Science.gov

Sample records for age tumour size

  1. Swiss Canine Cancer Registry 1955-2008: Occurrence of the Most Common Tumour Diagnoses and Influence of Age, Breed, Body Size, Sex and Neutering Status on Tumour Development.

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, K; Graf, R; Boo, G; Guscetti, F; Hässig, M; Axhausen, K W; Fabrikant, S; Welle, M; Meier, D; Folkers, G; Pospischil, A

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry, comprising 121,963 diagnostic records of dogs compiled between 1955 and 2008, in which 63,214 (51.83%) animals were diagnosed with tumour lesions through microscopical investigation. Adenoma/adenocarcinoma (n = 12,293, 18.09%) was the most frequent tumour diagnosis. Other common tumour diagnoses were: mast cell tumour (n = 4,415, 6.50%), lymphoma (n = 2,955, 4.35%), melanocytic tumours (n = 2,466, 3.63%), fibroma/fibrosarcoma (n = 2,309, 3.40%), haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma (n = 1,904, 2.80%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,324, 1.95%) and osteoma/osteosarcoma (n = 842, 1.24%). The relative occurrence over time and the most common body locations of those tumour diagnoses are presented. Analyses of the influence of age, breed, body size, sex and neutering status on tumour development were carried out using multiple logistic regression. In certain breeds/breed categories the odds ratios (ORs) for particular tumours were outstandingly high: the boxer had higher ORs for mast cell tumour and haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, as did the shepherd group for haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, the schnauzer for squamous cell carcinoma and the rottweiler for osteoma/osteosarcoma. In small dogs, the risk of developing mammary tumours was three times higher than in large dogs. However, small dogs were less likely to be affected by many other tumour types (e.g. tumours of the skeletal system). Examination of the influence of sex and neutering status on tumour prevalence showed that the results depend on the examination method. In all sampling groups the risk for female dogs of developing adenoma/adenocarcinoma was higher than for male dogs. Females had a lower risk of developing haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma than males. Neutered animals were at higher risk of developing specific tumours outside the genital organs than intact animals. The sample size allows detailed insight into the

  2. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, derived from fitting unconditional logistic regression models. Association between somatotype at age 7 and tumour characteristics were evaluated in a case-only analysis where P values for heterogeneity were obtained by performing one degree of freedom trend tests. Results A large somatotype at age 7 was found to be associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Although strongly associated with other risk factors such as age of menarche, adult body mass index and mammographic density, somatotype at age 7 remained a significant protective factor (odds ratio (OR) comparing large to lean somatotype at age 7 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.91, P trend = 0.004) after adjustment. The significant protective effect was observed within all subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, with a stronger effect for ER-negative (0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, P trend = 0.002), than for ER-positive (0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05, P trend = 0.062), tumours (P heterogeneity = 0.046). Somatotype at age 7 was not associated with tumour size, histology, grade or the presence or absence of metastatic nodes. Conclusions Greater body size at age 7 is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the associated protective effect is stronger for the ER-negative breast cancer subtype than for the ER-positive subtype. PMID:20398298

  3. Open adrenalectomy for medium sized adrenocortical tumour: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Sameh, Wael M.; Kotb, Ahmed Fouad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our work was to report our experience in managing cases with medium-sized adrenocortical carcinoma by the high retroperitoneal extra pleural approach. Methods: During the past 2 years, 10 patients with suspected adrenocortical carcinoma were managed by our technique: the high supra 10th rib, retroperitoneal extra pleural approach. We included cases with 5 to 10 cm adrenal masses, suspected as adrenocortical carcinoma. Results: The mean patient age was 38 years (range: 26–44), the median tumour volume was 7 cm (range: 5–8). Of the 10 patients, 7 were female. Of the patients, 6 had right- and 4 had left-sided tumours. Intraoperatively, all cases had proper surgical removal, with no apparent residual tumour tissue. No single patient required a chest tube or developed respiratory problems. There were no major vascular injuries during surgery. We did not compare our findings to the standard lateral or subcostal approaches, as in our institution we adopt this high lateral approach for medium-sized tumours, while managing larger tumours with transperitoneal subcostal approach and smaller tumours laparoscopically. Conclusion: The high supra 10th lateral retroperitoneal, extra pleural approach is a safe, doable technique, allowing easy access to medium-sized suprarenal tumours and its vasculature, for cases suspected to be adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:26029297

  4. The ratio of maximum percent tumour accumulations of the pretargeting agent and the radiolabelled effector is independent of tumour size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Liang, Minmin; Chen, Xiangji; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2009-11-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that the optimal dosage ratio of pretargeting antibody to effector is proportional to their maximum percent tumour accumulations (MPTAs). This study quantitatively describes how both MPTAs and their ratio change with tumour size, to simplify pretargeting optimisation when tumour size varies. The CC49 antibody dosages below saturation of the tumour antigen level were first examined for the LS174T tumour mouse model. Then the MPTAs of the antibody in mice bearing tumours of different sizes were determined, always at antibody dosages below antigen saturation. Historical data from this laboratory were used to collect the MPTAs of the (99m)Tc-cMORF effector for different tumour sizes, always at effector dosages below that required to saturate the MORF in tumour. The MPTAs versus tumour sizes for both the antibody and the effector were fitted non-linearly. The best fit of the antibody MPTA (Y(antibody)) with tumour size (x) in grams was Y(antibody)=19.00 x(-0.65) while that for the effector was Y(effector)=4.51x(-0.66). Thus, even though the MPTAs of both vary with tumour size, the ratio (Y(antibody)/Y(effector)) is a constant at 4.21. In conclusion, the MPTA ratio of the antibody to the effector was found to be constant with tumour size, an observation that will simplify pretargeting optimisation because remeasurement of the optimum dosage ratio for different tumour sizes can be avoided. Theoretical considerations also suggest that this relationship may be universal for alternative antibody/effector pairs and for different target models, but this must be experimentally confirmed. PMID:19811906

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI to evaluate tumour response and residual tumour size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Acea, Benigno; Soler, Rafaela; Iglesias, Ángela; Santiago, Paz; Mosquera, Joaquín; Calvo, Lourdes; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; García, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim, of the study was to estimate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in assessing residual disease in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to identify the clinico-pathological factors that affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI to determine residual tumour size following NAC. Patients and methods 91 breast cancer patients undergoing NAC (92 breast lesions) were included in the study. Breast MRI was performed at baseline and after completion of NAC. Treatment response was evaluated by MRI and histopathological examination to investigate the ability of MRI to predict tumour response. Residual tumour size was measured on post-treatment MRI and compared with pathology in 89 lesions. Clinicopathological factors were analyzed to compare MRI-pathologic size differences. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing invasive residual disease by using MRI were 75.00%, 78.57%, 88.89%, 57.89%, and 76.09% respectively. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) between tumour sizes determined by MRI and pathology was r = 0.648 (p < 0.001). The size discrepancy was significantly lower in cancers with initial MRI size ≤ 5 cm (p = 0.050), in cancers with high tumour grade (p < 0.001), and in patients with hormonal receptor-negative cancer (p = 0.033). Conclusions MRI is an accurate tool for evaluating tumour response after NAC. The accuracy of MRI in estimating residual tumour size varies with the baseline MRI tumour size, the tumour grade and the hormonal receptor status. PMID:27069452

  6. CT assessment of tumour response to treatment: comparison of linear, cross-sectional and volumetric measures of tumour size.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, S A; Turner, B; Hanson, J A; Farquharson, M; Oliver, R T; Reznek, R H

    2000-11-01

    Changes in cross-sectional area are currently used to assess tumour response to treatment. The aims of this study were to validate a helical CT technique for volume determination using a series of phantoms and to compare tumour responses indicated by one-, two- and three-dimensional measures of tumour size change in patients treated for germ cell cancer or lymphoma. All studies were performed on an IGE HiSpeed Advantage helical CT scanner with an Advantage Windows workstation. Phantom volumes were calculated using volume reconstruction software and compared with reference volumes determined by water displacement. 20 lymph node masses were studied on serial CT scans in 16 patients treated with chemotherapy for germ cell cancer or lymphoma. For each lesion the maximum diameter, maximum cross-sectional area and volume were determined before and after treatment. Tumour response was assessed using the standard World Health Organisation criteria (i.e. changes in cross-sectional area) and the newly proposed unidimensional response evaluation criteria in solid tumour (RECIST). The CT volume measurement error was 1.0-5.1% for regularly shaped phantoms larger than 35 cm3. In the assessment of treatment response there was 90% agreement between one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) measurements and 100% agreement between 2D and three-dimensional (3D) measurements. CT volume measurements are accurate and reproducible, particularly for larger structures. Assessment of tumour response using 1D, 2D and 3D measures had limited influence on the classification of treatment response. However, the impact of CT assessment of tumour response using 1D, 2D and 3D measurements on clinical decisions and patient outcome remains to be determined. PMID:11144795

  7. Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Martin, John D.; Popović, Zoran; Chen, Ou; Kamoun, Walid S.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The blood vessels of cancerous tumours are leaky1–3 and poorly organized4–7. This can increase the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) inside tumours and reduce blood supply to them, which impairs drug delivery8–9. Anti-angiogenic therapies – which “normalize” the abnormal blood vessels in tumours by making them less leaky – have been shown to improve the delivery and effectiveness of chemotherapeutics with low molecular-weights10, but it remains unclear whether normalizing tumour vessels can improve the delivery of nanomedicines. Here we show that repairing the abnormal vessels in mammary tumours, by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2, improves the delivery of small nanoparticles (12nm diameter) while hindering the delivery of large nanoparticles (125nm diameter). We utilize a mathematical model to show that reducing vessel wall pore sizes through normalization decreases IFP in tumours, allowing small nanoparticles to enter them more rapidly. However, increased steric and hydrodynamic hindrances, also associated with smaller pores, make it more difficult for large nanoparticles to enter tumours. Our results further suggest that smaller (~12nm) nanomedicines are ideal for cancer therapy, owing to superior tumour penetration. PMID:22484912

  8. Size Matters: Developing Design Rules to Engineer Nanoparticles for Solid Tumour Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Edward Alexander

    Nanotechnology enables the design of highly customizable platforms for producing minimally invasive and programmable strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advances in this field have demonstrated that nanoparticles can enhance specificity of anti-cancer agents, respond to tumour-specific cues, and direct the visualization of biological targets in vivo. . Nanoparticles can be synthesized within the 1 to 100 nm range to achieve different electromagnetic properties and specifically interact with biological tissues by tuning their size, shape, and surface chemistry. However, it remains unclear which physicochemical parameters are critical for delivering nanomaterials to the tumour site. With less than 5% of administered nanoparticles reaching the tumour, engineering of nanoparticles for effective delivery to solid tumours remains a critical challenge to cancer nanomedicine. A more comprehensive understanding of the interplay between the nanomaterial physicochemical properties and biological systems is necessary to enhance the efficacy of nanoparticle tumour targeting. This thesis explores how nanoparticle size and functionalization with cancer cell specific agents impact nanoparticle delivery to tumours. Furthermore, this doctoral work (i) discusses how tumour structure evolves with growth, (ii) elucidates how such changes modulate nanoparticle accumulation, and (iii) identifies how the skin serves as a significant off-target site for nanoparticle uptake. This thesis also demonstrates the utility of empirically-derived parametric models, Monte Carlo simulations, and decision matrices for mechanistically understanding and predicting the impact of nanomaterial features and tumour biology on nanoparticle fate in vivo. These topics establish key design considerations to tailor nanoparticles for enhanced tumour targeting. Collectively, the concepts presented herein form a fundamental framework for the development of personalized nanomedicine and nano

  9. Studies on canine mammary tumours. I. Age, seasonal and breed distribution.

    PubMed

    Boldizsár, H; Szenci, O; Muray, T; Csenki, J

    1992-01-01

    The incidence as well as age, seasonal and breed distribution of canine mammary tumours (n = 521) were studied at the Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Veterinary Science, Budapest, between 1985 and 1989. In 39 cases of mammary tumour, blood plasma oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) concentrations were also determined. Of all dogs referred to the clinics of the University in 1985, 0.7% had mammary tumour. On the average, 104 +/- 9.3 cases of mammary tumour were recorded at the Clinic of Obstetrics per year. This number did not increase after the Chernobyl atomic reactor catastrophe of 1986. The age distribution of canine mammary tumour found in this study shows good agreement with earlier data of the literature: mammary tumour showed the highest incidence in 10 years old dogs. The incidence of mammary tumour kept increasing with age until the 14th year of life (as expressed in per cent of animals of identical age). The number of mammary tumours was markedly higher in the spring (April-May) and autumn (September). This seasonality was demonstrable in 11 to 16 years old bitches, too. On the basis of the blood plasma E2 and P profiles, 61.5% of the clinically anoestrous animals were found to be cycling. The strikingly high ratio of pulis among dogs with mammary cancer was suggestive of a breed disposition. PMID:1476093

  10. Aging, Brain Size, and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Whether cross-sectional rates of decline for brain volume and the Performance Intellectual Quotient of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were equivalent over the years 16 to 65 was studied with 196 volunteers. Results indicate remarkably similar rates of decline in perceptual-motor functions and aging brain volume loss. (SLD)

  11. Body protein and lipid deficit in tumour-bearing rats in relation to age.

    PubMed Central

    Oudart, H.; Heitz, A.; Bnouham, M.; Malan, A.; Le Maho, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is among the most dramatic situations of depletion in body energy reserves. To ascertain whether the pattern of body composition alteration during tumour development is influenced by aging as in uncomplicated starvation, we compared the difference of body composition between Yoshida sarcoma bearing rats and young (200 g, 7 weeks) and adult (400 g, 13 weeks) control rats. After the same duration of tumour bearing, mass and composition of tumours were similar in adult and young rats, indicating that they are independent of host age. Food intake decreased to a remarkably similar value in both young and adults. Body water content was elevated in hosts of both ages. The relative deficit of body lipid vs controls was similar for both, the absolute lipid deficit being therefore larger in adult than in young tumour-bearing rats (14.3 +/- 4.4 g vs 6.8 +/- 0.9 g; P < 0.01). In contrast, there was a relatively larger deficit of body protein in young rats. Paradoxically, these rats still maintained a positive nitrogen balance whereas this balance was negative in adult tumour-bearing rats. In conclusion, as previously shown in uncomplicated undernutrition, the anorexia induced by Yoshida sarcoma development is still associated with some protein accretion in young rats whereas cachexia develops in adults. PMID:8217604

  12. Reproductive senescence, fertility and reproductive tumour profile in ageing female Han Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Terri L; Klein, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A study using vehicle administration in 104 female rats investigated reproductive aging in Han Wistar rats as a useful tool to interprete carcinogenicity studies where hormonal patterns are perturbated. From 16 weeks of age oestrous cycles were monitored every 6 weeks to investigate reproductive ageing. A subset of 20 females was used to assess fertility at 21 months of age. The animals were necropsied after 106-107 weeks on study and female reproductive organs, mammary glands and pituitary glands were examined for hyperplasias and/or tumours. The majority of rats had regular oestrous cycles up to 6 months of age. After this age, there was a rapid decline in the number of rats with regular oestrous cycles and an increase in irregular cycles and cycles in persistent di-oestrus with an occasional pro-oestrus. By the end of the study, the majority of animals were acyclic and the few remaining cyclic animals had irregular cycles. In the fertility assessment, 19/20 animals mated but only four animals became pregnant. These pregnant animals had normal numbers of corpora lutea of pregnancy but had high pre-implantation losses and could not sustain a viable pregnancy. 65 animals (62.5%) showed adenomas and/or pituitary hyperplasia in the pituitary gland at necropsy. The pituitary tumours were likely to be prolactin secreting that give rise to pseudopregnancy and mammary tumours, demonstrated by the fact that 43/65 (66%) of the affected animals had histopathological signs of these conditions. Multiple corpora lutea were found in 61% of all animals at time of termination. Only one uterine tumour was seen in this study probably due to lack of persistent oestrus seen in these animals. PMID:26655996

  13. Marsupialisation for keratocystic odontogenic tumours in the mandible: longitudinal image analysis of tumour size using 3D visualised CT scans.

    PubMed

    Shudou, H; Sasaki, M; Yamashiro, T; Tsunomachi, S; Takenoshita, Y; Kubota, Y; Ninomiya, T; Kawazu, T; Mori, Y

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs) in the mandible are reduced during marsupialisation, and to predict the best time for secondary enucleation by analysing computed tomography (CT) images. 15 patients with KCOTs were treated with marsupialisation surgery, and 42 series of CT data taken during the marsupialisation process were analysed. CT data were reconstructed in three-dimensional (3D) images. The 3D images were used to measure the diameter and volume, and to analyse the changes that occurred after marsupialisation. Marsupialised KCOTs tended to be reduced equally towards the window in the tumour. The amount of volume reduction per day (V(r)) was reduced in proportion to the volume (V) with the formula V(r)=-0.0029×V. The formula manipulation for V was V=V(0)×e(-0.0029t) (t=duration after marsupialisaton (day)). The volume of marsupialised KCOTs was reduced by half over a 239 day cycle. These results demonstrate that the future shape of marsupialised mandibular KCOTs, under good control, could be predicted with significant accuracy using CT data. This prediction could decrease the prolonged marsupialisation state in patients with KCOTs. PMID:22113115

  14. Tumour size over 3 cm predicts poor short-term outcomes after major liver resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. By the HC-AFC-2009 group

    PubMed Central

    Regimbeau, Jean Marc; Fuks, David; Pessaux, Patrick; Bachellier, Philippe; Chatelain, Denis; Diouf, Momar; Raventos, Artigas; Mantion, Georges; Gigot, Jean-Francois; Chiche, Laurence; Pascal, Gerard; Azoulay, Daniel; Laurent, Alexis; Letoublon, Christian; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Rivoire, Michel; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Adham, Mustapha; Le Treut, Yves-Patrice; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Navarro, Francis; Ayav, Ahmet; Boudjema, Karim; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Scotte, Michel; Farges, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As mortality and morbidity after a curative resection remains high, it is essential to identify pre-operative factors associated with an early death after a major resection. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we selected a population of 331 patients having undergone a major hepatectomy including segment I with a lymphadenectomy and a common bile duct resection for a proven hilar cholangiocarcinoma in 21 tertiary centres. The study's objective was to identify pre-operative predictors of early death (<12 months) after a resection. Results The study cohort consisted of 221 men and 110 women, with a median age of 61 years (range: 24–85). The post-operative mortality and morbidity rates were 8.2% and 61%, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 85%, 64% and 53%, respectively. The median tumour size was 23 mm on pathology, ranging from 8 to 40. A tumour size >30 mm [odds ratio (OR) 2.471 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.136–7.339), P = 0.001] and major post-operative complication [OR 3.369 (95% CI 1.038–10.938), P = 0.004] were independently associated with death <12 months in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion The present analysis of a series of 331 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma showed that tumour size >30 mm was independently associated with death <12 months. PMID:24992279

  15. Quantification of the effect of electrical and thermal parameters on radiofrequency ablation for concentric tumour model of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Ng, E Y K

    2015-07-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been increasingly used in treating cancer for multitude of situations in various tissue types. To perform the therapy safely and reliably, the effect of critical parameters needs to be known beforehand. Temperature plays an important role in the outcome of the therapy and any uncertainties in temperature assessment can be lethal. This study presents the RFA case of fixed tip temperature where we've analysed the effect of electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and blood perfusion rate of the tumour and surrounding normal tissue on the radiofrequency ablation. Ablation volume was chosen as the characteristic to be optimised and temperature control was achieved via PID controller. The effect of all 6 parameters each having 3 levels was quantified with minimum number of experiments harnessing the fractional factorial characteristic of Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. It was observed that as the blood perfusion increases the ablation volume decreases. Increasing electrical conductivity of the tumour results in increase of ablation volume whereas increase in normal tissue conductivity tends to decrease the ablation volume and vice versa. Likewise, increasing thermal conductivity of the tumour results in enhanced ablation volume whereas an increase in thermal conductivity of the surrounding normal tissue has a debilitating effect on the ablation volume and vice versa. With increase in the size of the tumour (i.e., 2-3cm) the effect of each parameter is not linear. The parameter effect varies with change in size of the tumour that is manifested by the different gradient observed in ablation volume. Most important is the relative insensitivity of ablation volume to blood perfusion rate for smaller tumour size (2cm) that is also in accordance with the previous results presented in literature. These findings will provide initial insight for safe, reliable and improved treatment planning perceptively. PMID:25965014

  16. Reduction of weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model by a high fat diet.

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, M. J.; Brennan, R. A.; Fearon, K. C.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt has been made to reverse cachexia and to selectively deprive the tumour of metabolic substrates for energy production by feeding a ketogenic regime, since ketone bodies are considered important in maintaining homeostasis during starvation. As a model we have used a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 16) which produces extensive weight loss without a reduction in food intake. When mice bearing the MAC16 tumour were fed on diets in which up to 80% of the energy was supplied as medium chain triglycerides (MCT) with or without arginine 3-hydroxybutyrate host weight loss was reduced in proportion to the fat content of the diet, and there was also a reduction in the percentage contribution of the tumour to the final body weight. The increase in carcass weight in tumour-bearing mice fed high levels of MCT was attributable to an increase in both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. Blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were significantly reduced by MCT addition. The levels of both acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were elevated in mice fed the high fat diets, and tumour-bearing mice fed the normal diet did not show increased plasma levels of ketone bodies over the non-tumour-bearing group despite the loss of carcass lipids. Both blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were reduced in mice bearing the MAC16 tumour and this was not significantly altered by feeding the high fat diets. The elevation in ketone bodies may account for the retention of both the fat and the non-fat carcass mass. This is the first example of an attempt to reverse cachexia by a diet based on metabolic differences between tumour and host tissues, which aims to selectively feed the host at the expense of the tumour. PMID:3620317

  17. Pancreatoblastoma an Unusual Occurrence of a Tumour in Paediatric Age Group: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma, is rare exocrine malignant tumour of childhood. We are reporting a case of three-year-old child presented to our hospital suffering from vague abdominal pain for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination revealed only a palpable abdominal mass. CT Scan revealed a huge complex space occupying lesion 9.1x8.8x9.2cm with large central cystic degeneration and lobulated enhancing peripheral solid components with foci of calcification, seem to arise from body and tail regions of pancreas. Surgery was done and mass was removed. By histopathology and immunohistochemistry it was diagnosed as pancreatoblastoma. The prognosis is very good in paediatric age, lacking evidence of metastatic disease at first presentation. Therefore early diagnosis is needed for specific treatment. The case is being reported because of its rarity. PMID:27134883

  18. Pancreatoblastoma an Unusual Occurrence of a Tumour in Paediatric Age Group: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Das, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatoblastoma, is rare exocrine malignant tumour of childhood. We are reporting a case of three-year-old child presented to our hospital suffering from vague abdominal pain for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination revealed only a palpable abdominal mass. CT Scan revealed a huge complex space occupying lesion 9.1x8.8x9.2cm with large central cystic degeneration and lobulated enhancing peripheral solid components with foci of calcification, seem to arise from body and tail regions of pancreas. Surgery was done and mass was removed. By histopathology and immunohistochemistry it was diagnosed as pancreatoblastoma. The prognosis is very good in paediatric age, lacking evidence of metastatic disease at first presentation. Therefore early diagnosis is needed for specific treatment. The case is being reported because of its rarity. PMID:27134883

  19. Ovarian down Regulation by GnRF Vaccination Decreases Reproductive Tract Tumour Size in Female White and Greater One-Horned Rhinoceroses

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Göritz, Frank; Oh, Serena; Fernandes, Teresa; Bernardino, Rui; Leclerc, Antoine; Greunz, Eva; Mathew, Abraham; Forsyth, Sarah; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine. Four infertile southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and three Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) with active ovaries and 2.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 1.5 reproductive tract tumours respectively were vaccinated against GnRF (Improvac®, Zoetis, Germany) at 0, 4 and 16 weeks and re-boostered every 6–8 months thereafter. After GnRF vaccination ovarian and luteal activity was suppressed in all treated females. Three months after vaccination the size of the ovaries, the number of follicles and the size of the largest follicle were significantly reduced (P<0.03). Reproductive tract tumours decreased significantly in diameter (Greater-one horned rhino: P<0.0001; white rhino: P<0.01), presumably as a result of reduced sex-steroid influence. The calculated tumour volumes were reduced by 50.8 ± 10.9% in Greater one-horned and 48.6 ± 12.9% in white rhinoceroses. In conclusion, GnRF vaccine effectively down regulated reproductive function and decreased the size of reproductive tract tumours in female rhinoceros. Our work is the first to use down regulation of reproductive function as a symptomatic treatment against benign reproductive tumour disease in a wildlife species. Nonetheless, full reversibility and rhinoceros fertility following GnRF vaccination warrants further evaluation. PMID:27403662

  20. Ovarian down Regulation by GnRF Vaccination Decreases Reproductive Tract Tumour Size in Female White and Greater One-Horned Rhinoceroses.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Robert; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Göritz, Frank; Oh, Serena; Fernandes, Teresa; Bernardino, Rui; Leclerc, Antoine; Greunz, Eva; Mathew, Abraham; Forsyth, Sarah; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive tract tumours, specifically leiomyoma, are commonly found in female rhinoceroses. Similar to humans, tumour growth in rhinoceroses is thought to be sex hormone dependent. Tumours can form and expand from the onset of ovarian activity at puberty until the cessation of sex-steroid influences at senescence. Extensive tumour growth results in infertility. The aim of this study was to down regulate reproductive function of tumour-diseased and infertile females to stop further tumour growth using a Gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine. Four infertile southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and three Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (rhinoceros unicornis) with active ovaries and 2.7 ± 0.9 and 14.0 ± 1.5 reproductive tract tumours respectively were vaccinated against GnRF (Improvac®, Zoetis, Germany) at 0, 4 and 16 weeks and re-boostered every 6-8 months thereafter. After GnRF vaccination ovarian and luteal activity was suppressed in all treated females. Three months after vaccination the size of the ovaries, the number of follicles and the size of the largest follicle were significantly reduced (P<0.03). Reproductive tract tumours decreased significantly in diameter (Greater-one horned rhino: P<0.0001; white rhino: P<0.01), presumably as a result of reduced sex-steroid influence. The calculated tumour volumes were reduced by 50.8 ± 10.9% in Greater one-horned and 48.6 ± 12.9% in white rhinoceroses. In conclusion, GnRF vaccine effectively down regulated reproductive function and decreased the size of reproductive tract tumours in female rhinoceros. Our work is the first to use down regulation of reproductive function as a symptomatic treatment against benign reproductive tumour disease in a wildlife species. Nonetheless, full reversibility and rhinoceros fertility following GnRF vaccination warrants further evaluation. PMID:27403662

  1. Response of tumour-related and normal lymphocytes to antigens on fibroblasts from embryos of varying age.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro cytotoxic immune response of spleen lymphocytes from primiparous and tumour-related mice to embryonic cells from embryos of varying age and tumour cells has been investigated. The results indicate that lymphocytes from both primiparous and tumour-related (i.e., tumour-bearing or tumour-excised) animals give a response which is greater than that from cells from control mice ("virgin cells"). Moreover, in this putative anamnestic response the immune cells detect antigenic differences in the cell populations of embryos of varying age, which are not as readily demonstrable when cytotoxicity is derived from virgin cells. As a further indication of the in vivo priming to embryo-assoicated antigens, the data show that the precursors of cytotoxic cells apparently undergo a blastogenic response in the presence of embryo antigen, and revert to small quiescent cells when antigen is removed, in a way entirely analogous to that described for reactivity of mixed leucocyte cultures to antigens of the major histocompatibility complex. Finally, it seems that in animals immediately after removal of embryonic antigen (and to a lesser degree in virgin or late-embryo-immune mice) there exists a suppressor cell population which inhibits an anti-embryo cytotoxic response far more than an antiallograft response. PMID:656306

  2. Influence of size of regions of interest on the measurement of uptake of 123I-alpha-methyl tyrosine by brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Kuwert, T; Morgenroth, C; Woesler, B; Matheja, P; Palkovic, S; Vollet, B; Schäfers, M; Wassmann, H; Schober, O

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of variations in the size of regions of interest (ROIs) on uptake values in brain tumours of L-3-iodine-123-alpha-methyl tyrosine (IMT). In addition, we attempted to establish the influence of size of ROIs on levels of significance assessing differences in mean IMT uptake between high-grade and low-grade tumours. Relative IMT uptake was determined in 19 patients with brain tumours using a MULTISPECT 3 triple-headed camera. Reconstructed image resolution was 14 mm at FWHM. Ten of the subjects suffered from high-grade gliomas (WHO grade III or IV) and nine from benign brain tumours, including eight patients with low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II). ROIs were defined by selecting those pixels within the tumour that exhibited uptake values above predefined threshold values. Using threshold values of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80% of the mean, transaxial ROI size was approximately 0.1, 2.8, 4.3, 6.2 and 8.8 cm2, respectively. Over this range, mean, IMT uptake values decreased significantly from 2.4 to 1.9. High-grade tumours exhibited significantly higher IMT uptake than low-grade tumours at each of the threshold values. The corresponding levels of significance calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test were between 0.01 and 0.02. Although IMT uptake values in brain tumours are significantly dependent on ROI size, levels of significance assessing differences in IMT uptake between high-grade and low-grade tumours are relatively insensitive to variations in this parameter. PMID:8843121

  3. Tooth Size Variation Related to Age in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Dotras, Laia; Alberts, Susan C.; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We measured the molar size from a single population of wild baboons from Amboseli (Kenya), both females (n = 57) and males (n = 50). All the females were of known age; the males represented a mix of known-age individuals (n = 31) and individuals with ages estimated to within 2 years (n = 19). The results showed a significant reduction in the mesiodistal length of teeth in both sexes as a function of age. Overall patterns of age-related change in tooth size did not change whether we included or excluded the individuals of estimated age, but patterns of statistical significance changed as a result of changed sample sizes. Our results demonstrate that tooth length is directly related to age due to interproximal wearing caused by M2 and M3 compression loads. Dental studies in primates, including both fossil and extant species, are mostly based on specimens obtained from osteological collections of varying origins, for which the age at death of each individual in the sample is not known. Researchers should take into account the phenomenon of interproximal attrition leading to reduced tooth size when measuring tooth length for ondontometric purposes. PMID:21325862

  4. Variance of size-age curves: Bootstrapping with autocorrelation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, S.H.; Turner, R.M.; Hastings, J.R.; Escoto-Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, Z.R.A.; Rodrigues-Navarro, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    We modify a method of estimating size-age relations from a minimal set of individual increment data, recognizing that growth depends not only on size but also varies greatly among individuals and is consistent within an individual for several to many time intervals. The method is exemplified with data from a long-lived desert plant and a range of autocorrelation factors encompassing field-measured values. The results suggest that age estimates based on size and growth rates with only moderate autocorrelation are subject to large variation, which raises major problems for prediction or hindcasting for ecological analysis or management.

  5. Aged boreal biomass burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ∼1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter), σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.05-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8 (the ranges are due to uncertainty in the entrainment rate). Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is relatively unconstrained due to the uncertainties in

  6. Aged Boreal Biomass Burning Size Distributions from Bortas 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. R.; Sakamoto, K.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are strong functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1.5 - 2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 232 nm, σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA/ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.08-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution and flux corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes only based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Depending on the, we estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8. Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is somewhat unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  7. Object and size awareness in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Caroline E; Carlson, Abby G; Pasnak, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Self-awareness is a skill developed during the first few years of life. Although some research demonstrates that this ability may be incomplete in toddlers, there is little to no literature relating to preschoolers. This study tested 44 preschool-age children on 8 tasks to assess their awareness of the structural characteristics of their own size and weight as well as the size and weight of external objects. The most frequently observed behavior was for children to make an attempt at something that was inappropriate for their size and weight, but overall participants showed a better understanding of their own bodies than other objects. Both the number of attempts required to solve the problems and accuracy of their solutions demonstrated these task differences. These results indicate that the development of body awareness skills is far from complete for 3- and 4-year-olds. PMID:22582673

  8. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  9. Breastfeeding, lung volumes and alveolar size at school-age

    PubMed Central

    Dogaru, Cristian M; Narayanan, Manjith; Spycher, Ben D; Pescatore, Anina M; Owers-Bradley, John; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Silverman, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies found larger lung volumes at school-age in formerly breastfed children, with some studies suggesting an effect modification by maternal asthma. We wanted to explore this further in children who had undergone extensive lung function testing. The current study aimed to assess whether breastfeeding was associated with larger lung volumes and, if so, whether all compartments were affected. We also assessed association of breastfeeding with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which measures freedom of gas diffusion in alveolar-acinar compartments and is a surrogate of alveolar dimensions. Additionally, we assessed whether these effects were modified by maternal asthma. Methods We analysed data from 111 children and young adults aged 11–21 years, who had participated in detailed lung function testing, including spirometry, plethysmography and measurement of ADC of 3Helium (3He) by MR. Information on breastfeeding came from questionnaires applied in early childhood (age 1–4 years). We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Results We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample. In breastfed children of mothers with asthma, we observed larger lung volumes and larger average alveolar size than in non-breastfed children, but the differences did not reach significance levels. Conclusions Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health. Further investigations with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:26180638

  10. Surface ages of mid-size saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sisto, Romina P.; Zanardi, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The observations of the surfaces of the mid-sized saturnian satellites made by Cassini-Huygens mission have shown a variety of features that allows study of the processes that took place and are taking place on those worlds. Research of the saturnian satellite surfaces has clear implications not only for Saturn's history and Saturn's surroundings, but also for the Solar System. Crater counting from high definition images is very important and could serve for the determination of the age of the surfaces. In a recent paper, we have calculated the production of craters on the mid-sized saturnian satellites by Centaur objects considering the current configuration of the Solar System. Also, we have compared our results with crater counts from Cassini images by other authors and we have noted that the number of observed small craters is less than our calculated theoretical number. In this paper we estimate the age of the surface for each observed terrain on each mid-sized satellite of Saturn. All the surfaces analyzed appear to be old with the exception of Enceladus. However, we have noticed that since there are less observed small craters than calculated (except on Iapetus), this results in younger ages than expected. This could be the result of efficient endogenous or exogenous process(es) for erasing small craters and/or crater saturation at those sizes. The size limit from which the observed number of smaller craters is less than the calculated is different for each satellite, possibly indicating processes that are unique to each, but other potential common explanations for this paucity of small craters would be crater saturation and/or deposition of E-ring particles. These processes are also suggested by the findings that the smaller craters are being preferentially removed, and the erasure process is gradual. On Enceladus, only mid and high latitude plains have remnants of old terrains; the other regions could be young. In particular, the regions near the South

  11. Reproductive Tract Tumours: The Scourge of Woman Reproduction Ails Indian Rhinoceroses

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7–9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5–10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  12. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  13. Auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the Hayflick limit of cultured cells, carcinogen-induced tumours in mice, and the age distribution of human cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasnick, D

    2000-01-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that aneuploidy, an imbalance in the number of chromosomes, is responsible for the characteristic phenotypes of cancer, including the abnormal cellular size and morphology of cancer cells, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, as well as the high levels of membrane-bound and secreted proteins responsible for invasiveness and loss of contact inhibition. Aneuploidy has also been demonstrated to be the self-perpetuating source of the karyotypic instability of cancer cells. Here it is shown that the auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the kinetics of the finite lifetime of diploid cells in culture, the time course of the appearance of papillomas and carcinomas in benzo[a]pyrene-treated mice, and the age-dependence of human cancers. Modelling studies indicate that the ease of spontaneous transformation of mouse cells in culture may be due to a chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Conversely, the strong preference towards senescence and resistance to transformation of human cells in culture may be the result of a non-chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Finally, a method is proposed for quantifying the aneuploidogenic potencies of carcinogens. PMID:10839979

  14. Influence of segmental chromosome abnormalities on survival in children over the age of 12 months with unresectable localised peripheral neuroblastic tumours without MYCN amplification

    PubMed Central

    Defferrari, R; Mazzocco, K; Ambros, I M; Ambros, P F; Bedwell, C; Beiske, K; Bénard, J; Berbegall, A P; Bown, N; Combaret, V; Couturier, J; Erminio, G; Gambini, C; Garaventa, A; Gross, N; Haupt, R; Kohler, J; Jeison, M; Lunec, J; Marques, B; Martinsson, T; Noguera, R; Parodi, S; Schleiermacher, G; Tweddle, D A; Valent, A; Van Roy, N; Vicha, A; Villamon, E; Tonini, G P

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prognostic impact of segmental chromosome alterations (SCAs) in children older than 1 year, diagnosed with localised unresectable neuroblastoma (NB) without MYCN amplification enrolled in the European Unresectable Neuroblastoma (EUNB) protocol is still to be clarified, while, for other group of patients, the presence of SCAs is associated with poor prognosis. Methods: To understand the role of SCAs we performed multilocus/pangenomic analysis of 98 tumour samples from patients enrolled in the EUNB protocol. Results: Age at diagnosis was categorised into two groups using 18 months as the age cutoff. Significant difference in the presence of SCAs was seen in tumours of patients between 12 and 18 months and over 18 months of age at diagnosis, respectively (P=0.04). A significant correlation (P=0.03) was observed between number of SCAs per tumour and age. Event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated in both age groups, according to both the presence and number of SCAs. In older patients, a poorer survival was associated with the presence of SCAs (EFS=46% vs 75%, P=0.023; OS=66.8% vs 100%, P=0.003). Moreover, OS of older patients inversely correlated with number of SCAs (P=0.002). Finally, SCAs provided additional prognostic information beyond histoprognosis, as their presence was associated with poorer OS in patients over 18 months with unfavourable International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) histopathology (P=0.018). Conclusions: The presence of SCAs is a negative prognostic marker that impairs outcome of patients over the age of 18 months with localised unresectable NB without MYCN amplification, especially when more than one SCA is present. Moreover, in older patients with unfavourable INPC tumour histoprognosis, the presence of SCAs significantly affects OS. PMID:25356804

  15. Tumour ablation: technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours. PMID:19965296

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, Heikki; Hohenberger, Peter; Corless, Christopher L

    2013-09-14

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms that arise in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. They can occur at any age, the median age being 60-65 years, and typically cause bleeding, anaemia, and pain. GISTs have variable malignant potential, ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. Most tumours stain positively for the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor KIT and anoctamin 1 and harbour a kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or PDGFRA. Tumours without such mutations could have alterations in genes of the succinate dehydrogenase complex or in BRAF, or rarely RAS family genes. About 60% of patients are cured by surgery. Adjuvant treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with a substantial risk of recurrence, if the tumour has an imatinib-sensitive mutation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors substantially improve survival in advanced disease, but secondary drug resistance is common. PMID:23623056

  17. Chinguetti - terrestrial age and pre-atmospheric size

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K C; Masarik, J; Bland, P A; Caffee, M W; Russell, S S; Grady, M M; Denyer, I; Lloyd, J

    2000-01-14

    Chinguetti is a 4.5 kg mesosiderite find recovered from the Adra region of Mauretania. In this paper the authors analyse a portion of the recovered sample for cosmogenic radionuclides to determine its terrestrial age, and to determine its pre-atmospheric radius. They determined the terrestrial age of Chinguetti to be < 30 ky. They constrain the pre-atmospheric radius to 50--80 cm and the shielding depths of 15--25 cm. These data indicate that Chinguetti is a comparatively recent fall.

  18. [Tumours and liver transplants].

    PubMed

    Mejzlík, Vladimír; Husová, Libuše; Kuman, Milan; Štěpánková, Soňa; Ondrášek, Jiří; Němec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation as a curative treatment method can be used for selected primary liver tumours, in particular for hepatocellular carcinoma and rather rare semi-malignant tumours such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, further for infiltration of liver by metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (provided that metastases are only located in the liver and the primary tumour was removed) and for benign tumours (hemangiomas and adenomas) with oppression symptoms and size progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is not indicated for liver transplantation at the CKTCH Brno. In recent years liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma have increased and hepatocellular carcinoma has also been more frequently found ex post, in the explanted livers. Liver transplantation is indicated in selected patients with a good chance of long-term survival after liver transplantation (a generally accepted limit is 5 year survival of 50 % after transplantation). By 20 March 2015 there were liver transplants carried out on 38 patients - in 25 of them was hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed before transplantation and in 13 it was found in the liver explants. 5 year survival following transplantation is reached by 53 % of this cohort. 32 % patients suffered from chronic hepatitis C. The longest surviving (32 years) patient at CKTCH Brno had liver transplanted for a big fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, which points to the prognostic significance of tumour histology: the criterion only considered in some indication schemes for practical reasons. Benign liver tumours (adenomatosis, cystadenoma, hemangioma with oppression symptoms) are rather rare indications and the transplantation results are favourable. 4 patients underwent transplantation for infiltration of liver by carcinoid, tumour recurrence occurred in one. PMID:26375706

  19. Biophysical models of tumour growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracqui, P.

    2009-05-01

    Tumour growth is a multifactorial process, which has stimulated in recent decades the development of numerous models trying to figure out the mechanisms controlling solid tumours morphogenesis. While the earliest models were focusing on cell proliferation kinetics, modulated by the availability of supplied nutrients, new modelling approaches emphasize the crucial role of several biophysical processes, including local matrix remodelling, active cell migration and traction, and reshaping of host tissue vasculature. After a brief presentation of this experimental background, this review will outline a number of representative models describing, at different scales, the growth of avascular and vascularized tumours. Special attention will be paid to the formulation of tumour-host tissue interactions that selectively drive changes in tumour size and morphology, and which are notably mediated by the mechanical status and elasticity of the tumour microenvironment. Emergence of invasive behaviour through growth instabilities at the tumour-host interface will be presented considering both reaction-diffusion and mechano-cellular models. In the latter part of the review, patient-oriented implications of tumour growth modelling are outlined in the context of brain tumours. Some conceptual views of the adaptive strategies and selective barriers that govern tumour evolution are presented in conclusion as potential guidelines for the development of future models.

  20. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic transsphenoidal route to pituitary tumours in paediatric patients >10 years of age: 5 years of experience at a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Xu, Guangming; Wiebe, Timothy M; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for the management of pituitary adenomas in paediatric patients >10 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify 56 paediatric patients between 10 and 18 years of age who underwent an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the resection of a pituitary adenoma during the last 5 years. The age, sex, symptoms, tumour size, extent of tumour resection, clinical outcome and surgical complications of patients were reviewed. Results Total resection was achieved in 49 (87.5%) cases, subtotal resection was achieved in 7 (12.5%) cases and no patient had a partial or insufficient resection. Of the 35 patients who experienced preoperative deterioration of vision, 33 (94.2%) achieved visual remission with rates of 34.2% and 60% for normalisation and improvement, respectively. Endocrinological normalisation was achieved in 13 (31.7%) of 41 patients who had preoperative hyperhormonal levels; hormone levels decreased in 25 (61.0%) patients, and 3 (7.3%) patients had no change in hormone level. Two (3.5%) patients incurred postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which was resolved after lumbar drainage. Four (7.1%) patients developed hypopituitarism, which required hormone therapy. Post-surgery, five (8.9%) patients incurred transient diabetes insipidus (DI), of which one (1.7%) patient developed persistent DI and was administered Minirin. Meningitis occurred in one (1.7%) patient who was cured by the administration of a third-generation antibiotic. There were no cases of intracranial haematoma, reoperation or death. Conclusions EETA allows neurosurgeons to safely and effectively remove paediatric pituitary adenomas with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:26006173

  1. Cell and nanoparticle transport in tumour microvasculature: the role of size, shape and surface functionality of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Lian, Yanping; Zhang, Lucy T; Aldousari, Saad M; Hedia, Hassan S; Asiri, Saeed A; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-02-01

    Through nanomedicine, game-changing methods are emerging to deliver drug molecules directly to diseased areas. One of the most promising of these is the targeted delivery of drugs and imaging agents via drug carrier-based platforms. Such drug delivery systems can now be synthesized from a wide range of different materials, made in a number of different shapes, and coated with an array of different organic molecules, including ligands. If optimized, these systems can enhance the efficacy and specificity of delivery compared with those of non-targeted systems. Emerging integrated multiscale experiments, models and simulations have opened the door for endless medical applications. Current bottlenecks in design of the drug-carrying particles are the lack of knowledge about the dispersion of these particles in the microvasculature and of their subsequent internalization by diseased cells (Bao et al. 2014 J. R. Soc. Interface 11, 20140301 (doi:10.1098/rsif.2014.0301)). We describe multiscale modelling techniques that study how drug carriers disperse within the microvasculature. The immersed molecular finite-element method is adopted to simulate whole blood including blood plasma, red blood cells and nanoparticles. With a novel dissipative particle dynamics method, the beginning stages of receptor-driven endocytosis of nanoparticles can be understood in detail. Using this multiscale modelling method, we elucidate how the size, shape and surface functionality of nanoparticles will affect their dispersion in the microvasculature and subsequent internalization by targeted cells. PMID:26855759

  2. Accuracy of prediction of canine litter size and gestational age with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Z M; Hopper, B J; Lester, N V; Richardson, J L; Robertson, I D

    2007-06-01

    Different sonographic criteria have been developed to estimate canine fetal age, including fetal mensuration and assessment of fetal organ development. This retrospective study assessed the accuracy of gestational age and litter size predictions in 76 bitches using one of two techniques. The first method used the differential features of fetal organ development that occur in early and mid pregnancy, based on published tables for beagles. The second method used biparietal head and trunk diameters to predict gestational age based on tables published for late gestational Labrador Retrievers. The accuracy of the two methods was compared and the effect of maternal body weight and litter size evaluated. Litter size and maternal body weight did not affect the accuracy of gestational age prediction. Using a combination of both methods, the overall accuracy of predicting parturition date within 65 +/- 1 day and +/- 2 days was 70.8% and 86.1%, respectively. The correct litter size was predicted in 65% of cases, and in 89.5% of cases for +/- 1 pup. Pearson's correlation between actual litter size and predicted litter size was high (R = 0.957, P < 0.001). The organ development method of predicting gestational age was more accurate than late gestational fetal mensuration (P = 0.019). The optimum time for sonographic estimation of fetal age and litter size is early and mid pregnancy. PMID:17547634

  3. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: retrospective analysis of a University Hospital's experience.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y F; Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Teoh, K H; Tan, P H

    2016-04-01

    Taking cognizance of the purported variation of phyllodes tumours in Asians compared with Western populations, this study looked at phyllodes tumours of the breast diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre over an 8-year period with regards to patient profiles, tumour parameters, treatment offered and outcome. Sixty-four new cases of phyllodes tumour were diagnosed during the period, however only 30 (21 benign, 4 borderline and 5 malignant) finally qualified for entry into the study. These were followed-up for 4-102 months (average = 41.7 months). Thirteen cases (8 benign, 3 borderline, 2 malignant) were Chinese, 9 (all benign) Malay, 7 (4 benign, 1 borderline, 2 malignant) Indian and 1 (malignant) Indonesian. Prevalence of benign versus combined borderline and malignant phyllodes showed a marginally significant difference (p=0.049) between the Malays and Chinese. Patients' ages ranged from 21-70 years with a mean of 44.9 years with no significant difference in age between benign, borderline or malignant phyllodes tumours. Except for benign phyllodes tumours (mean size = 5.8 cm) being significantly smaller at presentation compared with borderline (mean size = 12.5 cm) and malignant (mean size = 15.8 cm) (p<0.05) tumours, history of previous pregnancy, breast feeding, hormonal contraception and tumour laterality did not differ between the three categories. Family history of breast cancer was noted in 2 cases of benign phyllodes. Local excision was performed in 17 benign, 2 borderline and 3 malignant tumours and mastectomy in 4 benign, 2 borderline and 2 malignant tumours. Surgical clearance was not properly recorded in 10 benign phyllodes tumours. Six benign and all 4 borderline and 5 malignant tumours had clearances of <10 mm. Two benign tumours recurred locally at 15 and 49 months after local excision, however information regarding surgical clearance was not available in both cases. One patient with a malignant tumour developed

  4. Fontanel Size from Birth to 24 Months of Age in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    ESMAEILI, Mohammad; ESMAEILI, Marjan; GHANE SHARBAF, Fatemeh; BOKHARAIE, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of abnormal fontanel size, a potential clue to recognition of different disorders, requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal fontanel size. The anterior fontanel is the largest, prominent and most important for clinical evaluation. The aim of this study was to establish and define normal range of fontanel size from birth to 24 months of age in healthy Iranian children that might be generalized to other populations. Materials & Methods Totally, 550 subjects enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. They were apparently normal healthy children, from birth to 24 months of age, including 208-term newborn and 342 infant from birth to 2 yr old. Fontanel size was measured and recorded as the mean of the length (anterior- posterior dimension) and width (transverse dimension). Mean anterior fontanel sizes in our samples were classified for periods of 3 months. Nomograms and statistical analyses were performed and depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007 and two-tailed t-test respectively. Results The mean ±2SD of anterior fontanel size was 2.55±1.92 cm in newborns, 3.37±2.48 (largest size) in 3 months of age. It was closed in all cases in 15-18 months of age. The mean posterior fontanel size was 0.8 cm in newborns and closed in all infants in 2 months of age. There was no significant difference in anterior fontanel size between two genders except in newborn and 6-9 months old (P>0.05). Conclusion Abnormal fontanel can indicate a serious medical condition. Therefore, it is important to understand normal variations, to utilize standardized techniques for measurement and appropriate standards of normal range in different age groups and populations. This study provides a normal range of mean fontanel size in Iranian infants as a local reference. It might be generalized to other populations. PMID:26664437

  5. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-02-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  6. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-01-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  7. An analysis of the size distribution of Italian firms by age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Pasquale

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we analyze the size distribution of Italian firms by age. In other words, we want to establish whether the way that the size of firms is distributed varies as firms become old. As a proxy of size we use capital. In [L.M.B. Cabral, J. Mata, On the evolution of the firm size distribution: Facts and theory, American Economic Review 93 (2003) 1075-1090], the authors study the distribution of Portuguese firms and they find out that, while the size distribution of all firms is fairly stable over time, the distributions of firms by age groups are appreciably different. In particular, as the age of the firms increases, their size distribution on the log scale shifts to the right, the left tails becomes thinner and the right tail thicker, with a clear decrease of the skewness. In this paper, we perform a similar analysis with Italian firms using the CEBI database, also considering firms’ growth rates. Although there are several papers dealing with Italian firms and their size distribution, to our knowledge a similar study concerning size and age has not been performed yet for Italy, especially with such a big panel.

  8. Effects of frame size and animal age on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and animal age on beef carcass quality and tenderness in a forage finishing system. Steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover) and were slaughtered at 16.6, 18.6, and 20.3 mo of age in...

  9. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  10. Somatic heterogeneity of the CTG repeat in myotonic dystrophy is age and size dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L J; Ashizawa, T; Monckton, D G; Caskey, C T; Richards, C S

    1995-01-01

    The most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy (DM), is caused by the abnormal expansion of the CTG repeat, located in the 3' UTR of the DM gene. The expanded-CTG allele often presents as a diffused band on Southern blot analysis, suggesting somatic mosaicism. In order to study the somatic instability of the CTG repeat, we have investigated the dynamics of the size heterogeneity of the CTG expansion. Size heterogeneity is shown as a smear on Southern blot and is measured by the midpeak-width ratio of the expanded allele to the normal sized allele. The ratio is also corrected for compression in the higher-molecular-weight region. It is found that the size heterogeneity of the expanded-CTG repeats, of 173 DM patients, correlates well with the age of the patient (r = .81, P << .001). The older patients show larger size variation. This correlation is independent of the sex of either the patient or the transmitting parent. The size heterogeneity of the expansion, based on age groups, is also dependent on the size of the expanded trinucleotide repeat. However, obvious size heterogeneity is not observed in congenital cases, regardless of the size of expansion. Comparison of individual patient samples collected at two different times has confirmed that the degree of size heterogeneity increases with age and has revealed a subtle but definite upward shift in the size of the expanded-CTG allele. The progression of the CTG repeat toward larger expansion with age is further confirmed by small-pool PCR assay that resolved the heterogeneous fragments into discrete bands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7825566

  11. Plant size, not age, regulates growth and gas exchange in grafted Scots pine trees.

    PubMed

    Vanderklein, D; Martínez-Vilalta, J; Lee, S; Mencuccini, M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of scion donor-tree age on the physiology and growth of 6- to 7-year-old grafted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees (4 and 5 years after grafting). Physiological measurements included photosynthethetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, whole plant hydraulic conductance, needle nitrogen concentration and carbon isotope composition. Growth measurements included total and component biomasses, relative growth rates and growth efficiency. Scion donor trees ranged in age from 36 to 269 years at the time of grafting. Hydraulic conductance was measured gravimetrically, applying the Ohm's law analogy, and directly, with a high-pressure flow meter. We found no effect of scion donor-tree age on any of the variables measured. There was, however, great variation within scion donor-tree age groups, which was related to the size of the grafted trees. Differences in size may have been caused by variable initial grafting success, but there was no indication that grafting success and age were related. At the stem level, hydraulic conductance scaled with total leaf area so that total conductance per unit leaf area did not vary with crown size. However, leaf specific hydraulic conductance (gravimetric), transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance declined with increasing total tree leaf area and needle width. We hypothesize that needle width is inversely related to mesophyll conductance. We conclude that canopy and needle size and not scion donor-tree age determined gas exchange in our grafted trees. PMID:17169908

  12. Age, growth, and size of Lake Superior Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulterii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Taylor; Derek Ogle; Gorman, Owen T.; Vinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulterii) are a small, glacial relict species with a disjunct distribution in North America and Siberia. In 2013 we collected Pygmy Whitefish at 28 stations from throughout Lake Superior. Total length was recorded for all fish and weight and sex were recorded and scales and otoliths were collected from a subsample. We compared the precision of estimated ages between readers and between scales and otoliths, estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters for male and female Pygmy Whitefish, and reported the first weight-length relationship for Pygmy Whitefish. Age estimates between scales and otoliths differed significantly with otolith ages significantly greater for most ages after age-3. Maximum otolith age was nine for females and seven for males, which is older than previously reported for Pygmy Whitefish from Lake Superior. Growth was initially fast but slowed considerably after age-3 for males and age-4 for females, falling to 3–4 mm per year at maximum estimated ages. Females were longer than males after age-3. Our results suggest the size, age, and growth of Pygmy Whitefish in Lake Superior have not changed appreciably since 1953.

  13. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  14. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality.

    PubMed

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-10-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations; rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  15. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  16. Variation in age and size at maturity of the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, J.W.; Semlitch, R.D.; Greene, J.L.; Schubauer, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The adaptive strategy of the slider turtle, Pseudemys scripta, in terms of age and size at sexual maturity is discussed. Populations from a natural aquatic habitat and from a cooling reservoir on the US DOE Savannah River Plant are compared. (HCR)

  17. Relationships Between Father's Age, Birth Order, Family Size, and Need Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Richman, Charles L.

    Several hypotheses regarding the determinants of need achievement were examined. In addition to predicting sex differences, the study predicted that father's age would be inversely related to need achievement. In addition, the effects of family size and birth order on achievement motivation were compared. Subjects were 1,092 undergraduates (785…

  18. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  19. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W Stewart; Brenner, Richard E; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  20. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W. Stewart; Brenner, Richard E.; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  1. A matter of size: Part 2. Evaluating the large-for-gestational-age neonate.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J

    2007-08-01

    Large for gestational age (LGA) is another designation used to assess and monitor growth throughout the pregnancy and after delivery. Large for gestational age is an abnormal growth descriptor that assists in anticipating neonatal needs pre-and postnatally. Careful monitoring for abnormal growth trends in the fetus is imperative prenatally. The relative size of a neonate affects many aspects of prenatal and postnatal surveillance. Nursing care is guided by the maternal history and the delivery room complications that may occur. Anticipating complications in the delivery room is vital to the survival of LGA neonates. Nursing care for LGA neonates requires knowledge based on these potential complications. A thorough physical assessment with appropriate glucose monitoring and parental education is required. Size matters when it comes to the health and welfare of all sizes of neonates. Anticipatory guidance with prenatal monitoring and education can improve outcomes in the neonate at risk for LGA complications at birth. PMID:17700192

  2. Ultrasonographic estimation of prostate size in normal dogs and relationship to bodyweight and age.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Holt, P E; Barr, F J

    1999-03-01

    A study was undertaken to establish the ranges of prostate dimensions, weight and volume in mature normal dogs and thus provide information which would allow differentiation from normality of size changes associated with disease. The study was performed on 154 healthy adult male entire dogs. Each prostate was imaged ultrasonographically and standard longitudinal and transverse sections were obtained. Prostate length (L), depth on longitudinal (DL) and transverse sections (DT) and width (W) were measured. Prostatic volume and weight were estimated according to formulae derived previously. There were statistically significant correlations between bodyweight or age and L, DL, DT and W. There were also significant correlations between estimated prostatic weight or volume and bodyweight, age, L, DL, DT and W. Formulae were derived to express the relationships between prostate size (weight or volume) and age or bodyweight. PMID:10200922

  3. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Loret de Mola, Christian; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. Methods 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Results Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight—but not with head circumference—persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Conclusions Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. PMID:26109560

  4. Age at puberty, fertility and litter size of ewe lambs reared under different photoregimens.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, L; Heaney, D P; Shrestha, J N

    1991-09-01

    Age at puberty, fertility and litter size of ewe lambs of synthetic sire and dam strains raised under different photoregimens were determined. The lambs were bred during January, May or September at 30 to 32 weeks of age. Irrespective of birth date, the lambs were reared under continuous light from birth to 5 weeks of age. From 5 to 20 weeks of age, they were kept under 16 hours of light dairy (16L:8D; Treatment A), 8 hours of light daily (8L:16D; Treatment B), or a split photoperiod of 8 hours total light daily (7L:9D:1L:7D; Treatment C). Subsequently, all lambs were exposed to 9 hours of light daily until after breeding. Lambs were exposed to rams for two estrous periods after treatment with fluorogestone acetate-impregnated intravaginal sponges and pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG) to induce synchronized estrus. Although the age at puberty (174 days) was similar among treatments, the incidence of puberty prior to progestagen sponge treatment was higher (approximately 50%) for lambs reared under Treatments A and C than under Treatment B. Fertility and litter size of lambs were not influenced by the previous photoperiod history or by sexual maturity, i.e., puberal or prepuberal, at the start of the sponge treatment. However, strain, age and weight of lambs at breeding influenced significantly the reproductive outcome. PMID:16727011

  5. Aged boreal biomass-burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number-size distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellite) measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in northwestern Ontario. The composite median size distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter) and σ = 1.5, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.09-0.17 μg m-3 ppbv-1 (parts per billion by volume) with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA (organic aerosol) production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period (plume age: 1-2 days), though it does not preclude OA production/loss at earlier stages. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We

  6. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Tropé, Claes Göran; Kaern, Janne; Davidson, Ben

    2012-06-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours account for 10-20% of all epithelial ovarian cancer. Historically, standard primary surgery has included borderline ovarian tumours, omentectomy, peritoneal washing and multiple biopsies. As one-third of borderline ovarian tumours are diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years, fertility-sparing treatment has been more frequently used in the past 10 years. Fertility drugs are well tolerated in women with infertility after fertility-sparing surgery. Careful selection of candidates is necessary. Laparoscopic techniques can be used, but should be reserved for oncologic surgeons. This conservative treatment increases the rate of recurrence, albeit with no effect on survival. The pregnancy rate is nearly 50%, and most are achieved spontaneously. These women should be closely followed up. The question is whether this is acceptable from a gynaecologic oncologic point of view. For this reason, we will discuss recently published studies and gynaecologic oncologic concerns about the mode of fertility-sparing surgery and its consequences. PMID:22321906

  8. Age and gender based biomechanical shape and size analysis of the pediatric brain.

    PubMed

    Danelson, Kerry A; Geer, Carol P; Stitzel, Joel D; Slice, Dennis E; Takhounts, Erik G

    2008-11-01

    Injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of head injury and death for children in the United States. This study aims to describe the shape and size (morphologic) changes of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and ventricles of the pediatric occupant to better predict injury and assess how these changes affect finite element model (FEM) response. To quantify morphologic differences in the brain, a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) with a sliding landmark method was conducted to isolate morphologic changes using magnetic resonance images of 63 normal subjects. This type of geometric morphometric analysis was selected for its ability to identify homologous landmarks on structures with few true landmarks and isolate the shape and size of the individuals studied. From the resulting landmark coordinates, the shape and size changes were regressed against age to develop a model describing morphologic changes in the pediatric brain as a function of age. The most statistically significant shape change was in the cerebrum with p-values of 0.00346 for males and 0.00829 for females. The age-based model explains over 80% of the variation in size in the cerebrum. Using size and shape models, affine transformations were applied to the SIMon FEM to determine differences in response given differences in size and size plus shape. The geometric centroid of the elements exceeding 15% strain was calculated and compared to the geometric centroid of the entire structure. Given the same Haversine pulse, the centroid location, a metric for the spatial distribution of the elements exceeding an injury threshold, varied based on which transformation was applied to the model. To assess the overall response of the model, three injury metrics were examined to determine the magnitude of the metrics each element sustained and the overall volume of elements that experienced that value. These results suggested that the overall response of the model was driven by the

  9. Size and age-concentration relationships for perfluoroalkyl substances in stingray livers from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Lai, Foon Yin; Townsend, Kathy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-10-15

    While the literature has reported a widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine biota, very limited studies have been dedicated to the southern hemisphere. Hepatic concentrations of nine PFAAs were analysed in 49 stranded stingrays from eastern Australia using liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and relationships with biological parameters (i.e. body size, age and sex) were investigated. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were the predominant compounds quantified, with hepatic concentrations varying from 2 to 117 and from 0.2 to 19 ng·g(-1) w.w., respectively. A negative correlation between the concentration of PFASs in the livers of 32 blue-spotted stingrays and the body size/age was found. This relationship was independent of the animal's sex. We postulate that the dependence on body size is related to differing uptake kinetics of the chemicals, after the sting rays were exposed to an increased level of the contaminants in their environment. Such a pollution event could be related to a severe flood event that occurred at this location a few months before the samples' collection. Our results indicate that the influence of the body size/age should be taken into account when estimating bioaccumulation parameters from environmental measurements or exposure levels of biota to PFASs. PMID:25108254

  10. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  11. Fast Airborne Size Distribution Measurements of an Aerosol Processes and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Zhou, J.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S.

    2009-12-01

    During MILAGRO/INTEX experiment the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR) deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard NSF C-130 and NASA DC-8. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering - f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). We also flew the Fast Mobility Particle Spectrometer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) to measure aerosol size distributions in a range 5.6 - 560 nm. For all our flights around Mexico City, an aerosol number concentration usually was well above the nominal FMPS sensitivity (from ~100 particles/cc @ Dp = 5.6 nm to 1 part/cc @ 560nm), providing us with reliable size distributions even at 1 sec resolution. FMPS measurements revealed small scale structure of an aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved. These 1-Hz measurements during aircraft profiles captured variations in size distributions within shallow layers. Other dynamic processes observed included orography induced aerosol layers and evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation. We put FMPS high resolution size distribution data in a context of aerosol evolution and aging, using a range of established (for MIRAGE/INTEX) chemical, aerosol and transport aging parameters.

  12. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  13. Sex, Age, and Graft Size as Predictors of ACL Re-tear

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimum size required for a successful quadrupled hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction remains controversial. The risks of ACL re-tear in younger patients who tend to participate in a higher level of sports activity, and female athletes who have numerous predisposing factors, are poorly defined. Purpose: To identify risk factors for graft re-tears within 2 years of ACL surgery. The hypotheses are that female sex, a smaller size graft, and younger patients will increase the odds of failure. Study Design Cohort Study. Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A cohort of 503 athletes undergoing primary, autograft hamstring ACL reconstruction, performed by a single surgeon using the same surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, between September-December 2012, was followed for a total duration of 2 years. Return to play was allowed between 6 and 12 months post-surgery upon completion of functional testing. Exclusion criteria included infections, revisions, double bundle techniques, multi-ligament injuries, non-compliance, BTB/allografts/hybrid grafts. Primary outcome consisted of binary data (ACL graft re-tear or no tear) as measured on physical exam (Lachman and pivot shift) and MRI. Multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis with model fitting was used to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, and graft size on ACL re-tear. Secondary sensitivity analyses were performed on the adolescent subgroup, age and graft size as categorical variables, and testing for interactions among variables. Sample size was calculated based on the rule of 10 events per independent variable for logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the 503 athletes was 27.5 (SD 10.6; range = 12-61). There were 235 females (47%) and 268 males (53%) with a 6% rate of re-tears (28 patients; 17 females). Mean graft size was 7.9 (SD 0.6; range = 6-10). Univariate analyses of graft size, sex, and age only in the model showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95

  14. Can clade age alone explain the relationship between body size and diversity?

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S; de Visser, Sara N; Janzen, Thijs; Olsen, Jeanine L; Olff, Han; Rosindell, James

    2012-04-01

    One of the most striking patterns observed among animals is that smaller-bodied taxa are generally much more diverse than larger-bodied taxa. This observation seems to be explained by the mere fact that smaller-bodied taxa tend to have an older evolutionary origin and have therefore had more time to diversify. A few studies, based on the prevailing null model of diversification (i.e. the stochastic constant-rate birth-death model), have suggested that this is indeed the correct explanation, and body-size dependence of speciation and extinction rates does not play a role. However, there are several potential shortcomings to these studies: a suboptimal statistical procedure and a relatively narrow range of body sizes in the analysed data. Here, we present a more coherent statistical approach, maximizing the likelihood of the constant-rate birth-death model with allometric scaling of speciation and extinction rates, given data on extant diversity, clade age and average body size in each clade. We applied our method to a dataset compiled from the literature that includes a wide range of Metazoan taxa (range from midges to elephants). We find that the higher diversity among small animals is indeed, partly, caused by higher clade age. However, it is also partly caused by the body-size dependence of speciation and extinction rates. We find that both the speciation rate and extinction rate decrease with body size such that the net diversification rate is close to 0. Even more interestingly, the allometric scaling exponent of speciation and extinction rates is approximately -0.25, which implies that the per generation speciation and extinction rates are independent of body size. This suggests that the observed relationship between diversity and body size pattern can be explained by clade age alone, but only if clade age is measured in generations rather than years. Thus, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for the observation that smaller-bodied taxa are more

  15. When phenology matters: age-size truncation alters population response to trophic mismatch.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Thackeray, Stephen J; Winfield, Ian J; Maberly, Stephen C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2014-10-22

    Climate-induced shifts in the timing of life-history events are a worldwide phenomenon, and these shifts can de-synchronize species interactions such as predator-prey relationships. In order to understand the ecological implications of altered seasonality, we need to consider how shifts in phenology interact with other agents of environmental change such as exploitation and disease spread, which commonly act to erode the demographic structure of wild populations. Using long-term observational data on the phenology and dynamics of a model predator-prey system (fish and zooplankton in Windermere, UK), we show that age-size truncation of the predator population alters the consequences of phenological mismatch for offspring survival and population abundance. Specifically, age-size truncation reduces intraspecific density regulation due to competition and cannibalism, and thereby amplifies the population sensitivity to climate-induced predator-prey asynchrony, which increases variability in predator abundance. High population variability poses major ecological and economic challenges as it can diminish sustainable harvest rates and increase the risk of population collapse. Our results stress the importance of maintaining within-population age-size diversity in order to buffer populations against phenological asynchrony, and highlight the need to consider interactive effects of environmental impacts if we are to understand and project complex ecological outcomes. PMID:25165767

  16. The influence of persistent individual differences and age at maturity on effective population size

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aline Magdalena; Engen, Steinar; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Ratios of effective populations size, Ne, to census population size, N, are used as a measure of genetic drift in populations. Several life-history parameters have been shown to affect these ratios, including mating system and age at sexual maturation. Using a stochastic matrix model, we examine how different levels of persistent individual differences in mating success among males may affect Ne/N, and how this relates to generation time. Individual differences of this type are shown to cause a lower Ne/N ratio than would be expected when mating is independent among seasons. Examining the way in which age at maturity affects Ne/N, we find that both the direction and magnitude of the effect depends on the survival rate of juveniles in the population. In particular, when maturation is delayed, lowered juvenile survival causes higher levels of genetic drift. In addition, predicted shifts in Ne/N with changing age at maturity are shown to be dependent on which of the commonly used definitions of census population size, N, is employed. Our results demonstrate that patterns of mating success, as well as juvenile survival probabilities, have substantial effects on rates of genetic drift. PMID:21436183

  17. Pedunculated islet-cell tumour of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Britt, R P

    1966-05-01

    An unusual islet-cell tumour found at necropsy in a patient who had died from a myocardial infarction is described. Of particular interest were the pedunculated nature and large size of the tumour. The clinical features of the case are considered. Four islet-cell tumours in the duodenum have previously been reported and it seems probable that such tumours arise in heterotopic pancreas. PMID:4287114

  18. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Daniel J; Sofield, Ruth M; Ranville, James F; Hoff, Dale J; Wall, V Dan; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles before zinc exposures. These 96-h exposures used flow-through conditions and four chronological ages of fish with weights ranging from 0.148 to 1.432 g. Time-to-death (TTD) data were collected throughout the exposure along with the final mortality. The results indicate that chronological age does not play a predictable role in zinc tolerance for juvenile brown trout. However, a relationship between zinc tolerance and fish size was observed in all chronological age populations, which prompted us to conduct additional exploratory data analysis to quantify how much of an effect size had during this stage of development. The smallest fish (0.148-0.423 g) were shown to be less sensitive than the largest fish (0.639-1.432 g) with LC50 values of 868 and 354 µg Zn/L, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier product estimation method was used to determine survival functions from the TTD data and supports the LC50 results with a greater median TTD for smaller fish than larger juvenile fish. These results indicate that fish size or a related characteristic may be a significant determinant of susceptibility and should be considered in acute zinc toxicity tests with specific attention paid to the expected exposure scenario in the field. PMID:25822313

  19. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  20. How do animals optimize the size-number trade-off when aging? Insights from reproductive senescence patterns in marmots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-françois; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of female age on five reproductive traits and on the offspring size-number trade-off from an extensive data set spanning 20 years of study on free-ranging Alpine marmots. Offspring mass increased with female age, whereas litter size and reproductive allocation remained constant in females up to 10 years of age and declined thereafter. Although reproductive allocation declined, post-weaning juvenile survival and the size-number trade-off did not change markedly throughout a female's lifetime. Senescence of annual reproductive success (i.e., the number of offspring surviving their first hibernation within a given litter) only resulted from senescence of litter size. The data were insufficient to determine whether the decrease in litter size with age was caused by declining litter size at birth, offspring pre-weaning survival, or both. Regardless, our findings demonstrate that marmot females display a size-number trade-off invariant with age, and that their reproductive tactic involves increasing offspring size at the cost of decreasing litter size with increasing age. As a result, reproductive performance remains constant throughout a female's lifetime, despite the deleterious effects of senescence in litter size. PMID:26236889

  1. Size-Resolved Volatility and Chemical Composition of Aged European Aerosol Measured During FAME-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Mohr, C.; Lee, B.; Engelhart, G. J.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prevot, A. S.; Baltensperger, U.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    We present first results on the volatility and chemical composition of aged organic aerosol measured during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008 (FAME-2008). Finokalia is located in the Southeast of Crete, Greece, and this remote site allows for the measurement of aged European aerosol as it is transported from Central to Southeastern Europe. We measured the volatility of the aerosol at Finokalia as a function of its size by combining several instruments. We used an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of the particles, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure the volume distribution of particles, and a thermodenuder system to induce changes in size and composition via moderate heating of the particles. The largest fraction of the non-refractory material in the aerosol sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organic material and a small contribution from nitrate. Most of the organic aerosol was highly oxidized, even after only a few days of transport over continental Europe. These highly oxidized organics had lower volatility than fresh primary or secondary aerosol measured in the laboratory. Significant changes in air-parcel trajectories and wind direction led to changes in the chemical composition of the sampled aerosol and corresponding changes of the volatility. These results allow the quantification of the effect of atmospheric processing on organic aerosol volatility and can be used as constraints for atmospheric Chemical Transport Models that predict the aerosol volatility.

  2. Quantifying six decades of fishery selection for size and age at maturity in sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Neala W; Hard, Jeffrey J; Quinn, Thomas P

    2009-11-01

    Life history traits of wild animals can be strongly influenced, both phenotypically and evolutionarily, by hunting and fishing. However, few studies have quantified fishery selection over long time periods. We used 57 years of catch and escapement data to document the magnitude of and trends in gillnet selection on age and size at maturity of a commercially and biologically important sockeye salmon stock. Overall, the fishery has caught larger fish than have escaped to spawn, but selection has varied over time, becoming weaker and less consistent recently. Selection patterns were strongly affected by fish age and sex, in addition to extrinsic factors including fish abundance, mesh size regulations, and fish length variability. These results revealed a more complex and changing pattern of selective harvest than the 'larger is more vulnerable' model, emphasizing the need for quantified, multi-year studies before conclusions can be drawn about potential evolutionary and ecological effects of fishery selection. Furthermore, the results indicate that biologically robust escapement goals and prevention of harvest of the largest individuals may help prevent negative effects of size-selective harvest. PMID:25567896

  3. Modifiable factors that alter the size of the hippocampus with ageing.

    PubMed

    Fotuhi, Majid; Do, David; Jack, Clifford

    2012-04-01

    The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypoxic brain injury, obstructive sleep apnoea, bipolar disorder, clinical depression and head trauma. Patients with these conditions often have smaller hippocampi and experience a greater degree of cognitive decline than individuals without these comorbidities. Moreover, hippocampal atrophy is an established indicator for conversion from the normal ageing process to developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia. As such, an important aim is to ascertain which modifiable factors can have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus throughout life. Observational studies and preliminary clinical trials have raised the possibility that physical exercise, cognitive stimulation and treatment of general medical conditions can reverse age-related atrophy in the hippocampus, or even expand its size. An emerging concept--the dynamic polygon hypothesis--suggests that treatment of modifiable risk factors can increase the volume or prevent atrophy of the hippocampus. According to this hypothesis, a multidisciplinary approach, which involves strategies to both reduce neurotoxicity and increase neurogenesis, is likely to be successful in delaying the onset of cognitive impairment with ageing. Further research on the constellation of interventions that could be most effective is needed before recommendations can be made for implementing preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22410582

  4. Peculiarities of hyperlipidaemia in tumour patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dilman, V. M.; Berstein, L. M.; Ostroumova, M. N.; Tsyrlina, Y. V.; Golubev, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The study group included 684 cases: 258 patients with breast carcinoma, 113 males with lung cancer, 42 patients with rectal tumours, 42 patients with stomach tumours, 59 patients with fibroadenomatosis, and 170 healthy subjects of varying age (male and female). A relatively high blood triglyceride level was found in patients with breast, lung, rectal (females), and stomach (female) tumours. The blood concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in patients with breast, lung, and stomach (female) tumours was relatively low. The elimination of tumour (breast carcinoma) did not lead to significant changes in lipid metabolism. There was no correlation between degree of lipidaemia and stage of tumour progression except in the cases of rectal cancer. Preliminary results are presented on the tentative classification of hyperlipoproteinaemia in tumour patients, using the lipid concentration threshold values advocated by Carlson et al. (1977); an increased frequency of Type IV hyperlipoproteinaemia proved to be the most characteristic feature of tumour patients. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the importance of lipid metabolic disturbances, primarily those due to ageing, in the genesis of the syndrome of "cancerophilia" (predisposition to cancer). PMID:7248149

  5. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  6. Effect of set size, age, and mode of stimulus presentation on information-processing speed.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    First, second, and third grade pupils served as subjects in an experiment designed to show the effect of age, mode of stimulus presentation, and information value on recognition time. Stimuli were presented in picture and printed word form and in groups of 2, 4, and 8. The results of the study indicate that first graders are slower than second and third graders who are nearly equal. There is a gross shift in reaction time as a function of mode of stimulus presentation with increase in age. The first graders take much longer to identify words than pictures, while the reverse is true of the older groups. With regard to set size, a slope appears in the pictures condition in the older groups, while for first graders, a large slope occurs in the words condition and only a much smaller one for pictures.

  7. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  8. Tactile Spatial Acuity in Childhood: Effects of Age and Fingertip Size

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ryan M.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Tactile acuity is known to decline with age in adults, possibly as the result of receptor loss, but less is understood about how tactile acuity changes during childhood. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that fingertip size influences tactile spatial acuity in young adults: those with larger fingers tend to have poorer acuity, possibly because mechanoreceptors are more sparsely distributed in larger fingers. We hypothesized that a similar relationship would hold among children. If so, children’s tactile spatial acuity might be expected to worsen as their fingertips grow. However, concomitant CNS maturation might result in more efficient perceptual processing, counteracting the effect of fingertip growth on tactile acuity. To investigate, we conducted a cross-sectional study, testing 116 participants ranging in age from 6 to 16 years on a precision-controlled tactile grating orientation task. We measured each participant's grating orientation threshold on the dominant index finger, along with physical properties of the fingertip: surface area, volume, sweat pore spacing, and temperature. We found that, as in adults, children with larger fingertips (at a given age) had significantly poorer acuity, yet paradoxically acuity did not worsen significantly with age. We propose that finger growth during development results in a gradual decline in innervation density as receptive fields reposition to cover an expanding skin surface. At the same time, central maturation presumably enhances perceptual processing. PMID:24454612

  9. Effect of breed, age, weight and gender on radiographic renal size in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lobacz, Monika Anna; Sullivan, Martin; Mellor, Dominic; Hammond, Gawain; Labruyère, Julien; Dennis, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In the adult dog, kidney length has been reported as 2.98 ± 0.44 times the length of L2 on ventrodorsal views and 2.79 ± 0.46 times the length of L2 on lateral radiographs. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the suggested maximum normal left kidney size is too high, and to evaluate the effect of breed type, gender, weight and age of the dog on kidney size. Abdominal radiographs of 200 dogs with no evidence of concurrent disease that might have an effect on renal size were included in the study. The mean ratio of kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra length was similar to previous reports. For the right lateral view it measured 2.98 ± 0.60 and for the ventrodorsal view 3.02 ± 0.66. Significant differences of this ratio between skull type were present, especially between brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs. On the right lateral view brachycephalic dogs had the highest median LK/L2 ratio of 3.1 (3.20 ± 0.40), whereas for dolichocephalic dogs it was 2.8 (2.82 ± 0.50), and for mesaticephalic dogs it was 2.97 (3.01 ± 0.6). A ratio >3.5 was found only in mesaticephalic dogs on the ventrodorsal view. There was a significant difference in the LK/L2 ratio between small (≤10kg) and large breed dogs (>30kg) where small dogs had a significantly higher LK/L2 ratio. There was no statistically significant relation between this ratio and age or gender. The previously reported ratios for kidney size seem valid, but because skull type has an impact on the LK/L2 ratio, a single normal ratio should not be used for all dogs. PMID:22537277

  10. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  11. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  12. Morphometric analysis of nonsclerosed Glomeruli size and connective tissue content during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Vesna R; Jovanović, Ivan D; Ugrenović, Sladjana Z; Vasović, Ljiljana P; Živković, Vladimir S; Jocić, Miodrag V; Kundalić, Braca K; Pavlović, Miljana N

    2012-01-01

    Number of sclerotic glomeruli increases during the aging process. Consequently, majority of remained nonsclerosed glomeruli become hypertrophic and some of them sclerotic, too. The aim of this study was to quantify the size and connective tissue content of nonsclerosed glomeruli and to evaluate the percentage of hypertrophic ones in examined human cases during the aging. Material was right kidney's tissue of 30 cadavers obtained during routine autopsies. Cadavers were without previously diagnosed kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, or any other systemic disease. Tissue specimens were routinely prepared for histological and morphometric analysis. Images of the histological slices were analyzed and captured under 400x magnification with digital camera. Further they were morphometrically and statistically analyzed with ImageJ and NCSS-PASS software. Multiple and linear regression of obtained morphometric parameters showed significant increase of glomerular connective tissue area and percentage. Cluster analysis showed the presence of two types of glomeruli. Second type was characterized with significantly larger size, connective tissue content, and significantly lower cellularity, in relation to the first type. Such glomeruli might be considered as hypertrophic. First type of glomeruli was predominant in younger cases, while second type of glomeruli was predominant in cases older than 55 years. PMID:22654637

  13. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  14. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  15. Estimating Age Ratios and Size of Pacific Walrus Herds on Coastal Haulouts using Video Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Daniel H.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010–2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m2 (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03–0.06) and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0–2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species. PMID:23936106

  16. Estimating age ratios and size of Pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010–2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m2 (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03–0.06) and we documented ~30,000 animals along ~1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0–2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species.

  17. Estimating age ratios and size of pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging.

    PubMed

    Monson, Daniel H; Udevitz, Mark S; Jay, Chadwick V

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010-2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m(2) (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03-0.06) and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0-2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species. PMID:23936106

  18. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  19. Phylloides tumours of the breast: best practice for follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mylvaganam, Senthurun; Toro, Clare; Frank, Lucinda; Vestey, Sarah; Thrush, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Phylloides tumours are rare fibroepithelial breast tumours accounting for 1% of breast cancers. No UK guidance exists on the assessment, treatment and follow-up of these patients. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical core biopsy compared to the gold standard excision biopsy and determine the current follow-up practice and recurrence rate of phylloides tumours across two UK hospital trusts. Multicentre retrospective analysis of all cases of phylloides tumours over 6 years at Worcestershire Acute NHS Trust (WANHST) and Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Trust (GHNHST). 94 Patients included. Mean age 48 years. Mean clinical and radiological size of lesions 31.7 and 35.4 mm, respectively, preoperative core biopsy sensitivity was 87% for WANHST and 74% for GHNHST with a positive predictive value of 90 and 100%, respectively. 29 Different follow-up regimes were observed from the practice of the 10 surgeons observed following diagnosis and resection of tumours. The follow-up length ranged from discharge following one post-operative clinic attendance to 5-year clinical and/or radiological follow-up. 4 Benign and 2 malignant recurrent phylloides tumours were seen. All benign recurrences were local and found independently of follow-up. The earliest benign phylloides recurrence was at 6 years and the latest at 10 years. There is no standard follow-up of benign or malignant phylloides tumours. This study suggests that in the benign group, the risk of recurrence is small. We advocate no routine follow-up of benign phylloides tumours. PMID:25575495

  20. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  1. Guidelines for assessing the biofidelity of side impact dummies of various sizes and ages.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Annette L; Mertz, Harold J; Elhagediab, Ali M; Moss, Steve

    2002-11-01

    The Human Mechanical Simulation Subcommittee of the Human Biomechanics and Simulation Standards Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers took on the task of defining test procedures and associated response guidelines to be used to assess the level of biofidelity of side impact dummies that are being developed. This paper describes the results of their efforts. Guidelines are provided for assessing the levels of biofidelity of dummies that represent 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants, 3-, 6-, and 10-year-old children, and of dummies that represent a small female, midsize male and large male adults. These guidelines were developed by normalizing the side impact biofidelity guidelines that were established by the International Standards Organization for the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the midsize adult male. The ISO guidelines can be used to define biofidelity guidelines for any size or age of dummy provided pertinent geometric, inertial and tissue properties are specified. PMID:17096231

  2. Age-related ransparent root dentin: mineral concentration,crystallite size and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, John H.; Nalla, Ravi K.; Pople, John A.; Breunig, Tom M.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2004-12-29

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, forexample restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential toevaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altereddentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes calledsclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present studyfocuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties ofnormal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measuredby X-ray computed microtomography, was signifcantly higher in transparentdentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure ofthe tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-rayscattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although theimportance of this ending requires further study. The elastic propertieswere unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlikenormal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition,the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20 percent while thefatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. Theseresults are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure oftransparent dentin.

  3. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) improves glycemic control and decreases adipocyte size in fructose-fed rats by suppressing AGE-RAGE axis.

    PubMed

    Ojima, A; Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Higashimoto, Y; Ueda, S; Fukami, K; Okuda, S; Yamagishi, S

    2015-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) decrease adiponectin expression and suppress insulin signaling in cultured adipocytes through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) via oxidative stress generation. We have recently found that high-affinity DNA aptamer directed against AGE (AGE-aptamer) prevents the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy by blocking the harmful actions of AGEs in the kidney. This study examined the effects of AGE-aptamer on adipocyte remodeling, AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis, and adiponectin expression in fructose-fed rats. Although AGE-aptamer treatment by an osmotic mini pump for 8 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels, it significantly decreased average fasting blood glucose and had a tendency to inhibit body weight gain in fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, AGE-aptamer significantly suppressed the increase in adipocyte size and prevented the elevation in AGEs, RAGE, and an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), levels in adipose tissues of fructose-fed rats at 14-week-old, while it restored the decrease in adiponectin mRNA levels. Our present study suggests that AGE-aptamer could improve glycemic control and prevent adipocyte remodeling in fructose-fed rats partly by suppressing the AGE-RAGE-mediated oxidative stress generation. AGE-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for fructose-induced metabolic derangements. PMID:25105541

  4. Coaches' implicit associations between size and giftedness: implications for the relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-established phenomenon in education and sports. Coaches have been assumed to be important social agents of RAE via biased selection decisions in favour of children with maturation advantages. In the present research, we used the Implicit Association Test to investigate automatic associations between body size and a player's domain-specific giftedness amongst youth baseball (N = 18) and youth soccer coaches (N = 34). We found medium to strong automatic associations between body size and player giftedness (baseball: MD = 0.62; soccer: MD = 0.51). Specifically, taller players were associated with positive performance-related attributes, whereas smaller players were associated with negative attributes. The results are in line with theories of grounded cognition by showing that the abstract concept of "sport giftedness" is partly grounded in the perception of physical height amongst youth sports coaches. We argue that this grounded cognition has the potential to influence coaches' selection decisions and in turn account for RAE as coaches are biased towards physically more matured players, even when no apparent performance advantage is evident. PMID:26096053

  5. Computed tomography predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma tumour necrosis after chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Mary K; Dorn, David P; Zarzour, Jessica; Smith, J Kevin; Redden, David T; Saddekni, Souheil; Aal, Ahmed Kamel Abdel; Gray, Stephen H; Eckhoff, Devin E; DuBay, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiographical features associated with a favourable response to trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) are poorly defined for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods From 2008 to 2012, all first TACE interventions for HCC performed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) were retrospectively reviewed. Only patients with a pre-TACE and a post-TACE computed tomography (CT) scan were included in the analyses (n = 115). HCC tumour response to TACE was quantified via the the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria. Univariate and multivariable analyses were constructed. Results The index HCC tumours experienced a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis in 59/115 (51%) of patients after the first TACE intervention. On univariate analysis, smaller tumour size, peripheral tumour location and arterial enhancement were associated with a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis, whereas, only smaller tumour size [odds ratio (OR) 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48, 0.81] and peripheral location (OR 6.91; 95% CI 1.75, 27.29) were significant on multivariable analysis. There was a trend towards improved survival in the patients that experienced a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis (P = 0.08). Conclusions Peripherally located smaller HCC tumours are most likely to experience a > 90% or complete tumour necrosis after TACE. Surprisingly, arterial-phase enhancement and portal venous-phase washout were not significantly predictive of TACE-induced tumour necrosis. The TACE response was not statistically associated with improved survival. PMID:23980917

  6. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  7. Clinicopathological features of five unusual cases of intraosseous myoepithelial carcinomas, mimicking conventional primary bone tumours, including EWSR1 rearrangement in one case.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat; Joshi, Sujit; Panchwagh, Yogesh; Gulia, Ashish; Borges, Anita; Bajpai, Jyoti; Jambehekar, Nirmala A; Pant, Vinita; Mandholkar, Mahesh; Byregowda, Suman; Puri, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Primary intraosseous myoepithelial tumours, including carcinomas are rare tumours. The concept of histopathological spectrum of these tumours is evolving. We describe clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of five myoepithelial carcinomas, including molecular cytogenetic results in one case. There were five male patients within age-range of 8-40 years (median = 26). Four tumours occurred in the long bones, including two tumours, each, in the femur and fibula, respectively, while a single tumour occurred in the proximal phalanges. Tumour size (n = 3 cases) varied from 5.6 to 8.6 cm. On radiological imaging, most tumours appeared as expansile, lytic and destructive lesions. Two tumours appeared as sclerotic lesions. Two cases were referred with diagnoses of chondrosarcomas and a single case was referred with two different diagnoses, including an adamantinoma and an osteosarcoma. Histopathological examination in all these cases showed multinodular tumours comprising mostly polygonal cells, exhibiting moderate nuclear atypia and interspersed mitotic figures within a stroma containing variable amount of myxoid, chondroid, hyalinised and osteoid-like material. Three tumours revealed prominent squamous differentiation. By immunohistochemistry, tumour cells were positive for EMA (5/5), pan CK (AE1/AE3) (3/3), CK5/6 (4/4), CK MNF116 (1/1), S100 protein (5/5) and GFAP (3/5). The first tumour revealed EWSR1 rearrangement. The first patient, 10 months after tumour resection and a simultaneous lung metastatectomy, is free-of-disease (FOD). The second patient, 11 months after tumour resection is FOD. The third and fourth patients underwent wide resections and are on follow-up. The fifth patient underwent resections, including a lung metastatectomy. Primary intraosseous myoepithelial carcinomas are rare and mimic conventional primary bone tumours. Some primary intraosseous myoepithelial carcinomas display EWSR1 rearrangement. Squamous differentiation may be

  8. Effect of Lump Size and Nodal Status on Prognosis in Invasive Breast Cancer: Experience from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Monique; Sidhu, Darshan Singh; Singh, Amandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is now the leading cause of cancer among Indian women. Usually large tumour size and axillary lymph node involvement are linked with adverse outcome and this notion forms the basis of screening programs i.e. early detection. Aim The present study was carried out to analyse relationship between tumour size, lymph node status and there relation with outcome after treatment. Materials and Methods Fifty patients with cytology-proven invasive breast tumours were evaluated for size, clinical and pathologic characteristics of tumour, axillary lymph node status and outcome data recorded on sequential follow-up. Results Mean age of all participated patients was 52.24±10 years. Most common tumour location was in the upper outer quadrant with mean size of primary tumour being 3.31±1.80cm. On pathology number of lymph nodes examined ranged from 10 to 24 and 72% of patients recorded presence of disease in axilla. Significant positive correlation (p<0.013; r2=0.026) between tumour size and axillary lymph node involvement on linear regression. Also an indicative correlation between size and grade of tumour and axillary lymph node status was found with survival from the disease. Conclusion The present study highlights that the size of the primary tumour and the number of positive lymph nodes have an inverse linear relationship with prognosis. Despite advances in diagnostic modalities, evolution of newer markers and genetic typing both size of tumour as T and axillary lymphadenopathy as N form an integral part of TNM staging and are of paramount importance for their role in treatment decisions and illustrate prognosis in patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:27504343

  9. Tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Head, K. W.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. ImagesFig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4371738

  10. Malignant Extra Renal Rhabdoid Tumour Presenting as Central Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours are one of the most aggressive childhood neoplasms associated with high mortality. The commonest age group affected is children less than five years of age. Rhabdoid tumour presenting as an endoluminal tracheal mass leading to central airway obstruction has not been previously reported. We describe the case of a 17-year-old male patient where malignant rhabdoid tumour masqueraded as bronchial asthma leading to a delayed diagnosis of upper airway obstruction by tracheal growth. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour. PMID:25243090

  11. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  12. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  13. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  14. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  15. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  16. Age and growth of the mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, with a review of the size and age of sex change among epinephelids.

    PubMed

    Marques, S; Ferreira, B P

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results on the age, growth and population structure of a small grouper, the mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and discusses the observed size and age structure patterns in relation to reproductive strategies among the epinephelids. Ages were determined by examination of sectioned otoliths, which showed a distinct pattern of alternating translucent and opaque zones that formed annually, as validated with tetracycline labelling. The von Bertalanffy growth function was adjusted to the length-at-age data of the males and females, but no significant differences were observed between the resulting parameters. The females, however, were older at given sizes and attained larger sizes and ages, with a maximum observed longevity of 13 years and a total length (LT ) of 26 cm, while the males attained maximum longevities of only 10 years and a 22 cm maximum LT . The LT and age range for the sex change was 16-25 cm and 3-11 years. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be 0·55 for females and 0·82 for males. With the males younger and smaller than the females, this species differed from the pattern commonly observed for protogynous epinephelids. Males had slower growth after maturation, probably due to energy allocation to sperm production during sexual development. This study shows that demography is an important tool to understand the pathways for reproductive strategies in grouper populations. PMID:27073155

  17. Tumour nuclear oestrogen receptor beta 1 correlates inversely with parathyroid tumour weight

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Juhlin, C Christofer; Pernow, Ylva; Norenstedt, Sophie; Dinets, Andrii; Larsson, Catharina; Hartman, Johan; Höög, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, frequently caused by a parathyroid adenoma, rarely by a parathyroid carcinoma that lacks effective oncological treatment. As the majority of cases are present in postmenopausal women, oestrogen signalling has been implicated in the tumourigenesis. Oestrogen receptor beta 1 (ERB1) and ERB2 have been recently identified in parathyroid adenomas, the former inducing genes coupled to tumour apoptosis. We applied immunohistochemistry and slide digitalisation to quantify nuclear ERB1 and ERB2 in 172 parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas, and ten normal parathyroid glands. All the normal parathyroid glands expressed ERB1 and ERB2. The majority of tumours expressed ERB1 (70.6%) at varying intensities, and ERB2 (96.5%) at strong intensities. Parathyroid carcinomas expressed ERB1 in three out of six cases and ERB2 in five out of six cases. The intensity of tumour nuclear ERB1 staining significantly correlated inversely with tumour weight (P=0.011), and patients whose tumours were classified as ERB1-negative had significantly greater tumour weight as well as higher serum calcium (P=0.002) and parathyroid hormone levels (P=0.003). Additionally, tumour nuclear ERB1 was not expressed differentially with respect to sex or age of the patient. Levels of tumour nuclear ERB2 did not correlate with clinical characteristics. In conclusion, decreased ERB1 immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour weight in parathyroid adenomas. Given the previously reported correlation with tumour-suppressive signalling, selective oestrogen receptor modulation (SERMs) may play a role in the treatment of parathyroid carcinomas. Future studies of SERMs and oestrogen treatment in PHPT should consider tumour weight as a potential factor in pharmacological responsiveness. PMID:25648860

  18. Recovery of Aging-Related Size Increase of Skin Epithelial Cells: In vivo Mouse and In vitro Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor; Guz, Natali V.; Iyer, Swaminathan; Hewitt, Amy; Sokolov, Nina A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment). An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8). A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20–40% for cells of older passage (6–8 passages) whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin. PMID:25807526

  19. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O (√{N }) ] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems—age-size relationships and species extinction time—in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics.

  20. Exercise in youth: High bone mass, large bone size, and low fracture risk in old age.

    PubMed

    Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures. PMID:25109568

  1. Crater size-frequency distribution measurements and age of the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, K. A.; Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) is a 25 × 35 km feature on the lunar farside marked by elevated topography, high albedo, high thorium concentration, and high silica content. Morphologies indicate that the complex is volcanic in origin and compositions indicate that it represents rare silicic volcanism on the Moon. Constraining the timing of silicic volcanism at the complex is necessary to better understand the development of evolved magmas and when they were active on the lunar surface. We employ image analysis and crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements on several locations within the complex and at surrounding impact craters, Hayn (87 km diameter), and Compton (160 km diameter), to determine relative and absolute model ages of regional events. Using CSFD measurements, we establish a chronology dating regional resurfacing events and the earliest possible onset of CBVC volcanism at ∼3.8 Ga, the formation of Compton Crater at 3.6 Ga, likely resurfacing by volcanism at the CBVC at ∼3.5 Ga, and the formation of Hayn Crater at ∼1 Ga. For the CBVC, we find the most consistent results are obtained using craters larger than 300 m in diameter; the small crater population is affected by their approach to an equilibrium condition and by the physical properties of regolith at the CBVC.

  2. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-08-01

    Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O√N)] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems--age-size relationships and species extinction time--in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics. PMID:26382447

  3. The likelihood of being affected with Huntington disease by a particular age, for a specific CAG size.

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, R R; Mezei, M M; Theilmann, J; Almqvist, E; Hayden, M R

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies describing the relationship between CAG size and the age at onset of Huntington disease (HD) have focused on affected persons. To further define the relationship between CAG repeat size and age at onset of HD, we now have analyzed a large cohort of affected and asymptomatic at-risk persons with CAG expansion. This cohort numbered 1,049 persons, including 321 at-risk and 728 affected individuals with a CAG size of 29-121 repeats. Kaplan-Meier analysis has provided curves for determining the likelihood of onset at a given age, for each CAG repeat length in the 39-50 range. The curves were significantly different (P < .0005), with relatively narrow 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) (+/-10%). Penetrance of the mutation for HD also was examined. Although complete penetrance of HD was observed for CAG sizes of > or = 42, only a proportion of those with a CAG repeat length of 36-41 showed signs or symptoms of HD within a normal life span. These data provide information concerning the likelihood of being affected, by a specific age, with a particular CAG size, and they may be useful in predictive-testing programs and for the design of clinical trials for persons at increased risk for HD. PMID:9150168

  4. Giant cell tumour of the sacrum: a suggested algorithm for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, R. J.; Carter, S. R.; Stirling, A. J.; Spilsbury, J.; Spooner, D.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the outcome of our management of patients with giant cell tumour of the sacrum and draw lessons from this. A retrospective review of medical records and scans for all patients treated at our unit over the past 20 years with a giant cell tumour of the sacrum. Of the 517 patients treated at our unit for giant cell tumour over the past 20 years, only 9 (1.7%) had a giant cell tumour in the sacrum. Six were female, three male with a mean age of 34 (range 15–52). All, but two tumours involved the entire sacrum and there was only one purely distal to S3. The mean size was 10 cm and the most common symptom was back or buttock pain. Five had abnormal neurology at diagnosis, but only one presented with cauda equina syndrome. The first four patients were treated by curettage alone, but two patients had intraoperative cardiac arrests and although both survived all subsequent curettages were preceded by embolisation of the feeding vessels. Of the seven patients who had curettage, three developed local recurrence, but all were controlled with a combination of further embolisation, surgery or radiotherapy. One patient elected for treatment with radiotherapy and another had excision of the tumour distal to S3. All the patients are alive and only two patients have worse neurology than at presentation, one being impotent and one with stress incontinence. Three patients required spinopelvic fusion for sacral collapse. All patients are mobile and active at a follow-up between 2 and 21 years. Giant cell tumour of the sacrum can be controlled with conservative surgery rather than subtotal sacrectomy. The excision of small distal tumours is the preferred option, but for larger and more extensive tumours conservative management may well avoid morbidity whilst still controlling the tumour. Embolisation and curettage are the preferred first option with radiotherapy as a possible adjunct. Spinopelvic fusion may be needed when the sacrum collapses. PMID:20076978

  5. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. PMID:26728747

  6. Bioaccessibility of environmentally aged 14C-atrazine residues in an agriculturally used soil and its particle-size aggregates.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Modler, Janette; Schaeffer, Andreas; Burauel, Peter

    2008-08-15

    After 22 years of aging under natural conditions in an outdoor lysimeter the bioaccessibility of 14C-labeled atrazine soil residues to bacteria was tested. Entire soil samples as well as sand-sized, silt-sized, and clay-sized aggregates (>20, 20-2, and <2microm aggregate size, respectively) were investigated under slurried conditions. The mineralization of residual radioactivity in the outdoor lysimeter soil reached up to 4.5% of the total 14C-activity after 16 days, inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. The control samples without inoculated bacteria showed a mineralization maximum of only about 1% after 44 days of incubation. Mineralization increased in the clay-sized aggregates up to 6.2% of the total residual 14C-activity within 23 days. With decreasing soil aggregate sizes, residual 14C-activity increased per unit of weight, but only minor differences of the mineralization in the soil and soil size aggregates using mineral-media for incubation was observed. Using additional Na-citrate in the incubation, the extent of mineralization increased to 6.7% in soil after 23 days following incubation with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. These results show that long-term aged 14C-atrazine residues are still partly accessible to the atrazine degrading microorganism Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. PMID:18767643

  7. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location. PMID:27126667

  8. Pyroclasts Key to Age and Use of Meter-Size Granite Basins, Sierra Nevada, CA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. G.; Gorden, M. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    More than 1000 meter-size granite basins at more than 220 sites occur in a 240-km-long belt from Lake Isabella north to the San Joaquin River on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. The circular basins are carved in granitic outcrops at an average elevation of 1950 m. They range in volume from 40 to 1400 liters, median 130 liters. The basins display features compatible with a man-made origin, but required enormous, sustained labor to excavate. Until now their apparent purpose was believed to be some aspect of food preparation (Moore, Gorden, Robinson, Moring, 2008). About 120 km north of this belt a separate cluster of more than 350 similar granite basins occurs near a rare salt spring. They were clearly made by Indians to contain saline water to produce salt by evaporation (Moore and Diggles, 2009). An early study identified rhyolitic volcanic ash in the bottom of many basins in Sequoia National Park at both Giant Forest and at Redwood Meadow 13 km ESE (Stewart, 1929). That ash is unavailable, having been removed in recent time. Subsequent study of meadowland soils identified two ash layers in the region from explosive eruptions in the Mono Lake area: Tephra 1 and Tephra 2 (Wood, 1977). Later work indicates that Tephra 1 was erupted from the Glass Creek vent of the Inyo Craters (Miller, 1985) and that its refined age by tree-ring techniques is AD 1350 (Millar, King, Westfall, Alden, Delany, 2006). A fossil forest killed by Tephra 1 differs from modern forests in that it grew in the warmer climate of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP)--a period when drought conditions prevailed at lower elevations (Stine, 1994; Millar et al, 2006). In July 2010 ash was discovered near the bottom of a pristine granite basin (TUL-496) in a remote area of Giant Sequoia National Monument 14.5 km NW of Giant Forest. High-beam-current electron microprobe analyses of pumice glasses give Zr 145-420 ppm, homogeneous within lapilli, and correlated with MgO and CaO concentrations. The

  9. Evaluation of miRNA-expression and clinical tumour parameters in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    PubMed

    Moratin, J; Hartmann, S; Brands, R; Brisam, M; Mutzbauer, G; Scholz, C; Seher, A; Müller-Richter, U; Kübler, A C; Linz, C

    2016-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. The past decades have not led to substantial improvement in diagnosis and therapy. Analysis of miRNA-expression may help to determine the progression profiles and outcomes of many different diseases, including HNSCC. Therefore, in this investigation, 43 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma were micro-dissected, analysed for expression of 30 miRNAs and were compared with non-tumorous tissue. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed, investigating possible correlations of miRNA-expression and patient or tumour-linked data, such as age, sex, tumour stage and size. miRNA extraction from FFPE samples functioned well for OSCC, and several miRNAs were differently expressed in tumours compared with non-tumorous tissue (i.e., miR-99*; miR-224; miR-205*), indicating their possible utility as biomarkers. Moreover, some miRNAs showed significant correlations with clinical and pathological data (e.g. tumour size: miR-3156, P = 0.033; T-stage: miR-212, P = 0.0009). PMID:27210505

  10. Size and Aging Effects on Antimicrobial Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Polyamide Fabrics Activated by Atmospheric DBD Plasma.

    PubMed

    Zille, Andrea; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Tzanov, Tzanko; Fernandes, Marta; Oliveira, Fernando R; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria F; Souto, António P

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the surface characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and aging effect of plasma-pretreated polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fabrics coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), aiming to identify the optimum size of nanosilver exhibiting antibacterial properties suitable for the manufacture of hospital textiles. The release of bactericidal Ag(+) ions from a 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nm AgNPs-coated PA66 surface was a function of the particles' size, number, and aging. Plasma pretreatment promoted both ionic and covalent interactions between AgNPs and the formed oxygen species on the fibers, favoring the deposition of smaller-diameter AgNPs that consequently showed better immediate and durable antimicrobial effects against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surprisingly, after 30 days of aging, a comparable bacterial growth inhibition was achieved for all of the fibers treated with AgNPs <100 nm in size. The Ag(+) in the coatings also favored the electrostatic stabilization of the plasma-induced functional groups on the PA66 surface, thereby retarding the aging process. At the same time, the size-related ratio (Ag(+)/Ag(0)) of the AgNPs between 40 and 60 nm allowed for the controlled release of Ag(+) rather than bulk silver. Overall, the results suggest that instead of reducing the size of the AgNPs, which is associated with higher toxicity, similar long-term effects can be achieved with larger NPs (40-60 nm), even in lower concentrations. Because the antimicrobial efficiency of AgNPs larger than 30 nm is mainly ruled by the release of Ag(+) over time and not by the size and number of the AgNPs, this parameter is crucial for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings on plasma-treated surfaces and contributes to the safety and durability of clothing used in clinical settings. PMID:26057400

  11. Transport processes in tumours.

    PubMed

    Quastel, J H

    1965-12-01

    The characteristic features of transport systems controlling influx into tumour cells of nutrients and other chemicals are briefly described. Two notable features of transport of amino acids into tumour cells have been observed: extensive accumulation against a concentration gradient and equal accumulations, whether conditions are aerobic or anaerobic, provided glucose is present. This combination of features has not been observed in the majority of normal mammalian tissues so far examined. Important for considerations of chemotherapy is the ability of tumour transport carriers to transfer substances related in structure to amino acids and other nutrients. Amino acid analogues, for example, can either block transport of natural amino acids or can be transported into the cell where they may interfere with various aspects of amino acid metabolism. The study of transport carriers is essential for an understanding of tumour-host relationships and for considerations of chemotherapy. PMID:5842595

  12. Giant malignant phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan; Savasere, Thejas; Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Babu, Rajashekhara; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    The term phyllodes tumour includes lesions ranging from completely benign tumours to malignant sarcomas. Clinically phyllodes tumours are smooth, rounded, and usually painless multinodular lesions indistinguishable from fibroadenomas. Percentage of phyllodes tumour classified as malignant ranges from 23% to 50%. We report a case of second largest phyllodes tumour in a 35-year-old lady who presented with swelling of right breast since 6 months, initially small in size, that progressed gradually to present size. Examination revealed mass in the right breast measuring 36×32 cms with lobulated firm surface and weighing 10 kgs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was reported as borderline phyllodes; however core biopsy examination showed biphasic neoplasm with malignant stromal component. Simple mastectomy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the core biopsy report. Postoperatively the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is on follow-up for a year and has not shown any evidence of metastasis or recurrence. PMID:25548696

  13. Breast tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephen B; Generali, Daniele G; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-01-01

    The central importance of tumour neovascularization has been emphasized by clinical trials using antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer. This review gives a background to breast tumour neovascularization in in situ and invasive breast cancer, outlines the mechanisms by which this is achieved and discusses the influence of the microenvironment, focusing on hypoxia. The regulation of angiogenesis and the antivascular agents that are used in an antiangiogenic dosing schedule, both novel and conventional, are also summarized. PMID:18190723

  14. Regional differences in size-at-age of the recovering burbot (Lota lota) population in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Tost, J.

    2007-01-01

    The burbot Lota lota population in Lake Erie increased dramatically between 1995 and 2003, due mainly to control of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in the late 1980s. We estimated total length- and weight-at-age at capture for burbot caught in annual gillnet surveys of eastern Lake Erie during August 1994–2003. Mean total length was generally greater for burbot age 4–9 years that were caught in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters of Lake Erie. Similarly, mean weight was greater for burbot at ages 4 through 6 years in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters. Age-9 burbot caught in Ontario waters had greater mean weight and mean total length than did age-9 burbot caught in Pennsylvania waters. One possible explanation for greater length- and weight-at-age for New York burbot may be greater abundance of prey fishes, particularly rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus in New York waters. Total lengths at ages 4–10 years were generally greater for burbot caught in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 than those from published studies of other large lakes in North America that we considered, including for Lake Erie in 1946. The regional differences in size-at-age have important management ramifications, particularly because a commercial fishery targeting burbot has been considered for Ontario waters of Lake Erie.

  15. Testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McGlynn, Katherine A; Okamoto, Keisei; Jewett, Michael A S; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-23

    Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. PMID:26651223

  16. Tumour response following high-dose intratumoural application of Viscum album on a patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Werthmann, Paul Georg; Helling, Dieter; Heusser, Peter; Kienle, Gunver Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare type of cancer that typically originates in the salivary glands. Surgical removal can lead to functional loss and psychological distress. Viscum album extract (VAE) is a herbal remedy with dose-dependent cytotoxic, apoptogenic and immunological effects. In some case reports, tumour regression has been observed following high-dose local applications of VAE. An active 88-year-old man with fast-growing ACC of the hard palate refused surgical removal and received high-dose intratumoural injections of VAE (alone) over a 10-month period. The tumour decreased in size, softened and loosened from its surroundings. A biopsy during the course showed inflammation. The patient remained well and without functional limitations during the therapy and follow-up period (5 months). VAE produced no reported side effects. This aged patient exemplifies a satisfying course of ACC under VAE resulting in good quality of life and partial tumour regression. PMID:25082867

  17. Thymus: reexamination of age-related changes in size and shape

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, I.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Bookstein, F.L.; Gross, B.H.

    1985-08-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the normal and abnormal thymus and its age-related changes have been described. However, there is little quantitative data regarding thymic morphology at the extremes of age and the value of thymic measurements in particular thickness, to recognize thymic abnormality. Using computed tomography the thymic morphology in 309 normal patients was analyzed retrospectively, examining its appearance at the extremes of age and measuring its dimensions for comparison with similar data in 23 patients with clinically or surgically proven thymic abnormality. The study confirmed the previously reported age-related growth and subsequent involution of the normal thymus. Comparison of normal and abnormal glands suggests that thymic shape reliably separates normal from abnormal glands. While thymic thickness and the logarithm of the product of transverse dimension and thickness were sensitive indicators of thymic abnormality, these were not necessary for accurate recognition of abnormality.

  18. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA) by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017). Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks' gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08), chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46), and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25) had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes. PMID:25105127

  19. Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Qi, Peimin; Varian, Bernard J.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals. PMID:24392159

  20. Decomposition of spontaneous fluctuations in tumour oxygenation using BOLD MRI and independent component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Miguel R; Johnson, S Peter; Ramasawmy, Rajiv; Pedley, R Barbara; Lythgoe, Mark F; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Solid tumours can undergo cycles of hypoxia, followed by reoxygenation, which can have significant implications for the success of anticancer therapies. A need therefore exists to develop methods to aid its detection and to further characterise its biological basis. We present here a novel method for decomposing systemic and tumour-specific contributions to fluctuations in tumour deoxyhaemoglobin concentration, based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements. Methods: Fluctuations in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration in two tumour xenograft models of colorectal carcinoma were decomposed into distinct contributions using independent component analysis. These components were then correlated with systemic pulse oximetry measurements to assess the influence of systemic variations in blood oxygenation in tumours, compared with those that arise within the tumour itself (tumour-specific). Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the physiological basis of each source of fluctuation. Results: Systemic fluctuations in blood oxygenation were found to contribute to cycling hypoxia in tumours, but tumour-specific fluctuations were also evident. Moreover, the size of the tumours was found to influence the degree of systemic, but not tumour-specific, oscillations. The degree of vessel maturation was related to the amplitude of tumour-specific, but not systemic, oscillations. Conclusions: Our results provide further insights into the complexity of spontaneous fluctuations in tumour oxygenation and its relationship with tumour pathophysiology. These observations could be used to develop improved drug delivery strategies. PMID:26484634

  1. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  2. MRI of paediatric liver tumours: How we review and report.

    PubMed

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Roebuck, Derek J; Towbin, Alexander J; McHugh, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Liver tumours are fortunately rare in children. Benign tumours such as haemangiomas and cystic mesenchymal hamartomas are typically seen in infancy, often before 6 months of age. After that age, malignant hepatic tumours increase in frequency. The differentiation of a malignant from benign lesion on imaging can often negate the need for biopsy. Ultrasound is currently the main screening tool for suspected liver pathology, and is ideally suited for evaluation of hepatic lesions in children due to their generally small size. With increasing research, public awareness and parental anxiety regarding radiation dosage from CT imaging, MRI is now unquestionably the modality of choice for further characterisation of hepatic mass lesions.Nevertheless the cost, length of imaging time and perceived complexity of a paediatric liver MR study can be intimidating to the general radiologist and referring clinician. This article outlines standard MR sequences utilised, reasons for their utilisation, types of mixed hepatocyte specific/extracellular contrast agents employed and imaging features that aid the interpretation of paediatric liver lesions. The two commonest paediatric liver malignancies, namely hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are described. Differentiation of primary hepatic malignancies with metastatic disease and mimickers of malignancy such as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatic adenomas are also featured in this review..Imaging should aim to clarify the presence of a lesion, the likelihood of malignancy and potential for complete surgical resection. Reviewing and reporting the studies should address these issues in a systematic fashion whilst also commenting upon background liver parenchymal appearances. Clinical information and adequate patient preparation prior to MR imaging studies help enhance the diagnostic yield. PMID:27526937

  3. Surgical implications of tumour immunology.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of immune infiltration of tumour deposits and the existence of effective in vitro anti-tumour immune responses would suggest the possibility of therapeutic manipulation against tumour cells. However, clinical immunotherapy has shown little promise as a cancer treatment. Numerous explanations for this inefficacy have been proposed, one of which involves the elaboration of immunosuppressive moieties from tumour cells. The results of studies presented below show that serum from patients with gastrointestinal and other tumours have immunosuppressive influences on normal lymphocytes. The degree of this in vitro inhibition is related to tumour 'bulk' and may reflect a systemic immunosuppressive influence of the tumour. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes from gastrointestinal tumour deposits demonstrated that these immune cells are functionally inert, suggesting the existence of an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment. The isolation and partial purification of an immunosuppressive moiety from conditioned culture medium of a variety of human tumour cell lines further supports the hypothesis of tumour-mediated immunosuppression. A number of protein tumour cell products have been described with potent immunosuppressive properties. These include transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-10, and the retroviral envelope protein p15E. The surgical implications of the proposed tumour-host immune relationship includes the hypothesis that clinically apparent disease may not be amenable to immune attack owing to tumour-mediated immune suppression. The use of immunostimulatory strategies as adjuvant perioperative therapy would seem a more effective environment for the activation of antitumour immune responses in the surgical patient. PMID:8678441

  4. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  5. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  6. Sizing alpha emitting particles of aged plutonium on personal air sampler filters using CR-39 autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hegyi, G; Starling, S C

    2003-01-01

    Methods have been developed to assess the size distribution of alpha emitting particles of reactor fuel of known composition captured on air sampler filters. The sizes of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide particles were determined using a system based on CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The CR-39 plastic was exposed to the deposited particles across a 400 microm airgap. The exposed CR-39 was chemically etched to reveal clusters of tracks radially dispersed from central points. The number and location of the tracks were determined using an optical microscope with an XY motorised table and image analysis software. The sample mounting arrangement allowed individual particles to be simultaneously viewed with their respective track cluster. The predicted diameters correlated with the actual particle diameters, as measured using the optical microscope. The efficacy of the technique was demonstrated with particles of natural uranium oxide (natUO2) of known size, ranging from 4 to 150 microm in diameter. Two personal air sampler (PAS) filters contaminated with actinide particles were placed against CR-39 and estimated to have size distributions of 0.8 and 1.0 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). PMID:14526944

  7. Huntington CAG repeat size does not modify onset age in familial Parkinson’s disease: The GenePD Study

    PubMed Central

    McNicoll, Christopher F.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Lew, Mark F.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Klein, Christine; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Mark, Margery H.; Growdon, John H.; Wooten, G. Frederick; Watts, Ray L.; Guttman, Mark; Racette, Brad A.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Ahmed, Anwar; Shill, Holly A.; Singer, Carlos; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Massood, Tiffany; Huskey, Karen W.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Goldwurm, Stefano; Pezzoli, Gianni; Baker, Kenneth B.; Itin, Ilia; Litvan, Irene; Nicholson, Garth; Corbett, Alastair; Nance, Martha; Drasby, Edward; Isaacson, Stuart; Burn, David J.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Al-hinti, Jomana; Moller, Anette T.; Ostergaard, Karen; Sherman, Scott J.; Roxburgh, Richard; Snow, Barry; Slevin, John T.; Cambi, Franca; Gusella, James F.; Myers, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    The ATP/ADP ratio reflects mitochondrial function and has been reported to be influenced by the size of the Huntington disease gene (HD) repeat. Impaired mitochondrial function has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and therefore, we evaluated the relationship of the HD CAG repeat size to PD onset age in a large sample of familial PD cases. PD affected siblings (n=495) with known onset ages from 248 families, were genotyped for the HD CAG repeat. Genotyping failed in 11 cases leaving 484 for analysis, including 35 LRRK2 carriers. All cases had HD CAG repeats (range 15 to 34) below the clinical range for HD, although 5.2 percent of the sample (n=25) had repeats in the intermediate range (the intermediate range lower limit=27; upper limit=35 repeats), suggesting that the prevalence of intermediate allele carriers in the general population is significant. No relation between the HD CAG repeat size and the age at onset for PD was found in this sample of familial PD. PMID:18649400

  8. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  9. Tumours of the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, T. Holmes; Thackray, A. C.; Thomson, A. D.

    1967-01-01

    Eighty-eight cases of thymoma are discussed with the object of trying to co-ordinate the histological and clinical features. The pathological specimens were in all cases obtained at operation. The pathology classification introduced by Thomson and Thackray in 1957 has been found to correspond adequately with the clinical pattern. The most common groups of tumours are basically epithelial and can be separated into five or six subdivisions, each of which has a separate pattern of behaviour. Lymphoid and teratomatous tumours also occur, but there were only two examples in this series. Clinically, separation of patients who suffered from myasthenia (38) and those who did not (50) affords the first main grouping. The majority of patients who had myasthenia gravis had tumours classified as epidermoid (19) and lymphoepithelial (14), the former with a more malignant appearance and behaviour than the latter. Removal of the tumour with or without radiation gave considerable and sometimes complete relief from myasthenic symptoms. Non-myasthenic thymoma (50) was usually discovered as a result of pressure signs or in the course of routine radiography. Spindle or oval celled tumours followed a benign pattern whereas undifferentiated thymoma was in every sense malignant, as also were teratomatous growths. Granulomatous or Hodgkin-like thymomas were of special interest and had an unpredictable course, some patients surviving many years after what was regarded as inadequate treatment. The place of radiotherapy as a pre- or post-operative agent complementary to surgery is discussed. Images PMID:6033387

  10. Tumours of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Misdorp, W.; McEntee, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian tumours are common in animals, the majority occurring in bitches and cows. The two most important germ cell tumours were dysgerminoma and teratoma; these morphologically resemble their counterparts in women, with the exception that teratomas in animals tend less to malignancy. The granulosa cell tumour is the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumour in all six species and it may contain luteinized areas or show differentiation towards a Sertoli cell pattern. The canine papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which are as common as granulosa tumours, have several features in common with their counterparts in women: they are of similar histological appearance, are frequently bilateral, and the adenocarcinomas have a great propensity for peritoneal implantation metastasis. Ovarian cysts are frequent in the bitch, sow, and cow and may originate from five different anatomical structures in the ovary. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 and 3Fig. 20-22Fig. 8-10Fig. 15 and 16Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 17-19Fig. 4 and 5Fig. 6 and 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 and 14 PMID:1086151

  11. The Age, Mass, and Size Distributions of Star Clusters in M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Dinino, Daiana; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Chien, L.-H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    We present a new catalog of 3816 compact star clusters in the grand design spiral galaxy M51 based on observations taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. The age distribution of the clusters declines starting at very young ages, and can be represented by a power law, {dN}/dτ \\propto {τ }γ , with γ =-0.65+/- 0.15. No significant changes in the shape of the age distribution at different masses is observed. The mass function of the clusters younger than τ ≈ 400 {{Myr}} can also be described by a power law, {dN}/{dM}\\propto {M}β , with β ≈ \\-2.1+/- 0.2. We compare these distributions with the predictions from various cluster disruption models, and find that they are consistent with models where clusters disrupt approximately independent of their initial mass, but not with models where lower mass clusters are disrupted earlier than their higher mass counterparts. We find that the half-light radii of clusters more massive than M ≈ 3× {10}4 {M}ȯ and with ages between 100 and 400 {{Myr}} are larger by a factor of ≈3–4 than their counterparts that are younger than 107 years old, suggesting that the clusters physically expand during their early life.

  12. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  13. The effect of small class sizes on mortality through age 29 years: evidence from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Johnson, Gretchen; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2011-06-15

    Limiting the number of students per classroom in the early years has been shown to improve educational outcomes. Improved education is, in turn, hypothesized to improve health. The authors examined whether smaller class sizes affect mortality through age 29 years and whether cognitive factors play a role. They used data from the Project Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, a 4-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students between 1985 and 1989. Children randomized to small classes (13-17 students) experienced improved measures of cognition and academic performance relative to those assigned to regular classes (22-25 students). As expected, these cognitive measures were significantly inversely associated with mortality rates (P < 0.05). However, through age 29 years, students randomized to small class size nevertheless experienced higher mortality rates than those randomized to regular size classes (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.32). The groups at risk included males (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), whites/Asians (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.72), and higher income students (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.57). The authors speculate that small classes might produce behavior changes that increase mortality through young adulthood that are stronger than the protective effects of enhanced cognition. PMID:21540326

  14. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Delano, J. W.

    2015-07-01

    Lunar impact glasses, which are quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. This is because the Ar diffusion coefficient (at a constant temperature) is estimated to decrease by ∼3-4 orders of magnitude with an increasing fraction of non-bridging oxygens, X(NBO), over the compositional range of most lunar impact glasses with compositions from feldspathic to basaltic. Based on these relationships, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained ∼90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integrated temperatures of up to 290 K have been identified and are likely to have yielded reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages of formation. Additionally, ∼50% of the identified impact glass spheres have formation ages of ⩽500 Ma, while ∼75% of the identified lunar impact glass shards and spheres have ages of formation ⩽2000 Ma. Higher thermal stresses in lunar impact glasses quenched from hyperliquidus temperatures are considered the likely cause of poor survival of impact glass spheres, as well as the decreasing frequency of lunar impact glasses in general with increasing age. The observed age-frequency distribution of lunar impact glasses may reflect two processes: (i) diminished

  15. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  16. Size frequency distribution of Martian craters and relative age of light and dark terrains.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A.; King, E. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Light and dark terrains in and around Meridiani Sinus, mapped on the imagery from Mariner 6 and Mariner 7, were found to have significantly different cumulative size frequency distributions of craters. The light terrain on a mosaic of frames 6N11, 6N13, and 6N19 has a greater proportion of large craters and a lesser proportion of smaller craters than the dark terrain on the same frames. The light terrain is interpreted to be generally older than the dark terrain. The filling or partial filling of the smaller craters on the light terrain by surface detritus is suggested. Several wide-angle frames have remarkably similar cumulative crater size frequency distributions that may be representative of a large portion of the Martian surface.

  17. Age decreases mitochondrial motility and increases mitochondrial size in vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Age is proposed to be associated with altered structure and function of mitochondria; however, in fully‐differentiated cells, determining the structure of more than a few mitochondria at a time is challenging. In the present study, the structures of the entire mitochondrial complements of cells were resolved from a pixel‐by‐pixel covariance analysis of fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity during ‘flickers’ of mitochondrial membrane potential.Mitochondria are larger in vascular myocytes from aged rats compared to those in younger adult rats.A subpopulation of mitochondria in myocytes from aged, but not younger, animals is highly‐elongated.Some mitochondria in myocytes from younger, but not aged, animals are highly‐motile.Mitochondria that are motile are located more peripherally in the cell than non‐motile mitochondria. Abstract Mitochondrial function, motility and architecture are each central to cell function. Age‐associated mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to vascular disease. However, mitochondrial changes in ageing remain ill‐defined because of the challenges of imaging in native cells. We determined the structure of mitochondria in live native cells, demarcating boundaries of individual organelles by inducing stochastic ‘flickers’ of membrane potential, recorded as fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity (flicker‐assisted localization microscopy; FaLM). In freshly‐isolated myocytes from rat cerebral resistance arteries, FaLM showed a range of mitochondrial X‐Y areas in both young adult (3 months; 0.05–6.58 μm2) and aged rats (18 months; 0.05–13.4 μm2). In cells from young animals, most mitochondria were small (mode area 0.051 μm2) compared to aged animals (0.710 μm2). Cells from older animals contained a subpopulation of highly‐elongated mitochondria (5.3% were >2 μm long, 4.2% had a length:width ratio >3) that was rare in younger animals (0.15% of mitochondria >2

  18. Simulating the grain-size distribution of Wisconsinan age glaciofluvial sediments: Applications to fluid transport

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, E.K.; Anderson, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    A sedimentary deposition model, SEDSIM, was used to simulate the deposition of glaciofluvial sediments in south-central Wisconsin. These types of deposits are present at or near the surface over much of the northern United States and have a high contamination potential. They also represent relatively recent analogs for ancient braided stream systems. Sixty sediment samples were used to determine the average sediment properties for a facies assemblage located 8-10 km from the ice margin. A regional depositional system was simulated, using SEDSIM, to determine the range of input values that reproduced the observed average sediment characteristics. Progressively smaller scale models were constructed to produce more detailed estimates of the grain-size distribution. the grain-size estimates from the finest scale model were translated into relative hydraulic conductivity values using the method of Hazen. The resulting conductivities were incorporated into a fluid flow model to illustrate the control that heterogeneity of petrologic properties has on the direction and rate of fluid movement. This work indicates that a wide range of input parameters will reproduce the bulk sediment properties. Furthermore, small-scale features may not be reproduced under the assumptions incorporated in the current SEDSIM code. Thus, for sedimentary depositional models to be used to predict permeability and porosity distributions, or to interpret paleo-flow conditions, one must determine calibration targets that are more sensitive to flow parameters than bulk grain-size distributions.

  19. Image-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of small renal tumours: short- and mid-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Genson, Pierre-Yves; Mourey, Eric; Moulin, Morgan; Favelier, Sylvain; Di Marco, Lucy; Chevallier, Olivier; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krausé, Denis; Cormier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose is to assess the short- and mid-term outcomes of microwave ablation (MWA) of small renal tumours in selected patients. Methods From August 2012 to February 2015, 29 renal tumours in 23 patients (17 male, 6 female, mean age 75 years) were treated by percutaneous MWA under imaging guidance. The tumours were 1-4.7 cm in diameter (mean size, 2.7 cm). Therapeutic effects were assessed at follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients were followed up for 2-25 months (mean, 12.2 months) to observe the therapeutic effects and complications. Changes in renal function at day 1 after treatment were statistically analyzed using the Student paired t-test or the paired Wilcoxon test. Results Technical success was achieved in all cases. One severe bleeding complication post-procedure occurred leading to death. No other unexpected side effects were observed after the MWA procedures. Clinical effectiveness was 100%. None of the patients showed recurrence on MRI imaging follow-up. No significant changes in renal function were noted after treatment (P=0.57). Conclusions Our preliminary study demonstrates that the use of MWA for the treatment of small renal tumours can be applied as safely and efficiently as other ablative techniques in selected patients not eligible for surgery. PMID:26682134

  20. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  1. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  2. Age at Virologic Control Influences Peripheral Blood HIV Reservoir Size and Serostatus in Perinatally-Infected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deborah; Patel, Kunjal; Karalius, Brad; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Ziemniak, Carrie; Ellis, Angela; Chen, Ya Hui; Richman, Douglas; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Burchett, Sandra; Seage, George R.; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Importance Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated within several weeks of HIV infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure. Objectives To quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study including 144 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth (median age: 14.3 years), enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, on durable (median: 10.2 years) cART, stratified by age at virologic control. Main Outcome and Measures The primary endpoint was peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral load following virologic control at different ages. Correlations between proviral load and markers of active HIV production (HIV-specific antibodies, 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles), and markers of immune activation and inflammation were also assessed. Results Proviral reservoir size was markedly reduced in the PHIV+ youth who achieved virologic control by age 1 year (4.2 [interquartile range, 2.6-8 6] copies per 1 million PBMCs) compared to those who achieved virologic control between 1-5 years of age (19.4 [interquartile range, 5.5-99.8] copies per 1 million PBMCs) or after age 5 years (−(70.7 [interquartile range, 23.2-209.4] copies per 1 million PBMCs; P < .00l). A proviral burden <10 copies/million PBMCs was measured in 11 (79%), 20 (40%), and 13 (18%) participants with virologic control at ages <1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years, respectively (p<0.001). Lower proviral load was associated with undetectable 2-LTR circles (p<0.001) and HIV negative or indeterminate serostatus (p<0.001), but not with concentrations of soluble immune activation markers CD14 and CD163. Conclusions and Relevance Early effective cART along with prolonged virologic suppression after perinatal HIV

  3. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  4. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome. PMID:23716380

  5. Adaptive-filtering of trisomy 21: risk of Down syndrome depends on family size and age of previous child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven

    2007-02-01

    The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.

  6. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  7. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  8. [Elusive thoracic spine tumour. Report of an exceptional case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Botana-Fernández, Marcos; Cabezudo-Artero, José Manuel; Royano-Sánchez, Manuel; García-Moreno, Rafael; Murias-Quintana, Eduardo; Ortega-Martínez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Elusive tumours in the spine, most of them schwannomas of the cauda equina, have been reported very rarely. We present the case of a woman with a preoperative radiological diagnosis of schwannoma at D10 level in whom a laminectomy was performed to remove the tumour. Although the laminectomy was correctly positioned, there was no tumour upon opening the dura and the laminectomy had to be extended cephalad to find and remove the tumour. Mobile intradural extramedullary spinal tumours, the so-called «elusive tumours», occur very rarely, and it is exceptional when they are located in the thoracic spine. Knowing preoperatively which tumour is going to behave in this way is almost impossible. However, in the reported cases there are common features such as symptoms changing with different body positions, small tumour size and weak attachment to nearby structures. Neurosurgeons must be able to resolve this situation when confronted with a negative correctly-positioned laminectomy. PMID:25441419

  9. Sample size estimation for alternating logistic regressions analysis of multilevel randomized community trials of under-age drinking.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, Beth A; Preisser, John S; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Under-age drinking is an enormous public health issue in the USA. Evidence that community level structures may impact on under-age drinking has led to a proliferation of efforts to change the environment surrounding the use of alcohol. Although the focus of these efforts is to reduce drinking by individual youths, environmental interventions are typically implemented at the community level with entire communities randomized to the same intervention condition. A distinct feature of these trials is the tendency of the behaviours of individuals residing in the same community to be more alike than that of others residing in different communities, which is herein called 'clustering'. Statistical analyses and sample size calculations must account for this clustering to avoid type I errors and to ensure an appropriately powered trial. Clustering itself may also be of scientific interest. We consider the alternating logistic regressions procedure within the population-averaged modelling framework to estimate the effect of a law enforcement intervention on the prevalence of under-age drinking behaviours while modelling the clustering at multiple levels, e.g. within communities and within neighbourhoods nested within communities, by using pairwise odds ratios. We then derive sample size formulae for estimating intervention effects when planning a post-test-only or repeated cross-sectional community-randomized trial using the alternating logistic regressions procedure. PMID:24347839

  10. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  11. The effects of delays in radiotherapy treatment on tumour control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, R. M.; Beddoe, A. H.; Dale, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    There is often a considerable delay from initial tumour diagnosis to the start of radiotherapy treatment, which may be due to factors such as waiting lists and referral delays. This paper uses widely published models and clinical parameters to calculate the effect of delays in treatment on local tumour control for four different types of tumour - squamous cell carcinoma (head and neck), breast, cervix and prostate. The Poisson model for tumour control probability (TCP), an exponential function for tumour growth and the linear quadratic model of cell kill are used to calculate the change in TCP for delays between diagnosis and treatment of up to 100 days. Typical values of the clinical parameters have been taken from the literature; these include α and β, σα, tumour size at diagnosis, pre-treatment doubling time, delay in onset of accelerated repopulation and doubling time during treatment. It is acknowledged that there are limitations in the reliability of these data for predicting absolute values of tumour control, but models are still useful for predicting how changes in treatment parameters are likely to affect the outcome. It is shown that for fast-growing tumours a delay of 1-2 months can have a significant adverse effect on the outcome, whereas for slow-growing tumours such as Ca prostate a delay of a few months does not significantly reduce the probability of tumour control. These calculations show the importance of ensuring that delays from diagnosis through to treatment are minimized, especially for patients with rapidly proliferating tumours.

  12. The Relationship of Age to Personal Network Size, Relational Multiplexity, and Proximity to Alters in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily J.; Marcum, Christopher S.; Boessen, Adam; Almquist, Zack W.; Hipp, John R.; Nagle, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the association of age and other sociodemographic variables with properties of personal networks; using samples of individuals residing in the rural western United States and the City of Los Angeles, we evaluate the degree to which these associations vary with geographical context. For both samples, we test the hypothesis that age is negatively associated with network size (i.e., degree) and positively associated with network multiplexity (the extent of overlap) on 6 different relations: core discussion members, social activity participants, emergency contacts, neighborhood safety contacts, job informants, and kin. We also examine the relationship between age and spatial proximity to alters. Method. Our data consist of a large-scale, spatially stratified egocentric network survey containing information about respondents and those to whom they are tied. We use Poisson regression to test our hypothesis regarding degree while adjusting for covariates, including education, gender, race, and self-reported sense of neighborhood belonging. We use multiple linear regression to test our hypotheses on multiplexity and distance to alters. Results. For both rural and urban populations, we find a nonmonotone association between age and numbers of core discussants and emergency contacts, with rural populations also showing nonmonotone associations for social activity partners and kin. These nonmonotone relationships show a peak in expected degree at midlife, followed by an eventual decline. We find a decline in degree among the elderly for all relations in both populations. Age is positively associated with distance to nonhousehold alters for the rural population, although residential tenure is associated with shorter ego-alter distances in both rural and urban settings. Additionally, age is negatively associated with network multiplexity for both populations. Discussion. Although personal network size ultimately declines with age, we find that

  13. High frequency of tumours in Mulibrey nanism.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Niklas; Karlberg, Susann; Karikoski, Riitta; Mikkola, Sakari; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Jalanko, Hannu

    2009-06-01

    Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a monogenic disorder with prenatal-onset growth failure, typical clinical characteristics, cardiopathy and tendency for a metabolic syndrome. It is caused by recessive mutations in the TRIM37 gene encoding for the peroxisomal TRIM37 protein with ubiquitin-ligase activity. In this work, the frequency and pathology of malignant and benign tumours were analysed in a national cohort of 89 Finnish MUL patients aged 0.7-76 years. The subjects had a clinical and radiological evaluation, and histological and immunohistocemical analyses on specimens obtained from biopsy, surgery or autopsy, were performed. The results show that the MUL patients have disturbed architecture with ectopic tissues and a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumours detectable in several internal organs. A total of 210 tumorous lesions were detected in 66/89 patients (74%). Fifteen malignancies occurred in 13 patients (15%), seven of them in the kidney (five Wilms' tumours), three in the thyroid gland, two gynaecological cancers, one gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour, one neuropituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and one case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Tumours detected by radiology in the liver and other organs mainly comprised strongly dilated blood vessels (peliosis), vascularized cysts and nodular lesions. The lesions showed strong expression of the endothelial cell markers CD34 and CD31 as well as the myocyte marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). Our findings show that MUL is associated with frequent malignant tumours and benign adenomatous and vascular lesions, as well as disturbed organ development. PMID:19334051

  14. Spontaneous tumours in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Forty tumours were diagnosed in 35 (53%) of 66 captive African hedgehogs documented at Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1994 and 1999. Three hedgehogs had more than one type of tumour and the remaining 32 had a single type. Of the 35 hedgehogs with tumours, 14 were female, 11 were male, and 10 were of unknown gender; 21 were from zoological parks and 14 were privately owned. Twenty of the hedgehogs with tumours were adult (>1 year old) with a median age of 3.5 years (range 2-5.5 years); 15, of unreported age, were classified as adult. Thirty-four (85%) of the 40 tumours were classified as malignant and six (15%) as benign. The integumentary, haemolymphatic, digestive and endocrine systems were common sites for tumours. The most common tumours were mammary gland adenocarcinoma, lympho-sarcoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:11222009

  15. Feto-maternal heart rate ratio in pregnant bitches: effect of gestational age and maternal size.

    PubMed

    Alonge, S; Mauri, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2016-10-01

    Few information is available on parameters that can be used to objectively assess the foetal health during canine pregnancy. To identify a reliable parameter for the evaluation of foetal well-being, the effect of pre-gestational maternal bodyweight and gestational age on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on feto-maternal heart rate ratio (FHR/MHR) was investigated. Seventeen client-owned pregnant bitches of different pre-gestational maternal bodyweight were examined by serial echo colour Doppler. Only data from 11 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the statistical analysis. The relationship between FHR, and FHR/MHR, and independent variables was analysed by polynomial regression (p ≤ .05). The FHR and the FHR/MHR significantly fitted a multiple quadratic regression for all independent variables. They both increased from 35 to 20 days before parturition and then a decreasing pattern followed. Higher values of both parameters were observed in bitches of lowest and highest bodyweight. Patterns of FHR and FHR/MHR were similar, but the ratio better describes the effect of the independent variables on the data. Thus, the highest significance of FHR/MHR compared to FHR alone encourages the application of this ratio to evaluate foetal well-being. The equation derived by the regression analysis of FHR/MHR could be applied in clinical practice to obtain its expected values in healthy pregnancies. PMID:27440379

  16. Dental size and shape in the Roman imperial age: two examples from the area of Rome.

    PubMed

    Manzi, G; Santandrea, E; Passarello, P

    1997-04-01

    Different socioeconomic strata of Roman imperial age are represented by two large dental samples recovered from archaeological excavations near Rome, Italy. Teeth are investigated for crown dimensions and morphological variants. One sample, comprising 1,465 permanent teeth, represents the rural town of Lucus Feroniae (LFR) and is mainly composed of slaves and war veterans. The other, comprising 734 teeth from the Isola Sacra necropolis at Portus Romae (NIS), represents the "middle class" segment of an urban population. Both series show small dental dimensions and fit at the lower end of the trend toward dental reduction in Europe from the Upper Paleolithic to the historical times. The urban sample is less variable metrically and less sexually dimorphic than the rural one. The analysis of discrete crown traits shows absence of rare phenotypic variants in both series. The urban sample is also less variable in this last respect, suggesting that the gene pool of this particular "stratum" of the NIS population was more homogeneous than that of LFR. The occurrence of enamel hypoplasia indicates that metabolic stress during growth and development was similar in LFR and NIS. The overall set of available data is evaluated in the light of the history of the two Roman sites and the composition of each population. PMID:9140539

  17. Fatty tumours of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, D J

    1982-01-01

    Uterine fatty tumours (UFT) are uncommon and have received little attention in the English literature. They have aroused interest as a consequence of occasional diagnostic confusion with sarcomas and the continuing unresolved dispute as to their histogenesis. Three cases of UFT are described and the pathological features of note discussed. The viewpoint that these tumours are hamartomas/choristomas is rejected. UFT most probably represent tumour metaplasia within a leiomyoma. There is no uniform accepted nomenclature for such tumours and it is suggested that they be designated "uterine fatty tumours" and subdivided into "lipoma" and "mixed lipoma/leiomyoma" (synonym lipoleiomyoma). Images PMID:7174848

  18. Ovarian-type epithelial tumours of the testis: immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of two serous borderline tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Tobias; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Inniger, Reinhard; Hansen, Joachim; Mayer, Peter; Schweyer, Stefan; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Tumours of ovarian-epithelial type of the testis, including serous borderline tumours, represent very rare entities. They are identical to the surface epithelial tumours of the ovary and have been reported in patients from 14 to 68 years of age. We describe two cases of a 46- and a 39-year old man with incidental findings of intratesticular masses of the left respectively right testis. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour the patients were subjected to inguinal orchiectomy. Histologically, the tumours were identical to their ovarian counterparts: They showed a cystic configuration with a fibrous wall and irregular papillary structures lined by partially multistratified columnar cells and areas of hobnail cells. Furthermore, there was mild cytological atypia with a proliferative activity of below 5% as proved by Ki67 staining; mitoses could not be detected. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells displayed expression of pan-cytokeratin AE3, progesterone receptor, Wilms' tumour protein (WT1), and PAX8 (Paired box gene 8). Estrogen receptor was expressed in one case. Octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4), calretinin, thrombomodulin, and D2-40 were not expressed. Mutation testing of BRAF revealed a BRAF V600E mutation in one case, while testing for KRAS mutations proved to be negative in both. The BRAF mutated tumour showed strong cytosolic and membranous positivity for B-Raf also on immunohistochemical analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization of one case could not reveal any chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26197800

  19. Glomus tumour of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Troller, Rebekka; Soll, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours are benign tumours typically arising from the glomus bodies and primarily found under the fingernails or toenails. These rare neoplasms account for <2% of all soft tissue tumours and are generally not found in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 40-year-old man presenting with recurrent epigastric pain and pyrosis. Endoscopy revealed a solitary tumour in the antrum of the stomach. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for a gastrointestinal stroma tumour. After CT indicated the resectability of the tumour, showing neither lymphatic nor distant metastases, a laparoscopic-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed. Surprisingly, histology revealed a glomus tumour of the stomach. PMID:27343282

  20. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  1. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  2. Canine mammary tumours: protective effect of late ovariectomy and stimulating effect of progestins.

    PubMed

    Misdorp, W

    1988-01-01

    Ovariectomy, even when performed at an advanced age, was found to be to some extent protective against mammary tumour development in dogs. Bitches treated with progestins had a slightly higher risk for mammary tumours (all types, benign and malignant) than controls. Progestin treatment did not increase the risk of mammary cancer. Benign tumours in (treated and untreated) dogs appeared earlier than malignant ones. Progestin treatment resulted in earlier appearance of both benign and malignant tumours than in controls. The ratio solitary/multiple mammary tumours was not significantly different between treated and untreated dogs. PMID:3376408

  3. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, S. V.; Mamatha, G. P.; Sunita, J. D.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Setting and Design: Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. Results: For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm2) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm2). Conclusion: There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation. PMID:26816461

  4. Age-related changes in soma size of neurons in the spinal cord motor column of the cat.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Bertolotto, C; Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1996-06-28

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the aging process on the soma size and number of motoneurons and interneurons in the motor column of the spinal cord of old cats. Neurons in the motor column were divided into small and large populations based on a bimodal distribution of their soma cross-sectional areas. A 17% decrease in the cross-sectional area of small neurons was observed, this decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The cross-sectional area of large neurons decreased by only 6%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the number of large, small or of these combined population of ventral horn neurons in the aged cats compared with the control animals. This data suggest that neurons in the motor column are not uniformly affected by the aging process because morphological changes are proportionally greater in small neurons than in large neurons. PMID:8817566

  5. Passive electrophysiological properties of aged and axotomized cat spinal cord motoneurons: the effect of cell size and electrode shunt.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1992-07-01

    Intracellular recordings were obtained from intact and axotomized lumbar motoneurons of aged cats. The sub-threshold electrical properties of these cells were measured, including input resistance, resting membrane potential, and the first two equalizing time constants as well as their associated amplitude constants. These data were used in a semi-infinite cable model of the motoneuron to estimate the size of the shunt resistance (Rshunt) which is created when the electrode penetrates the cell membrane. The average Rshunt for intact aged cells was 5.35 +/- 1.01 M omega, while that for the axotomized aged cells was 8.93 +/- 1.20 M omega. The statistically significant difference in mean shunt magnitude did not affect the measurements of membrane time constant because this constant is independent of the shunt in this model of the motoneuron. However, the determination of cell input resistance, which is not independent of the shunt, was shown to underestimate the real cell input resistance by 23-29%. We therefore conclude that the shunt resistance is an important factor which should be taken into account when measuring input resistance. PMID:1508398

  6. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  7. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  8. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  9. Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of primary intracranial tumours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mariani, C L; Schubert, T A; House, R A; Wong, M A; Hopkins, A L; Barnes Heller, H L; Milner, R J; Lester, N V; Lurie, D M; Rajon, D A; Friedman, W A; Bova, F J

    2015-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a procedure that delivers a single large radiation dose to a well-defined target. Here, we describe a frameless SRS technique suitable for intracranial targets in canines. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with a primary intracranial tumour by imaging or histopathology that underwent SRS were retrospectively reviewed. Frameless SRS was used successfully to treat tumours in 51 dogs with a variety of head sizes and shapes. Tumours diagnosed included 38 meningiomas, 4 pituitary tumours, 4 trigeminal nerve tumours, 3 gliomas, 1 histiocytic sarcoma and 1 choroid plexus tumour. Median survival time was 399 days for all tumours and for dogs with meningiomas; cause-specific survival was 493 days for both cohorts. Acute grade III central nervous system toxicity (altered mentation) occurred in two dogs. Frameless SRS resulted in survival times comparable to conventional radiation therapy, but with fewer acute adverse effects and only a single anaesthetic episode required for therapy. PMID:24007303

  10. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  11. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  12. Relationships between molecular weight and fluorescence properties for size-fractionated dissolved organic matter from fresh and aged sources.

    PubMed

    Cuss, C W; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are important considerations for studies seeking to connect these properties to water treatment processes. Relationships between the size and fluorescence properties of nine allochthonous DOM sources (i.e. leaf leachates, grass, and headwaters) were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detectors. Correlations between optical properties and MW were readily apparent using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled to self-organizing maps (SOM): protein/polyphenol-like fluorescence (peaks B and T) was highest at lower molecular weights (<0.5 kDa), fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (peaks A, C, and M) was highest at mid-weights (0.5-1 kDa), and humic-like fluorescence (Peaks A + C) was highest at larger molecular weights (>1 kDa). Proportions of peaks B, T, and A + C were significantly correlated with MW (p < 0.001). The first principal component (PC1, 42% of variation in fluorescence properties) was a significant predictor of sample MW (R² = 0.63, p < 0.05), while scores on PC2 (27% of total variance) traced a source-based gradient from deciduous leachates/headwaters through to coniferous leachates/headwaters. PC3 (13% of var.) was also correlated with MW (p < 0.005). A secondary peak in peak T fluorescence was associated with larger size fractions in aged sources, and scores on PC1 also traced a path from the leachates of fresher leaves, through more humified leaves, to headwaters. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the structure of aged DOM arises through supramolecular assembly. PMID:25462755

  13. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Gadd, Samantha; Arold, Stefan T.; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Jennings, Lawrence; Huff, Vicki; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M.; Davidsen, Tanja M.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Meerzaman, Daoud; Hsu, Chih Hao; Nguyen, Cu; Anderson, James; Ma, Yussanne; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Marra, Marco A.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Ma, Jing; Wheeler, David A.; Hampton, Oliver A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Ross, Nicole; Smith, Malcolm A.

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour. PMID:26635203

  14. Resected tumours of the sublingual gland: 15 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Peir-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Sublingual gland tumours are rare, and we have evaluated the clinical features and prognosis of patients treated at a tertiary medical centre in eastern Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients with sublingual gland tumours that were resected from December 1993 to November 2008, four of whom were men and five women. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 52 (39-63) years. Seven had malignant tumours, of which adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common. All patients with malignant tumours had neck dissections, and four had cervical lymph node metastases. The incidence of lymph node metastases was much higher in patients with advanced primary tumours (T1/2 compared with T3/4: one out of three compared with three out of four). All patients with malignant tumours were given adjuvant radiotherapy. There were no local failures. One patient had regional recurrence in the neck and had a successful further resection. Three patients developed distant metastases, and two died during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that radical resection with postoperative radiotherapy offers adequate local and regional control for malignant sublingual gland tumours. Neck dissection is beneficial, especially for T3/4 disease. PMID:27062437

  15. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  16. Age, size, and position of H ii regions in the Galaxy. Expansion of ionized gas in turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Didelon, P.; Raga, A. C.; Minier, V.; Ntormousi, E.; Pettitt, A.; Pinto, C.; Samal, M. R.; Schneider, N.; Zavagno, A.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: This work aims to improve the current understanding of the interaction between H ii regions and turbulent molecular clouds. We propose a new method to determine the age of a large sample of OB associations by investigating the development of their associated H ii regions in the surrounding turbulent medium. Methods: Using analytical solutions, one-dimensional (1D), and three-dimensional (3D) simulations, we constrained the expansion of the ionized bubble depending on the turbulence level of the parent molecular cloud. A grid of 1D simulations was then computed in order to build isochrone curves for H ii regions in a pressure-size diagram. This grid of models allowed us to date a large sample of OB associations that we obtained from the H ii Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). Results: Analytical solutions and numerical simulations showed that the expansion of H ii regions is slowed down by the turbulence up to the point where the pressure of the ionized gas is in a quasi-equilibrium with the turbulent ram pressure. Based on this result, we built a grid of 1D models of the expansion of H ii regions in a profile based on Larson's laws. We take the 3D turbulence into account with an effective 1D temperature profile. The ages estimated by the isochrones of this grid agree well with literature values of well known regions such as Rosette, RCW 36, RCW 79, and M 16. We thus propose that this method can be used to find ages of young OB associations through the Galaxy and also in nearby extra-galactic sources.

  17. The epidemiology of neonatal tumours. Report of an international working group.

    PubMed

    Moore, S W; Satgé, D; Sasco, A J; Zimmermann, A; Plaschkes, J

    2003-09-01

    Neonatal tumours occur every 12,500-27,500 live births and comprise 2% of childhood malignancies, but there is little clarity as to their real prevalence, sites of origin and pathological nature as reported series vary. As an entity, neonatal tumours provide a unique window of opportunity to study tumours in which minimal environmental interference has occurred. The majority of tumours present with a mass at birth (e.g., teratomas, neuroblastomas, mesoblastic nephroma, fibromatosis), which are not infrequently identified on antenatal ultrasound. Histologically, teratoma and neuroblastoma remain the two main tumour types encountered with soft tissue sarcoma, renal tumours, CNS tumours and leukaemia being the next most common tumour types identified. Malignant tumours are uncommon in the neonatal period per se and benign tumours may have malignant potential. A particular problem exists in clinical classification, as histological features of malignancy do not always correlate with clinical behaviour. Benign tumours may also be life threatening because of their size and location. Other tumours may demonstrate local invasiveness, but no metastatic potential, and tumours that are clearly malignant may demonstrate unpredictable or uncertain behaviour. Screening programmes have brought more tumours to light, but do not appear to affect the overall prognosis. They may provide clues to the stage at which tumours develop in foetu. The aetiology of cancer in children is multifactorial and includes both genetic and environmental factors. The association between congenital abnormalities and tumours is well established (15% of neonatal tumours). Genetic defects are highly likely in neonatal tumours and include those with a high risk of malignancy (e.g., retinoblastoma), but also genetically determined syndromes with an increased risk of malignancy and complex genetic rearrangements. Tumours are mostly genetically related at a cellular level and factors influencing cellular

  18. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  19. Oral administration of Aloe vera and honey reduces Walker tumour growth by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2011-04-01

    Cancer is diagnosed in approximately 11 million people and is responsible for almost 8 million deaths worldwide every year. Research in cancer control has shown the importance of co-adjuvant therapies. Aloe vera may reduce tumour mass and metastasis rates, while honey may inhibit tumour growth. This study verified the influence of Aloe vera and honey on tumour growth and in the apoptosis process by assessing tumour size, the cell proliferation rate (Ki67-LI) and Bax/Bcl-2 expression at 7, 14 and 20 days after Walker 256 carcinoma implant in Wistar rats distributed into two groups: the WA group - tumour-bearing rats that received a gavage with a 670 µL/kg dose of Aloe vera and honey solution daily, and the CW group - tumour-bearing rats which received only a 0.9% NaCl solution. The effect of Aloe vera and honey against tumour growth was observed through a decrease in relative weight (%) and Ki67-LI in tumours from the WA group compared with those from the CW group. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in tumours from the WA group at all tested timepoints. These data suggest Aloe vera and honey can modulate tumour growth by reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis susceptibility. PMID:20839215

  20. Desmoid tumour. The risk of recurrent or new disease with subsequent pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Way, Jeffrey C.; Culham, Beverley A.

    1999-01-01

    Desmoid tumours are rare, benign tumours arising from fibrous tissue in muscle fascia or aponeurosis. They are most common in women of child-bearing age and most often appear during or after pregnancy in this age group. The recommended treatment is wide surgical excision, if possible, but unresectable tumours may be treated with radiotherapy, anticancer drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or antiestrogenic compounds. The recurrence rate is high and seems to be related to the achievement of resection margins free of tumour. The literature is not specific about how to counsel woment who have had a desmoid tumour and subsequently wish to have a child. Patients should be advised that these tumours may be estrogen sensitive but subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily a risk factor for recurrence or development of new disease. PMID:10071588

  1. Regarding the SiC particulates size associated microstructural characteristics on the aging behavior of Al-4.5Cu metallic matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.; Lai, M.O.; Boon, M.S.; Herng, N.S.

    1998-02-01

    In this study, aging characteristics of an aluminum-based metallic matrix reinforced with two different sizes of silicon carbide were investigated. The results showed similar aging kinetics in the case of unreinforced samples and composite samples containing coarser (34.4 {micro}m) SiC particulates and accelerated aging kinetics in the case of composite samples containing finer (8 {micro}m) SiC particulates. Results of microstructural characterization studies show that composite samples containing finer SiC particulates exhibited finer grain size, lower porosity, reduced cluster-to-particulate-size ratio, and superior interfacial integrity. The accelerated aging kinetics exhibited by composite samples containing a distribution of finer SiC particulates, when compared to the unreinforced and reinforced samples containing a distribution of coarser SiC particulates, were rationalized in terms of their microstructural characteristics.

  2. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  3. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) with a thousand faces: atypical manifestations and causes of misdiagnosis on imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Kim, H C; Yang, D M; Won, K Y

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) can lead to emergency situations, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal obstruction, and tumoural rupture with haemoperitoneum or peritonitis. In addition, if a GIST grows exophytically to a large size, it is often misdiagnosed as a tumour arising from adjacent organs. Sometimes, the atypical appearance of GISTs on imaging causes diagnostic confusion. In this article, we illustrate a variety of GISTs with atypical presentations and also discuss the important diagnostic clues for differentiating GISTs from other lesions. PMID:26646370

  5. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis.

  6. Body size dissatisfaction and avoidance behavior: how gender, age, ethnicity, and relative clothing size predict what some won't try.

    PubMed

    Maphis, Laura E; Martz, Denise M; Bergman, Shawn S; Curtin, Lisa A; Webb, Rose Mary

    2013-06-01

    Sixty-eight percent of U.S. adults are overweight/obese, and this epidemic has physical, psychosocial, and behavioral consequences. An internet sample of adults (N=2997) perceiving themselves as larger than ideal in clothing size reported their body mass index (BMI), relative clothing size (RS; discrepancy between current and ideal size), and avoidance behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis of 10 avoidance items produced social avoidance and body display avoidance factors. A relative importance analysis revealed RS as a better predictor than BMI for avoidance. A hierarchical multivariate analysis of covariance found RS to predict both avoidance constructs. The relationship between RS and both avoidance constructs was stronger for women than men, and for younger as compared to older participants. Caucasians reported more body display avoidance than African Americans. This suggests that personal dissatisfaction with body size may deter involvement in varied life events and that women are especially avoidant of activities that entail displaying their bodies. PMID:23540887

  7. Coupled resonances allow studying the aging of adhesive contacts between a QCM surface and single, micrometer-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, Astrid; Langhoff, Arne; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2015-12-01

    Interparticle contacts and contacts between particles and surfaces are known to change over time. The contact area, the contact stiffness, and the contact strength usually increase as the contact ages. Contact aging is mostly driven by capillary forces, but also by plastic deformation. Making use of acoustic resonators, we have studied the stiffness of contacts between the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and individual, micrometer-sized particles adsorbed to the resonator surface. Studying single particles avoids ensemble-averaging. Central to the analysis is the coupled resonance, occurring when a surface-attached particle together with the link forms a resonator of its own. If the frequency of this second resonator comes close to one of the crystal’s overtones, plots of shifts in resonance bandwidth versus overtone order display a resonance curve. This secondary resonance is caused by the coupling between the particle’s resonance and the main resonance. One can read the frequency of the coupled resonance from this plot. Similarly, resonance curves are observed in plots of frequency and bandwidth versus time, if the contact stiffness varies smoothly with time. Because the coupled resonance is a characteristic feature, it is easily identified even in cases where frequency shifts of some other origin are superimposed onto the data. For the cases studied here, the links stiffened while they dried. Interestingly, the efficiency of coupling between the particle resonance and the main resonance decreased at the same time. This can be explained with an increase in the link’s bending stiffness. The analysis highlights that a QCM experiment amounts to vibrational spectroscopy on surface-attached particles. Among the application examples is the adsorption and drying of a lycopodium spore. Clearly, the technique is also applicable to problems of bioadhesion.

  8. One very rare and one new tracheal tumour found by electron microscopy: glomus tumour and acinic cell tumour resembling carcinoid tumours by light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Heard, B E; Dewar, A; Firmin, R K; Lennox, S C

    1982-01-01

    Tracheal tumours were removed surgically from two patients and diagnosed as carcinoid tumours by routine light microscopy. At a later date, electron microscopy was performed on stored tumour tissue and no neurosecretory granules were found in either case. One showed features of a glomus tumour and the other of an acinic cell tumour. Only two glomus tumours appear to have been reported previously in the trachea, and no acinic cell tumours. Electron microscopy is thus sometimes of great assistance in diagnosing accurately unusual tumours of the lower respiratory tract. Images PMID:6281934

  9. Metabolic reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yazhi; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Binhua P; Mi, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Tumour cells, stromal cells and the stroma comprise the tumour microenvironment. The metabolism of both tumour cells and several types of tumour stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages, is reprogrammed. Current studies have found that stromal cells promote tumour progression and metastasis, through not only the paracrine secretion of cytokines or chemokines, but also intermediate metabolites. Here, we summarize the latest insights into the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages, and their potential roles in tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:26255648

  10. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  11. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  12. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins. PMID:19968734

  13. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  14. Acute vascular response to cediranib treatment in human non-small-cell lung cancer xenografts with different tumour stromal architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanyan; Allen, Danny; Kersemans, Veerle; Devery, Aoife M.; Bokobza, Sivan M.; Smart, Sean; Ryan, Anderson J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tumours can be categorised based on their stromal architecture into tumour vessel and stromal vessel phenotypes, and the phenotypes have been suggested to define tumour response to chronic treatment with a VEGFR2 antibody. However, it is unclear whether the vascular phenotypes of tumours associate with acute vascular response to VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), or whether the early changes in vascular function are associated with subsequent changes in tumour size. This study was sought to address these questions by using xenograft models of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) representing stromal vessel phenotype (Calu-3) and tumour vessel phenotype (Calu-6), respectively. Methods For dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), nude mice bearing established Calu-3 or Calu-6 xenografts were treated with a potent pan-VEGFR TKI, cediranib (6 mg/kg), at 0 h and 22 h. DCE-MRI was performed 2 h before the first dose and 2 h after the second dose of cediranib to examine acute changes in tumour vessel perfusion. Tumours were harvested for hypoxia detection by CA9 immunohistochemistry. For tumour growth study, mice carrying established Calu-3 or Calu-6 tumours were treated with cediranib once daily for 5 days. Results Twenty-four hours after cediranib administration, the perfusion of Calu-3 tumours was markedly reduced, with a significant increase in hypoxia. In contrast, neither perfusion nor hypoxia was significantly affected in Calu-6 tumours. Tumour regressions were induced in Calu-3 xenografts, but not in Calu-6 xenografts, although there was a trend towards tumour growth inhibition after 5 days of cediranib treatment. Conclusion These findings suggest that tumour stromal architecture may associate with acute tumour vascular response to VEGFR TKI, and this acute tumour vascular response may be a promising early predictive marker of response to VEGFR TKI in NSCLC. PMID:26323213

  15. [Drug therapy for neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Miklós

    2013-09-29

    The author aims to review the established medical treatment options of neuroendocrine tumours, which have expanded greatly in recent years and present the most important aspects to be considered in planning patients' management. Medical treatment is usually considered in advanced stages of these tumours, as well as in cases of hormone overproduction. Somatostatin analogues have been known to be effective in alleviating hormone excess syndromes, especially carcinoid syndrome for the past 25 years. There is a convincing evidence that the somatostatin analogue octreotide is useful as an antitumor agent, at least in well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours and probably also in those of pancreatic origin. Interferons may be also used and the indications for their use may be almost the same. Optimal patient selection is mandatory for the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Streptozotocin- and, recently, temozolomide-based chemotherapies should be considered in progressive phases of well differentiated (G1/G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. A cisplatin-etoposide combination is the first choice for the treatment of G3 neuroendocrine carcinomas of any origin. Recently, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and the combined tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib were registered for the treatment of G1/G2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. The most recent drug treatment recommendations and therapeutic algorithms to improve systemic therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumours are summarized and novel drug candidates with particular potential for future management of these tumours are outlined. PMID:24058101

  16. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  17. An update on irreversible electroporation of liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Enoch S L; Chung, Max W Y; Wong, Keedon; Wong, Clement Y K; So, Enoch C T; Chan, Albert C Y

    2014-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of irreversible electroporation for ablation of liver tumour in humans. DATA SOURCES. The PubMed and MEDLINE databases were systematically searched. STUDY SELECTION. Clinical research published in English in the last 10 years until October 2013 that address clinical issues related to irreversible electroporation of human liver tumours were selected. "Liver tumor", "local ablative therapy", and "irreversible electroporation" were used as the search terms. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS. The data extracted for this review was analysed by the authors, with a focus on the clinical efficacy and the safety of irreversible electroporation. The complete response rates look promising, ranging from 72% to 100%, except in one study in a subgroup of liver tumours in which the complete response rate was only 50% that was likely due to the inclusion of larger-size tumours. In one study, the local recurrence rate at 12 months was approximately 40%. As for the safety of irreversible electroporation, there were only a few reported complications (cardiac arrhythmia, pneumothorax, and electrolyte disturbance) that were mostly transient and not serious. There was no reported mortality related to the use of irreversible electroporation. CONCLUSION. Irreversible electroporation is a potentially effective liver tumour ablative therapy that gives rise to only mild and transient side-effects. Further studies with better patient selection criteria and longer follow-up are needed to clarify its role as a first-line liver tumour treatment modality. PMID:24914075

  18. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  19. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  20. Solitary fibrous tumour of gluteus: a case report about an uncommon localization of a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Occhionorelli, Savino; Pigato, Ilaria; Malvicini, Enzo; Pascale, Giovanni; Stano, Rocco; Rinaldi, Rosa; Vasquez, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare benign tumour that occurs most frequently in the pleura. It is considered rare in soft tissues. We report a case of a middle-aged woman that presented a solitary fibrous tumor of gluteus. The tumour was composed of mesenchymal spindle-shaped cells positive for CD34 and bcl-2. Although rare, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal soft tissue tumours. The clinical presentation and imaging can be helpful for a better pre-operative diagnosis. PMID:27333919

  1. Solitary fibrous tumour of gluteus: a case report about an uncommon localization of a rare neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Occhionorelli, Savino; Pigato, Ilaria; Malvicini, Enzo; Pascale, Giovanni; Stano, Rocco; Rinaldi, Rosa; Vasquez, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare benign tumour that occurs most frequently in the pleura. It is considered rare in soft tissues. We report a case of a middle-aged woman that presented a solitary fibrous tumor of gluteus. The tumour was composed of mesenchymal spindle-shaped cells positive for CD34 and bcl-2. Although rare, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal soft tissue tumours. The clinical presentation and imaging can be helpful for a better pre-operative diagnosis. PMID:27333919

  2. Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Reappraisal of Cutaneous Adnexal Tumours: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Uroos; Malaviya, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosing adnexal tumours of the skin is a challenge due to their wide variety, infrequent occurrence in practice, and confusing morphological picture. Aims and Objectives. The present study aims to observe the spectrum of adnexal tumours at our institute and to evaluate them based on histomorphological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical methods either alone or in combination for proper identification and classification. Materials and Methods. A partly retrospective and partly prospective study was conducted on adnexal skin tumours over a period of 6 years. Relevant clinical profile was recorded. Histopathological examination was carried out and special stains were applied as and when required. Immunohistochemistry was performed where diagnosis with routine stains was not possible. Results. A total of 150 skin tumour biopsies were received. There were 87 keratotic tumours, 39 adnexal tumours, and 24 melanocytic tumours. Amongst the adnexal tumours, 51.3% eccrine, 30.8% follicular, and 17.9% sebaceous tumours were seen. In five cases, histological diagnosis was troublesome where immunohistochemistry helped in making final diagnosis. Limitations. The sample size is small. Conclusion. Histomorphology is confirmatory in majority of the adnexal tumours but few rare lesions that mimic internal malignancy require a panel of immunomarkers to rule out other possible differentials. PMID:27034895

  3. Age and size thresholds for pupation and developmental polymorphism in the browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), under conditions that either emulate diapause or prevent it.

    PubMed

    Frago, Enric; Selfa, Jesús; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Guara, Miguel; Bauce, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Size and age thresholds for pupation are important life history traits of insects. They are the ultimate consequences of the underlying physiological mechanism that optimize resource allocation. Such thresholds may have a plastic response under time-varying environmental conditions, developmental polymorphism (i.e., plasticity in the number of instars before pupation) being a common strategy adopted by insects to overcome this challenging situation. In this study, we systematically explore the variables related with both age and size thresholds for pupation and developmental polymorphism in the browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), by rearing a group of caterpillars under conditions that either emulate larval diapause or prevent it. As an innovative approach, we evaluated the importance of predictor variables by means of generalized linear modeling in a multi-model inference framework. Our results show that (i) rearing conditions affect fitness, (ii) rearing conditions, size of hatchlings, size and age at maturity and sex are related to the number of instars before pupation, and (iii) there are both age and size thresholds for pupation which differ between sexes and between larvae reared under different conditions. Results are discussed in the context of lepidopteran plasticity in life history traits and its relationship with optimal molting strategies. PMID:19589342

  4. The use of tumour volumetrics to assess response to therapy in anticancer clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Goldmacher, Gregory V; Conklin, James

    2012-01-01

    Serial evaluations of tumour burden using imaging, mainly computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, form the basis for assessing treatment response in many clinical trials of anticancer therapeutics. Traditionally, these evaluations have been based on linear measurements of tumour size. Such measurements have limitations related to variability in technical factors, tumour morphology and reader decisions. Measurements of entire tumour volumes may overcome some of the limitations of linear tumour measurements, improving our ability to detect small changes reliably and increasing statistical power per subject in a trial. Certain technical factors are known to affect the accuracy and precision of volume measurements, and work is in progress to define these factors more thoroughly and to qualify tumour volume as a biomarker for the purposes of drug development. PMID:22242836

  5. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  6. Distribution of Photofrin between tumour cells and tumour associated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Korbelik, M.; Krosl, G.; Olive, P. L.; Chaplin, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Photofrin levels in cells derived from SCCVII tumours, excised from mice that previously received the drug, were measured using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Concomitantly, in the same cells the FACS was used to measure fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescence that originated from FITC-conjugated antimouse IgG added to the cell suspension before sorting. This later measurement enabled discrimination between IgG negative tumour malignant cells and IgG positive host cells (primarily macrophages). In addition, cellular Photofrin content in 'tumour' and 'host' cells sorted by FACS was determined by chemical extraction. The measurements were performed for the time intervals 1-96 h post Photofrin administration. The data showed consistently higher Photofrin levels in the 'host cells', i.e., tumour associated macrophages (TAM), than in 'tumour' cells. On a per cell basis, at any time point studied there was a minimum of 1.7 times more Photofrin in 'host' than in 'tumour cells', while at 4-12 h postadministration, ratios of up to 3.0 times were observed. This corresponds to ratio values greater than 9, when based on Photofrin content per micrograms cell protein. PMID:1832927

  7. Stratification of yeast cells during chronological aging by size points to the role of trehalose in cell vitality.

    PubMed

    Svenkrtova, Andrea; Belicova, Lenka; Volejnikova, Andrea; Sigler, Karel; Jazwinski, S Michal; Pichova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a process akin to differentiation during prolonged culture without medium replenishment. Various methods have been used to separate and determine the potential role and fate of the different cell species. We have stratified chronologically-aged yeast cultures into cells of different sizes, using centrifugal elutriation, and characterized these subpopulations physiologically. We distinguish two extreme cell types, very small (XS) and very large (L) cells. L cells display higher viability based on two separate criteria. They respire much more actively, but produce lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). L cells are capable of dividing, albeit slowly, giving rise to XS cells which do not divide. L cells are more resistant to osmotic stress and they have higher trehalose content, a storage carbohydrate often connected to stress resistance. Depletion of trehalose by deletion of TPS2 does not affect the vital characteristics of L cells, but it improves some of these characteristics in XS cells. Therefore, we propose that the response of L and XS cells to the trehalose produced in the former differs in a way that lowers the vitality of the latter. We compare our XS- and L-fraction cell characteristics with those of cells isolated from stationary cultures by others based on density. This comparison suggests that the cells have some similarities but also differences that may prove useful in addressing whether it is the segregation or the response to trehalose that may play the predominant role in cell division from stationary culture. PMID:26614086

  8. [Molecular genetics of familial tumour syndromes of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Murnyák, Balázs; Szepesi, Rita; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2015-02-01

    Although most of the central nervous system tumours are sporadic, rarely they are associated with familial tumour syndromes. These disorders usually present with an autosomal dominant inheritance and neoplasia develops at younger age than in sporadic cases. Most of these tumours are bilateral, multiplex or multifocal. The causative mutations occur in genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth, differentiation and DNA repair. Studying these hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes associated with nervous system tumours can facilitate the deeper understanding of the molecular background of sporadic tumours and the development of novel therapeutic agents. This review is an update on hereditary tumour syndromes with nervous system involvement with emphasis on molecular genetic characteristics and their clinical implications. PMID:25618858

  9. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of benign neurogenic tumours of the posterior mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The indications for videothoracoscopy are very broad and include the treatment of mediastinal tumours. Aim To present our experience of using the minimally invasive technique in treating benign neurogenic tumours. Material and methods Twenty-two patients were treated due to tumours of the posterior mediastinum from 2003 to 2012. The size of the tumours ranged from 2 cm to 25 cm. Tumours up to the size of 6 cm were treated using videothoracoscopy (VT), bigger ones through thoracotomy. Results The videothoracoscopy technique was used in 17 patients, thoracotomy in 5. In 2 cases conversion was required due to adhesions in the pleural cavity preventing VT treatment. Complications related to the procedure were not observed. The average time of hospital stay after VT treatment was 4 days, while after thoracotomy it was 6 days. Histologically, tumours of benign nature were found in all cases. Schwannoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, ganglioneuroma in 3 patients, neurofibroma in 3 patients, and chemodectoma in 1 patient. None of the 3 cases of neurofibroma was associated with Recklinghausen's disease. At a mean follow-up of 60 months no recurrence of the tumour was found. Conclusions In the case of tumours up to 6 cm the best surgical technique is videothoracoscopy. In the case of large tumours the best access is the open technique. The minimally invasive technique allows one to shorten the patient's treatment time, reduce postoperative pain and obtain a good cosmetic effect of the treatment. PMID:25337152

  10. A breast cancer meta-analysis of two expression measures of chromosomal instability reveals a relationship with younger age at diagnosis and high risk histopathological variables

    PubMed Central

    Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Kschischo, Maik; Graham, Trevor A.; Swanton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer in younger patients often presents with adverse histopathological features, including increased frequency of estrogen receptor negative and lymph node positive disease status. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is increasingly recognised as an important prognostic variable in solid tumours. In a breast cancer meta-analysis of 2423 patients we examine the relationship between clinicopathological parameters and two distinct chromosomal instability gene expression signatures in order to address whether younger age at diagnosis is associated with increased tumour genome instability. We find that CIN, assessed by the two independently derived CIN expression signatures, is significantly associated with increased tumour size, ER negative or HER2 positive disease, higher tumour grade and younger age at diagnosis in ER negative breast cancer. These data support the hypothesis that chromosomal instability may be a defining feature of breast cancer biology and clinical outcome. PMID:21709316

  11. A breast cancer meta-analysis of two expression measures of chromosomal instability reveals a relationship with younger age at diagnosis and high risk histopathological variables.

    PubMed

    Endesfelder, David; McGranahan, Nicholas; Birkbak, Nicolai J; Szallasi, Zoltan; Kschischo, Maik; Graham, Trevor A; Swanton, Charles

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer in younger patients often presents with adverse histopathological features, including increased frequency of estrogen receptor negative and lymph node positive disease status. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is increasingly recognised as an important prognostic variable in solid tumours. In a breast cancer meta-analysis of 2423 patients we examine the relationship between clinicopathological parameters and two distinct chromosomal instability gene expression signatures in order to address whether younger age at diagnosis is associated with increased tumour genome instability. We find that CIN, assessed by the two independently derived CIN expression signatures, is significantly associated with increased tumour size, ER negative or HER2 positive disease, higher tumour grade and younger age at diagnosis in ER negative breast cancer. These data support the hypothesis that chromosomal instability may be a defining feature of breast cancer biology and clinical outcome. PMID:21709316

  12. Rewiring macrophages for anti-tumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunqin; Biswas, Subhra K

    2016-06-28

    Tumour-associated macrophages facilitate cancer progression, but whether they can be reprogrammed to elicit an anti-tumour response remains unclear. Deletion of the microRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is now shown to rewire macrophages to an anti-tumour mode, leading to an enhanced response to immunotherapy and inhibition of tumour progression. PMID:27350442

  13. Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Euna; Kim, Haeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities. Methods The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”. Results Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness. Conclusion The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community. PMID:26430612

  14. Quantifying tumour heterogeneity with CT

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity is a key feature of malignancy associated with adverse tumour biology. Quantifying heterogeneity could provide a useful non-invasive imaging biomarker. Heterogeneity on computed tomography (CT) can be quantified using texture analysis which extracts spatial information from CT images (unenhanced, contrast-enhanced and derived images such as CT perfusion) that may not be perceptible to the naked eye. The main components of texture analysis can be categorized into image transformation and quantification. Image transformation filters the conventional image into its basic components (spatial, frequency, etc.) to produce derived subimages. Texture quantification techniques include structural-, model- (fractal dimensions), statistical- and frequency-based methods. The underlying tumour biology that CT texture analysis may reflect includes (but is not limited to) tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis. Emerging studies show that CT texture analysis has the potential to be a useful adjunct in clinical oncologic imaging, providing important information about tumour characterization, prognosis and treatment prediction and response. PMID:23545171

  15. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    PubMed

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  16. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  17. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  18. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    PubMed

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  19. Imaging of skull base tumours.

    PubMed

    Thust, Stefanie Catherine; Yousry, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    The skull base is a highly complex and difficult to access anatomical region, which constitutes a relatively common site for neoplasms. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the differential diagnosis, to determine the anatomic tumour spread and for operative planning. All skull base imaging should be performed using thin-section multiplanar imaging, whereby CT and MRI can be considered complimentary. An interdisciplinary team approach is central to improve the outcome of these challenging tumours. PMID:27330416

  20. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  1. Circulating tumour cells in patients with urothelial tumours: Enrichment and in vitro culture

    PubMed Central

    Kolostova, Katarina; Cegan, Martin; Bobek, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Results of clinical trials have demonstrated that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are frequently detected in patients with urothelial tumours. The monitoring of CTCs has the potential to improve therapeutic management at an early stage and also to identify patients with increased risk of tumour progression or recurrence before the onset of clinically detected metastasis. In this study, we report a new effectively simplified methodology for a separation and in vitro culturing of viable CTCs from peripheral blood. Method: We include patients diagnosed with 3 types of urothelial tumours (prostate cancer, urinary bladder cancer, and kidney cancer). A size-based separation method for viable CTC - enrichment from unclothed peripheral blood has been introduced (MetaCell, Ostrava, Czech Republic). The enriched CTCs fraction was cultured directly on the separation membrane, or transferred from the membrane and cultured on any plastic surface or a microscopic slide. Results: We report a successful application of a CTCs isolation procedure in patients with urothelial cancers. The CTCs captured on the membrane are enriched with a remarkable proliferation potential. This has enabled us to set up in vitro cell cultures from the viable CTCs unaffected by any fixation buffers, antibodies or lysing solutions. Next, the CTCs were cultured in vitro for a minimum of 10 to 14 days to enable further downstream analysis (e.g., immunohistochemistry). Conclusion: We demonstrated an efficient CTCs capture platform, based on a cell size separation principle. Furthermore, we report an ability to culture the enriched cells – a critical requirement for post-isolation cellular analysis. PMID:25408812

  2. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature. PMID:26564735

  3. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  4. Long-term growth trajectories in a changing climate: disentangling age from size effects in old Fagus trees from contrasting bioclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the drivers promoting exceptional longevity in trees and how their growth performances vary approaching maximum lifespan still represent intriguing challenges not only for tree biology, but also for modelling the long-term forest ecosystem functioning under a changing environment. Tree growth rate is expected to increase with increasing stem size, but higher risk of hydraulic failure and mortality can affect larger trees under increasingly dry conditions. In turn, very old trees are characterized by slow growth and smaller size, factors able to confer advantages against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Rising evidences that very old trees are negligibly affected by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions associated with age support the idea that size, not age, is the main constrain to tree lifespan, so that negative senescence has been proposed as a frequent phenomenon in trees. Additional empirical knowledge is needed to thoroughly assess how complex, uneven-aged old-growth forests cope under climate change in order to define their role in terrestrial carbon cycle. We used a tree-ring network of 8 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests containing several of the oldest crossdated broadleaf trees of the Northern Hemisphere (400-600 years old) to analyse how their growth rates vary along age/size development. We sampled advanced old-growth stands, where canopy tree mortality is naturally occurring, divided among contrasting bioclimatic conditions: eastern Alps and central Apennines (rainy vs. dry summer). To disentangle the long-term effects of size and age on long-term tree growth history, we reconstructed Basal Area Increment (BAI) along size (DBH) development, grouping growth trajectories in different age classes. On average, BAI increased continuously as stem size increased, regardless of bioclimatic region and age class. Old trees grew the slowest and kept increasing BAI trends. In turn, especially on the drier

  5. Black carbon simulations using a size- and mixing-state-resolved three-dimensional model: 2. Aging timescale and its impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the aging timescale and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of black carbon (BC) over East Asia and its outflow region using a size- and mixing-state-resolved three-dimensional model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-chem) with the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS) and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC). The WRF-chem/ATRAS-MOSAIC model explicitly calculates BC aging (condensation and coagulation) and removal processes, with 12 size and 10 BC mixing state bins (128 bins in total). The model reveals large spatial and temporal variability of the BC aging timescale and the CCN activity of BC-containing particles over East Asia (spring 2009) with their strong size and supersaturation dependence. The BC aging timescale differs from 0.19 to 3.1 days (period and domain average at an altitude of 1 km), depending on the choice of size (mass or number) and supersaturation (1.0% or 0.1%). As a result, almost 100% of BC-containing particles are CCN-active at a supersaturation of 1.0%, whereas 20-50% of BC-containing particles are CCN-inactive at a supersaturation of 0.1%, with a strong size dependence. These results show the importance of resolving BC aging processes and their dependence on size and supersaturation in models for more accurate simulations of BC concentrations and their distribution and lifetime. A sensitivity simulation without resolving BC mixing state shows the underestimation of total BC mass concentrations by 5-10% and the BC mass concentrations in the CCN-inactive particles (at a supersaturation of 0.1%) by 40-60% over the outflow region (at 150°E), compared with the simulation resolving BC mixing state. Because BC aging speed is very slow at 150°E and eastward, the change in BC mass and its CCN activity by resolving BC mixing state will continue over long distances and may have a large impact on BC transport from East

  6. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Head, K W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. PMID:1086147

  7. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling activity distinguishes histological subsets of paediatric germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Fustino, N; Rakheja, D; Ateek, C S; Neumann, J C; Amatruda, J F

    2011-08-01

    Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are cancers of the testis, ovary or extragonadal sites that occur in infants, children and adults. Testicular GCT is the most common cancer in young men aged 15-40 years. Abnormalities in developmental signalling pathways such as wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β/BMP and Hedgehog have been described in many childhood tumours. To date, however, the status of BMP signalling in GCTs has not been described. Herein, we examine BMP-SMAD signalling in a set of clinically-annotated paediatric GCTs. We find that BMP signalling activity is absent in undifferentiated tumours such as seminomas and dysgerminomas, but robustly present in most yolk sac tumours, a differentiated tumour type. Gene expression profiling of TGF-β/BMP pathway genes in germinomas and yolk sac tumours reveals a set of genes that distinguish the two tumour types. There is significant intertumoural heterogeneity between tumours of the same histological subclass, implying that the BMP pathway can be differentially regulated in individual tumours. Finally, through miRNA expression profiling, we identify differential regulation of a set of miRNAs predicted to target the TGF-β/BMP pathway at multiple sites. Taken together, these results suggest that the BMP signalling pathway may represent a new therapeutical target for childhood GCTs. PMID:21696393

  9. Paramagnetic changes in cancer: DMBA-induced tumours studied in non-lyophilized and lyophilized tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, P. L.; Swartz, H. M.; Wilkinson, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were made on frozen samples of 7,12 dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced rat breast tumours both before and after lyophilization. The primary purpose of these studies was to determine the relationship between ESR spectra under these two conditions and thereby hopefully resolve an apparent conflict as to the experimental findings and clinical implications of these findings. In contrast to the other system (Walker 256 carcinosarcoma) which we studied by a similar method, in the DMBA-induced tumours we found a close parallel between the ESR spectra before and after lyophilization. In both cases free-radical levels were elevated about two-fold in all tumours and showed little dependence on the age of the tumour. Studies of blood and liver before the development of tumours showed no change in free radicals levels in either nonlyophilized or lyophilized samples. In animals with tumours, the level of free radicals in the liver increased approximately 17%. Manganese (2+) levels were increased in breast tumours but the changes did not closely follow those of free radicals and were much more variable in the lyophilized samples. We conclude that: (1) there seems to be no general relationship between ESR spectra of tumours before and after lyophilization; (2) there appears to be no general pattern of ESR changes in lyophilized samples of tumours. PMID:223619

  10. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He age dispersion arising from analysis of variable grain sizes and broken crystals - examples from the Scottish Southern Uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, Katarzyna; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronometry is a powerful technique for deciphering denudation of the uppermost crust. However, the age dispersion of single grains from the same rock is typical, and this hampers establishing accurate thermal histories when low grain numbers are analysed. Dispersion arising from the analysis of broken crystal fragments[1] has been proposed as an important cause of age dispersion, along with grain size and radiation damage. A new tool, Helfrag[2], allows constraints to be placed on the low temperature history derived from the analysis of apatite crystal fragments. However, the age dispersion model has not been fully tested on natural samples yet. We have performed AHe analysis of multiple (n = 20-25) grains from four rock samples from the Scottish Southern Uplands, which were subjected to the same exhumation episodes, although, the amount of exhumation varied between the localities. This is evident from the range of AFT ages (˜60 to ˜200 Ma) and variable thermal histories showing either strong, moderate and no support for a rapid cooling event at ˜60 Ma. Different apatite size and fragment geometry were analysed in order to maximise age dispersion. In general, the age dispersion increases with increasing AFT age (from 47% to 127%), consistent with the prediction from the fragmentation model. Thermal histories obtained using Helfrag were compared with those obtained by standard codes based on the spherical approximation. In one case, the Helfrag model was capable of resolving the higher complexity of the thermal history of the rock, constraining several heating/cooling events that are not predicted by the standard models, but are in good agreement with the regional geology. In other cases, the thermal histories are similar for both Helfrag and standard models and the age predictions for the Helfrag are only slightly better than for standard model, implying that the grain size has the dominant role in generating the age dispersion

  11. Oncoprotein stability after tumour resection.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, G.; Gullick, W.; Sikora, K.

    1990-01-01

    The means by which oncogenes and their products activate malignant transformation are currently under intense investigation. However, published papers on experiments using human tumour material do not always report in detail their methods of collection or storage of the specimens. In order to assess the stability of oncogene encoded proteins following collection or storage of human tumour biopsies, we have examined the rate of decay of the c-myc, neu and EGF-receptor proteins. Solid tumours, containing amplified copies of each oncogene, were established in nude mice and the stability of the oncogene protein in portions of each tumour, left in phosphate buffered saline at room temperature for varying time intervals, was examined by immunoblotting. Intact EGF-receptor and neu oncoproteins were present even after 24 h under these conditions while the c-myc protein was apparently rapidly degraded after 20 min. These data demonstrate that oncogene products decay at different rates after tumour resection and that collection of human biopsies should take this into account in order to provide the basis for consistent measurements of protein expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2139576

  12. What the nucleolus says to a tumour pathologist.

    PubMed

    Derenzini, Massimo; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide

    2009-05-01

    The importance of nucleolar changes in cancer cells is underestimated in tumour pathology. There is evidence that the nucleolus is the mirror of a series of metabolic changes that characterize cancer cells. Cell entry into the cell cycle is always associated with up-regulation of the nucleolar function and increased nucleolar size, which are also directly dependent on the rapidity of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, alterations of the major tumour suppressor retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 pathways also contribute to the stimulation of nucleolar function and to nucleolar enlargement. High cell growth fraction, high cell growth rate and disruption of the Rb and p53 pathways are responsible for greater aggressiveness of cancer tissues. Therefore, the evaluation of nucleolar size allows one to obtain reliable information on the clinical outcome of the cancer: the greater the nucleolar size, the worse the tumour prognosis. Indeed, a series of studies carried out on numerous human tumours has shown that nucleolar hypertrophy (prominent nucleolus) was an independent predictive and prognostic parameter of a fatal clinical outcome. PMID:19178588

  13. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  14. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  15. Canine Mammary Mixed Tumours: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  16. Tumour-associated eosinophilia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D; Jorizzo, J; Hutt, M S

    1981-01-01

    In a recent study of cervical carcinoma, 13 cases with a marked eosinophil infiltrate around the tumour were found. The histological appearance of the tumours was distinctive and suggested a specific response, similar to the lymphocyte infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast and seminoma. A review of published reports shows that tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) and tumour-associated blood eosinophilia (TABE) may be seen in tumours of different histological types from different anatomical sites, and may occur together or separately. Tumours with TATE alone appear to have a better prognosis that those without, while TABE is associated with tumor spread and a poor prognosis. Images PMID:7035499

  17. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  18. Tumour morphology predicts PALB2 germline mutation status

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Z L; Provenzano, E; Dite, G S; Park, D J; Apicella, C; Sawyer, S D; James, P A; Mitchell, G; Trainer, A H; Lindeman, G J; Shackleton, K; Cicciarelli, L; Buys, S S; Andrulis, I L; Mulligan, A M; Glendon, G; John, E M; Terry, M B; Daly, M; Odefrey, F A; Nguyen-Dumont, T; Giles, G G; Dowty, J G; Winship, I; Goldgar, D E; Hopper, J L; Southey, M C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies of breast cancer have estimated that at least some PALB2 mutations are associated with high breast cancer risk. For women carrying PALB2 mutations, knowing their carrier status could be useful in directing them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies. We sought to determine whether morphological features of breast tumours can predict PALB2 germline mutation status. Methods: Systematic pathology review was conducted on breast tumours from 28 female carriers of PALB2 mutations (non-carriers of other known high-risk mutations, recruited through various resources with varying ascertainment) and on breast tumours from a population-based sample of 828 Australian women diagnosed before the age of 60 years (which included 40 BRCA1 and 18 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Tumour morphological features of the 28 PALB2 mutation carriers were compared with those of 770 women without high-risk mutations. Results: Tumours arising in PALB2 mutation carriers were associated with minimal sclerosis (odds ratio (OR)=19.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.0–64.6; P=5 × 10−7). Minimal sclerosis was also a feature that distinguished PALB2 mutation carriers from BRCA1 (P=0.05) and BRCA2 (P=0.04) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This study identified minimal sclerosis to be a predictor of germline PALB2 mutation status. Morphological review can therefore facilitate the identification of women most likely to carry mutations in PALB2. PMID:23787919

  19. Reduction of fibroblast size/mechanical force down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor: implications for human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gary J; Shao, Yuan; He, Tianyuan; Qin, Zhaoping; Perry, Daniel; Voorhees, John J; Quan, Taihao

    2016-02-01

    The structural integrity of human skin is largely dependent on the quality of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), which is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. Normally, fibroblasts attach to the ECM and thereby achieve stretched, elongated morphology. A prominent characteristic of dermal fibroblasts in aged skin is reduced size, with decreased elongation and a more rounded, collapsed morphology. Here, we show that reduced size of fibroblasts in mechanically unrestrained three-dimensional collagen lattices coincides with reduced mechanical force, measured by atomic force microscopy. Reduced size/mechanical force specifically down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and thus impairs TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Both TβRII mRNA and protein were decreased, resulting in 90% loss of TGF-β binding to fibroblasts. Down-regulation of TβRII was associated with significantly decreased phosphorylation, DNA-binding, and transcriptional activity of its key downstream effector Smad3 and reduced expression of Smad3-regulated essential ECM components type I collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Restoration of TβRII significantly increased TGF-β induction of Smad3 phosphorylation and stimulated expression of ECM components. Reduced expression of TβRII and ECM components in response to reduced fibroblast size/mechanical force was fully reversed by restoring size/mechanical force. Reduced fibroblast size was associated with reduced expression of TβRII and diminished ECM production, in aged human skin. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism that provides a molecular basis for loss of dermal ECM, with concomitant increased fragility, which is a prominent feature of human skin aging. PMID:26780887

  20. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  1. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan.

    PubMed

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  2. Huge Perineal Tumour: A Rare Presentation of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour of Rectum.

    PubMed

    Nahar, K; Salahuddin, G M; Islam, M R; Islam, M S; Quddus, M A; Islam, M A; Debnath, B C

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is a relatively rare neoplasm of gastrointestinal tract of which Rectal GIST is uncommon. It produces symptoms of per rectal bleeding or change in bowel habit. Recurrences following curative resection are predominantly intraabdominal, hepatic metastasis occurring at a median 20-25 months following the primary surgery. A 42 years old male presented a huge mass in hypogastrium, the size of which was reduced ofter neoadjuvant therapy for period of 1.5 years. He underwent abdominoperineal resection. He developed recurrences in perineum three times and in thigh at short intervals after primary resection. He also developed liver metastasis. He died two and half years after primary diagnosis. Rectal GIST should be included in differential diagnosis of intraabdominal mass and preoperative diagnosis based on histopathological as well as the immunohistochemical feature of the CD(117) and CD(34). Although complete surgical resection with negative tumour margin is the principal curative procedure for primary and non metastatic tumours, further studies are still needed for the determination of the most effective treatment strategy for patients of rectal GIST. PMID:27277373

  3. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    PubMed

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  4. Brown tumour of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti P; Gharote, Harshkant P; Thomas, Shaji; R, Guruprasad; Singh, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Brown tumours are classic bony lesions that arise as a result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. They are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteolysis and peritrabecular fibrosis, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. Facial skeleton is involved in about 2% of all cases of which the mandible is frequently affected. A 35-year-old female who was diagnosed with osteomalacia and brown tumour in posterior mandible as the sign of secondary hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency is presented. PMID:22669885

  5. A rare urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

  6. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  7. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. PMID:25525130

  8. Tracking the provenance of Greenland-sourced, Holocene aged, individual sand-sized ice-rafted debris using the Pb-isotope compositions of feldspars and 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblendes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lee F.; Bailey, Ian; Foster, Gavin L.; Allen, Georgina; Kelley, Simon P.; Andrews, John T.; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Storey, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    The provenance of sand-sized ice-rafted debris (IRD) sourced from Greenland is currently difficult to determine. Such knowledge, if it could be ascertained with a high degree of certainty, could be applied to the Greenland-proximal marine records to improve both our understanding of modern-day spatial patterns of iceberg rafting and the past history of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Recent studies have highlighted the utility of the Pb-isotope composition of individual sand-sized feldspars and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized hornblendes in this regard. However, before any such provenance toolkit can be applied to the palaeo-record, it is necessary first to determine whether this approach can be used to track the sources of known recent Greenland-proximal IRD deposition. To this end we present new records of the Pb-isotope composition and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized grains of feldspars and hornblendes, respectively, from modern Greenland glacifluvial and fjord sands and Holocene to modern Greenland-proximal marine sediments. These new data demonstrate that sand-sized feldspars and hornblendes glacially eroded by the GIS exhibit distinct intra- and inter-tectonic terrane differences in their Pb-isotope compositions and ages and that these differences are clearly expressed in the geochemistry and geochronology of sand-sized IRD deposited in marine sediments around Greenland. Although overlap exists between some Greenland-proximal IRD 'source fields' defined by these data, our approach has the potential to both better understand spatial patterns of Greenland-derived IRD in the modern day as well as during past episodes of iceberg calving.

  9. Effects of topography, soil type and forest age on the frequency and size distribution of canopy gap disturbances in a tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, E.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    Treefall gaps are the major source of disturbance in most tropical forests. The frequency and size of these gaps have important implications for forest ecosystem processes as they can influence the functional trait distribution of tree communities, stand-level above-ground biomass and productivity. However, we still know little about the relative importance of environmental drivers of gap disturbance regimes because existing studies vary greatly in criteria used for defining gaps, in the spatial extent of the study area, and the spatial resolution of canopy height measurements. Here we use LiDAR (light detecting and ranging) to explore how forest age, topography and soil type affect canopy disturbance patterns across a 1500 ha tropical forest landscape in central Panama. We characterize disturbance based on the frequency distribution of gap sizes (the "gap size distribution"), and the area of the forest affected by gaps (the "gap area fraction"). We found that slope and forest age had significant effects on the gap size distribution, with a higher frequency of large gaps associated with old-growth forests and more gentle slopes. Slope and forest age had similar effects on the gap area fraction, however gap area fraction was also affected by soil type and by aspect. We conclude that variation in disturbance patterns across the landscape can be linked to factors that act at the fine scale (such as aspect or slope), and factors that show heterogeneity at coarser scales (such as forest age or soil type). Awareness of the role of different environmental factors influencing gap formation can help scale-up the impacts of canopy disturbance on forest communities measured at the plot scale to landscape and regional scales.

  10. Effects of topography, soil type and forest age on the frequency and size distribution of canopy gap disturbances in a tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, E.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-11-01

    Treefall gaps are the major source of disturbance in most tropical forests. The frequency and size of these gaps have important implications for forest ecosystem processes as they can influence the functional trait distribution of tree communities, stand-level aboveground biomass and productivity. However, we still know little about the relative importance of environmental drivers of gap disturbance regimes because existing studies vary greatly in criteria used for defining gaps, in the spatial extent of the study area, and the spatial resolution of canopy height measurements. Here we use lidar (light detecting and ranging) to explore how forest age, topography and soil type affect canopy disturbance patterns across a 1500 ha tropical forest landscape in central Panama. We characterize disturbance based on the frequency distribution of gap sizes (the "gap size distribution"), and the area of the forest affected by gaps (the "gap area fraction"). We found that slope and forest age had significant effects on the gap size distribution, with a higher frequency of large gaps associated with old-growth forests and more gentle slopes. Slope and forest age had similar effects on the gap area fraction, however gap area fraction was also affected by soil type and by aspect. We conclude that variation in disturbance patterns across the landscape can be linked to factors that act at the fine scale (such as aspect or slope), and factors that show heterogeneity at coarser scales (such as forest age or soil type). Awareness of the role of different environmental factors influencing gap formation can help scale up the impacts of canopy disturbance on forest communities measured at the plot scale to landscape and regional scales.

  11. Aging of the reaction mixture as a tool to modulate the crystallite size of UiO-66 into the low nanometer range.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Marco; Dümbgen, Kim Corinna; van Bokhoven, Jeroen Anton; Ranocchiari, Marco

    2016-05-11

    Nanosized UiO-66 with an unprecedented crystallite size of 10 nm was synthesized by exploiting controlled aging of stock solutions of Zr(4+) in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of variable amounts of water and acetic acid prior to the addition of the ligand. The yield of the synthesis is not affected, affording high conversion of the starting reagents into the product. PMID:27091378

  12. The C9orf72 repeat size correlates with onset age of disease, DNA methylation and transcriptional downregulation of the promoter.

    PubMed

    Gijselinck, I; Van Mossevelde, S; van der Zee, J; Sieben, A; Engelborghs, S; De Bleecker, J; Ivanoiu, A; Deryck, O; Edbauer, D; Zhang, M; Heeman, B; Bäumer, V; Van den Broeck, M; Mattheijssens, M; Peeters, K; Rogaeva, E; De Jonghe, P; Cras, P; Martin, J-J; de Deyn, P P; Cruts, M; Van Broeckhoven, C

    2016-08-01

    Pathological expansion of a G4C2 repeat, located in the 5' regulatory region of C9orf72, is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). C9orf72 patients have highly variable onset ages suggesting the presence of modifying factors and/or anticipation. We studied 72 Belgian index patients with FTLD, FTLD-ALS or ALS and 61 relatives with a C9orf72 repeat expansion. We assessed the effect of G4C2 expansion size on onset age, the role of anticipation and the effect of repeat size on methylation and C9orf72 promoter activity. G4C2 expansion sizes varied in blood between 45 and over 2100 repeat units with short expansions (45-78 units) present in 5.6% of 72 index patients with an expansion. Short expansions co-segregated with disease in two families. The subject with a short expansion in blood but an indication of mosaicism in brain showed the same pathology as those with a long expansion. Further, we provided evidence for an association of G4C2 expansion size with onset age (P<0.05) most likely explained by an association of methylation state of the 5' flanking CpG island and expansion size in blood (P<0.0001) and brain (P<0.05). In several informative C9orf72 parent-child transmissions, we identified earlier onset ages, increasing expansion sizes and/or increasing methylation states (P=0.0034) of the 5' CpG island, reminiscent of disease anticipation. Also, intermediate repeats (7-24 units) showed a slightly higher methylation degree (P<0.0001) and a decrease of C9orf72 promoter activity (P<0.0001) compared with normal short repeats (2-6 units). Decrease of transcriptional activity was even more prominent in the presence of small deletions flanking G4C2 (P<0.0001). Here we showed that increased methylation of CpGs in the C9orf72 promoter may explain how an increasing G4C2 size lead to loss-of-function without excluding repeat length-dependent toxic gain-of-function. These data provide insights into

  13. The C9orf72 repeat size correlates with onset age of disease, DNA methylation and transcriptional downregulation of the promoter

    PubMed Central

    Gijselinck, I; Van Mossevelde, S; van der Zee, J; Sieben, A; Engelborghs, S; De Bleecker, J; Ivanoiu, A; Deryck, O; Edbauer, D; Zhang, M; Heeman, B; Bäumer, V; Van den Broeck, M; Mattheijssens, M; Peeters, K; Rogaeva, E; De Jonghe, P; Cras, P; Martin, J-J; de Deyn, P P; Cruts, M; Van Broeckhoven, C

    2016-01-01

    Pathological expansion of a G4C2 repeat, located in the 5' regulatory region of C9orf72, is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). C9orf72 patients have highly variable onset ages suggesting the presence of modifying factors and/or anticipation. We studied 72 Belgian index patients with FTLD, FTLD–ALS or ALS and 61 relatives with a C9orf72 repeat expansion. We assessed the effect of G4C2 expansion size on onset age, the role of anticipation and the effect of repeat size on methylation and C9orf72 promoter activity. G4C2 expansion sizes varied in blood between 45 and over 2100 repeat units with short expansions (45–78 units) present in 5.6% of 72 index patients with an expansion. Short expansions co-segregated with disease in two families. The subject with a short expansion in blood but an indication of mosaicism in brain showed the same pathology as those with a long expansion. Further, we provided evidence for an association of G4C2 expansion size with onset age (P<0.05) most likely explained by an association of methylation state of the 5' flanking CpG island and expansion size in blood (P<0.0001) and brain (P<0.05). In several informative C9orf72 parent–child transmissions, we identified earlier onset ages, increasing expansion sizes and/or increasing methylation states (P=0.0034) of the 5' CpG island, reminiscent of disease anticipation. Also, intermediate repeats (7–24 units) showed a slightly higher methylation degree (P<0.0001) and a decrease of C9orf72 promoter activity (P<0.0001) compared with normal short repeats (2–6 units). Decrease of transcriptional activity was even more prominent in the presence of small deletions flanking G4C2 (P<0.0001). Here we showed that increased methylation of CpGs in the C9orf72 promoter may explain how an increasing G4C2 size lead to loss-of-function without excluding repeat length-dependent toxic gain-of-function. These data provide

  14. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  15. Recombinant T-cell Receptor Ligand RTL1000 Limits inflammation and Decreases Infarct Size after Experimental Ischemic Stroke in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W.; Dotson, A. L.; Libal, N. L.; Lapato, A. S.; Bodhankar, S.; Offner, H.; Alkayed, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that recombinant T-cell receptor ligand 1000 (RTL1000) reduces infarct size and improves long-term functional recovery after experimental stroke in young transgenic mice expressing human leukocyte antigen DR2 (DR2-Tg). In this study, we determined the effect of RTL1000 on infarct size in 12-month old middle-aged DR2-Tg mice, and investigated its mechanism of action. Twelve months old male DR2-Tg mice underwent 60 min of intraluminal reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Vehicle or RTL1000 was injected 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after MCAO. Cortical, striatal and total hemispheric infarcts were measured 96 h after stroke. The spleen and brain tissue were collected 96 h after stroke for immunological analysis. Our data showed that RTL1000 significantly reduced infarct size 96 h after MCAO in middle-aged male DR2-Tg mice. RTL1000 decreased the number of activated monocytes/microglia cells (CD11b+CD45hi) and CD3+ T cells in the ischemic hemisphere. RTL1000 also reduced the percentage of total T cells and inflammatory neutrophils in spleen. These findings suggest that RTL1000 protects against ischemic stroke in middle-aged male mice by limiting post-ischemic inflammation. PMID:25556831

  16. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  17. Solitary fibrous tumour of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Grammatica, A; Bolzoni Villaret, A; Ravanelli, M; Nicolai, P

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, benign, mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but rarely involves other sites outside the serosal space (mediastinum, lung, liver, thyroid gland); larynx involvement is very rare with only sporadic cases reported in the literature. We report a case of SFT in a 41-year-old woman with supraglottic laryngeal invovlement; symptoms included dysphonia and mild odynophagia lasting 2 years, and fibre-optic laryngeal evaluation showed a sub-mucosal mass involving the left supraglottis and medial wall of the pyriform sinus. MRI represents the gold standard tool for differential diagnosis (with schwannoma, paraganglioma and haemangioma) and correct staging, while immunohistochemical and cytomorphologic analysis (bcl-2 and CD34 positivity in 90% of cases) is needed for definitive diagnosis. Surgery is the main treatment (endoscopic and open conservative technique), and its goal is a balance between safe oncological resection and good preservation of laryngeal functions; in this particular case an open laryngeal approach was scheduled due to the size of the tumour. Prognosis is good and in only a few cases (especially in pleural SFT) does the biological behaviour take a malignant course. PMID:27070539

  18. Tumours of the thymus: a cohort study of prognostic factors from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons database

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Enrico; Detterbeck, Frank; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Rocco, Gaetano; Thomas, Pascal; Weder, Walter; Brunelli, Alessandro; Evangelista, Andrea; Venuta, Federico; Khaled, AlKattan; Arame, Alex; Refai, Majed; Casadio, Caterina; Carbognani, Paolo; Cerfolio, Robert; Donati, Giovanni; Foroulis, Christophoros N; Gebitekin, Cengiz; de Antonio, David Gomez; Kernstine, Kemp H; Keshavjee, Shaf; Moser, Bernhard; Lequaglie, Cosimo; Liberman, Moishe; Lim, Eric; Nicholson, Andrew G; Lang-Lazdunski, Loic; Mancuso, Maurizio; Altorki, Nasser; Nosotti, Mario; Novoa, Nuria M; Brioude, Geoffrey; Oliaro, Alberto; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Saita, Salvatore; Scarci, Marco; Schützner, Jan; Terzi, Alberto; Toker, Alper; Van Veer, Hans; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino; Voltolini, Luca; Zurek, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A retrospective database was developed by the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons, collecting patients submitted to surgery for thymic tumours to analyse clinico-pathological prognostic predictors. METHODS A total of 2151 incident cases from 35 institutions were collected from 1990 to 2010. Clinical-pathological characteristics were analysed, including age, gender, associated myasthenia gravis stage (Masaoka), World Health Organization histology, type of thymic tumour [thymoma, thymic carcinoma (TC), neuroendocrine thymic tumour (NETT)], type of resection (complete/incomplete), tumour size, adjuvant therapy and recurrence. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS); secondary outcomes were the proportion of incomplete resections, disease-free survival and the cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR). RESULTS A total of 2030 patients were analysed for OS (1798 thymomas, 191 TCs and 41 NETTs). Ten-year OS was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.69–0.75). Complete resection (R0) was achieved in 88% of the patients. Ten-year CIR was 0.12 (0.10–0.15). Predictors of shorter OS were increased age (P < 0–001), stage [III vs I HR 2.66, 1.80–3.92; IV vs I hazard ratio (HR) 4.41, 2.67–7.26], TC (HR 2.39, 1.68–3.40) and NETT (HR 2.59, 1.35–4.99) vs thymomas and incomplete resection (HR 1.74, 1.18–2.57). Risk of recurrence increased with tumour size (P = 0.003), stage (III vs I HR 5.67, 2.80–11.45; IV vs I HR 13.08, 5.70–30.03) and NETT (HR 7.18, 3.48–14.82). Analysis using a propensity score indicates that the administration of adjuvant therapy was beneficial in increasing OS (HR 0.69, 0.49–0.97) in R0 resections. CONCLUSIONS Masaoka stages III–IV, incomplete resection and non-thymoma histology showed a significant impact in increasing recurrence and in worsening survival. The administration of adjuvant therapy after complete resection is associated with improved survival. PMID:24482389

  19. Tumours of the soft (mesenchymal) tissues.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E

    1974-01-01

    This is a classification of tumours of fibrous tissue, fat, muscle, blood and lymph vessels, and mast cells, irrespective of the region of the body in which they arise. Tumours of fibrous tissue are divided into fibroma, fibrosarcoma (including "canine haemangiopericytoma"), other sarcomas, equine sarcoid, and various tumour-like lesions. The histological appearance of the tumours is described and illustrated with photographs. PMID:4371740

  20. The testicular germ cell tumour transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Alagaratnam, S; Lind, G E; Kraggerud, S M; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2011-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are characterized by young age of onset and a complex pattern of histological subtypes. Transcriptomic studies have tried to uncover the gene expression patterns underlying this. Here, we present a systematic review of transcriptome studies of TGCTs of adolescents and young adults and identify genes common across the various studies, both for TGCTs in general as well as the histological subtypes, hence elucidating both transcriptional changes associated with malignant transformation and differentiation patterns. A meta-analysis of this type adds power and significance to the genes thus found, where most studies have included only a limited number of samples. Both known (KRAS, MYCN and TPD52) and novel (CCT6A, IGFBP3 and SALL2) cancer genes are implicated in TGC tumorigenesis. Gene expression patterns characteristic to embryonic stem cells are also found deregulated in TGC tumorigenesis. This is reflected in how pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells commonly differentiate into a variety of embryonic and extra-embryonic histological types, each with unique transcriptomes. The embryonal carcinomas in particular are found to overexpress pluripotency genes, while gene signatures for seminomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours were also identified. This underlines the distinctive transcriptomic programme across histological subtypes, especially striking given that the TGCT genome is largely similar across the same subtypes. PMID:21651573

  1. Image-based computational quantification and visualization of genetic alterations and tumour heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qing; Rüschoff, Jan H; Guo, Tiannan; Gabrani, Maria; Schüffler, Peter J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Liu, Yansheng; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rupp, Niels J; Fankhauser, Christian; Buhmann, Joachim M; Perner, Sven; Poyet, Cédric; Blattner, Miriam; Soldini, Davide; Moch, Holger; Rubin, Mark A; Noske, Aurelia; Rüschoff, Josef; Haffner, Michael C; Jochum, Wolfram; Wild, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Recent large-scale genome analyses of human tissue samples have uncovered a high degree of genetic alterations and tumour heterogeneity in most tumour entities, independent of morphological phenotypes and histopathological characteristics. Assessment of genetic copy-number variation (CNV) and tumour heterogeneity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (ISH) provides additional tissue morphology at single-cell resolution, but it is labour intensive with limited throughput and high inter-observer variability. We present an integrative method combining bright-field dual-colour chromogenic and silver ISH assays with an image-based computational workflow (ISHProfiler), for accurate detection of molecular signals, high-throughput evaluation of CNV, expressive visualization of multi-level heterogeneity (cellular, inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity), and objective quantification of heterogeneous genetic deletions (PTEN) and amplifications (19q12, HER2) in diverse human tumours (prostate, endometrial, ovarian and gastric), using various tissue sizes and different scanners, with unprecedented throughput and reproducibility. PMID:27052161

  2. Image-based computational quantification and visualization of genetic alterations and tumour heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qing; Rüschoff, Jan H.; Guo, Tiannan; Gabrani, Maria; Schüffler, Peter J.; Rechsteiner, Markus; Liu, Yansheng; Fuchs, Thomas J.; Rupp, Niels J.; Fankhauser, Christian; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Perner, Sven; Poyet, Cédric; Blattner, Miriam; Soldini, Davide; Moch, Holger; Rubin, Mark A.; Noske, Aurelia; Rüschoff, Josef; Haffner, Michael C.; Jochum, Wolfram; Wild, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent large-scale genome analyses of human tissue samples have uncovered a high degree of genetic alterations and tumour heterogeneity in most tumour entities, independent of morphological phenotypes and histopathological characteristics. Assessment of genetic copy-number variation (CNV) and tumour heterogeneity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (ISH) provides additional tissue morphology at single-cell resolution, but it is labour intensive with limited throughput and high inter-observer variability. We present an integrative method combining bright-field dual-colour chromogenic and silver ISH assays with an image-based computational workflow (ISHProfiler), for accurate detection of molecular signals, high-throughput evaluation of CNV, expressive visualization of multi-level heterogeneity (cellular, inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity), and objective quantification of heterogeneous genetic deletions (PTEN) and amplifications (19q12, HER2) in diverse human tumours (prostate, endometrial, ovarian and gastric), using various tissue sizes and different scanners, with unprecedented throughput and reproducibility. PMID:27052161

  3. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 2: Crater Size-frequency Distribution Curves and Geomorphic Unit Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In assessing the relative ages of the geomorphic/geologic units, crater counts of the entire unit or nearly the entire unit were made and summed in order to get a more accurate value than obtainable by counts of isolated sections of each unit. Cumulative size-frequency counts show some interesting relationships. Most of the units show two distinct crater populations with a flattening out of the distribution curve at and below 10 km diameter craters. Above this crater size the curves for the different units diverge most notably. In general, the variance may reflect the relative ages of these units. At times, however, in the larger crater size range, these curves can overlap and cross on another. Also the error bars at these larger sizes are broader (and thus more suspect), since counts of larger craters show more scatter, whereas the unit areas remain constant. Occasional clusters of relatively large craters within a given unit, particularly one of limited areal extent, can affect the curve so that the unit might seem to be older than units which it overlies or cuts.

  4. Brain tumour mortality in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C I; Quinn, A; Brancker, A

    1989-03-01

    All Canadian deaths due to malignant brain tumour for the years 1970-73 were identified and analysed for country of birth. The years 1970-73 were chosen since in later years country of birth was no longer available for each death. The brain tumour population consisted of 1551 male and 1058 female deaths and matched controls were chosen from deaths due to other causes. Americans who died of brain tumour in Canada had a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0 compared to their fellow Americans in the USA. Italian, German, Dutch and British immigrants had SMR between 1.5 and 2.6 compared to rates in their home countries and between 1.24 and 2.09 when compared to Canadian rates. A series of graphs shows the increased risk for male immigrants quite dramatically, and indicates that for females the increases were less pronounced. Further analysis showed that the excess risk is confined to those who were born in Western Europe while their Canadian-born children experienced the same rates as all Canadians. Based on the limited information available, occupation could not be shown to play a role in establishing risk. An attempt was made to pinpoint the years of immigration which showed the greatest risk. It is concluded that the determination of risk of brain tumour has a strong environmental component. The possibilities for identification of this component are discussed. PMID:2722385

  5. Multiple cilia suppress tumour formation.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Primary cilia are cellular structures that have important functions in development and disease. The suppression of multiciliate differentiation of choroid plexus precursors, and maintenance of a single primary cilium by Notch1, is now shown to be involved in choroid plexus tumour formation. PMID:27027488

  6. Tumour vasculature--a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, C. T.; Winslet, M. C.; Bradley, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour vasculature is vital for the establishment, growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Its physiological properties limit the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer strategies. Therapeutic approaches directed at the tumour vasculature are reviewed, suggesting the potential of anti-angiogenesis and the targeting of vascular proliferation antigens as cancer treatments. PMID:7543770

  7. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  8. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  9. Clinical outcome in patients with peripherally‐sited atypical lipomatous tumours and dedifferentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Kalimuthu, Sangeetha N; Tilley, Charles; Forbes, Georgina; Ye, Hongtao; Lehovsky, Katie; Pillay, Nischalan; Seddon, Beatrice M; O'Donnell, Paul; Pollock, Robin; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The reported incidence of local recurrence of peripheral atypical lipomatous tumours is highly variable and is likely to reflect the different inclusion criteria of cases, and the design of previous studies. We aimed to study the incidence of local recurrence of 90 cases of atypical lipomatous tumours and an additional 18 cases of de novo dedifferentiated liposarcoma. All tumours were diagnosed on the basis of MDM2 amplification: all patients had their first treatment in the same specialist sarcoma unit and were followed for a minimum of 60 months. The tumours were diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 and followed until the end of 2014. Seventy cases (78%) of atypical lipomatous tumours were located in the thigh (mean size 195 mm on presentation). Eight atypical lipomatous tumours (8.9%) recurred locally, of which 50% recurred after 60 months. The only two tumours with intralesional excisions recurred. Seven of the eight recurrent tumours were detected by the patient by self‐examination. One case recurred a second time as a dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Seventeen per cent of the de novo dedifferentiated liposarcomas recurred within 60 months of presentation. Extending the study period revealed that atypical lipomatous tumour could recur up to 40 years after the first surgery. Furthermore, of 26 tumours that recurred in the extended study, 27% recurred more than once, and three of the seven that recurred more than once transformed into a dedifferentiated liposarcoma. We recommend that, following post‐operative wound care, patients with atypical lipomatous tumour are referred back to their general practitioner for follow up, but that in the event of a suspected recurrence they have rapid access back to the specialist unit using a ‘supported discharge’ scheme. In the event of an intralesional excision and if a lesion recurs, patients are followed in a specialist unit at regular intervals: whether MRI scanning is a valuable means of monitoring such

  10. A STUDY ON VISUAL LIMITATION OF AGE, NUMERICAL SIZE, AND EXPOSURE TIME WHILE USERS OPERATE MOBILE DEVICES.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Po-Chan

    2015-12-01

    Technological advances have driven the development of information technology (IT) products and communication using mobile devices has become a part of daily life. When using mobile devices, reading time and font size are important communication elements that significantly affect reading performance. However, studies of reading performance in older samples have mainly used printed material or computer monitors; this study examined the performance of users when reading text messages on the interfaces of mobile devices and described their visual limitations. Sixty-two participants took part in the experiment, which involved displaying different font sizes and exposure times. The younger group read 10-point font accurately, while the older group had much worse accuracy, even at 14 points. The younger group correctly read text messages displayed for 0.4 sec. above 80% of the time, while the older group's accuracy was severely impaired even when text was displayed for 1 sec. PMID:26654989

  11. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  12. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  13. [Multifocal Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumours: Genesis, Diagnostics and Treatment].

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, A; Beutel, B; Rinke, A; Rexin, P; Fink, L; Koczulla, R; Bartsch, D K

    2016-02-01

    Multifocal neuroendocrine lung tumour is a rare diagnosis. Multiple lung foci of different sizes are usually apparent on chest CT scans. It is assumed that multifocal neuroendocrine lung tumours originally develop from diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH). This results in cell aggregations formed by proliferation of neuroendocrine cells that are already physiologically present in the bronchial system. If these cell proliferations break through the bronchial basement membrane, they are considered to constitute tumourlets if they measure ≤ 5 mm and carcinoid tumours if they are larger than 5 mm. The speed of proliferation of the cell hyperplasias appears to vary. Many of the patients are completely asymptomatic, the multifocal neuroendocrine lung tumours being diagnosed by chance. However, other patients complain of breathlessness, reduced physical capacity and cough. There may also be reduction of lung function. In these cases, chest HRCT often reveals peribronchial fibrosis or bronchiectasis in addition to the lung foci. Bronchoscopy is usually not helpful. Surgical lung biopsy is considered to be the diagnostic gold standard. Histological examination typically shows a mixture of cell hyperplasias, tumourlets and carcinoid tumours. There is no consensus on the treatment of multifocal neuroendocrine tumours. Taking the clinical situation and the chest HRCT findings as our starting point, we developed a stepwise approach that is guided by the success of the individual therapeutic procedures. The most favourable prognosis is found in affected people without clinical symptoms whose lung foci all measure less than 5 mm. In these cases the 5-year survival rate is over 90 %. PMID:26894394

  14. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; de Craen, Anton J M; Bis, Joshua C; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W K; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jackson, Anne U; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A F; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Montasser, May E; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M; Ryan, Kathy A; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L; Wang, Sophie R; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S; de Geus, Eco J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew P; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M; Rice, Treva K; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Scott, William R; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P Eline; Smit, Jan H; Sparsø, Thomas H; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  15. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  16. Primary Carcinoid Tumour of the Kidney: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Omiyale, Ayodeji O.; Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2013-01-01

    Context. Primary renal carcinoid tumours are rare. Their pathogenesis is unknown and the clinical presentation is similar to other renal tumours thus posing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary renal carcinoids. Methods. Literature was extensively searched for case reports for primary renal carcinoids. Reports of metastatic carcinoids to the kidneys were excluded. Results. Approximately less than 90 cases of primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney have been reported in the literature. A total of 29 cases of primary renal carcinoids were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 48 years (range 29–75) with both right kidney (48.3%) and left kidney (44.8%) being equally affected. 28.6% of the cases reviewed were diagnosed as an incidental finding. The mean followup time was 20 months with 73.1% of patients without evidence of disease after surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy). Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are often well differentiated tumours. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and similar presentation with other renal tumours. Conclusions. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are rare tumours with an indolent course with frequent metastasis. Metastatic work up and followup is required in their management. PMID:23997766

  17. The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wiestler, Otmar D; Cavenee, Webster K; Burger, Peter C; Jouvet, Anne; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Kleihues, Paul

    2007-08-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system, published in 2007, lists several new entities, including angiocentric glioma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, pituicytoma and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. Histological variants were added if there was evidence of a different age distribution, location, genetic profile or clinical behaviour; these included pilomyxoid astrocytoma, anaplastic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. The WHO grading scheme and the sections on genetic profiles were updated and the rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome was added to the list of familial tumour syndromes typically involving the nervous system. As in the previous, 2000 edition of the WHO 'Blue Book', the classification is accompanied by a concise commentary on clinico-pathological characteristics of each tumour type. The 2007 WHO classification is based on the consensus of an international Working Group of 25 pathologists and geneticists, as well as contributions from more than 70 international experts overall, and is presented as the standard for the definition of brain tumours to the clinical oncology and cancer research communities world-wide. PMID:17618441

  18. Fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer depending on fibre source, sex, tumour location and Tumour, Node, Metastasis stage.

    PubMed

    Vulcan, Alexandra; Brändstedt, Jenny; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika

    2015-09-28

    Studies on fibre intake and incident colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate inverse associations. Differences by tumour stage have not been examined. We examined associations between fibre intake and its sources, and incidental CRC. Separate analyses were carried out on the basis of sex, tumour location and the Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) classification. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a population-based cohort study, including individuals aged 45-74 years. Dietary data were collected through a modified diet history method. The TNM classification was obtained from pathology/clinical records and re-evaluated. Among 27 931 individuals (60% women), we found 728 incident CRC cases during 428 924 person-years of follow-up. Fibre intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.026). Concerning colon cancer, we observed borderline interaction between fibre intake and sex (P = 0.052) and significant protective association restricted to women (P(trend) = 0.013). Intake of fruits and berries was inversely associated with colon cancer in women (P(trend) = 0.022). We also observed significant interactions between intakes of fibre (P = 0.048) and vegetables (P = 0.039) and sex on rectal cancer, but no significant associations were seen between intake of fibre, or its sources, in either of the sexes. Except for inverse associations between intake of fibre-rich cereal products and N0- and M0-tumours, we did not observe significant associations with different TNM stages. Our findings suggest different associations between fibre intake and CRC depending on sex, tumour site and fibre source. High fibre intake, especially from fruits and berries, may, above all, prevent tumour development in the colon in women. No clear differences by TNM classification were detected. PMID:26281852

  19. 3.5-D model of sediment age and grain size for the Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (Red Sea) using submarine cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanari, Mor; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tibor, Gideon; Goodman Tchernov, Beverly N.; Bookman, Revital; Taha, Nimer; Marco, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    The Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (NGAE) is the northeast extension of the Red Sea, located at the southernmost part of the Dead Sea Fault, at the transition zone between the deep en-echelon submarine basins of the Red Sea and the shallow continental basins of the Arava Valley (Israel and Jordan). We aim to characterize the top sedimentary cover across the NGAE in order to check the effect of tectonics on the sedimentary column, using high resolution grain size data and radiocarbon dating of core sediments. We analyzed 11 piston cores and 9 short cores: high resolution grain-size and radiocarbon age determinations were used to compile a 3.5-D (3.5 dimensional) model of age-depth-grain size for the top 3-5 meters of the NGAE. Two general trends of the grain size spatial distribution are observed: grains are coarsest at the NE corner of the NGAE (Aqaba coastline) and grow finer with the distance to the west on the shelf and with the distance from shore to the south. Long- and short-term accumulation rates were compiled for the entire NGAE, demonstrating a distinct E-W trend on the shelf and a NNE-SSW trend in the deep basin. The 3.5-D age-depth-grain size model conforms to- and validates the tectonic structure of the shelf detailed by previous authors. We suggest that the impact of tectonic structure of the shelf is highly significant in terms of spatial variations across the shelf, both in age of the sediment and its grain size characteristics. The temporal-spatial distribution of the grain size in the deep basin of the NGAE reveals a correlation between sediment age, dominant grain size and active tectonics: fine-grain, old sediment in the margins (Late Pleistocene, as old as >40 ka on the west margin; Early Holocene, as old as 7.5 ka, on the east margin), and Late Pleistocene sediment farther south from the dominant active diagonal fault which underlies the Elat Canyon. Young coarse sediment is present in the middle of the basin, where most of the active sediment

  20. Relationship between vascularity, age and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrachud, L. M.; Pendleton, N.; Chisholm, D. M.; Horan, M. A.; Schor, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Lung tumours in the elderly show reduced growth potential; impaired angiogenesis may contribute to this phenomenon. Recent studies have suggested that the angiogenic potential of a tumour may be inferred by the vascularity measured in histological sections. The purpose of this study has been to determine whether vascularity is related to age, survival or other clinical parameters in resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A group of 88 consecutive patients with a follow-up period of at least 5 years was selected. The group exhibited a wide age range (37-78 years) and similar survival characteristics to those of the general NSCLC population. Tumour sections were stained with a pan-endothelial antibody (vWF) and vascularity was quantitated, without knowledge of the clinical details, by three methods: highest microvascular density; average microvascular density; and average microvascular volume. The results were analysed by non-parametric statistical tests. A correlation was found between all three methods of quantitation. Vascularity was not associated with age, sex, tumour type, stage, volume, size (TNM-T) nodal status (TNM-N) or survival. However, survival time was generally longer for patients with higher vascularity, reaching borderline significance (P = 0.06) for the average microvascular density values. Higher tumour volume (P = 0.02) and stage (P = 0.05) were associated with lower survival times. Using multivariate survival analysis, tumour volume was the only factor related to survival. We conclude that vascularity is not associated with age and has no significant prognostic value in NSCLC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9374385

  1. Animal models of tumour-associated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kirschstein, Timo; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2016-02-15

    Brain tumours cause a sizeable proportion of epilepsies in adulthood, and actually can be etiologically responsible also for childhood epilepsies. Conversely, seizures are often first clinical signs of a brain tumour. Nevertheless, several issues of brain-tumour associated seizures and epilepsies are far from understood, or clarified regarding clinical consensus. These include both the specific mechanisms of epileptogenesis related to different tumour types, the possible relationship between malignancy and seizure emergence, the interaction between tumour mass and surrounding neuronal networks, and - not least - the best treatment options depending on different tumour types. To investigate these issues, experimental models of tumour-induced epilepsies are necessary. This review concentrates on the description of currently used models, focusing on methodological aspects. It highlights advantages and shortcomings of these models, and identifies future experimental challenges. PMID:26092434

  2. Clinicopathological Profile of Benign Soft Tissue Tumours: A Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chandak, Shruti; Ranjan, Amar; Patel, Mehul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of soft tissue tumours, especially the frequency of benign tumours relative to malignant ones, is nearly impossible to determine accurately. Benign soft tissue tumours outnumber malignant tumours by a wide margin. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to look into the clinicopathological profile of benign soft tissue tumour in terms of hospital incidence of age, sex, site distribution and comparison of histological types of benign soft tissue tumours with other similar studies. Materials and Methods: The operated specimens or biopsy material of benign soft tissue tumours received from January, 2010 to July, 2010 in the Department of Histopathology of our hospital, were studied in detail. Age and sex incidence, site of lesion, clinical features, gross and microscopic appearance were carefully studied. Results: In our study, most common benign soft tissue tumour was lipoma (50.8%) followed by hemangioma (17.5%) which in turn was followed by neurofibroma, angiofibroma & schwannoma. Most common age group for benign soft tissue tumour were 31-40y (27.5%) followed by 21-30y (22.5%). Overall a male predominance was seen with 60.83% in males. The most common site of occurrence of benign soft tissue tumour overall was found to be trunk (25%), followed by upper extremities (21.7%), lower extremities (17.5%) and nose and nasopharynx (10.8%) in that order. Conclusion: With our study, we were able to reassess the clinical profile of soft tissue tumours and their different types with respect to age, sex, site distribution. PMID:25478344

  3. Prediction of tumour response induced by chemotherapy using modelling of CA-125 kinetics in recurrent ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wilbaux, M; Hénin, E; Oza, A; Colomban, O; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Freyer, G; Tod, M; You, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main objective of the present study was to establish the relationships between CA-125 kinetics and tumour size changes during treatment. Methods: The data from the CALYPSO-randomised phase III trial, comparing two platinum-based regimens in recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) patients, was randomly split into a ‘learning data set' to estimate model parameters and a ‘validation data set' to validate model performances. A kinetic–pharmacodynamic semi-mechanistic model was built to describe tumour size and CA-125 kinetics during chemotherapy. The ability of the model to predict tumour response induced by chemotherapy, based on CA-125 values, was assessed. Results: Data from 535 ROC patients were used to model CA-125 kinetics and tumour size changes during the first 513 days after treatment initiation. Using the validated model, we could predict with accuracy the tumour size changes induced by chemotherapy based on the baseline imaging assessment and longitudinal CA-125 values (mean prediction error: 0.3%, mean absolute prediction error: 10.6%). Conclusions: Using a semi-mechanistic model, the dynamic relationships between tumour size changes and CA-125 kinetics induced by chemotherapy were established in ROC patients. A modelling approach allowed CA-125 to be assessed as a biomarker for tumour size dynamics, to predict treatment efficacy for research and clinical purposes. PMID:24556626

  4. Transport of metabolically active bacteria in porous media:the effect of substrate, age, and grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. B.; Bradford, S. A.; Simunek, J.; Vereecken, H.; Klumpp, E.

    2008-12-01

    In our studies we sought to understand the biological processes affecting the microbial transport and retention of metabolically active Pseudomonas putida. To study the role of the metabolic state of the bacteria, we conducted a series of column experiments, varying saturation, substrate concentration, and grain size to help elucidate mechanisms present. Results show a significant difference between the metabolic state in the effluent, under unsaturated conditions, offset by grain-size effects. The presence of substrate appears to influence the breakthrough behavior of these cells in the smaller sand grains. We have also observed that the hydrophobicity of cells change according to their life-cycle. In addition we conducted a simple micro-model experiment, to observe if the cells behavior could be affected by their own motility. The results show that the cells travel with solution, suggesting that the flagella does not significantly contribute to movement through the porous media under these conditions. Furthermore, we monitored the cells in fresh batch solution and filtered solution under the microscope. In this case, we confirmed that during the stationary phase, when the cells are older there is an increased presence of aggregates, contrasting to the cells in the log-phase. There are also very long rod-shaped cells, which appear to undergo a process of cell division. The spatial distribution of these cells was also analyzed. The results indicate there are various mechanisms influencing the retention mechanisms of Pseudomonas putida, which are directly dependent on the metabolic state, substrate presence, and saturation of the porous media. The experimental data were analyzed using a mathematical model under a modified HYDRUS1D.

  5. Tumour-adapted Reduction Mammoplasty – a New (Old) Breast Conserving Strategy: Review

    PubMed Central

    Eichbaum, M.; Dietrich, A.; Reinhard, J.; Steinwasser, R.; Eichbaum, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today over 70 % of patients treated for primary breast carcinoma in certified breast centres are managed with breast conserving surgery. The classical semicircular incision directly above the tumour, though in many cases easily carried out and associated with good cosmetic results, does have limitations. Unsatisfactory aesthetic results often occur when tumour location is unfavourable or when there is unfavourable tumour size relative to breast size. Distortion of the nipple, changes to breast shape and retraction of skin overlying surgical defects can occur. Tumour-adapted reduction mammoplasty/mastopexy or the “modified B technique” offer excellent chances of combining the oncological demands of breast surgery with satisfactory symmetrical cosmetic results. This article reviews a traditional, old operative technique that has been re-embraced in various new forms. PMID:26855438

  6. Haemangioleiomyomatous tumour of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Soorae, A S; Bharucha, H

    1980-01-01

    A case of haemangioleiomyomatous tumour of the lung, occurring as a peripheral, solitary nodule in an asymptomatic 54-year-old man is presented. The tumour was well-demarcated and microscopically it was characterised by the presence of vascular spaces with endothelial, pericytic, and, predominantly, smooth muscle proliferation. Islands of cartilage and slit-like spaces lined by bronchial epithelium make this a hamartomatous lesion of a quite distinctive and unusual variety, which does not fit any of the well-recognised patterns of hamartomas previously described. The long-term prognosis after limited excision is considered to be favourable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7358861

  7. EGFR and microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Guimarães, Maria João; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2013-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor which has been shown to have an important role in human breast cancer. Its role appears to be associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. In order to clarify its role in canine mammary tumours (CMT), 61 malignant neoplasms were studied by using immunohistochemistry, comparing expression of EGFR, microvessel density (MVD) by CD31 immunolabelling and characteristics of tumour aggressiveness. High EGFR immunoexpression was statistically significantly associated with tumour size, tumour necrosis, mitotic grade, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. High CD31 immunoreactivity was statistically significantly associated with tubule formation, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. A positive correlation between EGFR and CD31 immunoexpression (r = 0.843; P < 0.001) was also observed. Results suggest that an over-expression of EGFR may contribute to increased angiogenesis and aggression in malignant CMT, presenting the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors in the context of metastatic disease treatment. PMID:24091029

  8. The clonal origin and clonal evolution of epithelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sergio Britto; Novelli, Marco; Wright, Nicholas A

    2000-01-01

    While the origin of tumours, whether from one cell or many, has been a source of fascination for experimental oncologists for some time, in recent years there has been a veritable explosion of information about the clonal architecture of tumours and their antecedents, stimulated, in the main, by the ready accessibility of new molecular techniques. While most of these new results have apparently confirmed the monoclonal origin of human epithelial (and other) tumours, there are a significant number of studies in which this conclusion just cannot be made. Moreover, analysis of many articles show that the potential impact of such considerations as patch size and clonal evolution on determinations of clonality have largely been ignored, with the result that a number of these studies are confounded. However, the clonal architecture of preneoplastic lesions provide some interesting insights — many lesions which might have been hitherto regarded as hyperplasias are apparently clonal in derivation. If this is indeed true, it calls into some question our hopeful corollary that a monoclonal origin presages a neoplastic habitus. Finally, it is clear, for many reasons, that methods of analysis which involve the disaggregation of tissues, albeit microdissected, are far from ideal and we should be putting more effort into techniques where the clonal architecture of normal tissues, preneoplastic and preinvasive lesions and their derivative tumours can be directly visualized in situ. PMID:10762440

  9. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems. PMID:26515986

  10. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  11. Leiomyosarcoma of the mesentry, a rare mesentric tumour

    PubMed Central

    Sidhic, Abbas K; Ranjith, Mannalakkal; Ali, Karat Parambil Abid; Tej, Pappala Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Absract Leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare with a reported incidence of 1:350,000. So accurate preoperative diagnosis of mesenteric soft tissue tumor is generally difficult. Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumour arising from smoothcell lineage. Mesenteric leiomyosarcoma occurs most commonly in middle-aged individuals. We describe a case of leiomyosarcoma arising from the ileal mesentery in a 33 year old male patient. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic evaluation using immunohistochemical staining. PMID:25576960

  12. Unusual dumbbell tumours of the mediastinum and thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Dalokay; Erdogan, Bulent; Sener, Levent; Sahin, Ekber; Caner, Hakan; Hatipoglu, Ahmet

    2006-11-01

    Due to a lack of large clinical series in the literature of chondrosarcomas and hydatid disease presenting as mediastinal dumbbell tumours, clinicians have limited experience on this topic. We present three unusual cases of dumbbell tumour involving the spinal canal; two patients had chondrosarcoma originating from Th8-Th9 and Th10-Th12; one patient had a hydatid cyst at Th5-Th6. We performed a single-stage combined thoracic-neurosurgical approach in two patients, and a double-staged approach in one patient. During the intraspinal dissection, an operating microscope was used under electrophysiological monitoring. Spinal canal reconstruction was not required for any of the cases. Preoperative knowledge of neuroforaminal extension and the relations between the tumour and adjacent neural-vascular structures is essential to prevent spinal cord damage and plan the surgical approach. In chondrosarcomas, prognosis depends on patient age, histological grade, extent of surgery and response to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In this article, the diagnostic and surgical difficulties of these unusual tumours and current treatment modalities are discussed with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:16857360

  13. Distribution, size and shape of colorectal adenomas as determined by a colonoscopist with a high lesion detection rate: Influence of age, sex and colonoscopy indication

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Johannes L; Okcu, Murat; Preisegger, Karl H

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing attention is focused on polyp-related features that may contribute to the operator-dependent nature of colonoscopy. Few data on polyps are available from high-yield colonoscopies, which may serve as a benchmark for quality control. Objectives Describe regional distribution, histology, size and shape of polyps, and the influence of patient age and gender, in colonoscopies performed by a colonoscopist with high lesion detection rate. Methods Analysis of 698 consecutive patients with diagnostic, screening or surveillance colonoscopies. Results In 704 colonoscopies, 1908 polyps were removed (360 were protruded and 1548 flat; 1313 were hyperplastic, 562 adenomas, 5 serrated adenomas and 8 mixed). There were 232 adenomas in female patients and 343 in male patients; 39% of the adenomas were protruded and 61% were flat. The peak adenoma detection rate (ADR) was 51% in patients beyond age 79 years. Men older than 49 years had a higher ADR than women. In men and women, respectively: 40% and 32% of adenomas were in the right colon, 31% and 22% were in the transverse colon, and 30% and 47% were in the left colon. Beyond age 59 years, the majority of adenomas were in the proximal colon. Conclusions An excess of adenomas in the proximal colon started at age 60 and this was more pronounced in men than in women. In all colonic regions, the majority of adenomas had a shape that was flat and smaller than 6 mm. PMID:27403311

  14. Age and evolution of the lower NW flank of the Hecates Tholus volcano, Mars, based on crater size-frequency distribution on CTX images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Michael, G. G.; Centeno, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) analysis of the lower NW flank of the Hecates Tholus volcano, Elysium volcanic province of Mars, by the use of images acquired by the Context (CTX) instrument on board of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (6 m/pixel in resolution). Previous similar works were focused on the caldera complex of the volcano and some sectors of the lower NW flank. In this study, we analyzed the complete crater population of the main geomorphological units characterizing this sector of the volcano (de Pablo, M.A., Centeno, J.D. [2012]. Journal of Maps 8(3), 208-2014), discarding areas with possible clustering to avoid erroneous results. In total, 16 areas corresponding to 10 geomorphological units were measured and absolute model ages were derived for them. The ages correspond to ages of origin as well as of the end of resurfacing events, depending on the analyzed sector, resulting in some cases in more than one age per area. Our results are in general in agreement with previous works, and establish that the age of the origin of the Hecates Tholus volcano could be at least 3.8 Ga, with possible volcanic eruptions occurring until at least 335 Ma. Glacial events were also dated at 90 Ma, 30 Ma, 16 Ma, and 6 Ma, although it is possible to recognize ages which could also be related to the recent ice ages of Mars, between 2 and 0.4 Ma. Our results allowed us to determine that glacial processes could have been active as far back as 1.4 Ga, with possible events at intermediate ages. We deduced from the resulting ages and our observations on CTX images and the available geomorphological map of the area, that glacial-related processes played an important role in sculpting this flank of the volcano, and the possible level of the glacial sheet at the edge of the main depression of this flank was also deduced, with altitudes ranging between -2035 m and -2490 m, in agreement with the presence of smooth outcrops and roche moutonnées in the

  15. Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several histopathological and clinical features of canine mammary gland tumours have been widely studied from a prognostic standpoint, considerable variations in tumour individual biologic behaviour difficult the definition of accurate prognostic factors. It has been suggested that the malignant behaviour of tumours is the end result of several alterations in cellular physiology that culminate in tumour growth and spread. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine, using a multivariable model, the independent prognostic value of several immunohistochemically detected tumour-associated molecules, such as MMP-9 and uPA in stromal cells and Ki-67, TIMP-2 and VEGF in cancer cells. Results Eighty-five female dogs affected by spontaneous malignant mammary neoplasias were followed up for a 2-year post-operative period. In univariate analysis, tumour characteristics such as size, mode of growth, regional lymph node metastases, tumour cell MIB-1 LI and MMP-9 and uPA expressions in tumour-adjacent fibroblasts, were associated with both survival and disease-free intervals. Histological type and grade were related with overall survival while VEGF and TIMP-2 were not significantly associated with none of the outcome parameters. In multivariable analysis, only a MIB-1 labelling index higher than 40% and a stromal expression of MMP-9 higher than 50% retained significant relationships with poor overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that MMP-9 and Ki-67 are independent prognostic markers of canine malignant mammary tumours. Furthermore, the high stromal expressions of uPA and MMP-9 in aggressive tumours suggest that these molecules are potential therapeutic targets in the post-operative treatment of canine mammary cancer. PMID:23289974

  16. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamed, Amr; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Shirai, Masato; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Wakumoto, Yoshiaki; Tsujimura, Akira; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5) and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5). Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant). The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant). The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103) μm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103) μm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant). In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly smaller in the TRT group (4.93×103 μm2 [range 0.51–14.88×103]) than in the control group (6.08×103 μm2 [0.77–19.97×103]; P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion This is the first study clearly indicating that TRT can decrease visceral fat cell size, which is a key modulator in the metabolic syndrome. However, a short course of TRT could not improve the ICP response in hypogonadal aged male rats. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the exact rationale of TRT on the visceral fat cell. PMID:25767790

  17. Nonlinear modelling of cancer: bridging the gap between cells and tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowengrub, J. S.; Frieboes, H. B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Li, X.; Macklin, P.; Wise, S. M.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    Despite major scientific, medical and technological advances over the last few decades, a cure for cancer remains elusive. The disease initiation is complex, and including initiation and avascular growth, onset of hypoxia and acidosis due to accumulation of cells beyond normal physiological conditions, inducement of angiogenesis from the surrounding vasculature, tumour vascularization and further growth, and invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis. Although the focus historically has been to study these events through experimental and clinical observations, mathematical modelling and simulation that enable analysis at multiple time and spatial scales have also complemented these efforts. Here, we provide an overview of this multiscale modelling focusing on the growth phase of tumours and bypassing the initial stage of tumourigenesis. While we briefly review discrete modelling, our focus is on the continuum approach. We limit the scope further by considering models of tumour progression that do not distinguish tumour cells by their age. We also do not consider immune system interactions nor do we describe models of therapy. We do discuss hybrid-modelling frameworks, where the tumour tissue is modelled using both discrete (cell-scale) and continuum (tumour-scale) elements, thus connecting the micrometre to the centimetre tumour scale. We review recent examples that incorporate experimental data into model parameters. We show that recent mathematical modelling predicts that transport limitations of cell nutrients, oxygen and growth factors may result in cell death that leads to morphological instability, providing a mechanism for invasion via tumour fingering and fragmentation. These conditions induce selection pressure for cell survivability, and may lead to additional genetic mutations. Mathematical modelling further shows that parameters that control the tumour mass shape also control its ability to invade. Thus, tumour morphology may serve as a predictor of

  18. Nonlinear modelling of cancer: bridging the gap between cells and tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lowengrub, J S; Frieboes, H B; Jin, F; Chuang, Y-L; Li, X; Macklin, P; Wise, S M; Cristini, V

    2010-01-01

    Despite major scientific, medical and technological advances over the last few decades, a cure for cancer remains elusive. The disease initiation is complex, and including initiation and avascular growth, onset of hypoxia and acidosis due to accumulation of cells beyond normal physiological conditions, inducement of angiogenesis from the surrounding vasculature, tumour vascularization and further growth, and invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis. Although the focus historically has been to study these events through experimental and clinical observations, mathematical modelling and simulation that enable analysis at multiple time and spatial scales have also complemented these efforts. Here, we provide an overview of this multiscale modelling focusing on the growth phase of tumours and bypassing the initial stage of tumourigenesis. While we briefly review discrete modelling, our focus is on the continuum approach. We limit the scope further by considering models of tumour progression that do not distinguish tumour cells by their age. We also do not consider immune system interactions nor do we describe models of therapy. We do discuss hybrid-modelling frameworks, where the tumour tissue is modelled using both discrete (cell-scale) and continuum (tumour-scale) elements, thus connecting the micrometre to the centimetre tumour scale. We review recent examples that incorporate experimental data into model parameters. We show that recent mathematical modelling predicts that transport limitations of cell nutrients, oxygen and growth factors may result in cell death that leads to morphological instability, providing a mechanism for invasion via tumour fingering and fragmentation. These conditions induce selection pressure for cell survivability, and may lead to additional genetic mutations. Mathematical modelling further shows that parameters that control the tumour mass shape also control its ability to invade. Thus, tumour morphology may serve as a predictor of

  19. Giant cell tumours in fingers among the Inuit population in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Duelund, Nick; Hougaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Objective Giant cell tumours (GCTs) of the tendon sheets in fingers are rare. We therefore find it of interest to report on 5 cases identified in the Inuit population in Greenland within 16 months prior to this study. Material and methods The Inuit account for 56,000 people of the total population in Greenland. From November 2010 to 16 months prior to this study, we diagnosed 5 cases (0.6% of all orthopaedic operations) with a GCT of the flexor tendon sheet of a finger. The patients were aged between 10 and 54 years, and 4 were women. All of them had noticed slow-growing tumours over 3 or more years and were referred for a suspected ganglion. Results In two cases, the tumour was located at the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in the thumb and in one case at the third finger. Two other patients had tumours at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the third finger and the thumb, respectively; one of these two had a communicating tumour to the DIP joint. The last patient had two tumours on the same finger, one at the MCP joint and the other at the DIP joint. In one case, the tumour had also eroded the cortex of the first phalanx of the thumb, and the largest tumour measured 5 cm. Conclusion GCTs of the flexor tendon sheets in fingers are rare. It could be a coincidence that we have seen 5 cases within a short period of time. It is not possible to identify past cases through a register. A tumour in a finger is not the most common location for a ganglion, especially not at the DIP level. Therefore, a large tumour at this location is more likely to be a GCT. PMID:27052154

  20. Complement factor H genetic variant and age-related macular degeneration: effect size, modifiers and relationship to disease subtype

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Reecha; Casas, Juan P; Webster, Andrew R; Bird, Alan C; Mann, Samantha S; Yates, John RW; Moore, Anthony T; Sepp, Tiina; Cipriani, Valentina; Bunce, Catey; Khan, Jane C; Shahid, Humma; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Branham, Kari E H; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Bergen, Arthur A; Klaver, Caroline CW; Baas, Dominique C; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Yuhong; Gibbs, Daniel; Weber, Bernhard H F; Keilhauer, Claudia N; Fritsche, Lars G; Lotery, Andrew; Cree, Angela J; Griffiths, Helen L; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Chen, Li L; Jenkins, Sharon A; Peto, Tunde; Lathrop, Mark; Leveillard, Thierry; Gorin, Michael B; Weeks, Daniel E; Ortube, Maria Carolina; Ferrell, Robert E; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Conley, Yvette P; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan H; Soubrane, Gisele; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Tomazzoli, Laura; Young, Ian; Whittaker, John; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Smeeth, Liam; Fletcher, Astrid; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2012-01-01

    Background Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case–control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking. Methods To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, ‘Y402H’) with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26 494 individuals, including 14 174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene–smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry. Results In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–2.45; P = 1.1 x 10−161]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies. Conclusion The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association. PMID:22253316

  1. Male dominance linked to size and age, but not to 'good genes' in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alain; Nusslé, Sébastien; Britschgi, Adrian; Evanno, Guillaume; Müller, Rudolf; Wedekind, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Background Males that are successful in intra-sexual competition are often assumed to be of superior quality. In the mating system of most salmonid species, intensive dominance fights are common and the winners monopolise most mates and sire most offspring. We drew a random sample of mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two wild populations and determined their dominance hierarchy or traits linked to dominance. The fish were then stripped and their sperm was used for in vitro fertilisations in two full-factorial breeding designs. We recorded embryo viability until hatching in both experiments, and juvenile survival during 20 months after release into a natural streamlet in the second experiment. Since offspring of brown trout get only genes from their fathers, we used offspring survival as a quality measure to test (i) whether males differ in their genetic quality, and if so, (ii) whether dominance or traits linked to dominance reveal 'good genes'. Results We found significant additive genetic variance on embryo survival, i.e. males differed in their genetic quality. Older, heavier and larger males were more successful in intra-sexual selection. However, neither dominance nor dominance indicators like body length, weight or age were significantly linked to genetic quality measured as embryo or juvenile survival. Conclusion We found no evidence that females can improve their offspring's genetic viability by mating with large and dominant males. If there still were advantages of mating with dominant males, they may be linked to non-genetic benefits or to genetic advantages that are context dependent and therefore possibly not revealed under our experimental conditions – even if we found significant additive genetic variation for embryo viability under such conditions. PMID:17974038

  2. Re-evaluation of Pleistocene and Holocene long bone robusticity trends with regards to age-at-death estimates and size standardization procedures.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Lukáš; Eisová, Stanislava; Holliday, Trenton W

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in robusticity of lower limb bones in the genus Homo through the Pleistocene until the present have been proposed, which have been interpreted as a consequence of decreasing levels of mobility and activity patterns, changes in lifestyle, and environmental factors. There has also long been evidence that skeletal strength increases over an individual's lifespan. This increase is caused by continuous bone remodeling that optimizes the structure of a bone to resist mechanical loadings and creates a balance between endosteal resorption and subperiosteal apposition. However, none of the previous studies of temporal trends in robusticity has considered both processes and analyzed how individual age-related robusticity might influence higher-level temporal trends. This paper therefore explores temporal trends in robusticity of lower limb long bones within the genus Homo and considers how individual ages-at-death can confound published evolutionary trends, given the fact that some aspects of relative bone strength tend to increase over individual lifespans. Cross-sectional diaphyseal properties of the midshaft and proximal femur and midshaft tibia of Pleistocene and early Holocene individuals, together with data on age-at-death are used to analyze changes in relative bone strength relative to individuals' ages and evolutionary time. The results show increasing bone strength in adulthood until the fourth decade and then a slight decrease, an observation that conforms to previously published results on recent human populations. However, no significant impact of age-at-death on the trends along an evolutionary trajectory has been detected. The evolutionary trends in femoral and tibial relative strength can be described as fluctuating, probably as a consequence of changing mobility patterns, environmentally and technologically influenced behaviors, and demographic processes. The differences between evolutionary trends published in several studies are explained

  3. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ghert, Michelle; Deheshi, Benjamin; Holt, Ginger; Randall, R Lor; Ferguson, Peter; Wunder, Jay; Turcotte, Robert; Werier, Joel; Clarkson, Paul; Damron, Timothy; Benevenia, Joseph; Anderson, Megan; Gebhardt, Mark; Isler, Marc; Mottard, Sophie; Healey, John; Evaniew, Nathan; Racano, Antonella; Sprague, Sheila; Swinton, Marilyn; Bryant, Dianne; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Limb salvage with endoprosthetic reconstruction is the standard of care for the management of lower-extremity bone tumours in skeletally mature patients. The risk of deep postoperative infection in these procedures is high and the outcomes can be devastating. The most effective prophylactic antibiotic regimen remains unknown, and current clinical practice is highly varied. This trial will evaluate the effect of varying postoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of deep infection following surgical excision and endoprosthetic reconstruction of lower-extremity bone tumours. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial, using a parallel two-arm design. 920 patients 15 years of age or older from 12 tertiary care centres across Canada and the USA who are undergoing surgical excision and endoprosthetic reconstruction of a primary bone tumour will receive either short (24 h) or long (5 days) duration postoperative antibiotics. Exclusion criteria include prior surgery or infection within the planned operative field, known colonisation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus at enrolment, or allergy to the study antibiotics. The primary outcome will be rates of deep postoperative infections in each arm. Secondary outcomes will include type and frequency of antibiotic-related adverse events, patient functional outcomes and quality-of-life scores, reoperation and mortality. Randomisation will be blocked, with block sizes known only to the methods centre responsible for randomisation, and stratified by location of tumour and study centre. Patients, care givers and a Central Adjudication Committee will be blinded to treatment allocation. The analysis to compare groups will be performed using Cox regression and log-rank tests to compare survival functions at α=0.05. Ethics and dissemination This study has ethics approval from the McMaster University

  4. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  5. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10-15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  6. Tumours of the liver and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarkov, V.; Mackey, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    In this histological classification of liver and gall bladder tumours the tumour types largely correspond to those found in man. The most common tumours in this group are liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086149

  7. The occurrence of intracranial rhabdoid tumours in mice depends on temporal control of Smarcb1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Richer, Wilfrid; Fréneaux, Paul; Chauvin, Céline; Lucchesi, Carlo; Guillemot, Delphine; Grison, Camille; Lequin, Delphine; Pierron, Gaelle; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Nicolas, André; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stéphanie; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Ayrault, Olivier; Surdez, Didier; Delattre, Olivier; Bourdeaut, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours (RTs) are highly aggressive tumours of infancy, frequently localized in the central nervous system (CNS) where they are termed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) and characterized by bi-allelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumour suppressor gene. In this study, by temporal control of tamoxifen injection in Smarcb1flox/flox;Rosa26-CreERT2 mice, we explore the phenotypes associated with Smarcb1 inactivation at different developmental stages. Injection before E6, at birth or at 2 months of age recapitulates previously described phenotypes including embryonic lethality, hepatic toxicity or development of T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Injection between E6 and E10 leads to high penetrance tumours, mainly intra-cranial, with short delays (median: 3 months). These tumours demonstrate anatomical, morphological and gene expression profiles consistent with those of human AT/RTs. Moreover, intra- and inter-species comparisons of tumours reveal that human and mouse RTs can be split into different entities that may underline the variety of RT cells of origin. PMID:26818002

  8. Increased concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in "cachectic" patients with severe chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, J; Abdullah, I; Dargie, H J; Shapiro, D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To ascertain whether patients with cardiac failure and reduced body weight ("cardiac cachexia") have increased circulating concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (cachectin). DESIGN--Patients with cardiac failure were prospectively identified as "cachectic" (body fat less than 27% in men and less than 29% in women measured by skinfold thickness callipers) or "non-cachectic". Tumour necrosis factor was assayed blind to patient group. SETTING--Cardiology unit in a tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--26 consecutive patients (10 women) (mean age 61) admitted for investigation or treatment of chronic heart failure. All were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. RESULTS--In nine of the 16 cachectic patients the concentration of tumour necrosis factor was increased (mean (SEM) 74 (20) pg/ml) compared with one of the 10 "non-cachectic" patients (22 pg/ml, p less than 0.001). Patients with a raised circulating concentration of tumour necrosis factor weighed significantly less (55.6 (3.5) kg) than those in whom the concentration of tumour necrosis factor was normal (69.0 (4.1) kg) (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS--Circulating concentrations of tumour necrosis factor were increased in a significant proportion of patients with chronic heart failure and low body weight. Tumour necrosis factor stimulates catabolism experimentally and it may be a factor in the weight loss seen in patients with "cardiac cachexia". PMID:1747295

  9. Effects of tumour cells on angiogenesis and vasoconstrictor responses in sponge implants in mice.

    PubMed

    Andrade, S P; Bakhle, Y S; Hart, I; Piper, P J

    1992-11-01

    The effects of tumour cells (Colon 26) on the development and response of new blood vessels to different vasoconstrictors (platelet activating factor; PAF, endothelin-1, angiotensin II, adrenalin and 5-hydroxytryptamine) have been investigated. Sponge implants in mice were used to host tumour cells while washout of 133Xe was employed to assess local blood flow in the implanted sponges. By 14 days after implantation the response of vessels in tumour-bearing implants to the various vasoconstrictors generally was decreased compared to that obtained in control sponge implants or adjacent normal skin. Thus at this time point the t1/2 for 133Xe washout from control sponges treated with adrenalin (0.5 micrograms) was 30 +/- 4 min whereas in tumour-bearing sponges it was 5 +/- 1 min. This decreased sensitivity in tumour vessels was probably not due to a complete lack of contractile elements since actin was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry around blood vessels in both types of implant. The results of the present study have shown that the pharmacological responses of blood vessels in a growing tumour, Colon 26, differed from the responses of vessels of a similar age in non-neoplastic tissue. These results appear to suggest that the different angiogenic stimuli released from tumour tissue may markedly influence pharmacological reactivity of newly formed blood vessels. PMID:1384642

  10. Deletion of Mbtps1 (Pcsk8, S1p, Ski-1) Gene in Osteocytes Stimulates Soleus Muscle Regeneration and Increased Size and Contractile Force with Age.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jeff P; Huffman, Nichole T; Vallejo, Julian; Brotto, Leticia; Chittur, Sridar V; Breggia, Anne; Stern, Amber; Huang, Jian; Mo, Chenglin; Seidah, Nabil G; Bonewald, Lynda; Brotto, Marco

    2016-02-26

    Conditional deletion of Mbtps1 (cKO) protease in bone osteocytes leads to an age-related increase in mass (12%) and in contractile force (30%) in adult slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL) with no effect on fast twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles. Surprisingly, bone from 10-12-month-old cKO animals was indistinguishable from controls in size, density, and morphology except for a 25% increase in stiffness. cKO SOL exhibited increased expression of Pax7, Myog, Myod1, Notch, and Myh3 and 6-fold more centralized nuclei, characteristics of postnatal regenerating muscle, but only in type I myosin heavy chain-expressing cells. Increased expression of gene pathways mediating EGF receptor signaling, circadian exercise, striated muscle contraction, and lipid and carbohydrate oxidative metabolism were also observed in cKO SOL. This muscle phenotype was not observed in 3-month-old mice. Although Mbtps1 mRNA and protein expression was reduced in cKO bone osteocytes, no differences in Mbtps1 or cre recombinase expression were observed in cKO SOL, explaining this age-related phenotype. Understanding bone-muscle cross-talk may provide a fresh and novel approach to prevention and treatment of age-related muscle loss. PMID:26719336

  11. [Size and age structure of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Pisces: Xiphidae), at Cabo San Lucas, Baja California sur, México].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Felipe Neri Melo; Uraga, Roberto Felix

    2004-12-01

    The striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) is found in temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. It is particularly abundant in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula. Specimens brought to Cabo San Lucas port (22 degrees 53' N y 109 degrees 54' W) by the sport fishery fleet that operates withing a radius of 54 km from 1988 to 1993 were sexes, measured and weighed. A total 1030 individuals were sampled. Dorsal fin spines (389) were collected for age estimation. The spines were sectioned and hyaline-opaque bands counted. The relation of length to spine radius was similar for males and females. The fourth dorsal spine reflected the growth of the fish. The rhythm of growth mark formation is yearly and related to the sea surface temperature. Ten age groups were found and the seventh group was the most abundant, followed by groups "6" and "8". The age structure of the striped marlin was stable in the study period. The observed sizes were 160-280 cm jaw length with 90% of the organisms measuring between 190 and 225 cm. The small individuals recruit to the fishery from June to December. PMID:17354410

  12. Intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of vasoproliferative retinal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, C; Damato, B; Kumar, I; Heimann, H

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of retinal vasoproliferative tumours (VPT). Materials and Methods Six eyes of 6 patients with VPT who received intravitreal bevacizumab were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received between one and three injections of intravitreal bevacizumab depending upon response to treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), tumour size, and presence of co-pathology or sequelae were noted pre- and postoperatively and then analysed. Subsequent retreatments were performed in patients with recurrent or persistent VPT according to the ophthalmologist's discretion. Retreatments included photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy, or endoresection of tumour. Results The mean follow-up duration was 33.3 months (range 10–66 months). At baseline, the mean logMAR BCVA was 1.45 (Snellen equivalent of 6/165); range 0.10–1.90 (6/8—CF). Following bevacizumab treatment the mean logMAR BCVA was 0.98 (Snellen equivalent of 6/57); range 0.5–1.9 (Snellen equivalent of 6/19 to CF). Therefore, there was no statistically significant change in visual acuity. The mean tumour thickness reduced from 2.4 to 2.1 mm following treatment with bevacizumab. However, this did not reach the statistical significance of P<0.05. Despite the visual improvement following bevacizumab therapy, five out of six patients had recurrence of tumour activity during the follow-up period and required further intervention in order to achieve sustained regression. Conclusions Intravitreal bevacizumab appeared to result in temporary reduction of tumour thickness in 3 out of 6 VPT patients. However, neither the reduction in tumour thickness nor the change in visual acuity were statistically significant and intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy had limited effectiveness in causing long-term regression of the lesions. Additional therapy was indicated in five out of six patients to establish long-term regression

  13. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  14. Tumour angiogenesis-Origin of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, S; Nagare, R P; Sneha, V S; Sidhanth, C; Bindhya, S; Manasa, P; Ganesan, T S

    2016-08-15

    The conventional view of tumour vascularization is that tumours acquire their blood supply from neighbouring normal stroma. Additional methods of tumour vascularization such as intussusceptive angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, vessel co-option and vasculogenesis have been demonstrated to occur. However, the origin of the endothelial cells and pericytes in the tumour vasculature is not fully understood. Their origin from malignant cells has been shown indirectly in lymphoma and neuroblastoma by immuno-FISH experiments. It is now evident that tumours arise from a small population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour initiating cells. Recent data suggest that a proportion of tumour endothelial cells arise from cancer stem cells in glioblastoma. This was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells showed identical genetic changes to those identified in tumour cells. However, another report contradicted these results from the earlier studies in glioblastoma and had shown that CSCs give rise to pericytes and not endothelial cells. The main thrust of this review is the critical analysis of the conflicting data from different studies and the remaining questions in this field of research. The mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is also discussed in detail. The transdifferentiation of CSCs to endothelial cells/pericytes has many implications in the progression and metastasis of the tumours and hence it would be a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26934471

  15. Epidemiology of childhood brain tumours in Yorkshire, UK, 1974-95: geographical distribution and changing patterns of occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, P. A.; Parslow, R. C.; Lane, S. A.; Bailey, C. C.; Lewis, I.; Picton, S.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    From a high-quality population-based register of children with cancer, 455 cases diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) tumours were analysed to examine patterns of occurrence and geographical distribution. There was a significant increase of 1.8% (95% CI 0.5-3.1, P < 0.01) in average annual incidence for all CNS tumours, mainly accounted for by a 3.1% rise (95% CI 0.1-6.1, P < 0.05) in primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) over the 22-year period 1974-95. These increases were not explained by an increase in the proportion of histologically verified tumours. In the most recent time period (1986-95), astrocytomas occurred more commonly than previously in 0 to 4-year olds. Geographical differences in incidence were evident at a large scale, between counties, for all tumours and astrocytomas, with lower rates in the most urbanized areas. At the level of census district and electoral wards, no association between incidence of CNS tumours and socioeconomic group, person-based population density or ethnicity was observed using Poisson regression modelling. Based on small-scale census geography, the patterns of distribution of CNS tumours do not suggest strong associations with geographical determinants of risk. This study finds a rising incidence of all CNS tumours and particularly primitive neuroectodermal tumours and shows that astrocytomas appear to be occurring at a younger age, most probably because of improved diagnosis with non-invasive technology. PMID:9764594

  16. Tumour promotion versus tumour suppression in chronic hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E

    2015-06-01

    Although iron-catalysed oxidative damage is presumed to be a major mechanism of injury leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hemochromatosis, these events have been difficult to recapitulate in an animal model. In this study, we evaluated regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis in a rodent model of chronic iron overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were iron loaded with iron dextran over 6 months. Livers were harvested and analysed for markers of oxidative stress, as well as the following proteins: p53, murine double minute 2, the Shc proteins p66, p52, p46; β-catenin, CHOP, C/EBPα and Yes-associated protein. In this model, iron loading is associated with hepatocyte proliferation, and indices of oxidative damage are mildly increased in tandem with augmented antioxidant defenses. Alterations potentially favouring carcinogenesis included a modest but significant decrease in p53 levels and increases in p52, p46 and β-catenin levels compared with control livers. Countering these factors, the iron-loaded livers demonstrated a significant decrease in CHOP, which has recently been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as a reciprocal increase in C/EBPα and decrease in Yes-associated protein. Our results suggest that chronic iron overload elicits both tumour suppressive as well as tumour-promoting mechanisms in rodent liver. PMID:26059599

  17. Critical evaluation of the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Becker, T; Buchner, A; Kaffe, I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological and clinical features of adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (AOTs). Methods A total of 272 cases (267 from the English-language literature and 5 new cases) were analysed with special emphasis on their radiological features. Results The patients' ages at time of diagnosis ranged from 3 years to 82 years (mean 18.4 years). The maxilla-to-mandible ratio was 1.7:1. Mandibular lesions were significantly more frequent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.032). Expansion of the cortex was significantly more prominent among patients older than 16 years (p = 0.045). There was a positive correlation between the size of the lesion and the age of the patient at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.016). The size was also associated with increased root resorption (p < 0.001), ill-defined borders (p < 0.001), expansion (p < 0.001) and perforation of the cortex (p < 0.001). Small opacities were present in 77% of lesions and were associated with expansion of the cortex (p = 0.043). The significant radiological features in patients aged 30 years and above were root resorption (p = 0.013) and lesions crossing the midline (p = 0.019). Conclusions The size of an AOT is influenced by the patient's age. It is also associated with root resorption, ill-defined borders, expansion and perforation of the cortex, but it cannot be ruled out that those changes reflect a longer duration of the lesion. PMID:22752319

  18. [Pancreatic tumour in a child].

    PubMed

    Schouenborg Schultz, Thea; Thyssen Vestergaard, Esben

    2014-07-28

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom in children and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) has a prevalence of 8.4% in childhood. In 90-95% of RAPs no organic disease is identified. Thus, it is important that the few of somatic origin are diagnosed. We describe a case concerning a 12-year-old girl, diagnosed with a solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas. The symptoms were RAP and postprandial vomiting. The purpose of this article is to increase the knowledge of "alarm findings" indicating an organic disease in children with RAP. PMID:25292323

  19. Expression of the Wilms' tumour gene WT1 in the developing human and in paediatric renal tumours: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Charles, A. K.; Mall, S.; Watson, J.; Berry, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: The Wilms' tumour gene (WT1) product is expressed during the development of the urogenital system. This study was undertaken to evaluate four anti-WT1 antibodies and use the most specific one to examine the expression of WT1 in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues from human embryos, fetuses, and paediatric renal neoplasms. METHODS: The antibodies were assessed on paraffin sections of fetal kidney and by western blotting. Immunohistochemical techniques were optimised and performed on a range of embryonic, fetal, and infant tissues from 35 days post-conception to three months of age, and on a selection of paediatric renal neoplasms. RESULTS: The antibodies tested were found to vary in their specificity. Anomalous expression in smooth muscle was seen with one batch of a commercial polyclonal antibody. WT1 protein was detected in both the metanephros and the mesonephros, the spleen, the gonads, and in the peritoneal mesothelium in fetuses. WT1 was expressed in nuclei and was strongest in the podocytes of fetal kidney. The podocytes of infant glomeruli were also positive. There was focal positive staining in Wilms' tumours, nephrogenic rests, and in a cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma. Staining of nuclei was seen in one of two rhabdoid tumours of the kidney. No positive staining was seen in other renal tumours. CONCLUSIONS: WT1 is detected readily in formalin fixed material. There were differences in specificity between batches of the polyclonal antibodies used. The distribution of the WT1 gene product in tissues and tumours reflected previous findings with in situ hybridisation studies of WT1 mRNA. Images PMID:9292148

  20. Fine-Tuning of PI3K/AKT Signalling by the Tumour Suppressor PTEN Is Required for Maintenance of Flight Muscle Function and Mitochondrial Integrity in Ageing Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Lawrence B.; Davison, Claire; Fan, Shih-Jung; Morris, John F.; Goberdhan, Deborah C. I.; Wilson, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), acting primarily through the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT kinase signalling cassette, plays key evolutionarily conserved regulatory roles in nutrient homeostasis, growth, ageing and longevity. The dysfunction of this pathway has been linked to several age-related human diseases including cancer, Type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear whether minor defects in IIS can independently induce the age-dependent functional decline in cells that accompany some of these diseases or whether IIS alters the sensitivity to other aberrant signalling. We identified a novel hypomorphic allele of PI3K’s direct antagonist, Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (Pten), in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Adults carrying combinations of this allele, Pten5, combined with strong loss-of-function Pten mutations exhibit subtle or no increase in mass, but are highly susceptible to a wide range of stresses. They also exhibit dramatic upregulation of the oxidative stress response gene, GstD1, and a progressive loss of motor function that ultimately leads to defects in climbing and flight ability. The latter phenotype is associated with mitochondrial disruption in indirect flight muscles, although overall muscle structure appears to be maintained. We show that the phenotype is partially rescued by muscle-specific expression of the Bcl-2 homologue Buffy, which in flies, maintains mitochondrial integrity, modulates energy homeostasis and suppresses cell death. The flightless phenotype is also suppressed by mutations in downstream IIS signalling components, including those in the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, suggesting that elevated IIS is responsible for functional decline in flight muscle. Our data demonstrate that IIS levels must be precisely regulated by Pten in adults to maintain the function of the highly metabolically active indirect flight muscles

  1. Nuclear medicine in the detection, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kjell; Eriksson, Barbro

    2005-06-01

    Carcinoid tumours belong to the family of neuroendocrine tumours with a capacity to take up and concentrate amines and precursors as well as peptides, and can thereby be detected by nuclear medicine techniques. These rare tumours are difficult to diagnose at earlier stages because of small size and multiplicity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are mostly of benefit for detection of larger primary tumours (1-3 cm) and liver and lymph-node metastases. A majority of carcinoid tumours express somatostatin receptors, particularly receptor type 2, and thus somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) can be used for detection and staging of carcinoid tumours. The detection rate of carcinoid tumours has been reported to be somewhere between 80 and 100% in different studies. The scintigraphy gives a good staging of the disease and detection of unexpected tumour sites, which were not determined by conventional imaging. This method also indicates content of somatostatin receptors, which might indicate efficacy of treatment with octreotide or other somatostatin analogues. Another new non-invasive technique for detection of carcinoid tumours is positron emission tomography (PET). The biological substance for study can be labelled for radioactive imaging with radionuclears, such as (11)C, (15)O and (18)F, with emission of positrons. More than 95% of patients studied displayed high tracer uptake from PET with (11)C-5HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan), which is significantly higher compared to both computer tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. MIBG has been used for decades to visualize carcinoid tumours, because MIBG is concentrated in the endocrine cells. It was initially developed to detect phaeochromocytomas of the adrenal with reported high sensitivity (87%) and specificity as high as 99%. The method can be used when other methods fail to localize carcinoid tumours and particularly when treatment with (131)I-MIBG is being considered. Tumour

  2. Tumour ablation: current role in the kidney, lung and bone.

    PubMed

    Gillams, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rapid expansion in the use and availability of ablation techniques with hundreds of papers published. Radiofrequency remains the front-runner in terms of cost, ease of set-up, versatility and flexibility but other techniques are catching up. Ablation with cryotherapy and microwave, which were previously only available at open laparotomy due to the large size of the probes, are now readily performed percutaneously, with a predictable reduction in morbidity. Ablation is now accepted as the first line of treatment in patients with limited volume hepatocellular carcinoma who are not candidates for transplantation. There is continuing debate in most other areas but the evidence is increasing for an important role in liver metastases, renal carcinoma, inoperable lung tumours and some bone tumours. PMID:19965298

  3. Estimated incidence rate and distribution of tumours in 4,653 cases of archival submissions derived from the Dutch golden retriever population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A genetic predisposition for certain tumour types has been proven for some dog breeds. Some studies have suggested that this may also be true for the Golden retriever breed. The present study aimed to examine a possible existence of a tumour (type) predisposition in the Dutch population of Golden retrievers by evaluating annual estimated incidence rates compared to incidence rates from previous publications. A second aim was to evaluate whether incidences of various tumours differed as related to the diagnostic method chosen, being either cytology or histology. Results Tumours submitted to Utrecht University during the period 1998–2004 diagnosed either by means of cytology (n = 2,529) or histology (n = 2,124), were related to an average annual Dutch kennel club population of 29,304 Golden retrievers. Combining individual tumours from both the cytological and the histopathological data-set resulted in an annual estimated incidence rate of 2,242 for 100,000 dog-years at risk regarding tumour development in general. The most common cytological tumor diagnoses were ‘fat, possibly lipoma’ (35%), mast cell tumour (21%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10%). The most commonly diagnosed tumours by histology were mast cell tumour (26%), soft tissue sarcomas (11%) and melanoma (8%). Both the cytological and histopathological data-sets, showed variation; in patient age distribution, age of onset and incidence of various tumours. Conclusion Comparing our data with previous reports in non-breed-specified dog populations, the Golden retriever breed shows an increased risk for the development of tumours in general, as well as an increased risk for the development of specific tumour types, including the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Variations in age, location and incidence of various tumours were observed between the two data-sets, indicating a selection bias for diagnostic procedure. PMID:24484635

  4. Electrochemotherapy on liver tumours in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, L. H.; Orlowski, S.; An, D.; Bindoula, G.; Dzodic, R.; Ardouin, P.; Bognel, C.; Belehradek, J.; Munck, J. N.; Mir, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new therapeutic approach combining the effects of a low-permeant cytotoxic drug, bleomycin (BLM), administered i.v. and cell-permeabilizing electric pulses (EPs) locally delivered to tumours. The transient permeabilization of the cell membrane by the EPs allows free access of BLM to its intracellular targets, largely enhancing BLM's cytotoxic effects. ECT efficacy has been proved so far on transplanted subcutaneous murine tumours and on subcutaneous metastases in humans. Here, we present the first study of the effects of ECT on tumours transplanted to livers in rabbits. We used a recently developed EP applicator consisting of an array of parallel and equidistant needles to be inserted in tissues. Effects of EPs alone or of ECT were assessed by histological analysis, tumour growth rates and survival of the treated animals. A transient blood hypoperfusion was seen in the electropulsed areas, with or without BLM, related to EP-dependent vasoconstriction but this had no major effects on cell survival. Long-term effects depended on the presence of BLM at the time of EP delivery. Almost complete tumour necrosis was observed after ECT, resulting from both BLM direct cytotoxic effects on electropermeabilized tumour cells and indirect effects on the tumour vessels. A large reduction in tumour growth rate and significantly longer survival times were scored in comparison with control rabbits. Moreover, ECT of liver tumours was well tolerated and devoid of systemic side-effects. When ECT was associated with a local interleukin 2-based immunotherapy, increased local anti-tumour effectiveness as well as a large decrease in the number of metastases were observed. Thus, ECT could become a novel treatment modality for liver tumours and other solid internal malignancies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9649121

  5. The peritoneal tumour microenvironment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Leinster, D Andrew; Kulbe, Hagen; Everitt, Gemma; Thompson, Richard; Perretti, Mauro; Gavins, Felicity N E; Cooper, Dianne; Gould, David; Ennis, Darren P; Lockley, Michelle; McNeish, Iain A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Balkwill, Frances R

    2012-06-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) disseminates early and extensively throughout the peritoneal space, causing multiple lesions that are a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular composition of peritoneal tumour deposits in patient biopsies and their evolution in mouse models using immunohistochemistry, intravital microscopy, confocal microscopy, and 3D modelling. Tumour deposits from the omentum of HGSC patients contained a prominent leukocyte infiltrate of CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, with occasional neutrophils. Alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) (α-SMA(+) ) pericytes and/or fibroblasts surrounded these well-vascularized tumour deposits. Using the murine bowel mesentery as an accessible mouse peritoneal tissue that could be easily imaged, and two different transplantable models, we found multiple microscopic tumour deposits after i.p. injection of malignant cells. Attachment to the peritoneal surface was rapid (6-48 h) with an extensive CD45(+) leukocyte infiltrate visible by 48 h. This infiltrate persisted until end point and in the syngeneic murine ID8 model, it primarily consisted of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and CD68(+) macrophages with α-SMA(+) cells also involved from the earliest stages. A majority of tumour deposits developed above existing mesenteric blood vessels, but in avascular spaces new blood vessels tracked towards the tumour deposits by 2-3 weeks in the IGROV-1 xenografts and 6 weeks in the ID8 syngeneic model; a vigorous convoluted blood supply was established by end point. Inhibition of tumour cell cytokine production by stable expression of shRNA to CXCR4 in IGROV-1 cells did not influence the attachment of cells to the mesentery but delayed neovascularization and reduced tumour deposit size. We conclude that the multiple peritoneal tumour deposits found in HGSC patients can be modelled in the mouse. The techniques described here may be useful for assessing treatments that target the disseminated

  6. Differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumours: which magnetic resonance findings should be taken in account?

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, T; Botto, A; Sciandra, M; Gaudino, S; Danieli, L; Parrilla, C; Paludetti, G; Colosimo, C

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to define typical magnetic resonance (MRI) findings in malignant and benign parotid tumours. This study is based on retrospective evaluation of pre-surgical MRI of 94 patients with parotid gland tumours. Histology results were available for all tumours. There were 69 cases of benign (73%) and 25 cases of malignant (27%) tumours, including 44 pleomorphic adenomas, 18 Warthin's tumours, 7 various benign tumours, 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 13 various malignant tumours. The following MRI parameters were evaluated: shape, site, size, margins, signal intensity (SI) on T1w and T2w images, contrast enhancement, signal of cystic content, presence or absence of a capsule, perineural spread, extraglandular growth pattern and cervical adenopathy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the MRI findings most suggestive of malignancy, and to define the most typical MRI pattern of the most common histologies. Ill-defined margins (p < 0.001), adenopathies (p < 0.001) and infiltrative grown pattern (p < 0.001) were significantly predictive of malignancy. Typical findings of pleomorphic adenoma included hyperintensity on T2w images (p = 0.02), strong contrast enhancement (p < 0.001) and lobulated shape (p = 0.04). Typical findings of Warthin's tumour included hyperintense components on T1w images (p < 0.001), location in the parotid inferior process (p < 0.001) and mild or incomplete contrast enhancement (p = 0.01). SI on T1w and T2w images and contrast enhancement enables differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour. PMID:26824912

  7. Cerebral ganglioglio-neuroblastoma: an unusual brain tumour of the neuron series.

    PubMed Central

    Dastur, D K

    1982-01-01

    The pathology of an unusual intracranial neuroectodermal tumour of the neuron series in described and its possible histogenesis discussed. The tumour, in a child aged 5 years with an enlarged head since infancy, presented as a large solid intra-cerebral mass. Histological examination showed four types of cells; (i) the stroma, forming the bulk of the tumour, was astrocytomatous; (ii) lobules of ill defined cells bearing small circular nuclei, representing immature neuroblasts: (iii) the same of other lobules containing neurons in various stages of development; and (iv) dense clusters of cells with hyperchromatic nuclei attempting rosettes, representing an overtly malignant neuroblastoma. This tumour was designated "ganglioglio-neuroblastoma" and probably originated from a slow growing ganglioglioma. Images PMID:7069425

  8. Transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Kjersem, Bård; Krohn, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a recently described modification of a standard photo slit lamp system for ocular transillumination, with special emphasis on the light transmission through the eye wall and the photographic technique. Transillumination photography was carried out with the Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland). After having released the background lighting optic fibre cable from its holder, the patient was positioned at the slit lamp, and the fibre tip was gently pressed against the sclera or the cornea of the patient's eye. During about 1/1000 of a second, the eye was illuminated by the flash and the scleral shadow of the tumour was exposed to the camera sensor. The images were of good diagnostic quality, making it easy to outline the tumours and to evaluate the involvement of intraocular structures. None of the examined patients experienced discomfort or negative side effects. The method is recommended in cases where photographic transillumination documentation of intraocular pathologies is considered important. PMID:23641762

  9. Radiochemotherapy-induced changes of tumour vascularity and blood supply estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and fractal analysis in malignant head and neck tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hietschold, V; Appold, S; von Kummer, R; Abolmaali, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiochemotherapy (RChT)-induced changes of transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and relative tumour blood volume (rTBV) estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and fractal analysis in head and neck tumours (HNTs). Methods: DCE-CT was performed in 15 patients with inoperable HNTs before RChT, and after 2 and 5 weeks. The dynamics of Ktrans and rTBV as well as lacunarity, slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size), and fractal dimension were compared with tumour behaviour during RChT and in the 24-month follow-up. Results: In 11 patients, an increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV after 20 Gy followed by a decrease of both parameters after 50 Gy was noted. Except for one local recurrence, no tumour residue was found during the follow-up. In three patients with partial tumour reduction during RChT, a decrease of Ktrans accompanied by an increase in rTBV between 20 and 50 Gy was detected. In one patient with continuous elevation of both parameters, tumour progressed after RChT. Pre-treatment difference in intratumoral heterogeneity with its decline under RChT for the responders vs non-responders was observed. Conclusion: Initial growth of Ktrans and/or rTBV followed by further reduction of both parameters along with the decline of the slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size) was associated with positive radiochemotherapeutic response. Increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV under RChT indicated a poor outcome. Advances in knowledge: The modification of Ktrans and rTBV as measured by DCE-CT may be applied for the assessment of tumour sensitivity to chose RChT regimen and, consequently, to reveal clinical impact allowing individualization of RChT strategy in patients with HNT. PMID:25412001

  10. Characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumours, diagnostic procedure and therapeutic management and main directions of nursing practice in gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Głuszek, Stanisław; Kozieł, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) constitute a separate group of mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. They have been commonly recognized for a few years, they have created a new problem in medical practice. GIST are more often centred in the stomach. They equally affect female and male patients and occur mainly in patients older than 50 years of age. The clinical picture of the tumour is non-specific. Radical surgical treatment and molecularly targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used in GIST treatment. Nursing practice with reference to GIST danger is connected with biopsychosocial interventions of perioperative, oncological and palliative procedures and involves the area of health education mainly oriented towards shaping preventive procedures which favour early disease detection and support therapy and recovery. PMID:25784835

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in pituitary tumours1

    PubMed Central

    Cole, I E; Keene, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of CSF rhinorrhoea due to pituitary tumours are reported and the literature reviewed. The treatment of choice appears to be trans-sphenoidal exploration of the pituitary fossa with insertion of a free muscle graft followed by radiotherapy. The probability of the tumour being a prolactin-secreting adenoma is discussed. PMID:7017123

  12. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  13. Classification of odontogenic tumours. A historical review.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Hans Peter; Reichart, Peter A

    2006-10-01

    Using the term odontome for any tumour arising from the dental formative tissues, Broca suggested a classification of odontogenic tumours (OTs) in 1869. From 1888 to 1914, Bland-Sutton and Gabell, James and Payne modified tumour terminology, while maintaining Broca's odontome concept. Thoma and Goldman's classification (1946) divided the OTs into tumours of ectodermal, mesodermal and mixed origin and abolished the general term odontome. The Pindborg and Clausen classification (1958) based on the idea that the reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions were also operating in the pathogenesis of OTs. In 1966, WHO established a Collaborating Centre for the Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumours and Allied Lesions (including jaw cysts) headed by Dr Jens Pindborg. In 1971, the first authoritative WHO guide to the classification of OTs and cysts appeared followed in 1992 by a second edition. In 2002, Philipsen and Reichart produced a revision of the 1992-edition and in 2003, the editors of the WHO Blue Book series: 'WHO Classification of Tumours' decided to produce a volume on the Head and Neck Tumours including a chapter on Odontogenic Tumours and Bone Related Lesions. In July of 2005 this volume was published by IARC, Lyon. PMID:16968232

  14. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  15. Effects of Ageing on Aerosol Composition and Size Distribution Based on Regional Scale Aircraft Observations During the 2002 and 2004 ICARTT Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L.; Daum, P.; Springston, S.; Lee, Y.; Wang, J.

    2005-12-01

    In the summers of 2002 and 2004 the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample aerosols and aerosol precursors in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. We present data on the spatial distribution of aerosols and their physical and chemical properties. Most of the sub-micron size aerosol consists of organics and sulfate. Only a minor fraction of the organic aerosol can be attributed to primary emissions. Formation of secondary organic aerosol is observed as an increase in the organic to CO ratio as a function of photochemical age. Organic aerosol is measured using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We present comparisons between the AMS and a PCASP, DMA, and nephelometer - as this bears upon our conclusions. Production of aerosol sulfate can likewise be observed as a change in the sulfate to CO ratio but is more easily studied by following the time evolution of a point source plume such as was done for the Homer and Keystone power plants, located east of Pittsburgh. Concomitant with the addition of aerosol mass are changes in size spectra and optical properties.

  16. Diel flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394

  17. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  18. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  19. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Tan A.; Sousa, Aurea D.; Jones, Michelle A.; Harrell, J. Chuck; Agoston, Elin S.; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M.; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S.; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R.; Crum, Christopher P.; Brugge, Joan S.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  20. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours.

    PubMed

    Ince, Tan A; Sousa, Aurea D; Jones, Michelle A; Harrell, J Chuck; Agoston, Elin S; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T; Merritt, Melissa A; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Crum, Christopher P; Brugge, Joan S; Mills, Gordon B

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  1. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  2. Transurethral resection and degeneration of bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aihua; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Li, Weiwu; Lu, Honghai; Liu, Sikuan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Binghui

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral resection and degeneration of bladder tumour (TURD-Bt). Methods: In total, 56 patients with bladder tumour were treated by TURD-Bt. The results in these patients were compared with 32 patients treated by current transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TUR-Bt). Patients with or without disease progressive factors were respectively compared between the 2 groups. The factors included recurrent tumour, multiple tumours, tumour ≥3 cm in diameter, clinical stage T2, histological grade 3, adenocarcinoma, and ureteral obstruction or hydronephrosis. Results: Follow-up time was 48.55 ± 23.74 months in TURD-Bt group and 56.28 ± 17.61 months in the TUR-Bt group (p > 0.05). In patients without progressive factors, no tumour recurrence was found and overall survival was 14 (100%) in the TURD-Bt group; 3 (37.50%) patients had recurrence and overall survival was 5 (62.5%) in the TUR-Bt group. In patients with progressive factors, 8 (19.05%) patients had tumour recurrence, overall survival was 32 (76.19%) and cancer death was 3 (7.14%) in TURD-Bt group; 18 (75.00%) patients had tumour recurrence (p < 0.05), overall survival was 12 (50.00%) (p < 0.01) and cancer death was 8 (33.33%) (p < 0.05) in TUR-Bt group. No significant complication was found in TURD-Bt group. Conclusion: This study suggests that complete resection and degeneration of bladder tumour can be expected by TURD-Bt. The surgical procedure is safe and efficacious, and could be predictable and controllable before and during surgery. We would conclude that for bladder cancers without lymph node metastasis and distal metastasis, TURD-Bt could be performed to replace radical TUR-Bt and preserve the bladder. PMID:24475002

  3. Surgical management of stage T1 renal tumours at Canadian academic centres

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Luke T.; Tanguay, Simon; Jewett, Michael A.; Wood, Lori; Kapoor, Anil; Rendon, Ricardo A.; Moore, Ronald B.; Lacombe, Louis; Kawakami, Jun; Pautler, Stephen E.; Drachenberg, Darrel E.; Black, Peter C.; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Liu, Zhihui; Breau, Rodney H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The proportion of patients with stage 1 renal tumours receiving partial nephrectomy is considered a quality of care indicator. The objective of this study was to characterize surgical practice patterns at Canadian academic institutions for the treatment of these tumours. Methods: The Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) is a multicentre collaboration of 13 academic institutions in Canada. All patients with pathologic stage T1 renal tumours in CKCis were identified. Descriptive statistics were performed to characterize practice patterns over time. Associations between patient, tumour, and treatment factors with the use of partial nephrectomy were determined. Results: From 1988 to April 2014, 1453 patients with pathologic stage 1 renal tumours were entered in the CKCis database. Of these, 977 (67%) patients had pT1a tumours; of these, 765 (78%) received partial nephrectomy. Of the total number of patients (1453), 476 (33%) had pT1b tumours; of these, 204 (43%) received partial nephrectomy. The use of partial nephrectomy increased over time from 60% to 90% for pT1a tumours and 20% to 60% for pT1b tumours. Stage pT1b (relative risk [RR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–0.63) and minimally invasive surgical approach (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73–0.84 for pT1a and RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.17–0.30 for pT1b) were associated with decreased use of partial nephrectomy. Most patient factors including age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, and renal function were not significantly associated with use of partial nephrectomy (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Almost all pT1a and most pT1b renal tumours managed surgically at academic centres in Canada receive partial nephrectomy. The use of partial versus radical nephrectomy appears to occur independently of patient age and comorbid status, which may indicate that urologists are performing partial nephrectomy whenever technically feasible based on tumour factors. Although the ideal proportion patients receiving

  4. The effect of neutering on the risk of mammary tumours in dogs--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, W; Cardwell, J M; Brodbelt, D C

    2012-06-01

    A commonly-stated advantage of neutering bitches is a significant reduction in the risk of mammary tumours, however the evidence for this has not previously been assessed by systematic review. The objectives of this study were to estimate the magnitude and strength of evidence for any effect of neutering, or age of neutering, on the risk of mammary tumours in bitches. A systematic review was conducted based on Cochrane guidelines. Peer-reviewed analytic journal articles in English were eligible and were assessed for risk of bias by two reviewers independently. Of 11,149 search results, 13 reports in English-language peer-reviewed journals addressed the association between neutering/age at neutering and mammary tumours. Nine were judged to have a high risk of bias. The remaining four were classified as having a moderate risk of bias. One study found an association between neutering and a reduced risk of mammary tumours. Two studies found no evidence of an association. One reported "some protective effect" of neutering on the risk of mammary tumours, but no numbers were presented. Due to the limited evidence available and the risk of bias in the published results, the evidence that neutering reduces the risk of mammary neoplasia, and the evidence that age at neutering has an effect, are judged to be weak and are not a sound basis for firm recommendations. PMID:22647210

  5. Multiple brown tumours from parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dagang, Daryl Jade Tardo; Gutierrez, Jerico Baliton; Sandoval, Mark Anthony Santiago; Lantion-Ang, Frances Lina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who suffered from severe bilateral inguinal pain and left mandibular mass. CT scan showed innumerable expansile osteolytic bone masses on the iliac wings, femur, ribs and vertebral bodies, diffuse skeletal osteopaenia, calyceal lithiasis on the right kidney and a left thyroid mass. Ionised calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were elevated. Parathyroid sestamibi scan showed a hyperfunctioning left inferior parathyroid gland. Biopsy of the left mandibular mass was consistent with brown tumour. The patient underwent parathyroidectomy of the enlarged parathyroid gland. Final histopathology, however, revealed parathyroid carcinoma, 4.7 cm in widest dimension, with capsular and vascular space invasion. The patient underwent repeat surgery, specifically, left thyroid lobectomy, isthmectomy and central node dissection. Intact PTH decreased from 681.3 to 74 pg/mL (normal range: 10-65) 24 hours postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 months showed normal serum calcium levels, size reduction of bone lesions and improvement of quality of life. PMID:27358103

  6. Magnetic particle hyperthermia—a promising tumour therapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutz, Silvio; Hergt, Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    We present a critical review of the state of the art of magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) as a minimal invasive tumour therapy. Magnetic principles of heating mechanisms are discussed with respect to the optimum choice of nanoparticle properties. In particular, the relation between superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic single domain nanoparticles is clarified in order to choose the appropriate particle size distribution and the role of particle mobility for the relaxation path is discussed. Knowledge of the effect of particle properties for achieving high specific heating power provides necessary guidelines for development of nanoparticles tailored for tumour therapy. Nanoscale heat transfer processes are discussed with respect to the achievable temperature increase in cancer cells. The need to realize a well-controlled temperature distribution in tumour tissue represents the most serious problem of MPH, at present. Visionary concepts of particle administration, in particular by means of antibody targeting, are far from clinical practice, yet. On the basis of current knowledge of treating cancer by thermal damaging, this article elucidates possibilities, prospects, and challenges for establishment of MPH as a standard medical procedure.

  7. Indocyanine green delivery systems for tumour detection and treatments.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Elena P; Salis, Andrea; Gavini, Elisabetta; Rassu, Giovanna; Maestri, Marcello; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a cyanine compound that displays fluorescent properties in the near infrared region. This dye is employed for numerous indications but nowadays its major application field regards tumour diagnosis and treatments. Optical imaging by near infrared fluorescence provides news opportunities for oncologic surgery. The imaging of ICG can be useful for intraoperative identification of several solid tumours and metastases, and sentinel lymph node detection. In addition, ICG can be used as an agent for the destruction of malignant tissue, by virtue of the production of reactive oxygen species and/or induction of a hyperthermia effect under irradiation. Nevertheless, ICG shows several drawbacks, which limit its clinical application. Several formulative strategies have been studied to overcome these problems. The rationale of the development of ICG containing drug delivery systems is to enhance the in vivo stability and biodistribution profile of this dye, allowing tumour accumulation and resulting in better efficacy. In this review, ICG containing nano-sized carriers are classified based on their chemical composition and structure. In addition to nanosystems, different formulations including hydrogel, microsystems and others loaded with ICG will be illustrated. In particular, this report describes the preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo application of ICG platforms for cancer imaging and treatment. The promising results of all systems confirm their clinical utility but further studies are required prior to evaluating the formulations in human trials. PMID:27090752

  8. Preoperative glucose abnormalities in patients with pancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Durlik, Marek; Kałuża, Bernadetta; Milczarczyk, Alicja; Franek, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer is a neoplasm characterised by poor prognosis. The only effective, possible treatment is radical surgery, but most patients do not qualify for surgery because of delayed diagnosis. Aim To determine if assessment of endocrine pancreatic function could serve as a means of screening for pancreatic cancer. Material and methods This prospective study was conducted on a group of 50 patients diagnosed with pancreatic tumour, who were qualified for surgery. Results From 1.07.2010 to 4.07.2011 a further 50 patients were added to the study group. They had been admitted to the hospital with pancreatic tumours. During the preoperative period, nine of these people had been treated for diabetes, 14 were newly diagnosed with diabetes and 15 had been diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, but only 12 had a normal glucose profile. Afterwards, patients underwent the surgical treatment. Histopathological examination revealed that out of the 50 operated patients, 36 suffered from malignant disease, and of these only four had no impaired glucose tolerance before treatment. Conclusions In most cases, patients with pancreatic tumours have impaired glucose tolerance. Screening patients over 50 years of age could speed up diagnosis and surgical treatment. PMID:25061491

  9. [34 epibulbar malignant tumours (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwartzenberg, T; Vancea, P P; Dobrescu, G

    1979-02-01

    Based on a study of 34 cases, the authors make therapeutical and diagnostical references concerning the epibulbar malignant tumours. These were met with a frequency of 10% of the total amount of the malignant tumours of the visual apparatus. The most frequent setting were at the level of the bulbar conjunctiva and of the sclero-corneal limb, especially in front of the opening of the palpebral slit and in the temporal area. The histological examination of the tumours pointed out the following morphological types; epitheliomas (61%), especially spino-cellular, malignant melanomas (32%) and sarcomas (6%). The therapeutical attitude was the surgical one -- the accurate extirpation -- in the limited tumours, followed by radiotherapy when neoplasic lesions were found at the limit of section. In the invaded tumours, the exenteration of the orbit was performed followed by radiotherapy. On the terms of such a therapeutical conduct, the distant prognosis proved to be dependent on two factors: a. The early diagnosis, that is the stage of the therapeutical action. It is insisted upon the importance of the signs of malignization of some benign tumors: papillomas or naevi. b. The nature and origin of the tumour: the secondary tumours are more severe from the beginning. PMID:444115

  10. The Laser Treatment of Experimental Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    McGuff, Paul E.; Deterling, Ralph A.; Gottlieb, Leonard S.; Fahimi, H. Dariush; Bushnell, David; Roeber, Fred

    1964-01-01

    Some of the results of experiments performed during the past two years to assess effects of laser energy on experimental malignant tumours are reviewed. Twenty types of malignant tumours (most in the cheek pouch and 11 of human origin) were treated in over 700 Syrian hamsters. Results of laser treatment of malignant melanomas and thyroidal carcinomas are presented. A human patient with malignant melanoma treated by laser energy is described. Investigation of thermal effect revealed that the laser-treated tumour remained warm for about one minute, while the cautery-treated tumour cooled to normal temperature in five seconds. Direct action of laser on superficial tumours is possible; deeper lesions must be exposed surgically. Laser energy has a selective effect on certain malignant tumours, resulting in their progressive regression and ultimate dissolution. All hamsters with implanted malignant melanomas and carcinomas of human origin, after completion of a course of laser treatment, showed no gross or histologic evidence of tumour up to the date of last observation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 2eFig. 2fFig. 3Fig. 4aFig. 4bFig. 4cFig. 4dFig. 4eFig. 4fFig. 4gFig. 6 PMID:14229757

  11. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  12. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. PMID:26114606

  13. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, T.; Asai, A.; Mishima, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Kirino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of each specimen to that of human glioma cell line T98G to obtain the relative telomerase activity. Telomerase activity was also assessed visually from the autoradiograms as being positive or negative. One hundred and sixteen tumours with negative telomerase activity had null relative telomerase activity, whereas 28 tumours with positive telomerase activity had relative telomerase activities of 12-84.3% (mean 0% vs 36.1 +/- 19.3%, P < 0.0001). Thus, quantification of telomerase activity confirmed the results of the visual evaluation of telomerase activity on autoradiograms. Based on the assessment, malignant brain tumours had a higher positive rate of telomerase activity than benign tumours (57.8% vs 2.0%, P < 0.001). These data indicate that positive telomerase activity is strongly associated with malignant brain tumours and is rather rare in benign tumours, such as neurinomas or meningiomas. Images Figure 2 PMID:9635839

  14. Expression pattern of clinically relevant markers in paediatric germ cell- and sex-cord stromal tumours is similar to adult testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Mosbech, Christiane Hammershaimb; Svingen, Terje; Nielsen, John Erik; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina Engel

    2014-11-01

    Paediatric germ cell tumours (GCTs) are rare and account for less than 3 % of childhood cancers. Like adult GCTs, they probably originate from primordial germ cells, but the pattern of histopathological types is different, and they occur predominantly in extragonadal sites along the body midline. Because they are rare, histology of paediatric GCTs is poorly documented, and it remains unclear to what extent they differ from adult GCTs. We have analysed 35 paediatric germ cell tumours and 5 gonadal sex-cord stromal tumours from prepubertal patients aged 0-15 years, to gain further knowledge, elaborate on clinical-pathological associations and better understand their developmental divergence. The tumours were screened for expression of stemness-related factors (OCT4, AP-2γ, SOX2), classical yolk sac tumours (YSTs; AFP, SALL4), GCTs (HCG, PLAP, PDPN/D2-40), as well as markers for sex-cord stromal tumour (PDPN, GATA4). All YSTs expressed AFP and SALL4, with GATA4 present in 13/14. The majority of teratomas expressed SOX2 and PDPN, whereas SALL4 was found in 8/13 immature teratomas. Adult seminoma markers AP-2γ, OCT4, SALL4 and PDPN were all expressed in dysgerminoma. We further report a previously unrecognised pathogenetic relationship between AFP and SALL4 in YST in that different populations of YST cells express either SALL4 or AFP, which suggests variable differentiation status. We also show that AP-2γ is expressed in the granulosa layer of ovarian follicles and weakly expressed in immature but not in mature granulosa cell tumours. Our findings indicate that the expression pattern of these antigens is similar between paediatric and adult GCTs, even though they develop along different developmental trajectories. PMID:25074678

  15. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  16. Appendiceal tumour--retrospective clinicopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman O'Neil; Chopra, Pradeep; Pande, Girish

    2004-01-01

    Appendiceal tumours are rare and often discovered unexpectedly in an acute situation in which decision-making is difficult. We report the spectrum of appendiuar tumours seen in our institution over a period of more than 10 years, and discuss the clinicopathological behaviour, investigations, surgical procedures and outcomes in these patients. We have also reviewed the literature with regard to appendiceal tumours. Appendicular tumours were identified from the database of 1646 appendictomies (18% in children) performed in single centre and case notes were reviewed. Clinical presentation, investigations, histopathology, surgical procedures and outcome were analysed. Twelve patients with appendiceal tumours were identified (0.72%): 8 carcinoid, 2 mucinous (mucocele) and 2 adenocarcinoma. All the patients with a carcinoid tumour presented with features suggestive of acute appendicitis and were diagnosed postoperatively following appendicectomy and formal histology. No further surgical intervention was required as these lesions were less than 1cm away from the base of the appendix. One of the patient with mucinous cystadenoma presented acutely and underwent an appendicectomy; in the other patient with chronic pain, apreoperative MRI suggested the diagnosis leading to a planned hemicolectomy as the lesion was close to the base of the appendix. While one of the patient with an adenocarcinoma localized to the appendix did well following a right hemicolectomy, the other patient with disseminated disease succumbed within a year. Carcinoid tumours are the commonest appendiceal tumours, which present often as acute appendicitis. While appendicectomy would be adequate in most of these patients, in patients with a cystadenoma close to the base of the appendix or in case of a carcinoma, a right hemicolectomy is the appropriate option. While the prognosis is good in patients with carcinoid tumour and cystadenoma, it remains dismal in patients with disseminated malignant disease

  17. Age at calving in heifers and level of milk production during gestation in cows are associated with the birth size of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Depreester, E; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate environmental and dam factors associated with birth size of Holstein calves. Data of 1,594 births from dairy herds in Belgium and Germany were analyzed in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Immediately after birth, the birth weight of the calves was measured. On the next day, the heart girth (HG), withers height, and diagonal length of the dams and calves were measured. Parity, body condition score, gestation length (GL), and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open, lactation length, length of the dry period, and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation that took place during gestation was quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. After descriptive analyses, mixed models were used to identify factors that are significantly associated with the birth weight (most consistent measure of size at birth) of the calves born to both heifers and cows. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in heifers (n=540), calf sex, season of calving, GL, HG, withers height, diagonal length, and age at calving were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to heifers was estimated to be 41.3±1.01kg. In comparison to calves born to old (25.5 to 37.3mo; n=99) heifers, the birth weight was estimated to be 2.75, 3.29, and 2.35kg heavier when the calves were born to very young (20.3 to <22mo; n=98), young (22 to <23.5mo; n=145), and standard aged (23.5 to <25.5mo; n=198) heifers, respectively. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in cows (n=1,054), calf sex, season of calving, GL, parity, dry period, and MGEST were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to cows was estimated to be 44.1±0.99kg. For cows having an identical HG, the birth weight of the calves was estimated to

  18. Cell size and geometry of spinal cord motoneurons in the adult cat following the intramuscular injection of adriamycin: comparison with data from aged cats.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Yamuy, J; Engelhardt, J K; Xi, M C; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1996-10-28

    Adriamycin (ADM), an antineoplastic antibiotic, when injected intramuscularly, is taken up by motoneuron axonal terminals and retrogradely transported to the motoneuron soma where it exerts its neurotoxic effect. In the present study, ADM was injected into the hindlimb muscles of five adult cats. Measurements of the electrophysiological properties of the lumbar motoneurons innervating these muscles were obtained using intracellular techniques. Based upon these data the equivalent cylinder model of motoneurons was employed to evaluate ADM-induced changes in cell size and cell geometry. The size of cell somas in the ventral horn was also measured using light microscopy and computer imaging software. There were significant increases in the membrane time constant (25%) and input resistance (50%) in motoneurons whose muscles were treated with ADM (ADM-MNs) compared with data from control motoneurons (control-MNs). The increase in membrane time constant is attributed to an increase in membrane resistance; the increase in input resistance appears to depend upon both an increase in membrane resistance and a decrease in total cell surface area. Cell capacitance, which is proportional to the total cell surface area, was significantly reduced (15%) in ADM-MNs. Calculations based on cable theory indicate that while there was no significant change in the length of the equivalent cylinder for ADM-MNs, there was a significant decrease (17%) in the diameter of the equivalent cylinder. These data indicate that there is a decrease in total cell surface area which can be attributed to the shrinkage of branches throughout the dendritic tree. There was also a small (7%) but statistically significant decrease in the electrotonic length of ADM-MNs. Morphological analysis also revealed that the mean cross-sectional area of the somas of those ventral horn neurons which are likely to correspond to the motoneuron population was significantly reduced on the ADM-treated side compared to that

  19. Greater trunk muscle torque reduces postmenopausal bone loss at the spine independently of age, body size, and vitamin D receptor genotype in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Iki, M; Saito, Y; Dohi, Y; Kajita, E; Nishino, H; Yonemasu, K; Kusaka, Y

    2002-10-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is affected by muscle strength. Recently, vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype was reported to affect muscle strength as well as BMD in Caucasian women. The aim of this study was to evaluate independent effects of muscle strength of the trunk on BMD at the spine and its change over time in Japanese women. We followed 119 healthy postmenopausal women for 4 years and determined the change in BMD at the spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isometric peak torque and isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were measured. The VDR genotype was determined by the PCR-RFLP method based on Apa I and Taq I endonuclease digestions defining the absence/existence of the restriction sites as A/a and T/t, respectively. The subjects were 60.1 +/- 6.6 years old, had 0.808 +/- 0.159 g/cm2 of BMD at baseline. The mean annual change in BMD (delta BMD) was -5.6 +/- 10.4 mg/cm2 during the follow-up period. The VDR genotype, defined by Taq I enzyme, significantly related to BMD at baseline and delta BMD showing that the subjects with genotype TT had the lowest BMD at baseline and lost bone most rapidly. However, its effect on muscle strength was not significant. All the trunk muscle strength indices showed significant positive effects on delta BMD, that is, the effects in increasing the gain and reducing the loss of BMD, after controlling for the effects of age, body size and the VDR genotype. The eccentric trunk extensor torque had a significant positive effect on delta BMD in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of this torque was the greatest among all the muscle indices. The net effect of the trunk extensor torque on delta BMD was greater than that of the VDR genotype. The trunk muscle strength was suggested to affect BMD change independently of age, body size, and the VDR genotype. Exercise programs to increase the strength of the trunk muscles would be beneficial for the prevention of osteoporosis regardless of

  20. Sex-specific plasticity and genotype × sex interactions for age and size of maturity in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Boulton, K; Rosenthal, G G; Grimmer, A J; Walling, C A; Wilson, A J

    2016-03-01

    Responses to sexually antagonistic selection are thought to be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of homologous male and female traits. Accordingly, adaptive sexual dimorphism depends on mechanisms such as genotype-by-sex interaction (G×S) and sex-specific plasticity to alleviate this constraint. We tested these mechanisms in a population of Xiphophorus birchmanni (sheepshead swordtail), where the intensity of male competition is expected to mediate intersexual conflict over age and size at maturity. Combining quantitative genetics with density manipulations and analysis of sex ratio variation, we confirm that maturation traits are dimorphic and heritable, but also subject to large G×S. Although cross-sex genetic correlations are close to zero, suggesting sex-linked genes with important effects on growth and maturation are likely segregating in this population, we found less evidence of sex-specific adaptive plasticity. At high density, there was a weak trend towards later and smaller maturation in both sexes. Effects of sex ratio were stronger and putatively adaptive in males but not in females. Males delay maturation in the presence of mature rivals, resulting in larger adult size with subsequent benefit to competitive ability. However, females also delay maturation in male-biased groups, incurring a loss of reproductive lifespan without apparent benefit. Thus, in highly competitive environments, female fitness may be limited by the lack of sex-specific plasticity. More generally, assuming that selection does act antagonistically on male and female maturation traits in the wild, our results demonstrate that genetic architecture of homologous traits can ease a major constraint on the evolution of adaptive dimorphism. PMID:26688295

  1. Optimising delineation accuracy of tumours in PET for radiotherapy planning using blind deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Guvenis, A.; Koc, A.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proven to be useful in radiotherapy planning for the determination of the metabolically active regions of tumours. Delineation of tumours, however, is a difficult task in part due to high noise levels and the partial volume effects originating mainly from the low camera resolution. The goal of this work is to study the effect of blind deconvolution on tumour volume estimation accuracy for different computer-aided contouring methods. The blind deconvolution estimates the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system in an iterative manner in a way that the likelihood of the given image being the convolution output is maximised. In this way, the PSF of the imaging system does not need to be known. Data were obtained from a NEMA NU-2 IQ-based phantom with a GE DSTE-16 PET/CT scanner. The artificial tumour diameters were 13, 17, 22, 28 and 37 mm with a target/background ratio of 4:1. The tumours were delineated before and after blind deconvolution. Student's two-tailed paired t-test showed a significant decrease in volume estimation error (p < 0.001) when blind deconvolution was used in conjunction with computer-aided delineation methods. A manual delineation confirmation demonstrated an improvement from 26 to 16 % for the artificial tumour of size 37 mm while an improvement from 57 to 15 % was noted for the small tumour of 13 mm. Therefore, it can be concluded that blind deconvolution of reconstructed PET images may be used to increase tumour delineation accuracy. PMID:25836686

  2. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.

  3. Investigating the effect of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on tumour growth in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, W. Kyle; Ford, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the growth of B16F1 tumours in C57BL/6 mice. Sixty mice received 2 × 105 B16F1 cells subcutaneously in the hind flank and were divided into control (no scan), 'low-dose' (80 kVp, 70 mA, 8 s, 0.07 Gy), 'medium-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 30 s, 0.18 Gy) and 'high-dose' (80 kVp, 50 mA, 50 s, 0.30 Gy) groups. All imaging was performed on a fast volumetric micro-CT scanner (GE Locus Ultra, London, Canada). Each mouse was imaged on days 4, 8, 12 and 16. After the final imaging session, each tumour was excised, weighed on an electronic balance, imaged to obtain the final tumour volume and processed for histology. Final tumour volume was used to evaluate the impact of longitudinal micro-CT imaging on the tumour growth. An ANOVA indicated no statistically significant difference in tumour volume (p = 0.331, α = β = 0.1) when discriminating against a treatment-sized effect. Histological samples revealed no observable differences in apoptosis or cell proliferation. We conclude that four imaging sessions, using standard protocols, over the course of 16 days did not cause significant changes in final tumour volume for B16F1 tumours in female C57BL/6 mice (ANOVA, α = β = 0.1, p = 0.331).

  4. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, K.; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  5. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636

  6. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nalli R Sumitra; Valarmathi, K; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-02-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  7. The prophylaxis of nonindustrial urothelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Balfour M.

    1973-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning carcinogenesis and the natural history of urothelial tumours precludes firm conclusions relative to nonindustrial prophylaxis. However, a number of measures are consistent with current data and may be instituted for those patients with a demonstrated propensity to urothelial tumours. Their acceptability is based on the lack of associated toxicity for the patient. These measures include the elimination of significant infection, cigarettes, artificial sweeteners, analgesic abuse and coffee, the administration of vitamins C and B6, and in selected cases, the use of thiotepa. It is emphasized that the merit of these steps in altering the natural history of urothelial tumours is uncertain. PMID:4197537

  8. Improved survival of gastric cancer with tumour Epstein–Barr virus positivity: an international pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M Constanza; Kim, Woo-Ho; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Matsuo, Keitaro; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Meneses-Gonzalez, Fernando; Kijima, Yuko; Natsugoe, Shoji; Liao, Linda M; Lissowska, Jolanta; Kim, Sung; Hu, Nan; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Yatabe, Yashushi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Hewitt, Stephen M; Akiba, Suminori; Gulley, Margaret L; Taylor, Philip R; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective About 9% of gastric carcinomas have Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the tumour cells, but it is unclear whether viral presence influences clinical progression. We therefore examined a large multicentre case series for the association of tumour EBV status with survival after gastric cancer diagnosis, accounting for surgical stage and other prognostic factors. Methods We combined individual-level data on 4599 gastric cancer patients diagnosed between 1976 and 2010 from 13 studies in Asia (n=8), Europe (n=3), and Latin America (n=2). EBV positivity of tumours was assessed by in situ hybridisation. Mortality HRs for EBV positivity were estimated by Cox regression models stratified by study, adjusted for distributions of sex (71% male), age (mean 58 years), stage (52% tumour-node-metastasis stages III or IV), tumour histology (49% poorly differentiated, 57% Lauren intestinal-type), anatomic subsite (70% non-cardia) and year of diagnosis. Variations by study and continent were assessed using study-specific HRs for EBV positivity. Results During median 3.0 years follow-up, 49% of patients died. Stage was strongly predictive of mortality, with unadjusted HRs (vs stage I) of 3.1 for stage II, 8.1 for stage III and 13.2 for stage IV. Tumour EBV positivity was 8.2% overall and inversely associated with stage (adjusted OR: 0.79 per unit change). Adjusted for stage and other confounders, EBV positivity was associated with lower mortality (HR, 0.72; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.86), with low heterogeneity among the study populations (p=0.2). The association did not significantly vary across patient or tumour characteristics. There was no significant variation among the three continent-specific HRs (p=0.4). Conclusions Our findings suggest that tumour EBV positivity is an additional prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. Further studies are warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying this protective association. PMID:23580779

  9. Results of the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumours using enucleation and treatment of the residual bony defect with Carnoy's solution.

    PubMed

    Leung, Y Y; Lau, S L; Tsoi, K Y Y; Ma, H L; Ng, C L

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the recurrence rate of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs) treated by enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution, and to assess the surgical morbidities associated with this treatment. KCOTs treated using a standard protocol of enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution between 1990 and 2013 were evaluated. One hundred and five KCOTS in 105 patients (54 male, 51 female) were analysed. The mean follow-up period was 86.6 months (range 24-313 months). The recurrence rate was 11.4%. A postoperative inferior alveolar nerve neurosensory deficit occurred in 30.1% of the mandibular cases, with 16% of these being permanent. The postoperative infection and fracture rates were 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Younger age, multilocular KCOTs, larger tumour size, and longer antero-posterior lesion length on the radiograph were found to be risk factors for recurrence. It is concluded that enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution to treat KCOTs results in a relatively low recurrence rate and a low rate of surgical morbidities. PMID:26922497

  10. A 10-year retrospective study of free anterolateral thigh flap application in 872 head and neck tumour cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Zhao, X P; Yan, T L; Wang, M; Wang, L; Wu, H J; Shang, Z J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, reliability, and various applications of free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and to provide a 10-year retrospective review of the application of this flap in head and neck tumour patients. A retrospective study was performed of 872 patients who underwent immediate reconstruction of head and neck tumour-induced defects with ALT flaps between April 2005 and April 2014. The study sample consisted of 609 males and 263 females aged 18-79 years. The shapes and sizes of the flaps were designed individually to meet various demands of reconstruction in the head and neck region. The overall rate of successful reconstruction was 97.4%. The reasons for 57 cases of flap compromise were analyzed. The time to detection of flap crisis was often within the first 8h after surgery (64.9%). One- and two-vein anastomosis strategies in microsurgery were compared, and significant differences were observed in terms of the time to detection of flap compromise and the rate of successful flap salvage. In conclusion, the free ALT flap provides unique features for the reconstruction of oral and facial defects in a reliable and versatile approach. The ALT flap is a favourable and versatile 'workhorse' flap for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:26154948

  11. AB248. Expression of EphA2 protein is positively associated with age, tumor size and Fuhrman nuclear grade in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxin; Zhou, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase of EphA2 has been shown frequently overexpressed in various types of human carcinomas, but the relationship between the expression of EphA2 protein in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was not well documented. Methods In the present study, using specific anit-EphA2 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphA2 protein expression levels in clear cell RCC specimens surgically resected from 90 patients. Results Our results shows that EphA2 protein was positively expressed in all normal renal tubes of 90 samples (100%, 3+), which was expressed at low levels in renal cortex but high levels in the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and papilla. EphA2 was negatively or weakly expressed in 30 out of 90 samples (33.3%, 0/1+), moderately expressed in 24 samples (26.7%, 2+) and strongly expressed in 36 samples (40%, 3+). Expression of EphA2 was positively associated with age (P=0.029), tumor diameters (P<0.001) and Fuhrman nuclear grade (P<0.001). Conclusions Our results indicate that EphA2 variably expressed in clear cell renal cell carci-nomas. High expression of EphA2 was more often found in big size and high nuclear grade tumors, which indicated EphA2 protein may be used as a new marker for the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  12. Patient and tumour biology predict survival beyond the Milan criteria in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Andreas; Gül, Safak; Pascher, Andreas; Schöning, Wenzel; Al-Abadi, Hussein; Bahra, Marcus; Klein, Fritz; Denecke, Timm; Strücker, Benjamin; Puhl, Gero; Pratschke, Johann; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond the Milan criteria are not considered for liver transplantation (LT) in many centres; however, LT may be the only treatment able to achieve long-term survival in patients with unresectable HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the role of recipient age and tumour biology expressed by the DNA index in the selection of HCC patients for LT. Patients Clinicopathological data of 364 patients with HCC who underwent LT between 1989 and 2010 were evaluated. Overall survival (OS) was analysed by patient age, tumour burden based on Milan criteria and the DNA index. Results After a median follow-up time of 78 months, the median survival was 100 months. Factors associated with OS on univariate analysis included Milan criteria, patient age, hepatitis C infection, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, the DNA index, number of HCC, diameter of HCC, bilobar HCC, microvascular tumour invasion and tumour grading. On multivariate analysis, HCC beyond Milan criteria and the DNA index >1.5 independently predicted a worse OS. When stratifying patients by both age and Milan criteria, patients ≤60 years with HCC beyond Milan criteria had an OS comparable to that of patients >60 years within Milan criteria (10-year OS: 33% versus 37%, P = 0.08). Patients ≤60 years with HCC beyond Milan criteria but a favourable DNA index ≤1.5 achieved excellent long-term outcomes, comparable with those of patients within Milan criteria. Conclusions Patients ≤60 years may undergo LT for HCC with favourable outcomes independently of their tumour burden. Additional assessment of tumour biology, e.g. using the DNA index, especially in this subgroup of patients can support the selection of LT candidates who may derive the most long-term survival benefit, even if Milan criteria are not fulfilled. PMID:25263399

  13. Rare benign mixed tumour of the upper lip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Sandra; Gillan, Gerrad; Piper, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Chondroid syringomas (CS) are rare benign mixed tumours. Clinical differentiation can be misleading due to the silent presentation, with only histopathological findings confirming the diagnosis. Case report A 23-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with an eighteen month history of increasing size of his exophytic upper lip mass. The initial clinical impression was thought to be related to the skin. Following a punch biopsy, histopathology confirmed appearance in keeping with part of a chondroid syringoma with subsequent excision of the lesion. Discussion CS present as a slow-growing, asymptomatic, non-tender, nonulcerated, smooth, firm subcutaneous, or intradermal nodule and can range from 0.5 to 3.0 cm, predominantly occurring in the head and neck region in patients aged above 35 years with a male predication. The most effective diagnostic method is microscopic examination. The gold standard treatment modality is by complete excision with a margin of normal tissue in order to examine the histopathologic features and prevent recurrence. Conclusion CS should be included as a differential diagnosis of facial subcutaneous skin lesions in middle aged male patients. Careful evaluation, with a view of total excision and adequate surgical margin will enable diagnostic confirmation, whilst maintaining the aesthetic and functional unit. PMID:26904190

  14. [Clinical types of thoracic cancer. Mediastinal tumours].

    PubMed

    Lemarié, E

    2006-11-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (teratomas, seminomas, and non-seminomatous malignant germ cell tumours) are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms. The standard treatment of mediastinal non-seminomatous malignant germ cell tumours is four cycles of chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of the residual mass. Small localized mediastinal seminomas may be treated with primary resection followed by radiotherapy. In patients with locally advanced disease, the preferred treatment is systemic chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of any residual disease. Thymomas can be locally invasive and associated with parathymic syndromes. Complete surgical excision is attempted in most cases of thymoma. Radiation therapy is usually recommended for invasive or incompletely excised tumours. Invasive thymoma is chemosensitive. PMID:17268355

  15. A rare solitary fibrous tumour of kidney.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Tilak Bahadur; Nepal, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumour is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm. It frequently arises from the serosal surface of pleural cavity but has recently been described in diverse extrapleural sites. Urogenital localization is rare and only 36 cases of solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney have been described on published report. We report a case of a large solitary fibrous tumour clinically and radiologically thought to be renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 30 year old female. The radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumour was a well- circumscribed, solid mass attached to the renal pelvis without necrosis and haemorrhage. Histopathologically, a spindle cell neoplasia with alternating hypo and hypercellular areas, storiform, fascicular and hemangipericytoma like growth pattern and less cellular dense collagen deposits were observed. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2 protein. PMID:24362666

  16. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions. PMID:26155575

  17. Primary malignant tumours of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Nix, G A; Wilson, J H; Dees, J

    1985-04-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in 19 patients with primary duodenal malignancy are described. Weight loss, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were the main symptoms. Diagnosis was made by endoscopy or ERCP (71%) or by barium studies (68%). In retrospect the tumour was visible in 97% of the studies. Tumour growth was longitudinal, circular or spiral, the inner curvature being involved over a greater length than the outer curvature. Exophytic tumour growth, involvement of the papilla of Vater, malignant spikes, transient, non-constant tumour image, skip lesions and ulceration were often seen. Mean survival time was 18 months from start of symptoms in 10 inoperable patients, and 24 months in 9 patients undergoing resection. PMID:2986213

  18. Chemotherapy sensitivity testing in human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, H G; Billington, R W

    1981-01-01

    We have attempted to establish in vitro growth in a consecutive series of 245 malignant tumours submitted for routine histopathology. Initially, three disaggregation procedures were used: mechanical separation, digestion by trypsin, and digestion by collagenase. The resulting cell fractions had varying success rates in establishing growth. Abundant epithelial cell growth was achieved in monolayer culture in 63 tumours, and the sensitivity of the cells to cytotoxic agents was tested. There was no indiscriminate cytotoxic effect, and each tumour type varied in its sensitivity from one patient's lesion to another. While testing of all solid tumours is not possible with present-day techniques, we believe that the employment of in vitro sensitivity testing as a routine procedure may be possible in the future if a suitable system giving correlation between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity can be developed. Images PMID:7240421

  19. The International Histological Classification of Tumours*

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the WHO project on the histological classification of tumours, which has included the establishment of several collaborating centres and has involved more than 300 pathologists in over 50 countries. The project has resulted in the publication, over the last 14 years, of 25 volumes in the first series of the International Histological Classification of Tumours (IHCT), each giving a classification of tumours specific to a certain site. The classifications are based primarily on the microscopic characteristics of the tumours and are concerned with morphologically identifiable cell types and histological patterns as seen by means of light microscopy and conventional staining techniques. The article also describes the relationship between IHCT and other classification and coding systems and assesses possible future developments that may result from new approaches to diagnosis. PMID:6978190

  20. Imaging tumour hypoxia with positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I N; Manavaki, R; Blower, P J; West, C; Williams, K J; Harris, A L; Domarkas, J; Lord, S; Baldry, C; Gilbert, F J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia, a hallmark of most solid tumours, is a negative prognostic factor due to its association with an aggressive tumour phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Given its prominent role in oncology, accurate detection of hypoxia is important, as it impacts on prognosis and could influence treatment planning. A variety of approaches have been explored over the years for detecting and monitoring changes in hypoxia in tumours, including biological markers and noninvasive imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the preferred method for imaging tumour hypoxia due to its high specificity and sensitivity to probe physiological processes in vivo, as well as the ability to provide information about intracellular oxygenation levels. This review provides an overview of imaging hypoxia with PET, with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of the currently available hypoxia radiotracers. PMID:25514380

  1. Intramuscular Hibernoma: A Rare Tumour in Buttock

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena; Kushwaha, Anil KU; Agrawal, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Hibernomas are benign tumours of brown fat that does not recur after complete excision. These tumours are found most often in adults and most commonly in thigh. Four morphologic variants of hibernoma are identified: typical, myxoid, spindle cell, and lipoma-like. The most common histologic type is typical variant. In this report, we present the clinical, morphological features and discuss the differential diagnosis of a typical variant of intramuscular hibernoma. PMID:26266129

  2. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period. PMID:24526198

  3. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica

    2009-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach. PMID:19776004

  4. Epithelial odontogenic tumours in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K M; Denholm, L J; Cooper, B J

    1987-09-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumours are uncommon, poorly understood and often difficult to diagnose, oral neoplasms. Dental organ pre-ameloblasts and basal lamina induce development of mesenchymal cells into odontoblasts, which produce dentin and induce pre-ameloblasts to mature into secretory ameloblasts. These reciprocal sequential inductive interactions between dental epithelium and mesenchyme form the basis for classifying epithelial odontogenic tumours. There are three tumours classified as non-inductive: ameloblastoma characterized by cords and islands of stellate reticulum with peripheral palisades of polarized columnar cells, adenomatoid ameloblastoma which has acini, rosettes and ducts of polarized columnar cells and stellate reticulum and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour which contains foci of Congo-red-positive material surrounded by pleomorphic polygonal epithelial cells. There are five tumours in which induction of mesenchymal tissue is evident: ameloblastic fibroma with characteristics of ameloblastoma plus proliferation of closely associated pulp-like mesenchyme; dentinoma consisting of masses of dentin, often with minimal cellular component; ameloblastic odontoma which contains palisaded epithelium and stellate reticulum as in ameloblastoma, as well as foci of dentin and/or enamel; complex odontoma which is a disorderly array of dentin, enamel, ameloblastic epithelium and odontoblasts; and compound odontoma containing denticles with well-organized tooth morphology. This paper reviews the embryogenesis of teeth and describes six types of epithelial odontogenic tumours in 13 animals. The literature concerning these tumours in nearly 250 animals is reviewed. The most commonly reported tumour is ameloblastoma and the species in which all types are most commonly reported is the dog. PMID:3316314

  5. Soft Tissue Tumours of the Retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Van Roggen, J. Frans Graadt

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. This review summarizes the more prevalent soft tissue tumours arising in the retroperitoneum and highlights some recent fundamental and diagnostic developments relevant to mesenchymal tumours. Discussion. The retroperitoneum is an underestimated site for benign and malignant neoplastic disease, and represents the second most common site of origin of primary malignant soft tissue tumours (sarcomas) after the deep tissues of the lower extremity. In contrast to the predominance of benign soft tissue lesions over malignant sarcomas elsewhere, retroperitoneal mesenchymal lesions are far more likely to be malignant. The differential diagnosis is primarily with the more common lymphoproliferative and parenchymatous epithelial lesions arising in this area, and with metastatic disease from known or unknown primary sites elsewhere.The most prevalent mesenchymal tumours at this site are of a lipomatous, myogenic or neural nature.Their generally late clinical presentation and poorly accessible location provides numerous clinical challenges; optimal radiological imaging and a properly performed biopsy are essential cogs in the management route. Histopathological diagnosis may be complicated, but has been aided by developments in the fields of immunohistochemistry and tumour (cyto)genetics. Despite significant advances in oncological management protocols, the prognosis remains generally less favourable than for similar tumours at more accessible sites. PMID:18521430

  6. Consensus on biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumour disease

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Kjell; Modlin, Irvin M; De Herder, Wouter; Pavel, Marianne; Klimstra, David; Frilling, Andrea; Metz, David C; Heaney, Anthony; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Strosberg, Jonathan; Meyer, Timothy; Moss, Steven F; Washington, Kay; Wolin, Edward; Liu, Eric; Goldenring, James

    2016-01-01

    Management of neuroendocrine neoplasia represents a clinical challenge because of its late presentation, lack of treatment options, and limitations in present imaging modalities and biomarkers to guide management. Monoanalyte biomarkers have poor sensitivity, specificity, and predictive ability. A National Cancer Institute summit, held in 2007, on neuroendocrine tumours noted biomarker limitations to be a crucial unmet need in the management of neuroendocrine tumours. A multinational consensus meeting of multidisciplinary experts in neuroendocrine tumours assessed the use of current biomarkers and defined the perquisites for novel biomarkers via the Delphi method. Consensus (at >75%) was achieved for 88 (82%) of 107 assessment questions. The panel concluded that circulating multianalyte biomarkers provide the highest sensitivity and specificity necessary for minimum disease detection and that this type of biomarker had sufficient information to predict treatment effectiveness and prognosis. The panel also concluded that no monoanalyte biomarker of neuroendocrine tumours has yet fulfilled these criteria and there is insufficient information to support the clinical use of miRNA or circulating tumour cells as useful prognostic markers for this disease. The panel considered that trials measuring multianalytes (eg, neuroendocrine gene transcripts) should also identify how such information can optimise the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:26370353

  7. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, W; Kruitwagen, R; Bastiaans, B; Hanselaar, T; Rolland, R

    1993-04-17

    Ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility is far from physiological because patients and their ovaries are exposed to high concentrations of gonadotropins. Many studies have focused on the two most common side-effects of ovarian stimulation--ie, hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancy. We describe 12 patients in whom granulosa-cell tumour was discovered after ovarian stimulation treatment with clomiphene citrate and/or gonadotropins. Although we cannot prove a causal link between the tumour and the medication, investigations in animals have shown a relation between gonadotropin exposition and the development of granulosa-cell tumours. The possible relation of ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumours in human beings has not been published before. We postulate three explanations for this finding; first, the granulosa-cell tumour is present in the ovary, waiting for a hormonal trigger; second, increased follicle stimulating hormone concentrations are oncogenic to granulosa cell; and third, the onset of the granulosa-cell tumour during ovarian stimulation is coincidental. We recommend that ovarian stimulation is done only if there is a valid indication after proper assessment of the ovaries, and that women who have had ovarian stimulation are followed for longer than at present. PMID:8096944

  8. Investigation of aged aerosols in size-resolved Asian dust storm particles transported from Beijing, China to Incheon, Korea using low-Z particle EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Hwang, H. J.; Liu, X.; Dong, S.; Ro, C.-U.

    2013-10-01

    This is the first study of Asian dust storm (ADS) particles collected in Beijing, China and Incheon, Korea during the same spring ADS event. Using a seven-stage May impactor and a quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA, also known as low-Z particle EPMA), we examined the composition and morphology of 4200 aerosol particles at stages 1-6 (with a size cut-off of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively) collected during an ADS event on 28-29 April 2005. The results showed that there were large differences in the chemical compositions between particles in sample S1 collected in Beijing immediately after the peak time of the ADS and in samples S2 and S3, which were collected in Incheon approximately 5 h and 24 h later, respectively. In sample S1, mineral dust particles accounted for more than 88% in relative number abundance at stages 1-5, and organic carbon (OC) and reacted NaCl-containing particles accounted for 24% and 32%, respectively, at stage 6. On the other hand, in samples S2 and S3, in addition to approximately 60% mineral dust, many sea salt particles reacted with airborne SO2 and NOx, often mixed with mineral dust, were encountered at stages 1-5, and (C, N, O, S)-rich particles (likely a mixture of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3) and K-containing particles were abundantly observed at stage 6. This suggests that the secondary aerosols and the internal mixture of mineral dust with sea spray aerosol increased when the ADS particles passed over the Yellow Sea. In the reacted or aged mineral dust and sea salt particles, nitrate-containing and both nitrate- and sulfate-containing species vastly outnumbered the sulfate-containing species, implying that ambient nitrogen oxides had a greater influence on the atmospheric particles during the ADS episode than SO2. In addition to partially- or totally-reacted CaCO3, reacted or aged Mg-containing aluminosilicates (likely including amesite

  9. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells communicate with the cells of their microenvironment via a series of molecular and cellular interactions to aid their progression to a malignant state and ultimately their metastatic spread. Of the cells in the microenvironment with a key role in cancer development, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most notable. Tumour cells release a range of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors to attract macrophages, and these in turn release numerous factors (e.g. VEGF, MMP-9 and EGF) that are implicated in invasion-promoting processes such as tumour cell growth, flicking of the angiogenic switch and immunosuppression. TAM density has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, there are currently no agents that specifically target TAM's available for clinical use. Bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid, are anti-resorptive agents approved for treatment of skeletal complication associated with metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. These agents act on osteoclasts, key cells in the bone microenvironment, to inhibit bone resorption. Over the past 30 years this has led to a great reduction in skeletal-related events (SRE's) in patients with advanced cancer and improved the morbidity associated with cancer-induced bone disease. However, there is now a growing body of evidence, both from in vitro and in vivo models, showing that zoledronic acid can also target tumour cells to increase apoptotic cell death and decrease proliferation, migration and invasion, and that this effect is significantly enhanced in combination with chemotherapy agents. Whether macrophages in the peripheral tumour microenvironment are exposed to sufficient levels of bisphosphonate to be affected is currently unknown. Macrophages belong to the same cell lineage as osteoclasts, the major target of BPs, and are highly phagocytic cells shown to be sensitive to

  10. Tumour-induced neoneurogenesis and perineural tumour growth: a mathematical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolas, Georgios; Bianchi, Arianna; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that tumours induce the formation of a lymphatic and a blood vasculature around themselves. A similar but far less studied process occurs in relation to the nervous system and is referred to as neoneurogenesis. The relationship between tumour progression and the nervous system is still poorly understood and is likely to involve a multitude of factors. It is therefore relevant to study tumour-nerve interactions through mathematical modelling: this may reveal the most significant factors of the plethora of interacting elements regulating neoneurogenesis. The present work is a first attempt to model the neurobiological aspect of cancer development through a system of differential equations. The model confirms the experimental observations that a tumour is able to promote nerve formation/elongation around itself, and that high levels of nerve growth factor and axon guidance molecules are recorded in the presence of a tumour. Our results also reflect the observation that high stress levels (represented by higher norepinephrine release by sympathetic nerves) contribute to tumour development and spread, indicating a mutually beneficial relationship between tumour cells and neurons. The model predictions suggest novel therapeutic strategies, aimed at blocking the stress effects on tumour growth and dissemination.

  11. Tumour-induced neoneurogenesis and perineural tumour growth: a mathematical approach

    PubMed Central

    Lolas, Georgios; Bianchi, Arianna; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that tumours induce the formation of a lymphatic and a blood vasculature around themselves. A similar but far less studied process occurs in relation to the nervous system and is referred to as neoneurogenesis. The relationship between tumour progression and the nervous system is still poorly understood and is likely to involve a multitude of factors. It is therefore relevant to study tumour-nerve interactions through mathematical modelling: this may reveal the most significant factors of the plethora of interacting elements regulating neoneurogenesis. The present work is a first attempt to model the neurobiological aspect of cancer development through a system of differential equations. The model confirms the experimental observations that a tumour is able to promote nerve formation/elongation around itself, and that high levels of nerve growth factor and axon guidance molecules are recorded in the presence of a tumour. Our results also reflect the observation that high stress levels (represented by higher norepinephrine release by sympathetic nerves) contribute to tumour development and spread, indicating a mutually beneficial relationship between tumour cells and neurons. The model predictions suggest novel therapeutic strategies, aimed at blocking the stress effects on tumour growth and dissemination. PMID:26861829

  12. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Thusyanth; Bakhshinyan, David; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.

    2015-01-01

    CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs), are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools. PMID:26064134

  13. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, L.; Bezak, E.; Olver, I.; van Doorn, T.

    2005-01-01

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure.

  14. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J. F.; Misdorp, W.

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed “complex” when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the “simple” type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term “carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour” was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. ImagesFig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36 PMID:4371737

  15. Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours.

    PubMed

    Lohle, P N; Wurzer, H A; Seelen, P J; Kingma, L M; Go, K G

    1999-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural schwannomas. Measuring concentrations of various proteins [albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, alpha 2-macroglobulin and IgM] in cyst fluid, CSF and blood plasma provides insight into the state of the semipermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Peritumoral cysts accompanying intra-axial brain tumours are the end result of disruption of the BBB and oedema formation. Unlike intra-axial tumours which lie embedded within nervous tissue, extra-axial tumours tend to be separated from nervous tissue by arachnoid and pia mater. High concentrations of proteins were measured in the cyst fluid, approaching blood plasma levels, suggesting a local barrier disruption, and passage across the arachnoid, pia mater and cortical/medullary layer into the CNS parenchyma, leaving the protein concentrations of CSF practically unchanged. We confirmed that very high concentrations of protein are to be found in tumour cysts, plasma proteins forming almost 90% of the total protein in the cyst. We review current hypotheses on the pathogenesis of cysts accompanying neoplasms, particularly meningiomas and schwannomas, and conclude that the majority of proteins in cyst fluid in extra-axial, intradural meningiomas and schwannomas are plasma proteins. This provides a strong argument for pathogenesis of extra-axial intradural tumour cysts in favour of leakage of plasma proteins out of the tumour vessels into the nervous tissue. PMID:9987761

  16. Effect of VEGF receptor inhibitor PTK787/ZK222548 combined with ionizing radiation on endothelial cells and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Hess, C; Vuong, V; Hegyi, I; Riesterer, O; Wood, J; Fabbro, D; Glanzmann, C; Bodis, S; Pruschy, M

    2001-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a major target for anti-angiogenesis-based cancer treatment. Here we report the treatment effect of ionizing radiation in combination with the novel orally bioavailable VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and with tumour xenografts in vivo. Combined treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with increasing doses of PTK787/ZK222584 and ionizing radiation abrogated VEGF-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent way, but inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation was not due to apoptosis induction. In vivo, a combined treatment regimen of PTK787/ZK222584 (4 × 100 mg/kg) during 4 consecutive days in combination with ionizing radiation (4 × 3 Gy) exerted a substantial tumour growth delay for radiation-resistant p53-disfunctional tumour xenografts derived from SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells while each treatment modality alone had only a minimal effect on tumour size and neovascularization. SW480 tumours from animals that received a combined treatment regimen, displayed not only an extended tumour growth delay but also a significant decrease in the number of microvessels in the tumour xenograft. These results support the model of a cooperative antitumoural effect of angiogenesis inhibitor and irradiation and show that the orally bioavailable VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 is suitable for combination therapy with irradiation. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747347

  17. HIFU and Chemotherapy Synergistic Inhibitory Effect on Dunning AT2 Tumour-Bearing Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Paparel, Philipe; Chesnais, Sabrina; Gelet, Albert; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2005-03-01

    Since there is no 100% satisfactory treatment for localized prostate cancer in patients presenting symptoms representing a poor prognosis (stage T3, high Gleason score, PSA level greater than 15 ng/ml, etc.), this study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and synergistic inhibition effects of using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with chemotherapy (Taxane + Estramustine). Forty-one Dunning AT2 tumour-bearing Copenhagen rats receiving HIFU and/or chemotherapy were divided into four groups: control group; chemotherapy group; HIFU group; and HIFU-chemotherapy combined group. Increase in the tumour volume was observed over 3 weeks and the tumour volume doubling time was evaluated. Growth curves for each group were then plotted and statistically evaluated. HIFU treatment combined with Taxane + Estramusine was found to have a significant synergistic effect; on day 30, the distribution of tumour volume relative to the treatment group was significantly different (p = 0.0007). The control group volumes were significantly greater than those of the chemotherapy-only (p = 0.006) or HIFU-only group (p = 0.006). The greatest difference was observed between the chemotherapy plus HIFU combined group and the control group. Additionally, tumour-doubling times were 7.7 days for the control group, 13.2 days for the HIFU-only group, and 31.2 days for the chemotherapy plus HIFU group. The differences in tumour growth rates between the chemotherapy plus HIFU combined group and a chemotherapy-only + HIFU-only grouping was 3.8% (p = 0.0020). Thus, the combined chemotherapy plus HIFU treatment was clearly more effective in reducing the tumour size than HIFU only or chemotherapy only, which indicates a synergy between the two types of treatment. Our results suggest that this combined therapy could be useful for the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.

  18. Localized hypothermia: impact on oxygenation, microregional perfusion, metabolic and bioenergetic status of subcutaneous rat tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, D. K.; Nauth, C.; Thews, O.; Krueger, W.; Vaupel, P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of localized hypothermia on microcirculatory and metabolic parameters in s.c. DS sarcomas on the hind foot dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Tumours were cooled by superfusion of the tumour surface with cooled saline solution to 25 degrees C or 15 degrees C. Control tumours remained at 35 degrees C. These temperatures were maintained for 30 min. In tumour oxygenation measurements, hypothermia at 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C caused progressive decreases in the size of the fraction of pO2 measurements between 0 and 2.5 mmHg together with a reduction in pO2 variability. No significant changes in median or mean pO2 or in the fraction of pO2 measurements between 0 and 5 mmHg, and 0 and 10 mmHg were observed. Using laser Doppler flowmetry, red blood cell flux was found to decrease significantly upon 25 degrees C or 15 degrees C hypothermia treatment to 67% and 37% of starting values respectively, whereas no significant changes were seen in control tumours over the whole observation period. Viscosity was measured in blood and plasma samples over a range of temperatures and was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Assessment of tumour glucose levels showed an increased concentration of glucose following 15 degrees C hypothermia, an observation consistent with a 'slowing down' of glycolysis. No changes in lactate or adenylate phosphate levels were observed. As a way of improving tumour oxygenation, localized hypothermia may therefore be a useful means of radiosensitization. PMID:9662251

  19. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-01-01

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. PMID:24957317

  20. Epidemiological and pathological features of primary cardiac tumours in dogs from Poland in 1970-2014.

    PubMed

    Janus, Izabela; Nowak, Marcin; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Ciaputa, Rafał; Kandefer-Gola, Małgorzata; Pasławska, Urszula; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Łopuszyński, Wojciech; Otrocka-Domagała, Iwona

    2016-03-01

    Primary heart tumours affect less than 1% of dogs. Due to their rare incidence, every research showing the frequency of cardiac tumours is valuable. Routine diagnostics is often complemented with immunohistochemical analysis. This study was conducted on 110 patient records from all veterinary faculties in Poland from dogs diagnosed with heart tumours between 1970 and 2014. The dogs' age, breed and sex with tumour localisation and histopathological diagnosis were analysed. Because of its most common incidence, samples of haemangiosarcoma underwent further examination with assessment of the expression of cell markers that have not been evaluated earlier (i.e. minichromosome maintenance proteins and beta-catenin). We noted 111 tumours including 88.3% malignant and 10.8% benign ones. Haemangiosarcoma and aortic body tumour were the most frequent cardiac neoplasms in the dogs examined (45.9% and 27.9% of all tumours, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis of haemangiosarcoma showed a positive expression of all markers examined. CD31, vimentin, and beta-catenin showed a positive reaction in all 11 samples examined. At least one proliferative marker (Ki-67, MCM-3 or MCM-7) showed a positive reaction in each sample. MCM-3 showed a higher expression than the two other proliferative markers (P = 0.006), but only Ki-67 showed a positive correlation with the mitotic index (P > 0.05, r = 0.89). Although beta-catenin, MCM-3 and MCM-7 showed a positive reaction in the haemangiosarcomas examined, their usefulness as diagnostic and prognostic factors should be a topic of further research. PMID:26919146

  1. Tumour-specific CD4 T cells eradicate melanoma via indirect recognition of tumour-derived antigen.

    PubMed

    Shklovskaya, Elena; Terry, Alexandra M; Guy, Thomas V; Buckley, Adrian; Bolton, Holly A; Zhu, Erhua; Holst, Jeff; Fazekas de St. Groth, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    The importance of CD4 T cells in tumour immunity has been increasingly recognised, with recent reports describing robust CD4 T cell-dependent tumour control in mice whose immune-regulatory mechanisms have been disturbed by irradiation, chemotherapy, immunomodulatory therapy and/or constitutive immunodeficiency. Tumour control in such models has been attributed in large part to direct Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II-dependent CD4 T cell killing of tumour cells. To test whether CD4 T cells can eradicate tumours without directly killing tumour cells, we developed an animal model in which tumour-derived antigen could be presented to T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic CD4 T cells by host but not tumour MHC class II molecules. In I-E(+) mice bearing I-E(null) tumours, naive I-E-restricted CD4 T cells proliferated locally in tumour-draining lymph nodes after recognising tumour-derived antigen on migratory dendritic cells. In lymphopaenic but not immunosufficient hosts, CD4 T cells differentiated into polarised T helper type 1 (Th1) cells expressing interferon gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin (IL)-2 but little IL-17, and cleared established tumours. Tumour clearance was enhanced by higher TCR affinity for tumour antigen-MHC class II and was critically dependent on IFNγ, as demonstrated by early tumour escape in animals treated with an IFNγ blocking antibody. Thus, CD4 T cells and IFNγ can control tumour growth without direct T-cell killing of tumour cells, and without requiring additional adaptive immune cells such as CD8 T cells and B cells. Our results support a role for effective CD4 T cell-dependent tumour immunity against MHC class II-negative tumours. PMID:26837456

  2. Targeting ALCAM in the cryo-treated tumour microenvironment successfully induces systemic anti-tumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Kudo-Saito, Chie; Fuwa, Takafumi; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Cryoablative treatment has been widely used for treating cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacies are still controversial. The molecular mechanisms of the cryo-induced immune responses, particularly underlying the ineffectiveness, remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified a new molecular mechanism involved in the cryo failure. We used cryo-ineffective metastatic tumour models that murine melanoma B16-F10 cells were subcutaneously and intravenously implanted into C57BL/6 mice. When the subcutaneous tumours were treated cryoablation on day 7 after tumour implantation, cells expressing activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) were significantly expanded not only locally in the treated tumours but also systemically in spleen and bone marrow of the mice. The cryo-induced ALCAM(+) cells including CD45(-) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells significantly suppressed interferon γ production and cytotoxicity of tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells via ALCAM expressed in these cells. This suggests that systemic expansion of the ALCAM(+) cells negatively switches host-immune directivity to the tumour-supportive mode. Intratumoural injection with anti-ALCAM blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) following the cryo treatment systemically induced tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells with higher cytotoxic activities, resulting in suppression of tumour growth and metastasis in the cryo-resistant tumour models. These suggest that expansion of ALCAM(+) cells is a determinant of limiting the cryo efficacy. Further combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-CTLA4 mAb optimized the anti-tumour efficacy of the dual-combination therapy. Targeting ALCAM may be a promising strategy for overcoming the cryo ineffectiveness leading to the better practical use of cryoablation in clinical treatment of cancer. PMID:27208904

  3. Tumour-like inflammatory abdominal conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Latawiec-Mazurkiewicz, I; Juszkiewicz, P; Pacanowski, J; Kwas, A; Rybkiewicz, M; Rudnicki, J; Walecka, A; Musiał, S

    2005-02-01

    The presence of a tumour, poor general condition, features of anaemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates and imaging suggesting malignancy were the common features in 4 different tumour-like abdominal conditions that are extremely rare in childhood. These conditions included: extensive retroperitoneal tumour with rib involvement that turned out to be an inflammatory lesion caused by Actinomyces in a 12-year-old girl; multi-loculated tumour of the mesentery/ovary caused by mesenteric lymphadenopathy in the course of a Salmonella enteritidis infection in a 2.5-year-old girl; tumour of the VII - VIII hepatic segments that turned out to be the focus of granuloma in the course of lambliasis in a 5.5-year-old boy with a history of purulent neck lymphadenopathy and a final suspicion of immunocompromise; and a multi-loculated tumour of the small pelvis and inguinal area that turned out to be an abscess of the iliopsoas muscle in a 16-year-old boy. Apart from the imaging, the lesions required cytological examination of the material harvested by fine-needle biopsies (liver tumour) or histopathological investigations (retroperitoneal tumour, mesenteric/ovarian tumour, liver tumour and--on second surgery--the pelvic tumour) and/or bacteriological examination (all cases), serological examination (liver tumour and mesenteric/ovarian tumour), protozoal investigation (liver tumour), and measurement of AFP levels (mesenteric/ovarian tumour). Surgical treatment (retroperitoneal tumour, mesenteric/ovarian tumour and tumour of the small pelvis) and guided antibiotic therapy (all cases including 15 weeks of antibiotics in the first case) allowed complete recovery in 3 patients (actinomycosis, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, abscess of the iliopsoas muscle). Antibiotic and antiprotozoal therapy cured the granulomatous hepatitis; however this patient tended to develop severe right-sided pleural/pulmonary changes (the child was referred for further diagnosis with suspicion of

  4. Enhancement of bioreductive drug toxicity in murine tumours by inhibition of the activity of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, S. A.; Wood, P. J.; Cole, S.; Williams, C.; Adams, G. E.; Stratford, I. J.

    1997-01-01

    Nitro-L-arginine inhibits the production of nitric oxide and can thereby cause vasoconstriction in vivo. One consequence of this is that nitro-L-arginine can increase hypoxia in a range of transplantable and spontaneous murine solid tumours. Bioreductive drugs such as RB6145 are more active under hypoxic conditions, and the combination of RB6145 with nitro-L-arginine in vivo shows greater anti-tumour activity than either agent individually. In mice given nitro-L-arginine at 10 mg kg(-1) i.p. up to 1 h before or after 300 mg kg(-1) i.p. RB6145, survival of KHT tumour cells was reduced by 3-4 logs when assessed by clonogenic assay 24 h after treatment. RB6145 or nitro-L-arginine alone caused no more than 20% cell kill. Similar effects were found in SCCVII tumours. The tumour response to the drug combination was tumour size dependent, with increased tumour cell sensitivity occurring when the tumour volume at the time of treatment was increased. Further, the response of KHT tumours to the combination of RB6145 and nitro-L-arginine was also dependent on the time interval between treatment and on when tumours were excised for determination of survival in vitro. The relative surviving fraction was about 0.3 for intervals less than 4 h but was reduced to 0.01 at 12 h and 0.001 at 24 h. These results were supported by histological examination of tumours, when necrosis at 2 h after treatment was less than 5% but increased to greater than 90% at 24 h. RB6145-induced normal tissue damage, as measured by CFU-A survival, was not altered by combining with nitro-L-arginine. Hence, this drug combination may provide therapeutic benefit. It is likely that the substantial anti-tumour effects are due to enhancement of bioreductive toxicity through increased tumour hypoxia, although additional mechanism(s) may also contribute to the overall response. Images Figure 4 PMID:9275019

  5. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour.

    PubMed

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5-10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  6. Tumour scanning with indium-111 dihaematoporphyrin ether.

    PubMed Central

    Quastel, M. R.; Richter, A. M.; Levy, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Photofrin II (dihaematoporphyrin ether/ester, DHE) was labelled with indium-111 and its biodistribution in tumour bearing mice compared with that of 111In chloride. The uptake and clearance of 111In labelled DHE differed markedly from that of indium-111 chloride in that the former was not taken up by the tissues as much as the latter. Scintillation scanning with a gamma-camera showed marked uptake of both 111In agents at the site of the tumour, but a much lower tissue background (excluding the abdominal organs) for the mice given 111In DHE. Tumour:muscle ratios of dissected tissues were 2-3 times higher in 111In DHE treated animals as compared to the uptake of 111In chloride. There was a distinct difference in the pattern of distribution of the two 111In preparations in the tissues. The major accumulation of 111In chloride was in the kidneys, whereas the highest uptake of 111In DHE was in the liver, the organ in which unlabelled porphyrins accumulate. Extraction and testing of materials from tumours of 111In DHE treated animals indicated that most of the tumour extractable 111In had remained associated with the porphyrin in vivo up to 4 days after injection. Images Figure 1 PMID:2147858

  7. An Ectopic ACTH Secreting Metastatic Parotid Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Dacruz, Thomas; Kalhan, Atul; Rashid, Majid; Obuobie, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year old woman presented with features of Cushing's syndrome (CS) secondary to an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting metastatic parotid tumour 3 years after excision of the original tumour. She subsequently developed fatal intestinal perforation and unfortunately died despite best possible medical measures. Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for 5–10% of all patients presenting with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism; small cell carcinoma of lung (SCLC) and neuroendocrine tumours (NET) account for the majority of such cases. Although there are 4 previous case reports of ectopic ACTH secreting salivary tumours in literature, to our knowledge this is the first published case report in which the CS developed after 3 years of what was deemed as a successful surgical excision of primary salivary tumour. Our patient initially had nonspecific symptoms which may have contributed to a delay in diagnosis. Perforation of sigmoid colon is a recognised though underdiagnosed complication associated with steroid therapy and hypercortisolism. This case demonstrates the challenges faced in diagnosis as well as management of patients with CS apart from the practical difficulties faced while trying to identify source of ectopic ACTH. PMID:26904316

  8. Tumour suppressor genes in chemotherapeutic drug response

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Dulcie; Visser-Grieve, Stacy; Yang, Xiaolong

    2012-01-01

    Since cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is an urgent need to find better treatments. Currently, the use of chemotherapeutics remains the predominant option for cancer therapy. However, one of the major obstacles for successful cancer therapy using these chemotherapeutics is that patients often do not respond or eventually develop resistance after initial treatment. Therefore identification of genes involved in chemotherapeutic response is critical for predicting tumour response and treating drug-resistant cancer patients. A group of genes commonly lost or inactivated are tumour suppressor genes, which can promote the initiation and progression of cancer through regulation of various biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell death and cell migration/invasion. Recently, mounting evidence suggests that these tumour suppressor genes also play a very important role in the response of cancers to a variety of chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how major tumour suppressor genes [Rb (retinoblastoma), p53 family, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, BRCA1 (breast-cancer susceptibility gene 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), Hippo pathway, etc.] are involved in chemotherapeutic drug response and discuss their applications in predicting the clinical outcome of chemotherapy for cancer patients. We also propose that tumour suppressor genes are critical chemotherapeutic targets for the successful treatment of drug-resistant cancer patients in future applications. PMID:22762204

  9. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, John W.; Bennett, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Jackson, J. W., and Bennett, M. H. (1973).Thorax, 28, 788-793. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis. A man of 37 had an iodized talc pleurodesis carried out for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. There was no history of industrial exposure to asbestos. Two years later he presented with pain in the right chest and radiographs at that time showed some localized pleural thickening at the site of the thoracoscopy cannulation for introduction of talc. A provisional diagnosis of talc granuloma, chemical abscess or tumour was made and exploratory thoracotomy revealed a tumour involving the chest wall, lung, and pleura which, on histological examination, showed adenocarcinoma of varying degrees of differentiation and in some parts also presenting a more squamoid appearance. Numerous doubly refractile talc particles were intimately associated with the tumour and fibrous tissue. Shortly after excision the patient developed evidence of systemic dissemination of the disease and died four months later. The possibility of this tumour being induced by the talc is discussed. A brief review is made of the various forms of talc used in surgery over the past 40 years and attention is drawn to the significance of the proportion of asbestos mineral which is present in talc as mined in various parts of the world. We do not consider that this is a case of mesothelioma of the pleura. Images PMID:4787992

  10. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy. PMID:26849037

  11. Ovarian Leiomyoma Along with Uterine Leiomyomata: A Common Tumour at an Uncommon Site.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Indira; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Palo, Lal Bahadur; Varghese, Renu G'Boy

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumours of the ovary, mostly seen in women of reproductive age group. Here we report a case of ovarian leiomyoma as an incidental finding in a patient of 38-year-old woman with uterine leiomyomata. Peroperatively, her left ovary appeared bulky & she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with left salpingo-oophorectomy. Macroscopically, in addition to uterine leiomyomata, a grey-white solid mass was seen entirely within the ovary without any capsular breach. Microscopically, the ovarian mass resembled its uterine counterpart without any evidence of atypia or necrosis. Masson trichrome stain & immunohistochemistry for desmin positivity confirmed the smooth muscle origin of the tumour cells. Despite its rarity, ovarian leiomyoma has to be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of ovarian spindle cell tumours. In difficult cases, immunohistochemistry aids the diagnosis. PMID:26674537

  12. Ovarian Leiomyoma Along with Uterine Leiomyomata: A Common Tumour at an Uncommon Site

    PubMed Central

    Phansalkar, Manjiri; Palo, Lal Bahadur; Varghese, Renu G’Boy

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian leiomyoma is one of the rarest benign tumours of the ovary, mostly seen in women of reproductive age group. Here we report a case of ovarian leiomyoma as an incidental finding in a patient of 38-year-old woman with uterine leiomyomata. Peroperatively, her left ovary appeared bulky & she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with left salpingo-oophorectomy. Macroscopically, in addition to uterine leiomyomata, a grey-white solid mass was seen entirely within the ovary without any capsular breach. Microscopically, the ovarian mass resembled its uterine counterpart without any evidence of atypia or necrosis. Masson trichrome stain & immunohistochemistry for desmin positivity confirmed the smooth muscle origin of the tumour cells. Despite its rarity, ovarian leiomyoma has to be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of ovarian spindle cell tumours. In difficult cases, immunohistochemistry aids the diagnosis. PMID:26674537

  13. Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour occurring in the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Masaki; Yoshifuku, Kosuke; Sagara, Yukari; Kurono, Yuichi

    2008-03-01

    A 12-year-old boy complained of swelling of the left cheek. Fiberscopic examination revealed the presence of a soft reddish mass in the middle meatus of the left nostril. CT scan showed a large mass completely filling the left maxillary sinus. The lesion originated from the maxillary sinus and extended to the middle nasal meatus; bone destruction and invasion of the subcutaneous tissue of the cheek were noted. T2-weighted MRI images revealed a heterogeneous signal in the left maxillary sinus. Under general anaesthesia, biopsies were obtained through an intraoral incision. On pathology, atypical cells containing irregular nuclei with scanty cytoplasm were noted. The tumour cells were strongly positive for CD99 and reacted weakly with NSE however the cells were negative for synaptophysin, LCA and cytokeratin on immunohistochemical examination. Based on these findings, the tumour was diagnosed as a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy; subsequently, the tumour's size decreased markedly. After 20 months of follow-up, the patient showed no evidence of local tumour growth or metastasis. PMID:18444498

  14. An integrated on-chip platform for negative enrichment of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Sajay; Chang, Chia-Pin; Poenar, Daniel Puiu

    2016-08-15

    The study of cancer cells in blood, popularly called circulating tumour cells (CTCs), has exceptional prospects for cancer risk assessment and analysis. Separation and enrichment of CTCs by size-based methods suffer from a well-known recovery/purity trade-off while methods targeting certain specific surface proteins can lead to risk of losing CTCs due to Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and thus adversely affect the separation efficiency. A negative selection approach is thus preferred for tumour cell isolation as it does not depend on biomarker expression or defines their physical property as the separation criteria. In this work, we developed a microfluidic chip to isolate CTCs from whole blood samples without targeting any tumour specific antigen. This chip employs a two-stage cell separation: firstly, magnetophoresis depletes the white blood cells (WBCs) from a whole blood sample and is then followed by a micro-slit membrane that enables depleting the red blood cells (RBCs) and retaining only the tumour cells. By creating strong magnetic field gradients along with customized antibody complexes to target WBCs, we are able to remove >99.9% of WBCs from 1:1 diluted blood at a sample processing rate of 500μL/min. This approach achieves an average of >80% recovery of spiked tumour cells from 2mL of whole blood in a total assay processing time of 50min without multiple processing steps. PMID:27344255

  15. Triple-Modal Imaging of Magnetically-Targeted Nanocapsules in Solid Tumours In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Wang, Julie T-W; Rubio, Noelia; Protti, Andrea; Heidari, Hamed; Elgogary, Riham; Southern, Paul; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T; Sosabowski, Jane; Shah, Ajay M; Bals, Sara; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2016-01-01

    Triple-modal imaging magnetic nanocapsules, encapsulating hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, are formulated and used to magnetically target solid tumours after intravenous administration in tumour-bearing mice. The engineered magnetic polymeric nanocapsules m-NCs are ~200 nm in size with negative Zeta potential and shown to be spherical in shape. The loading efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the m-NC was ~100%. Up to ~3- and ~2.2-fold increase in tumour uptake at 1 and 24 h was achieved, when a static magnetic field was applied to the tumour for 1 hour. m-NCs, with multiple imaging probes (e.g. indocyanine green, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and indium-111), were capable of triple-modal imaging (fluorescence/magnetic resonance/nuclear imaging) in vivo. Using triple-modal imaging is to overcome the intrinsic limitations of single modality imaging and provides complementary information on the spatial distribution of the nanocarrier within the tumour. The significant findings of this study could open up new research perspectives in using novel magnetically-responsive nanomaterials in magnetic-drug targeting combined with multi-modal imaging. PMID:26909110

  16. A Feedback Control Model of Comprehensive Therapy for Treating Immunogenic Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Biao; Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    Surgery is the traditional method for treating cancers, but it often fails to cure patients for complex reasons so new therapeutic approaches that include both surgery and immunotherapy have recently been proposed. These have been shown to be effective, clinically, in inhibiting cancer cells while allowing retention of immunologic memory. This comprehensive strategy is guided by whether a population of tumour cells has or has not exceeded a threshold density. Conditions for successful control of tumours in an immune tumour system were modeled and the related dynamics were addressed. A mathematical model with state-dependent impulsive interventions is formulated to describe combinations of surgery with immunotherapy. By analyzing the properties of the Poincaré map, we examine the global dynamics of the immune tumour system with state-dependent feedback control, including the existence and stability of the semi-trivial order-1 periodic solution and the positive order-k periodic solution. The main results showed that surgery alone can only control the tumour size below a certain level while there is no immunologic memory. If comprehensive therapy involving combining surgery with immunotherapy is considered, then not only can the cancers be controlled below a certain level, but the immune system can also retain its activity. The existence of positive order-k periodic solutions implies that periodical therapy is needed to control the cancers. However, choosing the treatment frequency and the strength of the therapy remains challenging, and hence a strategy of individual-based therapy is suggested.

  17. Triple-Modal Imaging of Magnetically-Targeted Nanocapsules in Solid Tumours In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jie; Wang, Julie T.-W.; Rubio, Noelia; Protti, Andrea; Heidari, Hamed; Elgogary, Riham; Southern, Paul; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T.; Sosabowski, Jane; Shah, Ajay M.; Bals, Sara; Pankhurst, Quentin A.; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-modal imaging magnetic nanocapsules, encapsulating hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, are formulated and used to magnetically target solid tumours after intravenous administration in tumour-bearing mice. The engineered magnetic polymeric nanocapsules m-NCs are ~200 nm in size with negative Zeta potential and shown to be spherical in shape. The loading efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the m-NC was ~100%. Up to ~3- and ~2.2-fold increase in tumour uptake at 1 and 24 h was achieved, when a static magnetic field was applied to the tumour for 1 hour. m-NCs, with multiple imaging probes (e.g. indocyanine green, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and indium-111), were capable of triple-modal imaging (fluorescence/magnetic resonance/nuclear imaging) in vivo. Using triple-modal imaging is to overcome the intrinsic limitations of single modality imaging and provides complementary information on the spatial distribution of the nanocarrier within the tumour. The significant findings of this study could open up new research perspectives in using novel magnetically-responsive nanomaterials in magnetic-drug targeting combined with multi-modal imaging. PMID:26909110

  18. Phase I/II Clinical Trial of Encapsulated, Cytochrome P450 Expressing Cells as Local Activators of Cyclophosphamide to Treat Spontaneous Canine Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Michałowska, Monika; Winiarczyk, Stanislaw; Adaszek, Łukasz; Łopuszyński, Wojciech; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Salmons, Brian; Günzburg, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon promising preclinical studies, a clinical trial was performed in which encapsulated cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 enzyme isoform 2B1 were implanted around malignant mammary tumours arising spontaneously in dogs. The dogs were then given cyclophosphamide, one of the standard chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of mammary tumours. The dogs were assessed for a number of clinical parameters as well as for reduction in tumour size. The treatment was well tolerated with no evidence of adverse reactions or side effects being associated with the administration of the encapsulated cells. Reductions in tumour size of more than 50% were observed for 6 out of the 11 tumours analysed while 5 tumours showing minor responses, i.e. stable disease. In contrast, the tumours that received cyclophosphamide alone showed only stable disease. Taken together, this data suggests that encapsulated cytochrome P450 expressing cells combined with chemotherapy may be useful in the local treatment of a number of dog mammary tumours and support the performance of further clinical studies to evaluate this new treatment. PMID:25028963

  19. Clinical and biological significance of aneuploidy in human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, M L; Hedley, D W; Taylor, I W

    1984-01-01

    Aneuploidy is a well recognised feature of human tumours, but the investigation of its biological and clinical significance has been hampered by technological constraints. Quantitative DNA analysis reflects the total chromosomal content of tumour cells and can now be determined rapidly and reliably using flow cytometry; this has resulted in renewed interest in its potential clinical applications. This article reviews the accumulating evidence that tumour ploidy reflects the biological behaviour of a large number of tumour types and that diploid tumours in particular have a relatively good prognosis. The measurement of tumour ploidy is likely to become a valuable adjunct to the clinical and histopathological assessment of cancers. PMID:6381555

  20. Anaesthetic management of left main bronchial glomus tumour

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Mathangi; Sharma, Rammurti; Pawar, Harshwardhan Singh; Hasnain, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours involving bronchus are rare. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with excellent prognosis. The nature and location of tumour pose a significant challenge for perioperative anaesthetic management. However, there is a paucity of case reports on anaesthetic risks involved in case of a bronchial glomus tumour. We present a case of glomus tumour involving left main stem bronchus, subjected to bronchial sleeve resection. The various anaesthetic implications of this tumour type and airway management with right double lumen tube are discussed. PMID:27141112

  1. Tumours in white suckers from Lake Michigan tributaries: pathology and prevalence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, Vicki; Walsh, H.L.; Braham, R.P.; Hahn, C. M.; Mazik, P.; McIntyre, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and histopathology of neoplastic lesions were assessed in white suckerCatostomus commersonii captured at two Lake Michigan Areas of Concern (AOCs), the Sheboygan River and Milwaukee Estuary. Findings were compared to those observed at two non-AOC sites, the Root and Kewaunee rivers. At each site, approximately 200 adult suckers were collected during their spawning migration. Raised skin lesions were observed at all sites and included discrete white spots, mucoid plaques on the body surface and fins and large papillomatous lesions on lips and body. Microscopically, hyperplasia, papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were documented. Liver neoplasms were also observed at all sites and included both hepatocellular and biliary tumours. Based on land use, the Kewaunee River was the site least impacted by human activities previously associated with fish tumours and had significantly fewer liver neoplasms when compared to the other sites. The proportion of white suckers with liver tumours followed the same patterns as the proportion of urban land use in the watershed: the Milwaukee Estuary had the highest prevalence, followed by the Root, Sheboygan and Kewaunee rivers. The overall skin neoplasm (papilloma and carcinoma) prevalence did not follow the same pattern, although the percentage of white suckers with squamous cell carcinoma exhibited a similar relationship to land use. Testicular tumours (seminoma) were observed at both AOC sites but not at the non-AOC sites. Both skin and liver tumours were significantly and positively associated with age but not sex.

  2. Suppressed rate of carcinogenesis and decreases in tumour volume and lung metastasis in CXCL14/BRAK transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hata, Ryu-Ichiro; Izukuri, Kazuhito; Kato, Yasumasa; Sasaki, Soichiro; Mukaida, Naofumi; Maehata, Yojiro; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Akasaka, Tetsu; Yang, Xiaoyan; Nagashima, Yoji; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progression involves carcinogenesis, an increase in tumour size, and metastasis. Here, we investigated the effect of overexpressed CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) on these processes by using CXCL14/BRAK (CXCL14) transgenic (Tg) mice. The rate of AOM/DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in these mice was significantly lower compared with that for isogenic wild type C57BL/6 (Wt) mice. When tumour cells were injected into these mice, the size of the tumours that developed and the number of metastatic nodules in the lungs of the animals were always significantly lower in the Tg mice than in the Wt ones. Injection of anti-asialo-GM1 antibodies to the mice before and after injection of tumour cells attenuated the suppressing effects of CXCL14 on the tumor growth and metastasis, suggesting that NK cell activity played an important role during CXCL14-mediated suppression of tumour growth and metastasis. The importance of NK cells on the metastasis was also supported when CXCL14 was expressed in B16 melanoma cells. Further, the survival rates after tumour cell injection were significantly increased for the Tg mice. As these Tg mice showed no obvious abnormality, we propose that CXCL14 to be a promising molecular target for cancer suppression/prevention. PMID:25765541

  3. The perivascular niche regulates breast tumour dormancy.

    PubMed

    Ghajar, Cyrus M; Peinado, Héctor; Mori, Hidetoshi; Matei, Irina R; Evason, Kimberley J; Brazier, Hélène; Almeida, Dena; Koller, Antonius; Hajjar, Katherine A; Stainier, Didier Y R; Chen, Emily I; Lyden, David; Bissell, Mina J

    2013-07-01

    In a significant fraction of breast cancer patients, distant metastases emerge after years or even decades of latency. How disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) are kept dormant, and what wakes them up, are fundamental problems in tumour biology. To address these questions, we used metastasis assays in mice and showed that dormant DTCs reside on microvasculature of lung, bone marrow and brain. We then engineered organotypic microvascular niches to determine whether endothelial cells directly influence breast cancer cell (BCC) growth. These models demonstrated that endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 induces sustained BCC quiescence. This suppressive cue was lost in sprouting neovasculature; time-lapse analysis showed that sprouting vessels not only permit, but accelerate BCC outgrowth. We confirmed this surprising result in dormancy models and in zebrafish, and identified active TGF-β1 and periostin as tumour-promoting factors derived from endothelial tip cells. Our work reveals that stable microvasculature constitutes a dormant niche, whereas sprouting neovasculature sparks micrometastatic outgrowth. PMID:23728425

  4. Viscoelastic properties of human bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S C; Lawless, B M; Shepherd, D E T; Espino, D M; Bicknell, G R; Bryan, R T

    2016-08-01

    The urinary bladder is an organ which facilitates the storage and release of urine. The bladder can develop tumours and bladder cancer is a common malignancy throughout the world. There is a consensus that there are differences in the mechanical properties of normal and malignant tissues. However, the viscoelastic properties of human bladder tumours at the macro-scale have not been previously studied. This study investigated the viscoelastic properties of ten bladder tumours, which were tested using dynamic mechanical analysis at frequencies up to 30Hz. The storage modulus ranged between 0.052MPa and 0.085MPa while the loss modulus ranged between 0.019MPa and 0.043MPa. Both storage and loss moduli showed frequency dependent behaviour and the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus for every frequency tested. Viscoelastic properties may be useful for the development of surgical trainers, surgical devices, computational models and diagnostic equipment. PMID:27082128

  5. Unusual presentation of a scrotal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Debashis; Parr, Nijel J

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old man had a wide excision of the right-sided scrotal cancer in the neck of the scrotum. On dissection it became apparent that the tumour had developed a blood supply from the right spermatic cord. Histology revealed G2T2 squamous cell carcinoma. A biopsy from an abnormal skin area from the opposite groin reported chronic folliculitis. He underwent an ultrasound scanning of the groin and fine-needle aspiration, which did not show any suspicious features. Follow-up CT of the abdomen and pelvis after 6 weeks did not show any evidence of intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Another CT has been arranged within the next 3 months to confirm that the spread of the tumour does not follow the pattern of a testicular tumour. PMID:24879734

  6. Post-treatment imaging of liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Kurtaran, Amir; Schindl, Martin; Gruenberger, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the past few years, great improvements have been made to achieve local tumour control of primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and tumour ablation techniques, including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RF), and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) have been developed. For colorectal liver metastases, surgery is still the standard technique in localised disease, although percutaneous RF ablation has gained considerable acceptance. In patients with widespread disease, chemotherapy with new drugs offers improved survival. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice to evaluate treatment response. The present review demonstrates imaging findings of complete and incomplete tumour control after intervention as well as the imaging spectrum of complications. Imaging guidelines according to the World Health Organization and Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) for assessment of chemotherapy response are presented. PMID:17921098

  7. Tumour Angiogenesis and Angiogenic Inhibitors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Lalita; Puri, Naveen; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process depending on the coordination of many regulators and there by activating angiogenic switch. Recent advances in understanding of angiogenic mechanism have lead to the development of several anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic agents that use the strategy of regulation of angiogenic switch. Antiangiogenic therapy is a form of treatment not cure for cancer and represents a highly effective strategy for destroying tumour because vascular supply is the fundamental requirement for growth of tumour. Because of the quiescent nature of normal adult vasculature, angiogenic inhibitors are expected to confer a degree of specificity when compared to nonspecific modalities of chemo and radiotherapy, so it has the advantage of less toxicities, does not induce drug resistance and deliver a relatively non toxic, long term treatment of tumour. PMID:26266204

  8. Quantitative histology analysis of the ovarian tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chunyan; Heindl, Andreas; Huang, Xin; Xi, Shaoyan; Banerjee, Susana; Liu, Jihong; Yuan, Yinyin

    2015-01-01

    Concerted efforts in genomic studies examining RNA transcription and DNA methylation patterns have revealed profound insights in prognostic ovarian cancer subtypes. On the other hand, abundant histology slides have been generated to date, yet their uses remain very limited and largely qualitative. Our goal is to develop automated histology analysis as an alternative subtyping technology for ovarian cancer that is cost-efficient and does not rely on DNA quality. We developed an automated system for scoring primary tumour sections of 91 late-stage ovarian cancer to identify single cells. We demonstrated high accuracy of our system based on expert pathologists' scores (cancer = 97.1%, stromal = 89.1%) as well as compared to immunohistochemistry scoring (correlation = 0.87). The percentage of stromal cells in all cells is significantly associated with poor overall survival after controlling for clinical parameters including debulking status and age (multivariate analysis p = 0.0021, HR = 2.54, CI = 1.40-4.60) and progression-free survival (multivariate analysis p = 0.022, HR = 1.75, CI = 1.09-2.82). We demonstrate how automated image analysis enables objective quantification of microenvironmental composition of ovarian tumours. Our analysis reveals a strong effect of the tumour microenvironment on ovarian cancer progression and highlights the potential of therapeutic interventions that target the stromal compartment or cancer-stroma signalling in the stroma-high, late-stage ovarian cancer subset. PMID:26573438

  9. Anti-tumour strategies aiming to target tumour-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoqiang; Mo, Chunfen; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Dandan; Xiao, Hengyi

    2013-01-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a predominant population of inflammatory cells that present in solid tumours. TAMs are mostly characterized as alternatively activated M2-like macrophages and are known to orchestrate nearly all stages of tumour progression. Experimental investigations indicate that TAMs contribute to drug-resistance and radio-protective effects, and clinical evidence shows that an elevated number of TAMs and their M2 profile are correlated with therapy failure and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Recently, many studies on TAM-targeted strategies have made significant progress and some pilot works have achieved encouraging results. Among these, connections between some anti-tumour drugs and their influence on TAMs have been suggested. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in TAM-targeted strategies for tumour therapy. Based on the proposed mechanisms, those strategies are grouped into four categories: (i) inhibiting macrophage recruitment; (ii) suppressing TAM survival; (iii) enhancing M1-like tumoricidal activity of TAMs; (iv) blocking M2-like tumour-promoting activity of TAMs. It is desired that further attention be drawn to this research field and more effort be made to promote TAM-targeted tumour therapy. PMID:23113570

  10. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen in…

  11. Sertoli cell tumour in an Amur tiger.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, C L; Meredith, A L

    2001-01-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a malignant Sertoli cell tumour in a 17-year-old Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) are described. Histological examination of the primary lesion in the right testis and metastatic lesions throughout the internal organs showed a variable cellular pattern with an admixture of tubular structures divided by fine stroma filled with fusiform to stellate cells, and sheets of polygonal cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical techniques demonstrated strong positive staining for neuron-specific enolase and variable positive staining for vimentin in neoplastic cells, supporting a diagnosis of a tumour of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:11428192

  12. Metastatic colonization by circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C

    2016-01-21

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in people with cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating tumour cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are only now starting to understand. These include infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue. They make metastasis a highly inefficient process. However, once metastases have been established, current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. An improved understanding of the mechanistic determinants of such colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  13. Thoracic Wall Reconstruction in Advanced Breast Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, A.; Harati, K.; Goertz, O.; Hirsch, T.; Behr, B.; Lehnhardt, M.; Kolbenschlag, J.

    2014-01-01

    In advanced mammary tumours, extensive resections, sometimes involving sections of the thoracic wall, are often necessary. Plastic surgery reconstruction procedures offer sufficient opportunities to cover even large thoracic wall defects. Pedicled flaps from the torso but also free flap-plasties enable, through secure defect closure, the removal of large, ulcerated, painful or bleeding tumours with moderate donor site morbidity. The impact of thoracic wall resection on the respiratory mechanism can be easily compensated for and patientsʼ quality of life in the palliative stage of disease can often be improved. PMID:24976636

  14. Extracutaneous glomus tumour of the trachea

    PubMed Central

    Łochowski, Mariusz Piotr; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kozak, Józef

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presenting expiratory stridor and high-grade dyspnoea was admitted to hospital in Lodz in February 2013. Chest radiographs and computed tomography scans showed a solid lesion in the upper part of the trachea occluding 85% of the airway lumen. A segmental resection of the trachea with a subsequent end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology showed an extracutaneous glomus tumour. There were no postoperative complications. Tracheal resection is the primary curative method in cases of this rare tumour. PMID:26702289

  15. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M.; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. PMID:26770859

  16. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  17. A retrospective study of tumours in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) submitted to a zoological pathology service.

    PubMed

    Thas, I; Garner, M M

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-three tumours were diagnosed in samples originating from 167 different black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) submitted to Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1996 and 2009. Three prairie dogs had more than one type of neoplasm. Thirty-two of the 50 prairie dogs were from zoological parks in the USA; 17 were owned privately and one was from a wildlife centre. Ages ranged from 2-9 years (median age 5.6 years) for 41 animals in which age was known. Thirty-nine (73.6%) of the tumours were classified as malignant and 14 (26.4%) were benign. Common sites for tumours were the liver, the alimentary tract and the haemolymphoid and integumentary systems. Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocellular adenoma, lymphoid malignancies and elodontoma were diagnosed most commonly. PMID:22424809

  18. Giant Cell Tumour of the Tendon Sheath: Analysis of 35 Cases and their Ki-67 Proliferation Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Güçer, Hasan; Yurdakul, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A giant cell Tumour of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a slow-growing benign Tumour originating from the synovial cells of the tendon sheath. It is the second most common Tumour of the hand. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective clinicopathological evaluation of GCTTS cases and determine whether the proliferative activity of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is related to its recurrence rate and local aggressiveness. Materials and Methods: The age, gender, Tumour location and diameter, treatment mode, Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic rate, and recurrence were retrospectively evaluated in 35 patients diagnosed with GCTTS in the Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University between 2009 and 2014. Results: Of the 35 GCTTS cases, 23 were female, and 12 were male. The mean age was 45 y (range 10–70). Sixteen tumours were located in the right hand and 14 in the left hand, and five were in the feet. The mean Tumour diameter was 2.3 cm (0.6–6 cm). All patients underwent marginal excision. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 4 y (range 28 months–5 y). Only six patients showed recurrence. In these cases, the site of GCTTS recurrence was the phalanx of the hand. The mean Ki-67 index in the recurrence cases was 6.5%, whereas it was 2.3% in those without recurrence. Conclusion: The Ki-67 proliferation index and mitotic activity were increased in recurrent cases compared to nonrecurrent cases. Therefore, these parameters may be helpful in predicting recurrence of GCTTS. However, adequate surgical excision and complete removal of the Tumour are important steps to minimize the recurrence rate. PMID:25653956

  19. Folate-related polymorphisms in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Sabrina; Ravegnini, Gloria; Nannini, Margherita; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Musti, Muriel; Pantaleo, Maria A; Fumagalli, Elena; Venturoli, Nicola; Palassini, Elena; Consolini, Nicola; Casali, Paolo G; Biasco, Guido; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2015-06-01

    The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014-0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77-26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population. PMID:25227144

  20. Folate-related polymorphisms in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Sabrina; Ravegnini, Gloria; Nannini, Margherita; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Musti, Muriel; Pantaleo, Maria A; Fumagalli, Elena; Venturoli, Nicola; Palassini, Elena; Consolini, Nicola; Casali, Paolo G; Biasco, Guido; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014–0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77–26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population. PMID:25227144

  1. Intraoperative intravital microscopy permits the study of human tumour vessels

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Daniel T.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Kim, Minhyung; Doyen, Kurt C.; Bogner, Paul N.; Evans, Sharon S.; Skitzki, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour vessels have been studied extensively as they are critical sites for drug delivery, anti-angiogenic therapies and immunotherapy. As a preclinical tool, intravital microscopy (IVM) allows for in vivo real-time direct observation of vessels at the cellular level. However, to date there are no reports of intravital high-resolution imaging of human tumours in the clinical setting. Here we report the feasibility of IVM examinations of human malignant disease with an emphasis on tumour vasculature as the major site of tumour-host interactions. Consistent with preclinical observations, we show that patient tumour vessels are disorganized, tortuous and ∼50% do not support blood flow. Human tumour vessel diameters are larger than predicted from immunohistochemistry or preclinical IVM, and thereby have lower wall shear stress, which influences delivery of drugs and cellular immunotherapies. Thus, real-time clinical imaging of living human tumours is feasible and allows for detection of characteristics within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26883450

  2. Systematic pan-cancer analysis of tumour purity

    PubMed Central

    Aran, Dvir; Sirota, Marina; Butte, Atul J.

    2015-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment is the non-cancerous cells present in and around a tumour, including mainly immune cells, but also fibroblasts and cells that comprise supporting blood vessels. These non-cancerous components of the tumour may play an important role in cancer biology. They also have a strong influence on the genomic analysis of tumour samples, and may alter the biological interpretation of results. Here we present a systematic analysis using different measurement modalities of tumour purity in >10,000 samples across 21 cancer types f