in this study were 38 adrenal tumor patients treated with CyberKnife with the placement of 45 gold fiducials. Fiducials were implanted into each adrenal tumor using β-ultrasonic guidance. Motion amplitudes of gold fiducials were measured with a Philips SLS simulator and motion data in the left–right, anterior–posterior, and cranio–caudal directions were obtained. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze influencing factors. t-Test was used for motion amplitude comparison of different tumor locations along the z-axis. Results The motion distances were 0.1–0.4 cm (0.27±0.07 cm), 0.1–0.5 cm (0.31±0.11 cm), and 0.5–1.2 cm (0.87±0.21 cm) along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. Motion amplitude along the z-axis may be affected by tumor location, but movement along the other axes was not affected by age, height, body mass, location, and size. Conclusion The maximum motion distance was along the z-axis. Therefore, this should be the main consideration when defining the planning target volume safety margin. Due to the proximity of the liver, adrenal gland tumor motion amplitude was smaller on the right than the left. This study analyzed adrenal tumor motion amplitude data to evaluate how motion and other factors influence the treatment of adrenal tumor with a goal of providing a reference for stereotactic radiotherapy boundary determination. PMID:27486331

  16. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Hurairah, Abu; Grossman, Evan B.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually originates from the pleura, but has been reported in other extrapleural locations. We report a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach, which was successfully treated with endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:28286800

  17. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  18. Memory for parking location in large lots.

    PubMed

    Means, L W; Lutz, J; Long, T E; High, K M

    1995-06-01

    The recall of automobile parking location was assessed over five consecutive workdays. Completed data from 36 women and 19 men provided measures of accuracy and a survey of specific strategies. Analysis showed a significant recency effect with memory for the most recent parking locations being superior. Less variation in parking location and shorter distance from parking location to building entrance were associated with better recall. Contrary to prevalent belief, older subjects had more accurate recall. Older subjects parked closer to the entrance and used fewer spaces which were also located closer together. The most frequently reported strategy was "favorite location" which was used more often by older subjects. Whereas laboratory tasks show memory deficits with increasing age, some studies in the natural environment have exhibited less such decline; the current data showed an actual improvement. It may be that older people adopt and practice compensatory strategies in the natural environment while laboratory tasks give little opportunity for establishing or practicing such devices.

  19. Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures. 1. Effect of pre-injury and injury factors such as sex, age, stage of root development, fracture type, location of fracture and severity of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Mejàre, I; Cvek, M

    2004-08-01

    This retrospective study consisted of 400 root-fractured, splinted or non-splinted incisors in young individuals aged 7-17 years (mean = 11.5 +/- 2.7 SD) who were treated in the period 1959-1995 at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Eastman Dental Institute, Stockholm. Four hundred of these root fractures were diagnosed at the time of injury; and 344 teeth were splinted with either cap-splints, orthodontic appliances, bonded metal wires, proximal bonding with composite resin or bonding with a Kevlar or glass fiber splint. In 56 teeth, no splinting was carried out for various reasons. In the present study, only pre-injury and injury factors were analyzed. In a second study, treatment variables will be analyzed. The average observation period was 3.1 years +/- 2.6 SD. The clinical and radiographic findings showed that 120 teeth out of 400 teeth (30%) had healed by hard tissue fusion of the fragments. Interposition of periodontal ligament (PDL) and bone between fragments was found in 22 teeth (5%), whereas interposition of PDL alone was found in 170 teeth (43%). Finally, non-healing, with pulp necrosis and inflammatory changes between fragments, was seen in 88 teeth (22%). In a univariate and multivariate stratified analysis, a series of clinical factors were analyzed for their relation to the healing outcome with respect to pulp healing vs. pulp necrosis and type of healing (hard tissue vs. interposition of bone and/or PDL or pulp necrosis). Young age, immature root formation and positive pulp sensibility at the time of injury were found to be significantly and positively related to both pulpal healing and hard tissue repair of the fracture. The same applied to concussion or subluxation (i.e. no displacement) of the coronal fragment compared to extrusion or lateral luxation (i.e. displacement). Furthermore, no mobility vs. mobility of the coronal fragment. Healing was progressively worsened with increased millimeter diastasis between fragments. Sex was a

  20. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  1. "Cancer tumor".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  2. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Statistical Analysis Used: Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Results: Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75–100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Conclusions: Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation. PMID:27601817

  3. Bone Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost 90,000 people are living Page ( 1 ) AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, products, or ... or locate one in your area through the AAOS “Find an Orthopaedist” program on OrthoInfo.org. Copyright © ...

  4. Decoding Tumor Phenotypes for ALK, ROS1, and RET Fusions in Lung Adenocarcinoma Using a Radiomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Insuk; Cho, Jong Ho; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Hyeseung; Lee, Genehee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jhingook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative imaging using radiomics can capture distinct phenotypic differences between tumors and may have predictive power for certain phenotypes according to specific genetic mutations. We aimed to identify the clinicoradiologic predictors of tumors with ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1), or RET (rearranged during transfection) fusions in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 539 pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinomas were included in this retrospective study. The baseline clinicopathologic characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ medical records and the ALK/ROS1/RET fusion status was reviewed. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography imaging characteristics were evaluated using a radiomics approach. Significant features for the fusion-positive tumor prediction model were extracted from all of the clinicoradiologic features, and were used to calculate diagnostic performance for predicting 3 fusions’ positivity. The clinicoradiologic features were compared between ALK versus ROS1/RET fusion-positive tumors to identify the clinicoradiologic similarity between the 2 groups. The fusion-positive tumor prediction model was a combination of younger age, advanced tumor stage, solid tumor on CT, higher values for SUVmax and tumor mass, lower values for kurtosis and inverse variance on 3-voxel distance than those of fusion-negative tumors (sensitivity and specificity, 0.73 and 0.70, respectively). ALK fusion-positive tumors were significantly different in tumor stage, central location, SUVmax, homogeneity on 1-, 2-, and 3-voxel distances, and sum mean on 2-voxel distance compared with ROS1/RET fusion-positive tumors. ALK/ROS1/RET fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas possess certain clinical and imaging features that enable good discrimination of fusion-positive from fusion-negative lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26469915

  5. Decoding Tumor Phenotypes for ALK, ROS1, and RET Fusions in Lung Adenocarcinoma Using a Radiomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Insuk; Cho, Jong Ho; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Hyeseung; Lee, Genehee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jhingook

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative imaging using radiomics can capture distinct phenotypic differences between tumors and may have predictive power for certain phenotypes according to specific genetic mutations. We aimed to identify the clinicoradiologic predictors of tumors with ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1), or RET (rearranged during transfection) fusions in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.A total of 539 pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinomas were included in this retrospective study. The baseline clinicopathologic characteristics were retrieved from the patients' medical records and the ALK/ROS1/RET fusion status was reviewed. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography imaging characteristics were evaluated using a radiomics approach. Significant features for the fusion-positive tumor prediction model were extracted from all of the clinicoradiologic features, and were used to calculate diagnostic performance for predicting 3 fusions' positivity. The clinicoradiologic features were compared between ALK versus ROS1/RET fusion-positive tumors to identify the clinicoradiologic similarity between the 2 groups.The fusion-positive tumor prediction model was a combination of younger age, advanced tumor stage, solid tumor on CT, higher values for SUV(max) and tumor mass, lower values for kurtosis and inverse variance on 3-voxel distance than those of fusion-negative tumors (sensitivity and specificity, 0.73 and 0.70, respectively). ALK fusion-positive tumors were significantly different in tumor stage, central location, SUV(max), homogeneity on 1-, 2-, and 3-voxel distances, and sum mean on 2-voxel distance compared with ROS1/RET fusion-positive tumors.ALK/ROS1/RET fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas possess certain clinical and imaging features that enable good discrimination of fusion-positive from fusion-negative lung adenocarcinomas.

  6. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  7. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  8. Differential potency of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression in kidney tumors compared to subcutaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Christel; Westwood, Jennifer A; Teng, Michele WL; John, Liza B; Yong, Carmen SM; Duong, Connie PM; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    In many cancers, regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in suppressing the effector immune response thereby permitting tumor development. Indeed, in mouse models, their depletion can promote the regression of tumors of various origins, including renal cell carcinoma when located subcutaneous (SC). In the present study, we aimed to assess the importance of Treg immunosuppression in the physiologic context of metastatic renal carcinoma (Renca) disease. To that purpose we inoculated renal tumors orthotopically, intra-kidney (IK), in mice. Treg depletions were performed using anti-CD4 antibody in wild type mice or diphtheria toxin (DT) in Foxp3DTR transgenic mice. Our main observation was that Treg were not the key immunosuppressive component of the IK tumoral microenvironment, compared to the same tumors located SC. We demonstrated that the CD8+ effector immune response was still suppressed in IK tumors when compared to SC tumors, following Treg depletion. Furthermore, the level of program cell death protein (PD)-1 was increased on the surface of CD4+ T cells infiltrating IK tumors compared to SC tumors. Finally, the Treg-independent immunosuppression, occurring in IK tumors, was potent enough to inhibit regression of concomitant SC tumors, normally responsive to Treg depletion. Our findings provide further insight into the immunosuppressive nature of the immune response generated in the kidney microenvironment, suggesting that it can have additional mechanisms in addition to Treg. These observations might help to identify better targets from the kidney tumor microenvironment for future cancer therapies. PMID:25941590

  9. Differential potency of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression in kidney tumors compared to subcutaneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Devaud, Christel; Westwood, Jennifer A; Teng, Michele Wl; John, Liza B; Yong, Carmen Sm; Duong, Connie Pm; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    In many cancers, regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in suppressing the effector immune response thereby permitting tumor development. Indeed, in mouse models, their depletion can promote the regression of tumors of various origins, including renal cell carcinoma when located subcutaneous (SC). In the present study, we aimed to assess the importance of Treg immunosuppression in the physiologic context of metastatic renal carcinoma (Renca) disease. To that purpose we inoculated renal tumors orthotopically, intra-kidney (IK), in mice. Treg depletions were performed using anti-CD4 antibody in wild type mice or diphtheria toxin (DT) in Foxp3(DTR) transgenic mice. Our main observation was that Treg were not the key immunosuppressive component of the IK tumoral microenvironment, compared to the same tumors located SC. We demonstrated that the CD8(+) effector immune response was still suppressed in IK tumors when compared to SC tumors, following Treg depletion. Furthermore, the level of program cell death protein (PD)-1 was increased on the surface of CD4(+) T cells infiltrating IK tumors compared to SC tumors. Finally, the Treg-independent immunosuppression, occurring in IK tumors, was potent enough to inhibit regression of concomitant SC tumors, normally responsive to Treg depletion. Our findings provide further insight into the immunosuppressive nature of the immune response generated in the kidney microenvironment, suggesting that it can have additional mechanisms in addition to Treg. These observations might help to identify better targets from the kidney tumor microenvironment for future cancer therapies.

  10. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  14. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  15. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S; Thurnher, Majda M; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into "definitely congenital" (present or producing symptoms at birth), "probably congenital" (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and "possibly congenital" (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease-free survival.

  16. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  17. Clinical and Histopathological Diagnosis of Glomus Tumor: An Institutional Experience of 138 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mravic, Marco; LaChaud, Gregory; Nguyen, Alan; Scott, Michelle A.; Dry, Sarah M.; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon subcentimeteric benign perivascular neoplasms usually located on the fingers. With their blue-red color and common subungual location, they are commonly confused for vascular or melanocytic lesions. To date there is no comprehensive review of an institutional experience with glomus tumors. Methods A 14-year retrospective review of all cases within University of California, Los Angeles, with either a clinical or pathological diagnosis of glomus tumor was performed. Data obtained included demographic information, tumor description, pathological diagnoses, immunohistochemical studies, radiographic and treatment information, and clinical course. Rates of concordance between clinical and pathological diagnoses and an evaluation of overlap with other entities were assessed. Results Clinical diagnosis of glomus tumor showed concordance with a histopathological diagnosis (45.4% of cases). The most common alternate clinical diagnoses included lipoma, cyst, or angioma. A pathological diagnosis of glomus tumor was most common in the fourth to seventh decades of life. The most common presentation was a subcentimeter lesion on the digit. Deep-seated tumors had a strikingly increased risk for malignancy (33%). Radiological studies were not relied on frequently (18.2% of cases). Immunohistochemical analysis showed diffuse αSMA and MSA expression in nearly all cases (99% and 95%, respectively), with focal to diffuse CD34 immunostaining in 32% of cases. Discussion Our study illustrates trends in the clinical versus pathologic diagnoses of glomus tumor, common competing diagnoses, a difference in demographics than is commonly reported (older age groups most commonly affected), and important differences in the use adjunctive diagnostic tools including radiology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25614464

  18. Uranium Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata was cooperatively compiled from Federal and State agency data sets and enables the user to conduct geographic and analytical studies on mine impacts on the public and environment.

  19. Optimal Facility-Location.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A J

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall's research at NBS/NIST.

  20. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  1. LOCATING AREAS OF CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledg...

  2. Locating gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2017-01-01

    Where does gravitational potential energy reside when a ball is in the air? The perfectly correct answer is that it is located in the ball-Earth system. Still, mechanical energy conservation problems are routinely solved by assigning a potential energy to the ball alone. Provided here is a proof that such an assignment introduces only an entirely undetectable error.

  3. VA Health Care Facilities Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA » Locations » Find Locations Locations Find Locations The javascript used here is for validation purpose only. Your browser doesn't seem to support javascript or has it disabled. This site is a ...

  4. Mertk on tumor macrophages is a therapeutic target to prevent tumor recurrence following radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Marka R.; Baird, Jason; Friedman, David; Savage, Talicia; Uhde, Lauren; Alice, Alejandro; Cottam, Benjamin; Young, Kristina; Newell, Pippa; Nguyen, Cynthia; Bambina, Shelly; Kramer, Gwen; Akporiaye, Emmanuel; Malecka, Anna; Jackson, Andrew; Gough, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy provides a means to kill large numbers of cancer cells in a controlled location resulting in the release of tumor-specific antigens and endogenous adjuvants. However, by activating pathways involved in apoptotic cell recognition and phagocytosis, irradiated cancer cells engender suppressive phenotypes in macrophages. We demonstrate that the macrophage-specific phagocytic receptor, Mertk is upregulated in macrophages in the tumor following radiation therapy. Ligation of Mertk on macrophages results in anti-inflammatory cytokine responses via NF-kB p50 upregulation, which in turn limits tumor control following radiation therapy. We demonstrate that in immunogenic tumors, loss of Mertk is sufficient to permit tumor cure following radiation therapy. However, in poorly immunogenic tumors, TGFb inhibition is also required to result in tumor cure following radiation therapy. These data demonstrate that Mertk is a highly specific target whose absence permits tumor control in combination with radiation therapy. PMID:27602953

  5. Genome-wide CpG island methylation and intergenic demethylation propensities vary among different tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic landscape of cancer includes both focal hypermethylation and broader hypomethylation in a genome-wide manner. By means of a comprehensive genomic analysis on 6637 tissues of 21 tumor types, we here show that the degrees of overall methylation in CpG island (CGI) and demethylation in intergenic regions, defined as ‘backbone’, largely vary among different tumors. Depending on tumor type, both CGI methylation and backbone demethylation are often associated with clinical, epidemiological and biological features such as age, sex, smoking history, anatomic location, histological type and grade, stage, molecular subtype and biological pathways. We found connections between CGI methylation and hypermutability, microsatellite instability, IDH1 mutation, 19p gain and polycomb features, and backbone demethylation with chromosomal instability, NSD1 and TP53 mutations, 5q and 19p loss and long repressive domains. These broad epigenetic patterns add a new dimension to our understanding of tumor biology and its clinical implications. PMID:26464434

  6. Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk.

    PubMed

    Lönn, Stefan; Ahlbom, Anders; Hall, Per; Feychting, Maria

    2005-03-15

    Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Sweden during the late 1980s. The purpose of this population-based, case-control study was to test the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of brain tumors. The authors identified all cases aged 20-69 years who were diagnosed with glioma or meningioma during 2000-2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Randomly selected controls were stratified on age, gender, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 371 (74%) glioma and 273 (85%) meningioma cases and 674 (71%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, the odds ratio was 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for glioma and 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 0.9) for meningioma. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone use. No risk increase was found for ipsilateral phone use for tumors located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, the odds ratio did not increase, regardless of tumor histology, type of phone, and amount of use. This study includes a large number of long-term mobile phone users, and the authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Paramythiotis, Daniel; Kofina, Konstantinia; Bangeas, Petros; Tsiompanou, Fani; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Basdanis, George

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal tumor typically located in the pleura, but can also be found as an asymptomatic mass in other areas, including the liver, peritoneum, kidney and salivary glands. However, SFT rarely locates in the pancreas. We present such a case of pancreatic SFT, along with a review of all reported cases. A 55-year-old man was treated surgically for an asymptomatic pancreatic mass after a rigorous preoperative control. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed characteristics of an SFT. As only 15 cases of pancreatic SFT have been reported so far, an attempt to compare the cases was considered intriguing. We found that patients with pancreatic SFT were mainly women (81.25%), with a median age of 54 years at the time of diagnosis and a median tumor size of 5.83 cm. Pancreatic SFTs were revealed incidentally in 50% of cases, and all of them showed an enhancement through arterial computed tomography. All tumors were positive for CD34, ten were positive for Bcl-2, and twelve were negative for S100. The diagnosis of this pancreatic tumor is established by a combination of clinical suspicion, imaging procedures and histological findings, and is confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Although the behavior of SFTs is rather benign, close clinical follow-up is recommended due to a potentially malignant nature. PMID:27358679

  8. [Pelvic actinomycosis simulating adnexal malignant tumor].

    PubMed

    Benkiran, L; Gamra, L; Lamalmi, N; Essouyeh, M; Regragui, A; Amrani, M; Souadka, A; Melabbas, M A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 35-year-old patient admitted to the National Oncology Institute in Rabat, Morocco for pelvic pain and deteriorating general status ongoing for 8 months. Clinical and ultrasonographic examination showed a heterogenous mass measuring 7 cm in maximum width located inferior and lateral to the inferior aspect of the right side of the uterus. These findings were suggestive of a malignant tumor of the right ovary. Ovariectomy and omentectomy were performed. Histological examination of surgical specimens demonstrated right tubo-ovarian actinomycosis associated with peritonitis. Genital tract actinomycosis is an uncommon finding in women of childbearing age. It is due to colonization by a pyogenic bacteria (Actinomyces) usually secondary to a gastrointestinal infection, e.g. ileocecum, and sometimes in association with the presence of an intrauterine device or foreign body. Based on this case report, the authors discuss abdominopelvic actinomyocosis with emphasis on tumor-like findings that can lead to misdiagnosis by clinicians and radiologists.

  9. Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors.

    PubMed

    Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis

    2014-03-01

    A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner's syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors.

  10. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  11. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  12. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  13. Coso MT Site Locations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2011-05-04

    This data includes the locations of the MT data collected in and around the Coso Geothermal field that covered the West Flank area. These are the data that the 3D MT models were created from that were discussed in Phase 1 of the West Flank FORGE project. The projected coordinate system is NAD 1927 State Plane California IV FIPS 0404 and the Projection is Lambert Conformal Conic. Units are in feet.

  14. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.

  15. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  16. Separatrix location in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Frederick; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, Ricky; Menard, Jon; Leblanc, Ben; Bell, Ron; Paul, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    The separatrix location and corresponding plasma parameters in NSTX were estimated for H-mode discharge 117125 containing both MARFEs and ELMs and for Type V ELMy H-mode discharge 128337. Since equilibrium reconstructions with LRDFIT did not accurately locate the LFS separatrix, a method based on the strong electron parallel heat conductivity was used to map the LFS magnetic flux surfaces to the HFS since the innermost Thomson scattering measurement of Te(R) is the most accurate. During a MARFE or at MARFE onset in NSTX shot 117125, this method estimated the electron temperature at the LFS separatrix, Te,sep, to vary between 31 and 41 eV. At times with no MARFE or ELM, Te,sep ranged between 41 and 93 eV. These Te,sep values compare well with Te,sep values (28-35 eV) in TEXTOR just before MARFE onset.^1 In NSTX shot 128337 late in the Type V ELMy phase, Te,sep was estimated to be ˜100 eV. These separatrix locations place the Er well outside the separatrix. [1] F.A. Kelly, W.M. Stacey, J. Rapp and M. Brix, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 3382.

  17. Locating the stranger rapist.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Dale, A

    1996-04-01

    As part of a larger project evaluating aspects of offender profiling, an initial study was undertaken of the geographic aspects of approximately 300 sexual offences carried out by 79 stranger rapists. The objective was to focus further research on the topic into potentially useful channels, but information thought to be of immediate use to investigating officers was also produced. It was ascertained that at least one-fifth of the sample of stranger rapists were itinerant to a greater or lesser extent. Analysis of the cases where both the offender's address and the location where he approached the victim were known, indicated that the majority of attacks (75 per cent) were initiated within five miles of the offenders' homes. The apparent reasons for victims being approached unusually far away included targeting of locations where numbers of suitable victims were available; raping during relatively sophisticated property offences; 'prowling' or 'hunting' over large areas by subjects who spent considerable amounts of time so doing; access to transport; and familiarity with widely dispersed neighbourhoods, often due to the offender having lived in two or more locations. As a result of this work, future research on the geography of rape will be directed towards those aspects of the offences which have been identified as relevant to the distance between an offender's base and the site where he approached his victim.

  18. Granular Cell Tumor of Rectum: A Very Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Savitha V.

    2017-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are predominantly benign, occurring more commonly in women, with about 10% developing in the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal location of this tumor is very rare. We herein report one such case of a 61-year-old man with granular cell tumor in the rectum who underwent endoscopic curative resection. PMID:28255473

  19. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H.; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice. PMID:28061500

  20. Indian data on central nervous tumors: A summary of published work

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Archya; Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute approximately 2% of all malignancies. Although relatively rare, the associated morbidity and mortality and the significant proportion of affected young and middle-aged individuals has a major bearing on the death-adjusted life years compared to other malignancies. CNS tumors encompass a very broad spectrum with regards to age, location, histology, and clinical outcomes. Advances in diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, radiotherapy equipment, and generation of newer chemotherapeutic and targeted agents over the past few years have helped improving treatment outcome. Further insights into the molecular pathways leading to the development of tumors made in the past decade are being incorporated into routine clinical practice. Several focused groups within India have been working on a range of topics related to CNS tumors, and a significant body of work from India, in the recent years, is being increasingly recognized throughout the world. The present article summarizes key published work with particular emphasis on gliomas and medulloblastoma, the two commonly encountered tumors. PMID:27606302

  1. The rare malignancy of the hepatobiliary system: ampullary carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Mustafa; Ozsoy, Yucel; Canda, Aras Emre; Nalbant, Olcay Ak; Haskaraca, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Carcinoid tumors are low-grade tumors originating from endoderm and mostly involving the gastrointestinal system. However; they may be seen in any site within the gastrointestinal system. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old female patient. The results of blood tests were observed to be consistent with obstructive jaundice. A mass appearance was not encountered on tomographic examination. Papilla that was tumor-like macroscopically was seen in the second part of the duodenum in diagnostic endoscopy. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy surgical procedure was applied. On pathological examination of the mass, a tumoral mass was detected in ampulla vateri localization, 1.5 × 1 × 0.8 cm in size, which, in immunohistochemical staining, was evaluated as a neuroendocrine tumor. Also, Metastasis was observed. Conclusion. The rarest type of carcinoid tumor is ampullary located carcinoid tumor, and tumor size is not a reliable indicator for tumor aggressivity in ampullary carcinoid tumors.

  2. Radiotherapy and death from cerebrovascular disease in patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Ayal A; Du, Rose; Wen, Patrick Y; Arvold, Nils D

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is often used in the management of primary brain tumors, but late cerebrovascular risks remain incompletely characterized. We examined the relationship between radiotherapy and the risk of death from cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in this population. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify 19,565 patients of any age diagnosed with a primary brain tumor between 1983-2002. Multivariable competing risks analysis and an interaction model were used to determine whether receipt of radiotherapy was associated with an increased risk of CVD-specific death, adjusting for tumor proximity to central arterial circulations of the brain. The median follow up in surviving patients was 12.75 years. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients who did and did not receive radiotherapy. Ten-year CVD-specific mortality in patients with tumors near central arterial circulations who did and did not receive radiotherapy were 0.64 % (95 % CI 0.42-0.93 %) versus 0.16 % (95 % CI 0.055-0.40 %), p = 0.01. After adjustment for demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related covariates, patients with tumors near central arterial circulations were significantly more likely to experience CVD-specific mortality after radiotherapy (HR 2.81; 95 % CI 1.25-6.31; p = 0.01); no association was observed among patients with more distant tumors (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.50-1.16; p = 0.21). The interaction model showed that tumor location was a key predictor of the risk of radiotherapy-associated, CVD-specific mortality (p-interaction = 0.004). Patients receiving radiotherapy for tumors near but not distant from the central vasculature of the brain are at increased risk for death secondary to CVD, which should be considered when counseling patients.

  3. Tumor detection at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Robin N.; Hahn, Hee I.

    1993-06-01

    We describe detectors capable of locating small tumors of variable size in the highly textured anatomic backgrounds typical of gamma-ray images. The problem of inhomogeneous background noise is solved using a spatially adaptive statistical scaling operation, which effectively pre-whitens the data and leads to a very simple form of adaptive matched filter. Detecting tumors of variable size is accomplished by processing the images formed in a Laplacian pyramid, each of which contains a narrower range of tumor scales. We compare the performance of this pyramid technique with our earlier nonlinear detector, which detects small tumors according to their signature in curvature feature space, where 'curvature' is the local curvature of the image data when viewed as a relief map. Computed curvature values are mapped to a normalized significance space using a windowed t-statistic. The resulting test statistic is thresholded at a chosen level of significance to give a positive detection. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed. This curvature detector works quite well over a large range of tumor scales, although not as well as the pyramid/adaptive matched filter scheme. None of the multiscale techniques tested perform at the level of the fixed scale detectors. Tests are performed using simulated tumors superimposed on clinical gamma-ray images.

  4. Tentorium schwannoma mimicking meningioma: an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Calişaneller, Tarkan; Ozen, Ozlem; Altinörs, Nur; Caner, Hakan

    2008-07-01

    A 60-year-old female was admitted to our clinic complaining of a long-lasting headache. Cranial magnetic resonance imagining examination of the patient revealed a 22x24 mm extra-axial, well-demarcated, mass lesion based on the left tentorium. The patient underwent a craniotomy and the tumor was totally excised with the adjacent tentorium. The histopathological examination of the tumor complied with the diagnosis of schwannoma. The rest of the clinical course was uneventful and the patient was released from the hospital without any neurological deficit. Intracranial schwannomas can rarely originate from atypical dural locations and radiological techniques are not always helpful in distinguishing tentorial schwannoma from tentorial meningioma. We presented a patient with a tentorium schwannoma mimicking meningioma and discussed the current literature.

  5. Sonar Locator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  6. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  7. Metastatic carcinoid tumor--atypical presentation.

    PubMed

    Pleşa, Alina; Sarca, Emanuela; Maxim, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor, originating in the enterochromaffin cells and secreting mainly serotonin. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are found throughout the intestinal tract, the appendix and terminal ileum being the most common locations, and are classified by site of origin and by degree of differentiation, with well-differentiated lesions representing those tumors formerly referred to as carcinoid tumors. The clinical symptoms are characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and/or bronchial constriction and occur almost exclusively in patients with liver metastases due to the release of bioactive peptides and amines directly into the systemic circulation. We report the clinical, serological and histological diagnosis of a 67-years-old male patient with congestive heart failure secondary to carcinoid heart disease in the context of liver metastases of an ileum carcinoid tumor.

  8. Unusual Glomus Tumor of the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Gautam; Warren, Kelly; Miao, Yimei; Singh, Navjot; Suh, Yiji; Khan, Sardar A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glomus tumors are benign neoplasms commonly found in subungual regions of the extremities and rarely located in the penis. Misdiagnosis of glomus tumors is common; therefore, symptoms and clinical presentations should be reviewed. Objective The primary objective of this review article is to emphasize the pathogenesis, pathology, clinical presentation, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment methods of glomus tumors in order to better identify and manage the condition. Materials and Methods Research was conducted using PubMed/Medline. The inclusion criteria required glomus tumor to be present on the penis. Results Glomus tumors, which appear as symptomatic or asymptomatic lesions, are attributed to dispersion grouping of neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions in a particular area. Conclusion Differential diagnosis of glomus tumors includes hemangiomas, neurofibromatosis, epithelial lesions, and spindle-cell lesions. Physical examination and histological findings should be used for diagnosis. Treatment options can be either conservative or invasive, in which the patient undergoes surgical excision. PMID:27867327

  9. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  10. Developmental Aspects of Memory for Spatial Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether the encoding of location meets criteria defining an automatic process. Automatic processes are not expected to show developmental changes beyond an early age. They appear to be unrelated to intelligence level and unaffected by instructions. Results support Hasher and Zack's automaticity hypothesis. (RWB)

  11. How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed? Wilms tumors are usually found when a ... Your Child’s Doctor About Wilms Tumor? More In Wilms Tumor About Wilms Tumor Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  12. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Thoriya, Prashant J; Watal, Pankaj; Bahri, Nandini U; Rathod, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    Neoplasms in the region of filum terminale are not uncommon. Myxopapillary ependymoma is the commonest tumor at this location. The differentials reported for this entity are nerve sheath tumor, meningioma, paraganglioma, intradural metastases, lymphoma, other varieties of ependymoma, subependymoma, astrocytoma, ganglioglioma, hemangioblastoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). PNET may very rarely present as an intradural thoracolumbar mass. We present pre- and post-therapy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a patient with proven primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PSPNET) of peripheral subtype.

  13. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case study.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mills, Anne M; Showalter, Shayna L

    2014-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, fast-growing tumors that can be difficult to diagnose. A case study is featured about a young adult patient who lacked insurance and received a delayed diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. This article includes pertinent clinical and age-specific considerations for comprehensive management.

  14. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  15. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Board Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  16. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  17. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  18. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  19. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  20. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  1. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide Journal of Hand Surgery (JHS) Home Anatomy Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors Email to a friend * ... are seen commonly. CAUSES Common Types of Wrist Hand Tumors Ganglion Cysts (Figure 1): This is the ...

  2. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors A A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  3. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  4. Human liver tumors in relation to steroidal usage.

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, G H; Christopherson, W M

    1983-01-01

    Since 1973 a number of investigators have reported an association between liver neoplasia and steroid usage. Through referral material we have examined the histology of over 250 cases of hepatic neoplasia, most in patients receiving steroid medications. The majority have been benign, predominantly focal nodular hyperplasia (55%) and hepatocellular adenoma (39%). The average age was 31.4 years; 83% had significant steroid exposure with an average duration of 71 months for focal nodular hyperplasia and 79.6 months for hepatocellular adenoma. The type of estrogenic agent was predominantly mestranol; however, during the period mestranol was the most frequently used synthetic steroid. A distinct clinical entity of life threatening hemorrhage from the lesion occurred in 31% of patients with hepatocellular adenoma and 9% of patients with focal nodular hyperplasia. Recurrence of benign tumors has occurred in some patients who continued using steroids and regression has been observed in patients who had incomplete tumor removal but discontinued steroid medication. Medial and intimal vascular changes have been present in a large number of the benign tumors. The relationship of these vascular changes to oncogenesis is unclear, but similar lesions have been described in the peripheral vasculature associated with steroid administration. A number of hepatocellular carcinomas have also been seen. Of significance is the young age of these patients and lack of abnormal histology in adjacent nonneoplastic liver. A striking number of the malignant hepatocellular tumors have been of the uncommon type described as "eosinophilic hepatocellular carcinoma with lamellar fibrosis." The epidemiology of liver lesions within this series is difficult to assess, since the material has been referred from very diverse locations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:6307679

  5. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts.

  6. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  7. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  8. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  9. Clinicopathologic study of 275 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: the experience at 3 large medical centers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Vázquez, Gonzálo; Sierra Santiesteban, Francisca I; Hernández-Hernández, Dulce Ma; Pompa, Angel Zavala

    2007-02-01

    It is important to distinguish gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors (GISTs) from other GI mesenchymal tumors (GIMTs) because of the availability of molecular-targeted therapy for GISTs. The aim of the study was to reclassify GIMTs and to determine the clinicopathologic features of GISTs in Mexico. Cases of GIMT identified from the database of 3 large diagnostic centers in Mexico between 1995 and 2004 were reclassified according to current criteria. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and clinical histories were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-CD117, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein. A total of 275 GISTs were identified. The tumors were located in the stomach (40%), small intestine (35%), colorectum (12%), abdominal cavity (11%), and esophagus (2%). There were equal numbers of men and women with a mean age at diagnosis of 61 years. The tumors ranged in size from 3.5 to 34 cm (mean, 9.1 cm); 95 tumors (34%) were larger than 10 cm. Colorectal and omental tumors were the largest. The cell types included pure spindle (68%), pure epithelioid (16%), and mixed epithelioid/spindle (14%). Whereas 17.8% of tumors were regarded as low risk, 43% of tumors were in the high-risk category. CD117 positivity was detected in most of the tumors (96%). In addition to CD117, 255 cases (92%) were positive for CD34, 82 cases (32%) were positive for smooth muscle actin, and 13 cases (4.7%) were positive for desmin. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Mexico have the same clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features as those reported in other countries. It is not always easy to distinguish GISTs from other soft tissue lesions. The diagnosis can be difficult even for experienced pathologists.

  10. Endobronchial solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Marcelo Padovani Toledo; Colby, Thomas; Oliveira, Gilmar Felisberto; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria; De Faveri, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that appears primarily in the pleura and rarely in intrapulmonary or endobronchial topography. The authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented obstructive respiratory symptoms for 4 years. The chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy showed an obstructive polypoid lesion located between the trachea and the left main bronchus associated with distal atelectasis of the left lung. A resection of the lesion was performed and, macroscopically, the mass was oval, encapsulated, and firm, measuring 2.3 × 1.7 × 1.5 cm. Histology revealed low-grade mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasm, with alternating cellularity, myxoid areas, and mature adipose tissue outbreaks, as well as blood vessels with irregular walls. The immunohistochemical study was positive for CD34, CD99, and BCL2. The diagnosis was SFT in an unusual topography. The patient’s symptoms remitted after tumor excision, and no systemic problems were evident. SFTs primarily affect adults and often follow a benign course; however, their behavior is unpredictable. The presence of necrosis and mitotic activity may portend a poor prognosis. Endobronchial SFTs are rare but should be evaluated and monitored similar to SFTs at other sites, with a long-term follow-up. PMID:28210572

  11. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  12. Epigenetics in clinical management of children and adolescents with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Morales La Madrid, Andres; Kieran, Mark W

    2017-02-03

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the second most prevalent group of cancers in children and adolescents, yet account for the majority of childhood cancer-related deaths and considerable morbidity among survivors, due to high-intensity non-selective standard therapies delivered to immature nervous system structures undergoing development. These tumors arise at different ages -not infrequently very early in life-, in different locations and cellular contexts, have varied cell types of origin, and have heterogeneous responses to the "classic" current therapeutic approaches. Demographic, radiologic and morphological characterization have several limitations, putting into the "classic boxes" heterogeneous tumors that are diverse in their genetic and epigenetic background and that will likely behave biologically differently. Given that epigenetic disruption (i.e. DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodeling) is a common feature identified more and more frequently in pediatric cancer, it is logical to speculate that interrogating epigenetic marks may help to further define the molecular profile, and therefore tumor biology, evolution and treatment of these tumors. An integrated approach that incorporates traditional features complemented with genetic and epigenenetic specific markers offers tremendous promise to "risk-group" stratification and better prognostication. Also, it will help unveil key driver pathways for tumor formation and for the discovery of targeted therapy for neoplasms that appear in the developing brain, facilitating early identification of therapy responders and track accurately disease progression. In this paper, we will review the most representative pediatric brain tumors where epigenetic alterations have been identified as initiating or driving events in tumor development, maintenance or progression.

  13. Hypothyroidism reduces mammary tumor progression via Β-catenin-activated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, C M; Zyla, L E; Santiano, F E; Sasso, C V; Cuello-Carrión, F D; Pistone Creydt, V; Fanelli, M A; Carón, R W

    2017-02-13

    Experimental hypothyroidism retards mammary carcinogenesis promoting apoptosis of tumor cells. β-catenin plays a critical role in cell adhesion and intracellular signaling pathways conditioning the prognosis of breast cancer. However, the mechanistic connections associated with the expression of β-catenin in thyroid status and breast cancer are not known. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the expression and localization of β-catenin and apoptosis in mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in hypothyroid (Hypot) and euthyroid (EUT) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with a dose of DMBA (15 mg/rat) at 55 days of age and were then divided into two groups: HypoT (0.01% 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water, n = 54) and EUT (untreated control, n = 43). Latency, incidence and progression of tumors were determined. At sacrifice, tumors were obtained for immunohistological studies and Western Blot. The latency was longer (p < 0.05), the incidence was lower (p < 0.0001) and tumor growth was slower (p < 0.01) in HypoT rats compared to EUT. The expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly higher in tumors of HypoT than in EUT (p < 0.05) indicating the activation of the intrinsic pathway. In this group, β-catenin was expressed in the plasma membrane and with less intensity, while its expression was nuclear and with greater intensity in the EUT (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of survivin was reduced in tumors of HypoT rats (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreased expression of β-catenin and its normal location in membrane of mammary tumors are associated with augmented apoptosis via activation of the intrinsic pathway in HypoT rats.

  14. Implication of Tumor Microenvironment in Chemoresistance: Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Protect Tumor Cells from Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Castells, Magali; Thibault, Benoît; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Couderc, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous reports have revealed the complexity of tumors and their microenvironment with tumor cells located within a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. These stromal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial or mesothelial cells, adipocytes or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, immune cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells) could be involved in the chemoresistance that is acquired by tumor cells via several mechanisms: (i) cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions influencing the cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis; (ii) local release of soluble factors promoting survival and tumor growth (crosstalk between stromal and tumor cells); (iii) direct cell-cell interactions with tumor cells (crosstalk or oncologic trogocytosis); (iv) generation of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the acquisition of drug resistance; or (v) conversion of the cancer cells to cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells. This review will focus on the implication of each member of the heterogeneous population of stromal cells in conferring resistance to cytotoxins and physiological mediators of cell death. PMID:22949815

  15. Meckel Diverticulum Harboring a Rare Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Andrew C.; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Kanar, Ozdemir; Hamer, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumors within a Meckel diverticulum are a rare complication observed in only 0.5%-3.2% of symptomatic cases. The majority of tumors are benign, but some malignant tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can occur. Case Report: We report the case of a 48-year-old female who presented with severe abdominal pain and nausea and was found to have a GIST arising from a Meckel diverticulum. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in a middle-aged female presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms must remain broad. With an atypical presentation site, distinguishing benign tumors from malignant tumors such as GISTs is of paramount importance. PMID:28331460

  16. Imaging Review of Skeletal Tumors of the Pelvis Malignant Tumors and Tumor Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Gandikota; Finlay, Karen; Fessell, David; Pai, Deepa; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lesions of the pelvis are not uncommon and need to be differentiated from benign lesions and tumor mimics. Appearances are sometimes nonspecific leading to consideration of a broad differential diagnosis. Clinical history, anatomic location, and imaging characterization can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the imaging features and the role of plain films, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting and characterizing malignant osseous pelvic lesions and their common mimics. PMID:22593667

  17. Morbidity and mortality of pancreatic tumors undergoing surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    ZENI, Luiza Bueno; RUSSI, Ricardo Fantazzini; FIALHO, Alexandre Faleiro; FONSECA, Ana Luiza Pagani; SOMBRIO, Lyara Schaefer; ROCHA, Igor Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate due to late diagnosis and aggressive behavior. The prognosis is poor, with 5-year survival occurring in less than 5% of cases. Aim To analyze demographic characteristics, comorbidities, type of procedure and early postoperative complications of patients with pancreatic cancer submitted to surgical treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study with analysis of 28 medical records of patients with malignant tumors of the pancreas in a 62 month. Data collection was performed from the medical records of the hospital. Results Of the total, 53,6% were male and the mean age was 60.25 years. According to the procedure, 53,6% was submitted to duodenopancreactectomy the remainder to biliodigestive derivation or distal pancreatectomy. The ductal adenocarcinoma occurred in 82,1% and 92,9% of tumors were located in the pancreatic head. Early postoperative complications occurred in 64,3% of cases and the most prevalent was intra-abdominal abscess (32,1%). Among duodenopancreactectomies 77,8% had early postoperative complications. Conclusion Its necessary to encourage early detection of tumors of the pancreas to raise the number operations with curative intent. Refinements in surgical techniques and surgical teams can diminish postoperative complications and, so, operative morbimortality can also decrease over time. PMID:25626938

  18. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Hepatic Arteriography in Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Performance Depicting Tumors and Tumor Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Joon; Chung, Jin Wook Yin, Yong Hu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to analyze retrospectively the performance of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) hepatic arteriography in depicting tumors and their feeders and to investigate the related determining factors in chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsEighty-six patients with 142 tumors satisfying the imaging diagnosis criteria of HCC were included in this study. The performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography for chemoembolization per tumor and per patient was evaluated using maximum intensity projection images alone (MIP analysis) or MIP combined with multiplanar reformation images (MIP + MPR analysis) regarding the following three aspects: tumor depiction, confidence of tumor feeder detection, and trackability of tumor feeders. Tumor size, tumor enhancement, tumor location, number of feeders, diaphragmatic motion, portal vein enhancement, and hepatic artery to parenchyma enhancement ratio were regarded as potential determining factors.ResultsTumors were depicted in 125 (88.0 %) and 142 tumors (100 %) on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis, respectively. Imaging performances on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis were good enough to perform subsegmental chemoembolization without additional angiographic investigation in 88 (62.0 %) and 128 tumors (90.1 %) on per-tumor basis and in 43 (50 %) and 73 (84.9 %) on per-patient basis, respectively. Significant determining factors for performance in MIP + MPR analysis on per tumor basis were tumor size (p = 0.030), tumor enhancement (0.005), tumor location (p = 0.001), and diaphragmatic motion (p < 0.001).ConclusionsCBCT hepatic arteriography provided sufficient information for subsegmental chemoembolization by depicting tumors and their feeders in the vast majority of patients. Combined analysis of MIP and MPR images was essential to enhance the performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography.

  19. Tumor of follicular infundibulum with unique features*

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Natalie; de Oliveira Filho, Jayme; Reis, Mariana Junqueira Lacerda; Michalany, Alexandre Ozores; Nasser, Kassila da Rosa; Corbett, Ana Maria França

    2014-01-01

    Tumor of the follicular infundibulum is a rare benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm with variable clinical presentation. In most cases the diagnosis is made with the help of histopathology, due to lack of a characteristic clinical presentation. The most common form is a solitary lesion, but it can be multiple or eruptive, then called infundibulomatose. This case report illustrates a patient with multiple lesions of tumor of the follicular infundibulum with bizarre aspect and atypical location. PMID:25387502

  20. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (<3 people/household) were 4 times as likely in natural areas as large households. Longer residency in natural areas predicted less environmentally oriented attitudes, suggesting that living in natural areas does not foster more concern for nature. Because populaces are rapidly aging, growing more educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results

  1. Max Wilms and his tumor.

    PubMed

    Raffensperger, John

    2015-02-01

    The most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children is named for Max Wilms, a German surgeon. How did this eponym come about? There were excellent reviews of this lesion before Wilms, a second year surgical assistant, published "Die Mischgeschwulste Der Niere" or The Mixed Tumors of the Kidney in 1899. At thirty two years of age, he demonstrated a masterful knowledge of pathology and embryology. Wilms' career was cut short when he became septic after operating on a prisoner of war during WWI. The survival rate for children with Wilms tumor was dismal until William Ladd, at the Boston Children's hospital introduced rational surgical treatment. By mid century, Robert Gross achieved a 47% survival rate with surgery combined with postoperative radiation. Sydney Farber treated Wilms tumors with Actinomycin-d and opened the door to cancer chemotherapy. With protocols developed by the National Wilms Tumor Study Group, the survival rate of children with Wilms tumors reached 90% by the end of the twentieth century.

  2. Tumors in brown bullheads in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: analysis of survey data from 1992 through 2006.

    PubMed

    Pikney, Alfred E; Harshbarger, John C; Rutter, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Liver and skin tumor prevalences in brown bullheads Ameiurus nebulosus have been used in the North American Great Lakes to designate highly contaminated areas of concern and monitor their recovery. Here we interpret the results of six surveys conducted in the Chesapeake Bay watershed between 1992 and 2006, with data for 647 fish. The objective has been to develop an adequate database to critically evaluate the use of tumor prevalence as a habitat quality indicator within the watershed. Surveys featured randomized fish collection; recording of sex, length, weight, and age; and histopathology of all livers and all raised skin lesions. The Bayes information criterion was used to analyze all possible combinations of age, gender, length, and weight as covariates for logistic regression. Length and gender were the covariates that best described liver tumor prevalence. There were no covariates in the model for skin tumor prevalence. In some surveys, biomarkers, such as biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-like metabolites, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity, and hepatic DNA adducts, were used with sediment and tissue chemistry data to evaluate classes of chemicals as likely contributors to tumor prevalence. We highlight two surveys of the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. (average = 55% liver tumors, 23% skin tumors), where sediment PAHs, biliary PAH-like metabolites, and hepatic DNA adducts were high, suggesting that PAHs play a major role. We show that logistic regression is an appropriate procedure for comparing "contaminated" versus "reference" locations, and we evaluate the utility of tumor surveys as an environmental indicator for the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  3. A Suggestion of Modified Classification of Trigeminal Schwannomas According to Location, Shape, and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Eun Jung; Hue, Yun Hee; Cho, Young Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Comprehensive knowledge of the anatomical features of trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) is essential in planning surgery to achieve complete tumor resection. In the current report, we propose a modified classification of TSs according to their location of origin, shape, and extension into the adjacent compartment, and discuss appropriate surgical strategies with this classification. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 49 patients with TS who were treated surgically by a single neurosurgeon at the Asan Medical Center between 1993 and 2013. Results There were 22 males and 27 females, with the median age of 40 years (range, 21-75 years). Median tumor size was 4.0 cm in diameter (2.0-7.0 cm). Tumors were classified as follows: Type M (confined to the middle fossa; 8 cases, 19.0%), P (confined to the posterior fossa; 2 cases, 4.8%), MP (involving equally both middle and posterior fossae; 5 cases, 11.9%), Mp (predominantly middle fossa with posterior fossa extension; 6 cases, 14.3%), Pm (predominantly posterior fossa with middle fossa extension; 16 cases, 38.1%), Me (predominantly middle fossa with extracranial extension; 4 cases, 9.5%). Surgical approach was chosen depending on the tumor classification. More specifically, a frontotemporal craniotomy and extradural approach with or without zygomatic or orbitozygomatic osteotomy was applied to M- or Mp-type tumors; a lateral suboccipital craniotomy with or without suprameatal approach was applied to the majority of P- or Pm-type tumors; and a posterior transpetrosal approach was used in four tumors (three Pm and one MP). Gross total resection was achieved in 95.9% of patients, and the overall recurrence rate was 4.1% (2 patients). Postoperatively, trigeminal symptoms were improved or unchanged in 51.0% of cases (25 patients). Surgical complications included meningitis (5 patients) and cerebrospinal fluid leakage (3 patients). There was no mortality. Conclusion TSs are well to be classified with our modified

  4. A multivariate analysis of factors determining tumor progression in childhood low-grade glioma: a population-based cohort study (CCLG CNS9702)

    PubMed Central

    Stokland, Tore; Liu, Jo-Fen; Ironside, James W.; Ellison, David W.; Taylor, Roger; Robinson, Kathryn J.; Picton, Susan V.; Walker, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for the progression of low-grade glioma in children from a large population-based cohort. Patient and tumor details of a national cohort of children with low-grade glioma, recruited into an international multidisciplinary clinical strategy, were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses of progression-free survival and overall survival. From the cohort of 798 patients, 639 patients were eligible, with a median age 6.71 years (0.26–16.75 years); 49% were males; 15.9% had neurofibromatosis type 1, 63.7% pilocytic astrocytoma, 5.9% fibrillary astrocytoma, 4.2% mixed neuronal-glial tumors, and 3.6% others; 21.1% were diagnosed clinically. Anatomically implicated were 31.6% cerebellum, 24.6% chiasma/hypothalamus, 16.0% cerebral hemispheres, 9.9% brain stem, 6.1% other supratentorial midline structures, 5.9% optic nerve only, 4.5% spinal cord, and 1.4% others. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival in the whole cohort were 94.6% and 69.4%, respectively. There was a significant association between age and site (P < .001) and extent of tumor resection and site (P < .001). Multivariate analysis identified young age, fibrillary astrocytoma, and extent of surgical resection as significant independent risk factors for progression. Hypothalamic/chiasmatic tumors demonstrated the most sustained tendency to progress. In conclusion, the influence of age and anatomical site upon the risk of tumor progression suggests that these factors strongly influence tumor behavior for the majority of pilocytic tumors. Age <1 year and 1–5 years, fibrillary histology, completeness of resection, and chiasmatic location are candidates for stratification in future studies. PMID:20861086

  5. Tumor detection in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Robin N.

    1992-12-01

    We describe a nonlinear detector which uses student's t-test to locate tumors occurring in anatomic background. The detector computes the significance of any observed difference between the mean of features extracted from a small, circular search window and the mean of features belonging to an outer, concentric background window. The t-test is applied to search windows at every pixel location in the image. The t-statistic computed from the sample means and variances of the inner and outer regions is thresholded at a chosen significance level to give a positive detection. The response of the detector peaks when the inner window coincides with a bright spot of the same size. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed, except for structure of the same size and shape as the tumors being sought. Because the t-statistic is a true measure of significance, it can be applied to any set of features which are likely to distinguish tumors. We apply the test to two features, one related to object intensity and the other to object shape. A final determination on the presence and location of tumors is made by a simple combination of the significance levels generated from each feature. Tests are performed using simulated tumors superimposed on clinical images. Performance curves resembling standard receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) plots show a slight improvement over the prewhitening matched filter. Unlike the matched filter, however, the t-test detector assumes nothing specific about the tumor apart from its size.

  6. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  7. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  8. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  9. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  10. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vagus nerve].

    PubMed

    Pegbessou, E; Diom, E S; Ndiaye, M; Dieng, P A; Nao, E E M; Thiam, A; Diouf, M S; Boube, D; Ndiaye, C; Kossinda, F; Tall, A; Diallo, B K; Ndiaye, I C; Diouf, R; Diop, E M

    2013-12-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are a rare type of malignant neuroectodermal tumor that is very aggressive. Cervicofacial location is rare, even exceptional. We report a case of a 4-month-old male infant, referred from the pediatric clinic for severe supralaryngeal dyspnea, a firm mass under the left mandibular angle, mobile and extended to the parotid area, painful, with a curve of the left side wall of the oropharynx. Cervical computed tomodensitometry showed a well-limited mass in the carotid area, enhanced by the contrast product. A vascularized mass, which had developed at the expense of the vagus nerve, was removed surgically. Histology found a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

  11. Malignant tumors of the larynx: Clinicopathologic profile and implication for late disease presentation

    PubMed Central

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Ogundoyin, Oluwole Agboola; Onakoya, Paul Adekunle; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant laryngeal tumors are uncommon. Late presentation of the disease may worsen management outcomes. We described the epidemiologic, clinicopathologic profile, and management outcomes of laryngeal tumors in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An 11-year retrospective review of medical records of patients managed for malignant laryngeal tumor at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, was performed. Results: There were 97 patients comprising 74 (76.3%) males and 23 (23.7%) females with a mean age of 60.48 ± 12.15 years. The mean duration of illness was 7.3 ± 3.8 months. History of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption was in 2.1% and 14.4% patients, respectively. The most common clinical presentations were hoarseness, cough, and dyspnea. Transglottis (91.8%) was the most common anatomic tumor location and 92.8% patients presented in advanced disease stage. Four histologic types were identified with squamous cell carcinoma accounting for 96.9%. About 92% patients had emergency tracheostomy and 56 (57.7%) patients had total laryngectomy. The postoperative complications were pharyngocutaneous fistula (5.2%) and peristomal recurrence (3.1%). The 5-year survival rate was 52.5%. Conclusions: Malignant laryngeal tumors are uncommon, but more females are getting the disease. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic variant. Late stage disease presentation and initial wrong diagnosis contributed to the poor management outcome. PMID:27833247

  12. Esophageal granular cell tumor: Clinical, endoscopic and histological features of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MING; SUN, ZE-QUN; ZOU, XIAO-PING

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and often misdiagnosed. To demonstrate their clinicopathological features, the present study reports 19 cases and reviews the literature. There were 11 female and eight male esophageal GCT patients with a median age of 42.0 years. All the tumors were solitary. The majority of patient indications for endoscopy (89.5%) were non-specific and endoscopic therapy was performed in 17 cases with a relapse in one case after a 12-month follow-up. The endoscopic appearance of esophageal GCT was variable and the majority of tumors (80.0%) were located in the middle and lower esophageal segments. The size of the tumors ranged from 0.4 to 2 cm in diameter and the surface was white-gray, pink or yellow. Nine patients underwent an endoscopic ultrasound exam, eight of which demonstrated hypoechoic echostructures with a smooth margin and intracavity growth features. One case was derived from the muscularis propria layer with an irregular margin and intra- and extra-cavity growth features. The histological features could mimic other tumors and immunohistochemical stains are usually positive for S-100, periodic acid-Schiff, neuron-specific enolase and nestin. Three cases indicated pleomorphism and Ki-67 was locally positive. Esophageal GCTs are rare and endoscopic ultrasound features are variable. Immunohistochemical staining may aid in the diagnosis. PMID:25013469

  13. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  14. Reirradiation of tumors in cats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Theon, A.P.

    1988-08-15

    Fifty-one cats and dogs with tumor recurrence after irradiation were treated with a second course of radiotherapy, using either teletherapy or brachytherapy. Eighty-six percent of the tumors had partial or complete response at 2 months after reirradiation. Tumor response was significantly (P = 0.041) affected when the interval between the 2 courses of irradiation was greater than 5 months. The estimated local tumor control rate was 38% at 1 year after reirradiation. Of all the factors examined, complete response at 2 months, reirradiation field size less than or equal to 10 cm2, and reirradiation dose greater than 40 gray emerged as predictors of local tumor control. The estimated overall survival rate was 47% at 2 years. Tumor location had a significant (P = 0.001) influence on overall survival; animals with cutaneous tumors had the longest survival times, and those with oral tumors had the shortest survival times. The other significant (P = 0.001) factor affecting overall survival time was the field size of the reirradiated site. Estimated survival time after reirradiation was 41% at 1 year. Favorable prognostic indicators were complete response at 2 months and location of tumor; animals with skin tumors had a favorable prognosis. The acute effects of reirradiation on normal tissues were acceptable, but 12% of the animals had severe delayed complications. Significant risk of complications after reirradiation was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.015) and reirradiated field size greater than 30 cm2 (P = 0.056). When the interval between irradiations was greater than 5 months, the risk of complications was significantly (P = 0.022) lower.

  15. Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Anca; Popescu, Carmen Florina; Pleşea, I E; Bădulescu, Adriana; Tănase, Florentina; Mateescu, Garofiţa

    2009-01-01

    The frequency of mesenchymal breast tumors is very low, being represented mostly by tumors with biphasic proliferation (phyllodes tumors) and less by other types of non-epithelial tumors. From clinical point of view, phyllodes tumors (PT) can mimic a breast carcinoma. Therefore, the preoperative diagnosis by cytological examination on material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) is very important for adequate treatment of these tumors. In current study, we assessed clinical aspects of 79 phyllodes tumors regarding patient's age and localization of the tumors. In 17 out of 79 cases, it has been performed FNA within the tumors with further cytological examination on the smears obtained. The median age of the patients was 46.07-year-old, being progressively higher with grade of the tumors with significant values between benign and borderline tumors (p=0.04954) and between benign and malignant ones (p=0.02890). The distinguish on the smears of stromal fragments and naked stromal nuclei with variable grade of atypia regarding the tumoral type, in detriment of epithelial elements have been conclusive for fibroepithelial lesion as cytopathological diagnosis. The preoperative differentiation between a breast phyllodes tumor and a breast carcinoma is extremely important for avoiding of a useless radical surgery for the patient. If the fine needle aspiration was correctly performed, the accuracy of the cytodiagnosis has been 82% in current study.

  16. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; O’Donoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  17. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Kveiborg, Marie; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko; Mercurio, Arthur M; Wewer, Ulla M

    2011-11-01

    Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In this study, we found that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 seems to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we show that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence tumor progression, but that ADAM12 expression by tumor cells is necessary for tumor progression in these mice. This finding is consistent with our observation that in human breast carcinoma, ADAM12 is almost exclusively located in tumor cells and, only rarely, seen in the tumor-associated stroma. We hypothesized, however, that the tumor-associated stroma may stimulate ADAM12 expression in tumor cells, on the basis of the fact that TGF-β1 stimulates ADAM12 expression and is a well-known growth factor released from tumor-associated stroma. TGF-β1 stimulation of ADAM12-negative Lewis lung tumor cells induced ADAM12 synthesis, and growth of these cells in vivo induced more than 200-fold increase in ADAM12 expression. Our observation that ADAM12 expression is significantly higher in the terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) adjacent to human breast carcinoma compared with TDLUs found in normal breast tissue supports our hypothesis that tumor-associated stroma triggers ADAM12 expression.

  18. The expression and location of midkine in gastric carcinomas of Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaling; Cao, Guochun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qingling; Hou, Yayi

    2007-04-01

    Midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor, can regulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. MK is expressed at high levels in a variety of human carcinomas. Recently, the urine and serum MK concentration was analyzed in gastric cancer patient. However, the association of the cytokine mRNA expression with the categorical clinicopathological variables of the tumors and the location of its protein expression in the tumor tissues are still elusive. MK mRNA expression from the surgically resected specimens of healthy gastric tissues (9 cases), gastric cancer tissues and the matched non-cancerous tissues adjacent to the cancer (37 cases) were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to locate MK in gastric cancer. The expression of MK mRNA in gastric cancer was much higher in tumor tissues than that in the non-cancerous tissues and control tissue samples. And its expression was significantly associated with the pTNM stage and distant metastasis, but not with the differentiation grade, tumor size and nodal involvement. MK protein was ubiquitous in the tumor, especially in the adenoid part of tumors. In addition, it was found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and highly concentrated in nucleus and nucleolus. The expression level and location of MK in gastric tumor tissues of Chinese patients may be related to the tumor genesis and progression. Further study is necessary on the mechanism of MK in gastric tumorigenesis and tumor growth.

  19. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  20. Coding location: the view from toddler studies.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-11-01

    The ability to locate objects in the environment is adaptively important for mobile organisms. Research on location coding reveals that even toddlers have considerable spatial skill. Important information has been obtained using a disorientation task in which children watch a target object being hidden and are then blindfolded and rotated so they cannot track their changing relation to the target. Even toddlers under two years of age search successfully for the hidden object, which shows that they can use geometric features of the spatial environment to determine object location. It has been claimed that these results show innate geometric abilities, but there is evidence that these early spatial skills are not simply geometric. The article presents an overview of experimental findings that provide the basis for a different interpretation of spatial development.

  1. Impact-Locator Sensor Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Byers, Terry; Gibbons, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Electronic sensor systems for detecting and locating impacts of rapidly moving particles on spacecraft have been invented. Systems of this type could also be useful on Earth in settings in which the occurrence of impacts and/or the locations of impacts are not immediately obvious and there are requirements to detect and quickly locate impacts to prevent or minimize damage.

  2. DIORAMA Location Type User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, James Russell

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this report is to present the current design and implementation of the DIORAMA location type object (LocationType) and to provide examples and use cases. The LocationType object is included in the diorama-app package in the diorama::types namespace. Abstractly, the object is intended to capture the full time history of the location of an object or reference point. For example, a location may be speci ed as a near-Earth orbit in terms of a two-line element set, in which case the location type is capable of propagating the orbit both forward and backward in time to provide a location for any given time. Alternatively, the location may be speci ed as a xed set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude), in which case the geodetic location of the object is expected to remain constant for all time. From an implementation perspective, the location type is de ned as a union of multiple independent objects defi ned in the DIORAMA tle library. Types presently included in the union are listed and described in subsections below, and all conversions or transformation between these location types are handled by utilities provided by the tle library with the exception of the \\special-values" location type.

  3. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  4. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  5. Efficacy and complications of radiotherapy of anterior visual pathway tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Capo, H.; Kupersmith, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    A progressive disturbance in visual acuity or visual field, along with an unexplained optic nerve atrophy, suggests the possibility of a tumor. Tumors that frequently affect the anterior visual pathway include primary optic nerve sheath meningiomas, intracranial meningiomas, optic gliomas, pituitary tumors, and craniopharyngiomas. The location of these tumors sometimes prohibits a complete surgical excision that might jeopardize the visual system. Radiation therapy, however, can be beneficial in these cases. This article reviews the indications for radiotherapy of tumors that involve the anterior visual pathway, along with the possible complications. Cases that present the effect of radiation therapy and radiation damage are presented.131 references.

  6. Image-guided tumor motion modeling and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Wu, Y.; Liu, W.; Christensen, J.; Tai, A.; Li, A. X.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an important procedure in the treatment of cancer in the thorax and abdomen. However, its efficacy can be severely limited by breathing induced tumor motion. Tumor motion causes uncertainty in the tumor's location and consequently limits the radiation dosage (for fear of damaging normal tissue). This paper describes a novel signal model for tumor motion tracking/prediction that can potentially improve RT results. Using CT and breathing sensor data, it provides a more accurate characterization of the breathing and tumor motion than previous work and is non-invasive. The efficacy of our model is demonstrated on patient data.

  7. Factors Predictive of Tumor Recurrence and Survival After Initial Complete Response of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Ryu; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Takeuchi, Yoji; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tatsuta, Masaharu; Yano, Masahiko; Imai, Atsushi; Nishiyama, Kinji

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To assess factors predictive of recurrent disease and survival after achieving initial complete response (CR) to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who had clinical Stage I-IVA esophageal cancer and received definitive CRT between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of 269 patients with esophageal cancer, 110 who achieved CR after definitive CRT were included in the analyses. Chemoradiotherapy mainly consisted of 2 cycles of cisplatin and fluorouracil with concurrent radiotherapy of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. We identified 28 recurrences and 28 deaths during follow-up. The cumulative 1- and 3-year recurrence rates were 18% and 32%, respectively. By univariate and multivariate analyses, tumor category (hazard ratio [HR] 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-30.2; p = 0.015) was an independent risk factor for local recurrence, whereas age (HR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-14.0; p = 0.034) and primary tumor location (HR 4.5; 95% CI 1.6-12.4; p = 0.004) were independent risk factors for regional lymph node or distant recurrences. The cumulative overall 1- and 3-year survival rates were 91% and 66%, respectively. As expected, recurrence was associated with poor survival (p = 0.019). By univariate and multivariate analyses, primary tumor location (HR 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-12.0; p = 0.024) and interval to recurrence (HR 4.3; 95% CI 1.3-14.4; p = 0.018) were independent factors predictive of survival after recurrence. Conclusion: Risk of recurrence after definitive CRT for esophageal cancer was associated with tumor category, age, and primary tumor location; this information may help in improved prognostication for these patients.

  8. Resection Probability Maps for Quality Assessment of Glioma Surgery without Brain Location Bias

    PubMed Central

    De Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Hendriks, Eef J.; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Barkhof, Frederik; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Background Intraoperative brain stimulation mapping reduces permanent postoperative deficits and extends tumor removal in resective surgery for glioma patients. Successful functional mapping is assumed to depend on the surgical team's expertise. In this study, glioma resection results are quantified and compared using a novel approach, so-called resection probability maps (RPM), exemplified by a surgical team comparison, here with long and short experience in mapping. Methods Adult patients with glioma were included by two centers with two and fifteen years of mapping experience. Resective surgery was targeted at non-enhanced MRI extension and was limited by functional boundaries. Neurological outcome was compared. To compare resection results, we applied RPMs to quantify and compare the resection probability throughout the brain at 1 mm resolution. Considerations for spatial dependence and multiple comparisons were taken into account. Results The senior surgical team contributed 56, and the junior team 52 patients. The patient cohorts were comparable in age, preoperative tumor volume, lateralization, and lobe localization. Neurological outcome was similar between teams. The resection probability on the RPMs was very similar, with none (0%) of 703,967 voxels in left-sided tumors being differentially resected, and 124 (0.02%) of 644,153 voxels in right-sided tumors. Conclusion RPMs provide a quantitative volumetric method to compare resection results, which we present as standard for quality assessment of resective glioma surgery because brain location bias is avoided. Stimulation mapping is a robust surgical technique, because the neurological outcome and functional-based resection results using stimulation mapping are independent of surgical experience, supporting wider implementation. PMID:24039922

  9. Therapeutic strategy and long-term outcome of meningiomas located in the posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and surgical findings of 41 consecutive cases of posterior cranial fossa meningiomas operated on between January 1987 and December 2011 at Saitama Medical Center/Saitama Medical University were reviewed. The 31 female and 10 male patients were aged from 19 to 74 years (mean 54 years). The tumors were located in the petroclival (N=15), craniovertebral junction (N=6), lateral tentorial (N=12), and cerebellopontine angle (N=8) regions. Mean tumor equivalent diameter was 4.3 cm (range 2-9 cm). Head pain (46.3%) and gait disturbance (26.8%) were the most common presenting symptoms, and cranial neuropathies were the most common neurological signs on admission. Mean preoperative performance status (Karnofsky scale) was 83% (range 40-100%). Surgical approaches to these tumors included presigmoidal transpetrosal, retrosigmoidal, transcondylar, and combined approaches. In 4 cases, a staged procedure was performed. Gross total resection was achieved in 85.4% of patients, and subtotal/partial resection in 12.2%. Surgical mortality was 2.4% and complications were encountered in 11 patients (26.8%) including temporary neurological deficits in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 8.2 years, ranging from 1 to 24 years, and the mean performance status of patients at 12 months after the last surgery was 92% (range 0-100%). Recurrence or progression of disease was found in 9.8% of cases. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in 6 cases. My experience suggests that although posterior cranial fossa meningiomas represent a continuing challenge for contemporary neurosurgeons, such tumors may be completely or subtotally removed with low rate of mortality and acceptable morbidity, allowing most of these patients to achieve good outcome in long-term follow up.

  10. Rare Tumors in Children: Progress Through Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Wayne L.; Schultz, Kris A.; Ferrari, Andrea; Helman, Lee; Krailo, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Rare pediatric tumors account for approximately 10% of all childhood cancers, which in themselves are a rare entity. The diverse histologies and clinical behaviors of rare pediatric tumors pose challenges to the investigation of their biologic and clinical features. National and international cooperative groups such as the Rare Tumor Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, Rare Tumors in Pediatric Age Project, and European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors have developed several initiatives to advance knowledge about rare pediatric cancers. However, these programs have been only partially effective, necessitating the development of alternative mechanisms to study these challenging diseases. In this article, we review the current national and international collaborative strategies to study rare pediatric cancers and alternative methods under exploration to enhance those efforts, such as independent registries and disease-specific, National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinics. PMID:26304909

  11. Somatotroph pituitary tumors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Langohr, I M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2012-05-01

    A series of 11 pituitary tumors in budgerigars were classified on the basis of their clinical, gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Affected birds were young to middle-aged. Clinically, neurologic signs--including difficulties flying, ataxia, and blindness--were most commonly reported. Additional clinical signs included weight loss, abnormal feathers or molting, increased respiratory efforts, and exophthalmos. Nine birds were diagnosed with chromophobic pituitary adenomas, and 2 birds had chromophobic pituitary carcinomas. Only 1 tumor was delimited to the pituitary gland; the other 10 variably invaded the brain, skull, and retrobulbar space. Distant metastases were identified in 2 birds. All tumors were immunohistochemically strongly positive for growth hormone, consistent with the diagnosis of somatotroph tumors. The common occurrence and early onset may suggest a genetic predisposition of budgerigars to develop somatotroph pituitary tumors with a high incidence of local invasion and with metastatic potential.

  12. One Stage Posterior Minimal Laminectomy and Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) for Removal of Thoracic Dumbbell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Ahn, Hyo Yeoung; Cho, Jeong Su; Kim, Yeoung Dae; Choi, Byung Kwan; Han, In Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the surgical results of one-stage posterior minimal laminectomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for the treatment of thoracic dumbbell tumor and to describe its precise technique. In addition, we investigated the technique’s usefulness and limitations. Methods Seven cases of thoracic dumbbell tumor (two men and five women, mean age, 43 years) were analyzed retrospectively. Pathological findings included schwannoma in four patients, neurofibroma in two patients, and hemangioma in one patient. The location of tumors varied from T2/3 to T12/L1. Dumbbell tumors were resected by one-stage operation using posterior laminectomy followed by VATS without instrumentation. Clinical data were reviewed. Results The mean follow-up period was 25 months (range, 3–58 months), and the operative time ranged from 255 to 385 min (mean, 331 min), with estimated blood loss ranging from 110 to 930 mL (mean, 348 mL). The tumor was completely resected without instrumentation and postoperative instability in all cases. Postoperative complications included atelectasis and facial anhydrosis in one case each. Conclusion One-stage posterior minimal laminectomy and VATS may be a safe and less invasive technique for removal of thoracic dumbbell tumor without instability. This method has the advantage of early ambulation and rapid recovery because it reduces blood loss and postoperative pain. PMID:28264248

  13. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  14. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  15. Management of gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Manabu; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis. Type II G-NETs (5%-6%) are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1-ZES). Both type I and II G-NETs are related to hypergastrinemia, are small in size, occur in multiple numbers, and are generally benign. In contrast, type III G-NETs (10%-15%) are not associated with hypergastrinemia, are large-sized single tumors, and are usually malignant. Therefore, surgical resection and chemotherapy are generally necessary for type III G-NETs, while endoscopic resection and follow-up, which are acceptable for the treatment of most type I and II G-NETs, are only acceptable for small and well differentiated type III G-NETs. D-NETs include gastrinomas (50%-60%), somatostatin-producing tumors (15%), nonfunctional serotonin-containing tumors (20%), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (< 3%), and gangliocytic paragangliomas (< 2%). Most D-NETs are located in the first or second part of the duodenum, with 20% occurring in the periampullary region. Therapy for D-NETs is based on tumor size, location, histological grade, stage, and tumor type. While endoscopic resection may be considered for small nonfunctional D-NETs (G1) located in the higher papilla region, surgical resection is necessary for most other D-NETs. However, there is no consensus regarding the ideal treatment of D-NETs. PMID:27570419

  16. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described.

  17. HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1) gene is transcriptionally regulated by insertion/deletion nucleotides located at the 3' end of the ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2) gene in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iejima, Daisuke; Itabashi, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yuich; Noda, Toru; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Keiichi; Oka, Chio; Iwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-30

    Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounts for over 85% of AMD cases in the United States, whereas Japanese AMD patients predominantly progress to wet AMD or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed a strong association between AMD and an insertion/deletion sequence between the ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2) and HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1) genes. Transcription regulator activity was localized in mouse retinas using heterozygous HtrA1 knock-out mice in which HtrA1 exon 1 was replaced with β-galactosidase cDNA, thereby resulting in dominant expression of the photoreceptors. The insertion/deletion sequence significantly induced HTRA1 transcription regulator activity in photoreceptor cell lines but not in retinal pigmented epithelium or other cell types. A deletion construct of the HTRA1 regulatory region indicated that potential transcriptional suppressors and activators surround the insertion/deletion sequence. Ten double-stranded DNA probes for this region were designed, three of which interacted with nuclear extracts from 661W cells in EMSA. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of these EMSA bands subsequently identified a protein that bound the insertion/deletion sequence, LYRIC (lysine-rich CEACAM1 co-isolated) protein. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells from wet AMD patients carrying the insertion/deletion sequence showed significant up-regulation of the HTRA1 transcript compared with controls. These data suggest that the insertion/deletion sequence alters the suppressor and activator cis-elements of HTRA1 and triggers sustained up-regulation of HTRA1. These results are consistent with a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously overexpresses HtrA1 and exhibits characteristics similar to those of wet AMD patients.

  18. Increased fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in childhood CNS tumors is correlated with malignancy grade: a study with FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging coregistration and image fusion.

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, Lise; Højgaard, Liselotte; Carstensen, Henrik; Laursen, Henning; Nowak, Markus; Thomsen, Carsten; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2005-05-01

    PURPOSE Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in grading of CNS tumors in adults, whereas studies of children have been limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS Nineteen boys and 19 girls (median age, 8 years) with primary CNS tumors were studied prospectively by fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET with (n = 16) or without (n = 22) H(2)(15)O-PET before therapy. Image processing included coregistration to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in all patients. The FDG uptake in tumors was semiquantitatively calculated by a region-of-interest-based tumor hotspot/brain index. Eight tumors without histologic confirmation were classified as WHO grade 1 based on location, MRI, and clinical course (22 to 42 months). Results Four grade 4 tumors had a mean index of 4.27 +/- 0.5, four grade 3 tumors had a mean index of 2.47 +/- 1.07, 10 grade 2 tumors had a mean index of 1.34 +/- 0.73, and eight of 12 grade 1 tumors had a mean index of -0.31 +/- 0.59. Eight patients with no histologic confirmation had a mean index of 1.04. For these 34 tumors, FDG uptake was positively correlated with malignancy grading (n = 34; r = 0.72; P < .01), as for the 26 histologically classified tumors (n = 26; r = 0.89; P < .01). The choroid plexus papilloma (n = 1) and the pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 3) had a mean index of 3.26 (n = 38; r = 0.57; P < .01). H(2)(15)O-uptake showed no correlation with malignancy. Digitally performed PET/MRI coregistration increased information on tumor characterization in 90% of cases. CONCLUSION FDG PET of the brain with MRI coregistration can be used to obtain a more specific diagnosis with respect to malignancy grading. Improved PET/MRI imaging of the benign hypermetabolic tumors is needed to optimize clinical use.

  19. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  20. Hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Da; Wang, Jianmin; Tian, Yuepeng; Li, Qiuguo; Yan, Haixiong; Wang, Biao; Xiong, Li; Li, Qinglong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rational: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which expresses both myogenic and melanocytic markers. PEComas are found in a variety locations in the body, but up to now only approximately 30 cases about hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor are reported in English language worldwide. Patient concerns: A 32-year-old woman was admitted in our hospital with intermittent right upper quadrant pain for 1 month and recent (1 day) progressive deterioration. Diagnoses: Based on the results of the laboratory examinations and the findings of the computed tomography, the diagnosis of hepatic hamartoma or the hepatocecullar carcinoma with hemorrhage was made. Interventions: The patient underwent a segmentectomy of the liver, and the finally diagnosis of hepatic PEComa was made with immunohistochemical confirmation with HMB-45 and SMA. Outcomes: There is no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence 9 months after surgery. Lessons: This kind of tumor is extremely rare and the natural history of PEComa is uncertain, as the treatment protocol for hepatic PEComa has not reached a consensus. But the main treatment of the disease may be surgical resection. Only after long term follow-up can we know whether the tumor is benign or malignant. It appears that longer clinical follow-up is necessary in all patients with hepatic PEComas. PMID:28002331

  1. [Subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Stupnik, Silvio; Rafaelli, Claudio; González, Graciela Osorio; Pestalardo, María Luján; Quesada, Matías; Viúdez, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are related to mesenchymal tumors and 80% of them are GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors). However, there are also other tumors, such as: leiomyomas, schwannomas, lipomas, glomus tumors, carcinoid tumors, aberrant pancreas and polyps or inflammatory tumors. Diagnosis of submucosal tumors is often performed during routine endoscopic examination, they are frequently located at the stomach and in most cases are clinically evidenced by their complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the elected method for their staging; but other imaging diagnosis methods include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography scan (PET). The differential diagnosis is made by inmunohistochemical techniques, revealing in the GIST the expression of the antigen CD117, and prognostic factors are determined by size and mitotic index. Surgery is the recommended therapeutic, although in small lesions not exceeding 2 cm it has also been suggested the endoscopic resection guided by EUS and a watchful behaviour based on periodical controls in lesions with benignity criteria. The series here exhibited (2 GIST 1 lyposarcoma, 1 schwannoma and 1 inflammatory fibroid polyp) shows that all these tumors were symptomatic; have been diagnosed using endoscopy and recognized by means of histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis after surgery.

  2. Collision tumor in form of primary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Schwarz, Roderich E

    2012-04-12

    Collision tumor is a rare phenomenon characterized by coexistence of completely distinct and independent tumors at the same body location. Collision tumors have been reported in different sites. However, they are extremely uncommon in the duodenum. We report the case of a 52-year old man with a collision tumor in the third portion of the duodenum with two distinct tumors of primary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, and both tumors coexisting within a single metastatic lymph node. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed to conclude that this was a case of collision cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first collision tumor case reported to date at this location, and the first report of lymph node with a collision metastasis from a collision tumor. Such tumor is very rare and may thus provide diagnostic challenges. This report also provides a review of other cases on duodenal collision tumors.

  3. [Low back pain as a manifestation of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Camarero-Mulas, C; Andrés García-Marín, A; Sánchez-Rodríguez, T; Vaquero-Rodríguez, A; Fábregues-Olea, A; Pino-Jiménez, A; Turégano-Fuentes, F

    2010-01-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumor is infrequent.That mainly affects male youngsters and is normally located at the abdomino-pelvic cavity, being its clinic unspecific. The diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of a specific chromosomal translocation: t (11; 22), (p13; q12). As to its treatment, it is mostly recommended to follow a multimodal aggressive one. We present the case of a man, whose atypicality is due to his advanced age (63 years old) and the symptoms he presents (lumbar ache).

  4. Central Granular Cell Odontogenic Tumor: Report of a Case with CBCT Features

    PubMed Central

    Anbiaee, Najmeh; Saghafi, Shadi; Mohammadzadeh Rezaei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Central granular cell odontogenic tumor) CGCOT) of the jaw is an exceedingly rare benign odontogenic neoplasm with 35 reported cases in the literature. Among these, very few studies have focused on the cone-beam CT features of CGCOT. Here, we report a case of an asymptomatic CGCOT in a 16-year-old girl and focus on the cone-beam CT features. Only 36 cases of this lesion, including this one, have been reported so far. The case presented is of special importance due to the young age of the patient, the posterior location of the lesion and the multilocular pattern in the cone beam CT images PMID:25628673

  5. Molecular Imaging System for Monitoring Tumor Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac, Esra; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    In cancer, non-invasive imaging techniques that monitor molecular processes associated with the tumor angiogenesis could have a central role in the evaluation of novel antiangiogenic and proangiogenic therapies as well as early detection of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can serve as specific biological targets for imaging of angiogenesis since expression of MMPs is required for angiogenesis and has been found to be upregulated in every type of human cancer and correlates with stage, invasive, metastatic properties and poor prognosis. However, for most cancers it is still unknown when, where and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis [1]. Development of high-resolution, high sensitivity imaging techniques in parallel with the tumor models could prove invaluable for assessing the physical location and the time frame of MMP enzymatic acitivity. The goal of this study is to understand where, when and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis. We will accomplish this goal by following two objectives: to develop a high sensitivity, high resolution molecular imaging system, to develop a virtual tumor simulator that can predict the physical location and the time frame of the MMP activity. In order to achieve our objectives, we will first develop a PAM system and develop a mathematical tumor model in which the quantitative data obtained from the PAM can be integrated. So, this work will develop a virtual tumor simulator and a molecular imaging system for monitoring tumor angiogenesis. 1.Kessenbrock, K., V. Plaks, and Z. Werb, MMP:regulators of the tumor microenvironment. Cell, 2010. 141(1)

  6. EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

  7. Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Odagiri, Kazumasa; Omura, Motoko; Hata, Masaharu; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Ogino, Ichiro; Kigasawa, Hisato; Adachi, Masataka; Inoue, Tomio

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with

  8. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  9. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  10. Methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island distinguishes spontaneous and plutonium-induced tumors from nitrosamine-induced lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Issa, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    CpG islands located in the promoter region of genes constitute one mechanism for regulating transcription. These islands are normally free of methylation, regardless of the expression state of the gene. Hypermethylation of CpG islands, the addition of a methyl group to the internal cytosine within CpG dinucleotides, can cause silencing of a gene. Hypermethylation has been detected as an early event at specific chromosome loci during the development of colon cancer and represents one mechanism used by neoplatic cells to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have demonstrated this mechanism in inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 19% of sporadic renal tumors and the p16 {sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in 30% of non-small cell lung cancers. A recent report indicates that the estrogen receptor gene could also be inactivated through methylation. In addition, estrogen receptor CpG island methylation arises as a direct function of age in normal colonic mucosa and is present in virtually all colonic tumors. In cultured colon cancer cells, methylation-associated loss of expression of the estrogen receptor gene results in deregulated growth, suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in colon cancer development. These results provide further evidence that gene silencing through methylation could be a predominant epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of many different types of cancer. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether estrogen receptor CpG island methylation is involved in the development of lung cancer. The frequency for methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island in rodent lung tumors is summarized.

  11. Early Cognitive Outcomes Following Proton Radiation in Pediatric Patients With Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Sethi, Roshan V.; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To report, from a longitudinal study, cognitive outcome in pediatric patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients receiving PRT for medulloblastoma (38.3%), gliomas (18.3%), craniopharyngioma (15.0%), ependymoma (11.7%), and other CNS tumors (16.7%) were administered age-appropriate measures of cognitive abilities at or near PRT initiation (baseline) and afterward (follow-up). Patients were aged ≥6 years at baseline to ensure consistency in neurocognitive measures. Results: Mean age was 12.3 years at baseline; mean follow-up interval was 2.5 years. Treatment included prior surgical resection (76.7%) and chemotherapy (61.7%). Proton radiation therapy included craniospinal irradiation (46.7%) and partial brain radiation (53.3%). At baseline, mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ was 104.6; means of all 4 Index scores were also in the average range. At follow-up, no significant change was observed in mean Wechsler Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization, or Working Memory. However, Processing Speed scores declined significantly (mean 5.2 points), with a significantly greater decline for subjects aged <12 years at baseline and those with the highest baseline scores. Cognitive outcome was not significantly related to gender, extent of radiation, radiation dose, tumor location, histology, socioeconomic status, chemotherapy, or history of surgical resection. Conclusions: Early cognitive outcomes after PRT for pediatric CNS tumors are encouraging, compared with published outcomes from photon radiation therapy.

  12. Early Limits on the Verbal Updating of an Object's Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by 30 months of age, children can successfully update their representation of an absent object's location on the basis of new verbal information, whereas 23-month-olds often return to the object's prior location. The current results show that this updating failure persisted even when (a) toddlers received visual and…

  13. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  14. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  15. LOCAT - A Data Retrieval Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    STANDARSIA1 3 -A Suznn Y4Sl ’ś’. Doc 0 006 U m Nalionai Deftense U’" Defence nationale LOCAT -A DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAM by Suzanne Y. Slinn SA RSA T Project...2.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY...................2 2.2 SATELLITE AND LOCATION SOFT KEY DISPLAY .. .. ........ 3 2.3...LOCAT -Calling Sequence .. .. ...... ........ 2 FIGURE 2: SAT/LOC Soft Key Display .. .. ...... ..... 3 FIGURE 3 : Frequency Soft Key Display

  16. Freehand 3D ultrasound breast tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ge, Yinan; Ou, Yue; Cao, Biao

    2007-12-01

    It is very important for physicians to accurately determine breast tumor location, size and shape in ultrasound image. The precision of breast tumor volume quantification relies on the accurate segmentation of the images. Given the known location and orientation of the ultrasound probe, We propose using freehand three dimensional (3D) ultrasound to acquire original images of the breast tumor and the surrounding tissues in real-time, after preprocessing with anisotropic diffusion filtering, the segmentation operation is performed slice by slice based on the level set method in the image stack. For the segmentation on each slice, the user can adjust the parameters to fit the requirement in the specified image in order to get the satisfied result. By the quantification procedure, the user can know the tumor size varying in different images in the stack. Surface rendering and interpolation are used to reconstruct the 3D breast tumor image. And the breast volume is constructed by the segmented contours in the stack of images. After the segmentation, the volume of the breast tumor in the 3D image data can be obtained.

  17. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity.

  18. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  19. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in digestive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Liu, Sha; Liu, Wei; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The significant influence of tumor stroma on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this era of targeted therapy. The tumor microenvironment, as a dynamic system, is orchestrated by various cells including tumor vascular composing cells, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. As a major and important component in tumor stroma, increasing evidence has shown that spindle-shaped cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a significant modifier of cancer evolution, and promote tumorigenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis, malignant cell survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proliferation via direct cell-to-cell contact or secretion of soluble factors in most digestive solid tumors. CAFs are thought to be activated, characterized by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activated protein, fibroblast specific protein, vimentin, fibronectin, etc. They are hypothesized to originate from normal or aged fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, or vascular endothelial cells. EMT may also be an important process generating CAFs, and most probably, CAFs may originate from multiple cells. A close link exists between EMT, tumor stem cells, and chemo-resistance of tumor cells, which is largely orchestrated by CAFs. CAFs significantly induce immunosuppression, and may be a prognostic marker in various malignancies. Targeted therapy toward CAFs has displayed promising anticancer efficacy, which further reinforces the necessity to explore the relationship between CAFs and their hosts. PMID:25548479

  20. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  1. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  2. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  3. Tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  4. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  5. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  6. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of stomach acid. Tumors that arise from islet ... try and shrink the tumors. If the abnormal production of hormones is causing symptoms, you may receive ...

  7. Posterior fossa tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the tumor can easily press on delicate structures if it grows. Depending on the type and size of the tumor, radiation treatment may also be used after surgery. Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness ...

  8. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  9. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  10. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  11. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor of Prostate: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mid-aged male presented with progressive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for years. Huge prostate with low serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was detected. The specimen from transurethral resection revealed surprising pathology finding as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). Considering its huge size (more than 300 gm) and location, we prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy firstly. The tumor became regressive and then radical surgical resection was achieved. Adjuvant multimodality treatment including concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and target therapy was given. However, he expired about one year later. MPNST originating from prostate is very rare and seldom reported before. We here present this extremely rare disease and share our treatment experience. PMID:27872789

  12. Epidermoid tumor within Meckel's cave--case report.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, T; Dindorkar, K; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of an epidermoid tumor lying within Meckel's cave is reported. A 27-year-old housewife presented with complaints of right facial hypesthesia for two and a half years. On examination she had partial loss of touch sensation in the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor located at the right petrous apex and cavernous sinus. The epidermoid tumor was excised through a lateral basal subtemporal approach. The symptoms resolved following surgery.

  13. Parallel optimization of tumor model parameters for fast registration of brain tumor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharaki, Evangelia I.; Hogea, Cosmina S.; Shen, Dinggang; Biros, George; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    The motivation of this work is to register MR brain tumor images with a brain atlas. Such a registration method can make possible the pooling of data from different brain tumor patients into a common stereotaxic space, thereby enabling the construction of statistical brain tumor atlases. Moreover, it allows the mapping of neuroanatomical brain atlases into the patient's space, for segmenting brains and thus facilitating surgical or radiotherapy treatment planning. However, the methods developed for registration of normal brain images are not directly applicable to the registration of a normal atlas with a tumor-bearing image, due to substantial dissimilarity and lack of equivalent image content between the two images, as well as severe deformation or shift of anatomical structures around the tumor. Accordingly, a model that can simulate brain tissue death and deformation induced by the tumor is considered to facilitate the registration. Such tumor growth simulation models are usually initialized by placing a small seed in the normal atlas. The shape, size and location of the initial seed are critical for achieving topological equivalence between the atlas and patient's images. In this study, we focus on the automatic estimation of these parameters, pertaining to tumor simulation. In particular, we propose an objective function reflecting feature-based similarity and elastic stretching energy and optimize it with APPSPACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search), for achieving significant reduction of the computational cost. The results indicate that the registration accuracy is high in areas around the tumor, as well as in the healthy portion of the brain.

  14. Regulation of Transport Pathways in Tumor Vessels: Role of Tumor Type and Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Susan K.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Yuan, Fan; Roberts, W. Gregory; Griffith, Linda; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    1998-04-01

    Novel anti-neoplastic agents such as gene targeting vectors and encapsulated carriers are quite large (approximately 100-300 nm in diameter). An understanding of the functional size and physiological regulation of transvascular pathways is necessary to optimize delivery of these agents. Here we analyze the functional limits of transvascular transport and its modulation by the microenvironment. One human and five murine tumors including mammary and colorectal carcinomas, hepatoma, glioma, and sarcoma were implanted in the dorsal skin-fold chamber or cranial window, and the pore cutoff size, a functional measure of transvascular gap size, was determined. The microenvironment was modulated: (i) spatially, by growing tumors in subcutaneous or cranial locations and (ii) temporally, by inducing vascular regression in hormone-dependent tumors. Tumors grown subcutaneously exhibited a characteristic pore cutoff size ranging from 200 nm to 1.2 μ m. This pore cutoff size was reduced in tumors grown in the cranium or in regressing tumors after hormone withdrawal. Vessels induced in basic fibroblast growth factor-containing gels had a pore cutoff size of 200 nm. Albumin permeability was independent of pore cutoff size. These results have three major implications for the delivery of therapeutic agents: (i) delivery may be less efficient in cranial tumors than in subcutaneous tumors, (ii) delivery may be reduced during tumor regression induced by hormonal ablation, and (iii) permeability to a molecule is independent of pore cutoff size as long as the diameter of the molecule is much less than the pore diameter.

  15. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  16. Tracing the Tumor Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Navin, Nicholas E.; Hicks, James

    2010-01-01

    Defining the pathways through which tumors progress is critical to our understanding and treatment of cancer. We do not routinely sample patients at multiple time points during the progression of their disease, and thus our research is limited to inferring progression a posteriori from the examination of a single tumor sample. Despite this limitation, inferring progression is possible because the tumor genome contains a natural history of the mutations that occur during the formation of the tumor mass. There are two approaches to reconstructing a lineage of progression: (1) inter-tumor comparisons, and (2) intra-tumor comparisons. The inter-tumor approach consists of taking single samples from large collections of tumors and comparing the complexity of the genomes to identify early and late mutations. The intra-tumor approach involves taking multiple samples from individual heterogeneous tumors to compare divergent clones and reconstruct a phylogenetic lineage. Here we discuss how these approaches can be used to interpret the current models for tumor progression. We also compare data from primary and metastatic copy number profiles to shed light on the final steps of breast cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how recent technical advances in single cell genomics will herald a new era in understanding the fundamental basis of tumor heterogeneity and progression. PMID:20537601

  17. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  18. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    component involved application and further refinement of optical tomographic imaging using independent component analysis ( OPTICA ) for locating and cross...section imaging of a tumor in a model cancerous breast assembled using ex vivo breast tissue specimens. The OPTICA approach was able to detect...infrared imaging, optical tomography using independent component analysis ( OPTICA ), training, molecular imaging, cancer biology 16. SECURITY

  19. A retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor in ectopic pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Hussein Hassan; Al-Bassiouni, Fahim; El-Ela, Monir Abo; Al-Gemeie, Emad Hamza; Ezzat, Reem

    2013-07-01

    Ectopic pancreas is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. We report a case of abdominal pain due to retroperitoneal neuroendocrine tumor arising from heterotopic pancreatic tissue between the duodenal wall and the head of the pancreas. Patient underwent surgical enucleation of the tumor.

  20. Retroperitoneal Tumors in the Pelvis: A Diagnostic Challenge in Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Wee-Stekly, Wei-Wei; Mueller, Michael David

    2014-01-01

    Retroperitoneal tumors can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to gynecologists because of their rarity, late presentation, and complex anatomical location in the retroperitoneum. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal tumors in the pelvis, and highlights the potential pitfalls that may be faced by gynecologists. PMID:25593973

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors / Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  2. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  3. Locating Information within Extended Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    New literacies researchers have identified a core set of strategies for locating information, one of which is "reading a Web page to locate information that might be present there" (Leu et al. in: Rush, Eakle, Berger (eds) "Secondary school reading and writing: What research reveals for classroom practices," 2007, p. 46). Do middle-school, high…

  4. Locative Terms and Warlpiri Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language specific properties in the acquisition of locative expressions. Some of the claims from literature on the acquisition of locative expressions are discussed and data from the acquisition of Warlpiri are presented and discussed in terms of these claims. (Author/CB)

  5. Pan-information Location Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  6. Precision zero-home locator

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1986-01-01

    A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.

  7. Precision zero-home locator

    DOEpatents

    Stone, W.J.

    1983-10-31

    A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.

  8. Three-dimensional telomere architecture of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison of tumor and normal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sunpaweravong, S; Sunpaweravong, P; Sathitruangsak, C; Mai, S

    2016-05-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG)n located at the ends of chromosomes that function to preserve chromosomal integrity and prevent terminal end-to-end fusions. Telomere loss or dysfunction results in breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, aneuploidy, gene amplification and chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to genomic instability and promote carcinogenesis. Evaluating the hypothesis that changes in telomeres contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to determine whether there are differences between young and old patients, we compared the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear telomere architecture in ESCC tumor cells with that of normal epithelial cells obtained from the same patient. Patients were equally divided by age into two groups, one comprising those less than 45 years of age and the other consisting of those over 80 years of age. Tumor and normal epithelial cells located at least 10 cm from the border of the tumor were biopsied in ESCC patients. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for each sample to confirm and identify the cancer and normal epithelial cells. This study was based on quantitative 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), 3D imaging and 3D analysis of paraffin-embedded slides. The 3D telomere architecture data were computer analyzed using 100 nuclei per slide. The following were the main parameters compared: the number of signals (number of telomeres), signal intensity (telomere length), number of telomere aggregates, and nuclear volume. Tumor and normal epithelial samples from 16 patients were compared. The normal epithelial cells had more telomere signals and higher intensities than the tumor cells, with P-values of P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0078, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the numbers of telomere aggregates or the nuclear volumes between the tumor and normal epithelial cells. Secondary analyses examined the effects of age on 3D telomere

  9. [Wilms' tumor. Its multidisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Rivera Luna, R; Martínez Guerra, G; Ruano Aguilar, J; Cárdenas Cardoz, R; Lanche Guevara, T

    1992-01-01

    A total of 115 children with a histopathological diagnosis of Wilms' tumor were studied. The average age was three years. An abdominal tumor was the most frequent clinical manifestations, with a predominating clinicopathological stage II. The most important prognostic factors were the clinical stage and histological subvariety. A five year disease free period during the early stages was very favorable. On the other hand, advances stages and unfavorable histopathology established a poor prognosis. In our experience, stages I and II and favorable histology should not receive radiotherapy but instead brief chemotherapy. The global five year survival was 82%. All the patients with an unfavorable histology occupied stages II and IV. a comparison of disease free survival between stages I and II against III and IV showed statistical significance (p 0.01). Statistical significance also appeared upon comparison between unfavorable versus favorable (p 0.01) histology. Emphasis is placed upon multidisciplinary management of this type of malignant neoplasias.

  10. Histopathology of pineal germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, A; Szathmari, A; Champier, J; Fèvre-Montange, M; Jouvet, A

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) classically occur in gonads. However, they are the most frequent neoplasms in the pineal region. The pineal location of GCTs may be caused by the neoplastic transformation of a primordial germ cell that has mismigrated. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 5 histological types of intracranial GCTs: germinoma and non-germinomatous tumors including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and mature or immature teratoma. Germinomas and teratomas are frequently encountered as pure tumors whereas the other types are mostly part of mixed GCTs. In this situation, the neuropathologist has to be able to identify each component of a GCT. When diagnosis is difficult, use of recent immunohistochemical markers such as OCT(octamer-binding transcription factor)3/4, Glypican 3, SALL(sal-like protein)4 may be required. OCT3/4 is helpful in the diagnosis of germinomas, Glypican 3 in the diagnosis of yolk sac tumors and SALL4 in the diagnosis of the germ cell nature of an intracranial tumor. When the germ cell nature of a pineal tumor is doubtful, the finding of an isochromosome 12p suggests the diagnosis of GCT. The final pathological report should always be confronted with the clinical data, especially the serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein.

  11. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy. PMID:24058812

  12. Tumor Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:22393533

  13. Immunology of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patrick; Eisele, Günter; Weller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumors of different origin, but notably malignant gliomas, are characterized by their immunosuppressive properties which allow them to escape the host's immune surveillance. The activating immune cell ligands that are expressed by tumor cells, together with potentially immunogenic antigens, are overridden by numerous immune inhibitory signals, with TGF-3 as the master immunosuppressive molecule (Figure 4.1).The ongoing investigation of mechanisms of tumor-derived immunosuppression allows for an increasing understanding of brain tumor immunology. Targeting different mechanisms of tumor-derived immunosuppression, such as inhibition of TGF-[, may represent a promising strategy for future immunotherapeutic approaches.

  14. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis.

  15. Ocular surface tumors

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ihab Saad

    2009-01-01

    Tumors of the conjunctiva and cornea comprise a large and varied spectrum of conditions. These tumors are grouped into two major categories of congenital and acquired lesions. The acquired lesions are further subdivided based on origin of the mass into surface epithelial, mucoepidermoid, melanocytic, vascular, fibrous, neural, histiocytic, myxoid, myogenic, lipomatous, lymphoid, leukemic, metastatic and secondary tumors. Ocular surface tumors include a variety of neoplasms originating from squamous epithelium, melanocytic tumors and lymphocytic resident cells of the conjunctival stroma. In this review, we highlight clinical features of these lesions, important diagnostic and investigative tools and standard care of management. PMID:21234217

  16. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  17. Multidisciplinary Approach to Management of Temporal Bone Giant Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nicoli, Taija K.; Saat, Riste; Kontio, Risto; Piippo, Anna; Tarkkanen, Maija; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Jero, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Background Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are rare osseous tumors that rarely appear in the skull. Methods We review the clinical course of a 28-year-old previously healthy woman with a complicated GCT. Results The reviewed patient presented with a middle cranial fossa tumor acutely complicated by reactive mastoiditis. Left tympanomastoidectomy was performed for drainage of the mastoiditis and for biopsies of the tumor. Due to the challenging tumor location, the patient was treated with denosumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, for 7 months, which resulted in significant preoperative tumor shrinkage. Extensive temporal craniotomy and resection of the tumor followed utilizing a temporomandibular joint total endoprosthesis for reconstruction. A recurrence of the tumor was detected on computed tomography at 19 months after surgery and treated with transtemporal tumor resection, parotidectomy, and mandible re-reconstruction. Conclusion A multidisciplinary approach resulted in a good functional result and, finally, an eradication of the challengingly located middle cranial fossa tumor. PMID:28078198

  18. Three-Dimensional Multispecies Nonlinear Tumor Growth–II: Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frieboes, H.B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface approach, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically-founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this approach may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982

  19. Galectins in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of solid tumors depends on the continuous ingrowth of new blood vessels out of pre-existing capillaries. Consequently, tumor neovascularization or tumor angiogenesis is considered a hallmark of cancer and an attractive target for cancer therapy. Tumor angiogenesis is mainly carried out by endothelial cells (EC), i.e., the cells lining the luminal vessel wall. These cells have to take on different functional activities in order to successfully make new tumor blood vessels. In the last decade it has become apparent that galectins are important regulators of tumor angiogenesis. In the present review we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role galectins in tumor angiogenesis focussing on the endothelial galectins, i.e., gal-1/-3/-8/-9. PMID:25405165

  20. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.