Sumiyoshi, C; Matsui, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamashita, I; Sumiyoshi, S; Kurachi, M
It has been reported that long-term memory function, including the semantic structure of category, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The present study was performed to determine: (1) whether the deficit in semantic structure in schizophrenia is independent of cultural backgrounds, and (2) the effect of age of onset and verbal intelligence on the degradation of semantic structure in these patients. Fifty-seven Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 33 normal control subjects entered the study. The semantic structure was derived by Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on data from the ANIMAL category fluency test. The semantic structure was compared between: (1) schizophrenic patients as a whole vs. normal control subjects; (2) earlier onset (age of onset <20 years) vs. later-onset groups of patients; and (3) high Vocabulary score (score of the Vocabulary subtest from the WAIS-R>7) vs. low Vocabulary score patient groups. Normal control subjects demonstrated the domestic/size dimension in semantic structure, while no such dimension was obtained in patients with schizophrenia. The subgroup comparisons revealed that the later onset or the high Vocabulary score group maintained a relatively intact semantic structure compared with the earlier onset or the low Vocabulary score group, respectively. These findings suggest that the deficit in semantic structure in patients with schizophrenia is commonly observed irrespective of cultural backgrounds, and that age of onset and the level of verbal intelligence are closely related to severity of degradation of the semantic structure in schizophrenia.
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Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
Objectives To investigate normative developmental BMI trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators (ie, height, weight, head circumference [HC], body mass index [BMI]) with non-verbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from Sub-Saharan Africa. Study design A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3 to 7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight and HC were measured, and non-verbal intelligence was assessed using UNIT-symbolic memory and KABC-II-triangles. Results Results showed that students in higher grades have a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls showed a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international CDC and WHO norms. Controlling for the effect of age, non-verbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = .17) and BMI (r = .11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in non-verbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. Conclusions BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. PMID:25217196
De Stasio, Simona; Fiorilli, Caterina; Di Chiacchio, Carlo
This study investigated the role of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding, testing the hypothesis that fluid intelligence predicts the development of emotion comprehension over and above age and verbal ability. One hundred and two children (48 girls) aged 3.6-6 years completed the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) that comprised external and mental components, the Coloured Progressive Matrices and the Test for Reception of Grammar. Regression analysis showed that fluid intelligence was not equally related to the external and mental components of the TEC (Pons & Harris, 2000). Specifically, the results indicated that the external component was related to age and verbal ability only, whereas recognition of mental emotional patterns required abstract reasoning skills more than age and verbal ability. It is concluded that the development of fluid intelligence has a significant role in the development of mental component of emotion comprehension.
Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja
Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)
Necka, Edward; And Others
The effects of incidental learning were assessed in 2 experiments involving 201 seventh graders in Poland through an experimental paradigm based on the levels of processing theory. Data suggest that an important aspect of intelligence is "opportunistic" learning (learning in advance). Intelligent people take cognitive advantage of…
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura
According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality. Results showed that after peaking in the young adult group (20-35 years) all components of verbal and visual divergent thinking stabilized in the middle-aged adult group (36-55 years) and then started declining in the young old group (56-75). Interestingly, all components were found to be preserved after declining. Yet, verbal and visual divergent thinking were found at the same extent across age groups, with the exception of visual ideational fluency, that was higher in the young old group, the old group and the oldest-old group than verbal ideational fluency. These results support the idea that divergent thinking does not decline steadily in the elderly. Given that older people can preserve to some extent verbal and visual divergent thinking, these findings have important implications for active aging, that is, divergent thinking might be fostered in aging in order to prevent the cognitive decline.
Ramsden, Sue; Richardson, Fiona M; Josse, Goulven; Thomas, Michael S C; Ellis, Caroline; Shakeshaft, Clare; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J
Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of human intellectual capacity that takes into account a wide range of cognitive skills. IQ is generally considered to be stable across the lifespan, with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years. Neuroimaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by speech, whereas non-verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we obviated the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross-sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for the two types of IQ and to show that general verbal and non-verbal abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual's intellectual capacity relative to their peers can decrease or increase in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve, and would be a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential.
Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.
We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…
Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael
This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4,…
Many children with Down syndrome have difficulty with speech intelligibility. The present study used a parent survey to learn more about a specific factor that affects speech intelligibility, i.e. childhood verbal apraxia. One of the factors that affects speech intelligibility for children with Down syndrome is difficulty with voluntarily…
Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II
The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)
Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A
Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.
Luwel, Koen; Foustana, Ageliki; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven
The present study investigated the extent to which verbal intelligence (VIQ) and performance intelligence (PIQ) contribute to strategy selection and execution in the context of a numerosity judgement task. The choice/no-choice method was used to appropriately assess strategy selection (in terms of strategy repertoire, frequency and adaptivity) and…
Howard Gardner and Jerome Bruner have given much to teachers who want to know how the minds of children grow. This story of a girl's construction of higher order, verbal linguistic intelligence is also theirs. Ideas they created have been cloned to fit a big city, public school classroom of African American 4th graders, each with a set of multiple…
Deary, Ian; MacLennan, William J.; Starr, John M.
Results from a study of 387 healthy old people studied at baseline and four years later in Edinburgh (Scotland) suggest that, those with higher baseline ability, in higher social-class groups, with more education, and those who are younger are relatively protected from a decline in verbal intelligence, measured by an adult reading test, with age.…
Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk
Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others’ emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions. PMID:27716831
Pfleiderer, B; Ohrmann, P; Suslow, T; Wolgast, M; Gerlach, A L; Heindel, W; Michael, N
The left frontal cortex plays an important role in executive function and complex language processing inclusive of spoken language. The purpose of this work was to assess metabolite levels in the left and right prefrontal cortex and left anterior cingulum by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and relate results to verbal intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale revised) in a sample of college-educated healthy volunteers (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]: n=52, 23 females, and left anterior cingulum: n=62, 22 females; age range: 20-75 years). In women only, N-acetylaspartate in the DLPFC and in the left anterior cingulate cortex was positively correlated with vocabulary scores. Our data support the hypothesis of existing gender differences regarding the involvement of the left frontal cortex in verbal processing as reflected in different correlations of specific metabolites with verbal scores.
Depression is known to be associated with deficits in effortful processing and word fluency. Automatic processes, instead, appear largely intact in depressed patients. It was investigated whether active word definition could be a less appropriate method than passive word recognition as a measure of verbal intelligence in depression. The valid assessment of premorbid IQ is important for correct comparison with current cognitive efficiency of depressed individuals, since premorbid IQ serves as baseline or control parameter to estimate the extent and severity of acquired cognitive impairments, both in the clinical and the research context. Two vocabulary tests were administered to 90 patients (31 women) with unipolar depression and 30 control subjects (15 women): a word definition task [the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)] and a word recognition task [the Multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT)]. In the depressed sample, scores of the MWT tended to be higher than WAIS-R scores. For depressed women, the MWT score was significantly higher than the WAIS-R score. In the control sample, no differences between MWT and WAIS-R scores were observed. Our findings indicate that word definition tasks could underestimate verbal intelligence especially in depressed women. For depressed women, it could be more appropriate to administer word recognition than word definition as an estimate of premorbid or verbal intelligence.
Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A
Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics.
Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Chau, Tom
Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood. PMID:21969312
Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J; Chau, Tom
Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.
Gabig, Cheryl Smith
Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…
Ward, Caitlin M.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.
Background A common goal during speech comprehension is to remember what we have heard. Encoding speech into long-term memory frequently requires processes such as verbal working memory that may also be involved in processing degraded speech. Here we tested whether young and older adult listeners’ memory for short stories was worse when the stories were acoustically degraded, or whether the additional contextual support provided by a narrative would protect against these effects. Methods We tested 30 young adults (aged 18–28 years) and 30 older adults (aged 65–79 years) with good self-reported hearing. Participants heard short stories that were presented as normal (unprocessed) speech, or acoustically degraded using a noise vocoding algorithm with 24 or 16 channels. The degraded stories were still fully intelligible. Following each story, participants were asked to repeat the story in as much detail as possible. Recall was scored using a modified idea unit scoring approach, which included separately scoring hierarchical levels of narrative detail. Results Memory for acoustically degraded stories was significantly worse than for normal stories at some levels of narrative detail. Older adults’ memory for the stories was significantly worse overall, but there was no interaction between age and acoustic clarity or level of narrative detail. Verbal working memory (assessed by reading span) significantly correlated with recall accuracy for both young and older adults, whereas hearing ability (better ear pure-tone average) did not. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with a framework in which the additional cognitive demands caused by a degraded acoustic signal use resources that would otherwise be available for memory encoding for both young and older adults. Verbal working memory is a likely candidate for supporting both of these processes. PMID:26683044
Bennett, David S.
This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at 4, 6, and 9 years of age. Neonatal medical risk and other prenatal exposures (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) were also examined for their unique effects on child IQ. Mixed models analysis indicated that prenatal cocaine exposure interacted with gender as cocaine exposed boys had lower composite IQ scores. Age of assessment did not moderate this relation, indicating that cocaine exposed boys had lower IQs across this age period. A stimulating home environment and high maternal verbal IQ also predicted higher composite IQ scores. Cocaine exposed boys had lower scores on the Abstract/Visual Reasoning subscale, with trends for lower scores on the Short-term Memory and Verbal Reasoning subscales, as exposure effects were observed across domains. The findings indicate that cocaine exposure continues to place children at risk for mild cognitive deficits into preadolescence. Possible mechanisms for the exposure by gender interaction are discussed. PMID:18605824
Sawyer, R John; Young, J Christopher; Roper, Brad L; Rach, Amanda
The validity of neuropsychological testing is reliant on examinees putting forth adequate effort, yet it has been asserted that verbal subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) are insensitive to suboptimal effort in comparison to other commonly used neuropsychological measures. The current study examined performance differences on the entire WAIS-IV and WRAT-4 Reading, as well as the CVLT-II and several WMS-IV subtests, in 207 Veterans classified into Credible Effort (n = 146) and Non-credible Effort (n = 61) groups. Analyses revealed that the Non-credible Effort group performed significantly lower on all examined measures including verbal tests, with moderate to large effect sizes observed for most tests. Current findings thus indicate that WAIS-IV verbal subtests and reading ability measures, such as on the WRAT-4, are not insensitive to effects of non-credible effort. Consequently it is recommended that these tests not generally be used to estimate baseline intellectual functioning when found in the presence of non-credible effort. While there was broad performance suppression across all measures examined, results also showed a distinct continuum of test susceptibility with some measures being more or less sensitive to inadequate effort. Recommendations for future performance validity test development are presented.
Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald
Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.
Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald
Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500
This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…
Kumar, Navnit; Priyadarshi, Brajesh
Working memory (WM) declines with age. However it seems unclear, whether age related decline is more pronounced on verbal WM or on visuo-spatial WM. The present study compares the effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial modality of WM on native Hindi healthy speakers, in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. It was found that normal aging affect both the verbal and visual working memory in similar way. Both modality declines with a similar rate up to 50–60 years and after 60 years relative saturation in span take place. Although verbal WM span is higher than visuo-spatial WM span, but no significant difference between verbal and visuo-spatial WM span were observed. PMID:23946892
This study investigated the effectiveness of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) program on Turkish learners' vocabulary learning. Within the scope of this research, an ICALL application with a morphological analyser (Your Verbal Zone, YVZ) was developed and used in an English language preparatory class to measure its…
Morgan, E. R.
This report discusses the relationship between bilingualism and mental development of bilingual children. After a review of the relevant literature, a specific study is described. The linguistic background of 648 children from 29 schools, age 10 through 12 inclusive, was measured with the Welsh Linguistic Background Scale. General intelligence was…
Pina, Violeta; Fuentes, Luis J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Diamantopoulou, Sofia
It is assumed that children’s performance in mathematical abilities is influenced by several factors such as working memory (WM), verbal ability, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. The present study explored the contribution of those factors to mathematical performance taking a componential view of both WM and mathematics. We explored the existing relationship between different WM components (verbal and spatial) with tasks that make differential recruitment of the central executive, and simple and complex mathematical skills in a sample of 102 children in grades 4–6. The main findings point to a relationship between the verbal WM component and complex word arithmetic problems, whereas language and non-verbal intelligence were associated with knowledge of quantitative concepts and arithmetic ability. The spatial WM component was associated with the subtest Series, whereas the verbal component was with the subtest Concepts. The results also suggest a positive relationship between parental educational level and children’s performance on Quantitative Concepts. These findings suggest that specific cognitive skills might be trained in order to improve different aspects of mathematical ability. PMID:24847306
Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C
Task-related power changes in the EEG alpha band were analyzed in 31 participants (17 males and 14 females) during performance of two verbal creativity tasks. Participants were confronted with verbal problems that are in need of explanation (insight problems) and utopian situations that will actually never happen. In both tasks they were instructed to generate as many but also as unusual, unique or original ideas as possible. To assess brain responses that come along with highly original ideas, individual responses were divided into more and less original ideas (within each participant). Creative problem solving was generally accompanied by lower levels of cortical arousal (i.e., increases in alpha power from a pre-stimulus reference to an activation interval). Additionally, more original (vs. less original) responses were associated with a stronger task-related alpha synchronization in posterior (particularly centroparietal) cortices. Task-related alpha power changes during creative problem solving were also moderated by verbal IQ and sex.
Witelson, S F; Beresh, H; Kigar, D L
The neural basis of variation in human intelligence is not well delineated. Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from approximately 0 to 0.6, with most correlations approximately 0.3 or 0.4. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume and each hemisphere's volume in women and in right-handed men accounting for 36% of the variation in verbal intelligence. There was no evidence of such a relationship in non-right-handed men, indicating that at least for verbal intelligence, functional asymmetry may be a relevant factor in structure-function relationships in men, but not in women. In women, general visuospatial ability was also positively correlated with cerebral volume, but less strongly, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance. In men, there was a non-significant trend of a negative correlation between visuospatial ability and cerebral volume, suggesting that the neural substrate of visuospatial ability may differ between the sexes. Analyses of additional research subjects used as test cases provided support for our regression models. In men, visuospatial ability and cerebral volume were strongly linked via the factor of chronological age, suggesting that the well-documented decline in visuospatial intelligence with age is related, at least in right-handed men, to the decrease in cerebral
Petros, T V; Norgaard, L; Olson, K; Tabor, L
The present study examined the effects of verbal ability and text genre on adult age differences in sensitivity to the semantic structure of prose. Young and older adults of low or high verbal ability heard narrative and expository passages at different presentation rates. The results demonstrated that older adults recalled less than younger adults and that age differences in recall were larger for low-verbal adults and expository texts. However, subjects from all groups favored the main ideas in their recalls for both types of passages. The results indicated that adult age similarities in the ability to focus on the main ideas when processing prose was not compromised by the verbal ability of the subjects or the organization of the passages used. However, the results also demonstrate how the characteristics of the learner and the characteristics of the text modulate the size of the age differences observed.
Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M
A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined.
Jackson, Dylan B.; Beaver, Kevin M.
A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25568969
Leritz, Elizabeth C.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Lundgren, Kristine; Grande, Laura J.; Milberg, William P.
In this study, a task using forced-choice lexical familiarity judgments of irregular versus archaic words (a newly developed measure called the Lexical Orthographic Familiarity Test; LOFT) was compared to a standardized oral word-reading measure (the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading; WTAR) in a group of 35 aphasic adults and a comparison group of 125 community dwelling, non-brain damaged adults. When compared to non-brain damaged adults, aphasics had significantly lower scores on the WTAR but not the LOFT. Although both the WTAR and LOFT were significantly correlated with education in the non-brain damaged group, only the LOFT was correlated with education and also with the Barona full scale IQ index in the aphasic group. Lastly, WTAR performance showed a significantly greater relationship to the severity of language disorder in the aphasic group than did the LOFT. These results have both theoretical and clinical implications for the assessment of language disordered adults, as they indicate that patients with aphasia may retain aspects of verbally mediated intelligence, and that the LOFT may provide a better estimate of premorbid functioning in aphasia than other currently available measures. PMID:18999341
Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B
Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging.
Mungas, Dan; And Others
Three age groups of 24 people each completed verbal word list tasks and spatial learning tasks 5 times each. Significant age differences were found for total recall and type of task. Younger subjects showed increased levels of clustering--organizing information according to semantic or spatial clusters. Age was not related to temporal order of…
Lamm, O; Epstein, R
A sample of 290 kindergarten children (147 girls), all native Hebrew speakers, were tested by two dichotic listening tests: (a) a digits test (low verbal workload) and (b) a words test (high verbal workload). The same subjects were tested one year later (at the end of their first year at school) by the same tests. In both tests and both testing sessions the free recall procedure was used. It was found that the performance difference between ears significantly decreased and overall performance significantly increased in the digits test in the second testing session. Differences between sessions in ear difference in the words test were not significant, although overall performance in the second session increased. These data lend support to the hypothesis that the change with age in the between-ears difference is mainly related to an improvement in verbal processing efficiency, which in turn allows the allocation of more verbal resources to the inferior input channel, without a decrease in resources allocated to the preferred one. As expected, increase in available verbal resources was clearly manifested under low verbal workload conditions but not under high workload conditions, where task demands did not allow significant increase in verbal resources to be allocated to the inferior channel. This hypothesis also predicted highly consistent ear preference owing to its being solely determined by the verbal processors of the dominant-to-speech hemisphere. The inconsistent ear preference between tests found in more than a third of the subjects of this sample could not therefore be accounted for by the stated hypothesis. The analysis of performance in subjects who showed left-ear preference in only one test and right-ear advantage on the other occasions indicated that whenever the left ear was preferred it was accompanied by significantly smaller ear difference and lower overall performance compared with those manifested by the same subjects in the same test in the other
Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B
Relations among age, sensory functioning (i.e., visual and auditory acuity), and intelligence were examined in a heterogeneous, age-stratified sample of old and very old individuals (N = 156, M age = 84.9 years, age range = 70-103). Intelligence was assessed with 14 tests measuring 5 cognitive abilities (speed, reasoning, memory, knowledge, and fluency). Together, visual and auditory acuity accounted for 49.2% of the total and 93.1% of the age-related reliable variance in intelligence. The data were consistent with structural models in which age differences in intelligence, including speed, are completely mediated by differences in vision and hearing. Results suggest that sensory functioning is a strong late-life predictor of individual differences in intellectual functioning. Explanations are discussed, including the possibility that visual and sensory acuity are indicators of the physiological integrity of the aging brain (common cause hypothesis).
Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi
Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…
Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.
Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…
Kray, Jutta; Schmitt, Hannah; Heintz, Sonja; Blaye, Agnès
The main goal of this study was to examine whether different types of verbal labeling can influence age-related changes in the dynamic control of behavior by inducing either a proactive or reactive mode of control. Proactive control is characterized by a strong engagement in maintaining task-relevant information to be optimally prepared while…
Shake, Matthew C.; Perschke, Meghan K.
In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…
Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.
A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.
Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve
This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…
Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kasari, Connie
It is currently estimated that about 30% of children with autism spectrum disorder remain minimally verbal, even after receiving years of interventions and a range of educational opportunities. Very little is known about the individuals at this end of the autism spectrum, in part because this is a highly variable population with no single set of defining characteristics or patterns of skills or deficits, and in part because it is extremely challenging to provide reliable or valid assessments of their developmental functioning. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge based on research including minimally verbal children. We review promising new novel methods for assessing the verbal and nonverbal abilities of minimally verbal school-aged children, including eye-tracking and brain-imaging methods that do not require overt responses. We then review what is known about interventions that may be effective in improving language and communication skills, including discussion of both nonaugmentative and augmentative methods. In the final section of the paper, we discuss the gaps in the literature and needs for future research.
Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957
Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Hickey, Martha; Maybery, Murray T.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
Sex differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities are a contentious area of research. Prenatal steroids have been shown to have masculinizing effects on the brain that may affect the development of nonverbal and verbal abilities in later life. The current study examined a wide range of biologically active sex steroids (both androgens and estrogens) in umbilical cord blood at birth in a large pregnancy cohort in relation to performance on nonverbal (Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices) and verbal (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3 and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) measures at age 10 years. Overall, Androgen and Estrogen composites in cord blood were not found to be predictive of performance on verbal and nonverbal measures at age 10. These data suggest that late gestation sex steroids do not exert a major effect on nonverbal and verbal abilities in middle childhood. PMID:28278304
Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael
Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ > verbal IQ [NVIQ > VIQ], verbal IQ > nonverbal IQ [VIQ > NVIQ], and no split) and the relationship of gender, age, and ASD symptomatology to IQ discrepancy profile in a large sample of children with ASD. The NVIQ > VIQ profile occurred at a higher frequency than expected, had more young males, and showed more autism symptoms than the other groups. Results suggest that the NVIQ > VIQ profile may be less likely to represent a subtype of ASD, but rather a common developmental pathway for children with ASD and other disorders.
Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan
Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods – that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes. PMID:26004471
Daw, Jonathan; Guo, Guang; Harris, Kathie Mullan
Prominent authors in the behavioral genetics tradition have long argued that shared environments do not meaningfully shape intelligence and academic achievement. However, we argue that these conclusions are erroneous due to large violations of the additivity assumption underlying behavioral genetics methods - that sources of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance are independent and non-interactive. This is compounded in some cases by the theoretical equation of the effective and objective environments, where the former is defined by whether siblings are made more or less similar, and the latter by whether siblings are equally subject to the environmental characteristic in question. Using monozygotic twin fixed effects models, which compare outcomes among genetically identical pairs, we show that many characteristics of objectively shared environments significantly moderate the effects of nonshared environments on adolescent academic achievement and verbal intelligence, violating the additivity assumption of behavioral genetic methods. Importantly, these effects would be categorized as nonshared environmental influences in standard twin models despite their roots in shared environments. These findings should encourage caution among those who claim that the frequently trivial variance attributed to shared environments in behavioral genetic models means that families, schools, and neighborhoods do not meaningfully influence these outcomes.
Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.
Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…
Sheckart, George R.; Bass, Barry A.
It appears that contingent reinforcement may have an effect upon the intelligence test performance of black adults as evidenced by the consistent trend of the IQ scores in the direction of the proposed hypothesis. However, the primary analysis of the data revealed no statistically significant differences among treatment groups. (Author)
Jacobsen, Geise Machado; Prando, Mirella Liberatore; Moraes, André Luiz; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Siqueira, Larissa de Souza; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
Biological and cultural factors have been found to have a significant influence on cognitive development and performance in neuropsychological instruments such as verbal fluency tasks (VFT). Variations of traditional VFT, involving unconstrained word production and increased retrieval times, may provide further data regarding the executive, attentional, mnemonic, and linguistic abilities involved in VFT. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of age and school type on the performance of 6- to 12-year-old children in unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic VFT. The VFT were administered to 460 participants. The effects of age and school type on verbal fluency (VF) performance were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests (p ≤ .05). A repeated-measures analysis was also used to evaluate VF performance over time (p ≤ .05). Main effects of age and school type were identified on all measures (effect sizes ranged from .05 to .32, p ≤ .05). VF scores increased with age and were higher among private school students. The influence of age on VFT may be associated with the development of executive functions. The impact of type of school on VF performance may be explained by the greater availability of cognitive stimulation (semantic knowledge) provided by private schools and families with better socioeconomic levels.
Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek
In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of age-related differences in the binding of verbal and spatial information utilizing event-related working memory tasks. Twenty-one right handed younger adults and twenty-one right handed older adults performed two versions of a dual task of verbal and spatial working memory. In the unbound dual task version letters and locations were presented simultaneously in separate locations, while in the bound dual task version each letter was paired with a specific location. In order to identify binding-specific differences, mixed-effects ANOVAs were run with the interaction of age and task as the effect of interest. Although older adults performed worse in the bound task than younger adults, there was no significant interaction between task and age on working memory performance. However, interactions of age and task were observed in brain activity analyses. Older adults did not display the greater unbound than bound task activity that younger adults did at the encoding phase in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right putamen, and globus pallidus as well as at the maintenance phase in the cerebellum. We conclude that the binding of letters and locations in working memory is not as efficient in older adults as it is in younger adults, possibly due to the decline of cognitive control processes that are specific to working memory binding.
Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.
Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee
In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…
Bennett, Edward S.; Eklund, Susan J.
Reviews the effects of vision changes commonly associated with aging (e.g., cataract, presbyopia, pupil changes) and examines their relationship to intellectual performance. Discusses variables related to intellectual functioning including motivation, education, test anxiety, and fatigue. (LLL)
Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen
Summary This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its “adolescence” (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: Will the field come of age in the ‘90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993; 5:93–106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and attempt to characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems. PMID:18790621
Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen
This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its "adolescence" (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: will the field come of age in the '90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993;5:93-106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision-making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems.
Discusses three "information age" trends that have colleges and universities re-examining their campus infrastructure flexibility to support these wireless communication needs. Trends examined are information technology; increased demand for flexible, technology- focused teaching spaces; and increased systems' interconnectivity. (GR)
Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco
We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002
Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L
Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline.
Reichert, Johanna Louise; Kober, Silvia Erika; Witte, Matthias; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme
Both electrical brain activity during rest and memory functions change across the lifespan. Moreover, electrical brain activity is associated with memory functions. However, the interplay between all these effects has been investigated only scarcely. The present study investigated the extent to which the power of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies mediates the impact of aging on verbal and visuospatial memory. Seventy healthy participants with 22 to 83years of age completed a visuospatial and verbal learning and memory test and provided eyes-open and eyes-closed resting-state EEG data. Robust age-related effects on behavioral and EEG data were observed. Mediation analyses showed that the relative power of the theta (4-8Hz) frequency band in fronto-central locations partly explained the negative age-related effect on delayed recall in the verbal memory task. The relative power of the alpha II (10-12Hz) frequency band in mainly parietal locations partly explained the negative impact of age on immediate and delayed recall in the visuospatial task. Results indicate that spontaneous brain activity carries specific information about aging processes and predicts the level of competence in verbal and visuospatial memory tasks.
Archibald, Lisa M. D.
Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the cognitive processes supporting verbal abilities, the underlying structure and interrelationships between common verbal measures were investigated. Methods: An epidemiological sample (n = 374) of school-aged children completed standardized tests of language, intelligence, and short-term and working…
Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca; Zhang, Aifeng; Kumar, Anand
Verbal memory deficits attributed to late life depression (LLD) may result from executive dysfunction that is more detrimental to list-learning than story-based recall when compared to healthy aging. Despite these behavioral dissociations, little work has been done investigating related neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in LLD. We compared list-learning to story-based memory performance in 24 non-demented individuals with LLD (age ~ 66.1 ± 7.8) and 41 non-demented/non-depressed healthy controls (HC; age ~ 67.6 ± 5.3). We correlated significant results of between-group analyses across memory performance variables with brain volumes of frontal, temporal and parietal regions known to be involved with verbal learning and memory. When compared to the HC group, the LLD group showed significantly lower verbal memory performance for spontaneous recall after repeated exposure and after a long-delay but only for the list-learning task; groups did not differ on story-based memory performance. Despite equivalent brain volumes across regions, only the LLD group showed brain associations with verbal memory performance and only for the list-learning task. Specifically, frontal volumes important for subjective organization and response monitoring correlated with list-learning performance in the LLD group. This study is the first to demonstrate neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in individuals with LLD. Results provide structural evidence for the behavioral dissociations between list-learning and story-based recall in LLD when compared to healthy aging. More specifically, it points toward a network of predominantly anterior brain regions that may underlie the executive contribution to list-learning in older adults with depression.
Schalke, Daniela; Brunner, Martin; Geiser, Christian; Preckel, Franzis; Keller, Ulrich; Spengler, Marion; Martin, Romain
The present longitudinal study tackled 2 key aspects of the development of intelligence across a 40-year time period from age 12 to age 52 concerning (a) stability and change in the structure of intelligence with reference to the age differentiation-dedifferentiation hypothesis (how different cognitive abilities relate to each other across age)…
Deary, Ian J; Brett, Caroline E
In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman-Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation-the NART-and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.
Lopez, Lorna M.; Mullen, William; Zurbig, Petra; Harris, Sarah E.; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David J.; Mischak, Harald; Deary, Ian J.
Intelligence is an important indicator of physical, mental and social well-being. In old age, intelligence is also associated with a higher quality of life and better health. Heritability studies have shown that there are strong genetic influences, yet unknown, on intelligence, including in old age. Other approaches may be useful to investigate…
Kray, Jutta; Schmitt, Hannah; Heintz, Sonja; Blaye, Agnès
The main goal of this study was to examine whether different types of verbal labeling can influence age-related changes in the dynamic control of behavior by inducing either a proactive or reactive mode of control. Proactive control is characterized by a strong engagement in maintaining task-relevant information to be optimally prepared while reactive control is characterized by a reactivation of task-related information during responding. To investigate dynamic shifts between these control modes, we applied the AX-Continuous-Performance-Task in 2 experiments that differed in the complexity of stimuli and types of labeling in children (range = 7-10 years), younger (range = 19-33 years), and older adults (range = 69-83 years). We expected that labeling the cue information would promote a shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode primarily in children and older adults, while labeling the probe information would result in a shift from a proactive to a reactive control mode primarily in younger adults. Results of both experiments indicated that children, younger, and older adults were equally engaged in cue processing and performed the task in a proactive manner. While cue labeling did not further promote performing the task proactively, probe labeling induced a shift to a reactive control mode, especially in children. In the first experiment, including younger children than in the second experiment, children had more problems than adults to reactivate cue information to overcome a strong response tendency. These findings support the view that verbal labeling can influence the regulation of behavior by selectively attracting attention to relevant information in a given task.
Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.
Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…
Gifford, Katherine A; Phillips, Jeffrey S; Samuels, Lauren R; Lane, Elizabeth M; Bell, Susan P; Liu, Dandan; Hohman, Timothy J; Romano, Raymond R; Fritzsche, Laura R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L
A symptom of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a flat learning profile. Learning slope calculation methods vary, and the optimal method for capturing neuroanatomical changes associated with MCI and early AD pathology is unclear. This study cross-sectionally compared four different learning slope measures from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (simple slope, regression-based slope, two-slope method, peak slope) to structural neuroimaging markers of early AD neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in parahippocampal gyrus, precuneus, and lateral prefrontal cortex) across the cognitive aging spectrum [normal control (NC); (n=198; age=76±5), MCI (n=370; age=75±7), and AD (n=171; age=76±7)] in ADNI. Within diagnostic group, general linear models related slope methods individually to neuroimaging variables, adjusting for age, sex, education, and APOE4 status. Among MCI, better learning performance on simple slope, regression-based slope, and late slope (Trial 2-5) from the two-slope method related to larger parahippocampal thickness (all p-values<.01) and hippocampal volume (p<.01). Better regression-based slope (p<.01) and late slope (p<.01) were related to larger ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in MCI. No significant associations emerged between any slope and neuroimaging variables for NC (p-values ≥.05) or AD (p-values ≥.02). Better learning performances related to larger medial temporal lobe (i.e., hippocampal volume, parahippocampal gyrus thickness) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in MCI only. Regression-based and late slope were most highly correlated with neuroimaging markers and explained more variance above and beyond other common memory indices, such as total learning. Simple slope may offer an acceptable alternative given its ease of calculation.
Hatta, Takeshi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Hatta, Taketoshi; Ito, Emi; Hatta, Junko; Hotta, Chie; Nagahara, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Two models of cognitive ageing, the hemisphere asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) model and the right hemi-ageing model, were compared based upon the verbal memory and visuospatial task performance of 338 elderly participants. Comparison of the developmental trajectories for four age groups (50s, 60s, 70s and 80s) supported the HAROLD model, but not the right hemi-ageing model. Performance differences between the verbal memory and visuospatial tasks in the earlier age groups decreased in the later age groups. There was a sex difference in the cognitive-decline trajectories for verbal and visuospatial task performance after the 50s.
Ziegler, Mark E.; Doehrman, Steven
Analysis of correlations between Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores for 231 high-IQ psychiatric outpatients indicated that Verbal IQ appears partially valid as a WAIS short form for this higher IQ group. Results are interpreted in terms of Resnick and Entin's short form validity criteria. (Editor/SJL)
Rodríguez-Aranda, Claudia; Waterloo, Knut; Johnsen, Stein Harald; Eldevik, Petter; Sparr, Sigurd; Wikran, Gry C; Herder, Marit; Vangberg, Torgil Riise
Verbal fluency (VF) impairments occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to a lesser extent also in normal aging. However, the neural underpinnings of these impairments are not fully understood. The present study evaluated whether VF impairments in early AD and normal aging rely upon common or different neuroanatomical correlates. We examined the association between VF performance and brain structure in 18 mild AD patients and 24 healthy elderly. Linear regressions were performed between accuracy and time intervals in VF scores and structural measurements of cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using MRI. Results showed that semantic VF correlated exclusively with GM in cerebellum, left temporal fusiform cortex, and WM in uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and corpus callosum. Phonemic VF showed unique associations between intervals and WM in left-hemisphere tracts. The association between GM in hippocampus, subcortical structures and semantic accuracy differentiated patients from controls. Results showed that VF impairments are primarily associated with same structural brain changes in AD as in healthy elderly but at exaggerated levels. However, specific VF deficiencies and their underlying neural correlates exist and these clearly differentiate the initial stages of AD.
Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael
Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…
Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz
Data from five subtests of the Executive Functions Module of the German Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) and all ten core subtests of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were used to examine the relationship between executive functions and intelligence in a comparison of two age groups: individuals aged 18-59 years and individuals aged 60-88 years. The NAB subtests Categories and Word Generation demonstrated a consistent correlation pattern for both age groups. However, the NAB Judgment subtest correlated more strongly with three WAIS-IV indices, the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and the General Ability Index (GAI) in the older adult group than in the younger group. Additionally, in the 60-88 age group, the Executive Functions Index (EFI) was more strongly correlated with the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) than with the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). Both age groups demonstrated a strong association of the EFI with the FSIQ and the Working Memory Index (WMI). The results imply the potential diagnostic utility of the Judgment subtest and a significant relationship between executive functioning and crystallized intelligence at older ages. Furthermore, it may be concluded that there is a considerable age-independent overlap between the EFI and general intelligence, as well as between the EFI and working memory.
Taylor, Gemma; Liu, Hao; Herbert, Jane S
The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al., 1997). Imitation performance by infants in the English language condition only exceeded baseline performance after the 10-min delay. Thus, verbal labels facilitated flexible memory retrieval on this task. There were no correlations between infants' language comprehension and imitation performance. Thus, it is likely that verbal labels facilitate both attention and categorisation during encoding and retrieval.
Bugg, Julie M.; Zook, Nancy A.; DeLosh, Edward L.; Davalos, Deana B.; Davis, Hasker P.
The current study examined the contributions of general slowing and frontal decline to age differences in fluid intelligence. Participants aged 20-89 years completed Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, simple reaction time, choice reaction time, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and Tower of London tasks. Age-related declines in fluid intelligence, speed of…
Wallace, Gregory L; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C; Medland, Sarah E; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Clasen, Liv S; Schmitt, James E; Neale, Michael C; Giedd, Jay N
Twin studies indicate that both intelligence and brain structure are moderately to highly heritable. Recent bivariate studies of adult twins also suggest that intelligence and brain morphometry are influenced by shared genetic factors. The current study examines shared genetic and environmental factors between brain morphometry and intelligence in a sample of children and adolescents (twins, twin siblings, and singletons; n = 649, ages 4-19). To extend previous studies, brain morphometric data were parsed into subregions (lobar gray/white matter volumes, caudate nucleus, lateral ventricles) and intelligence into verbal and nonverbal skills (Wechsler Vocabulary and Block Design subtests). Phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and intelligence were small. Verbal skills shared unique environmental effects with gray matter volumes while nonverbal skills shared genetic effects with both global and regional gray and white matter. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms contribute to the small phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and verbal versus nonverbal intelligence.
Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus
Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.
Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Sarkar, Saurabh; Mathur, Kovid; Tennety, Srinivas
History shows that problems that cause human confusion often lead to inventions to solve the problems, which then leads to exploitation of the invention, creating a confusion-invention-exploitation cycle. Robotics, which started as a new type of universal machine implemented with a computer controlled mechanism in the 1960's, has progressed from an Age of Over-expectation, a Time of Nightmare, an Age of Realism, and is now entering the Age of Exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to propose architecture for the modern intelligent robot in which sensors permit adaptation to changes in the environment are combined with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. This ideal model may be compared to various controllers that have been implemented using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Several prototypes and simulations are considered in view of peta-computing. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications.
Chabani, Ellahe; Hommel, Bernhard
Recent decades have witnessed a growing interest in intervention-based assessment to promote and enhance children's learning. In this study, we explored the potential effect of an experimental visual-spatial intervention procedure and possible training benefits of two prompting modalities: one group received training with verbal and visual…
Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.
This study investigated the effect of overt self-verbalization of various contents on the delay maintenance behavior of preschool, second grade and third grade children in a task in which the child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child's stopping further accumulation. (BD)
Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G
Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.
Fischer, Florian U; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas
Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.
Mclaughlin, W. I.
A systems analysis of the future evolution of man can be conducted by analyzing the biological material of the galaxy into three subsystems: man, intelligent machines, and intelligent extraterrestrial organisms. A binomial interpretation is applied to this system wherein each of the subsystems is assigned a designation of success or failure. For man the two alternatives are, respectively, 'decline' or 'flourish', for machine they are 'become intelligent' or 'stay dumb', while for extraterrestrial intelligence the dichotomy is that of 'existence' or 'nonexistence'. The choices for each of three subsystems yield a total of eight possible states for the system. The relative lack of integration between brain components makes man a weak evolutionary contestant compared to machines. It is judged that machines should become dominant on earth within 100 years, probably by means of continuing development of existing man-machine systems. Advanced forms of extraterrestrial intelligence may exist but are too difficult to observe. The prospects for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence are reviewed.
Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.
Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…
Intelligence Community must accomplish.41 Similarly, Dr. Michael G. Vickers, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, calls intelligence “our...understanding assessed threats.77 The result is policymakers have what political scientist, Dr. Matthew Wahlert, calls conceptual failure – “a...the “ambiguous signals, unconfirmed reports, and the so- called ‘cry-wolf” syndrome tend to depress confidence in warning forecasts.”80 Additionally
Taub, Gordon E.
Investigated the construct validity of the implied and theoretical structures of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III). Results using the standardization sample of 2,450 adults and adolescents indicate that the WAIS-III provides an excellent measure of the four-factor model and a general factor, but they do not support the construct…
García-Sancho, Esperanza; Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been associated with several indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including aggressive behavior, but the relevant research has been mostly cross-sectional, focused on adults, and limited to trait EI measures (García-Sancho, Salguero & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014; Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, ). The present work explored the relationship between Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI) and aggression in both adults and adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. We conducted two studies. Study 1 aimed to provide preliminary evidence about the relationship between AEI and aggression in adults. As literature has shown personality traits act as a strong predictor of aggression, study 1 also examined the potential incremental validity of AEI beyond personality traits in 474 undergraduate students (M = 22.76, SD = 5.13). The results indicated AEI explains a significant amount of unique variance for physical aggression, but not for verbal aggression after controlling personality traits. Study 2 aimed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between EI and aggression in 151 adolescents (M = 14.74, SD = 0.84). AEI predicted physical aggression over time, but it did not predict verbal aggression. Results from both studies suggest a negative and significant relationship between AEI and physical aggression, however contrary our expectations, it did not for verbal aggression. These results highlight the important explanatory role of emotional abilities in physical aggressive conducts and the implications of these findings are discussed.
Goldhammer, Frank; Rauch, Wolfgang A.; Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried
The study investigates the effects of intelligence, perceptual speed and age on intraindividual growth in attentional speed and attentional accuracy over the course of a 6-minute testing session. A sample of 193 subjects completed the Advanced Progressive Matrices and the Vienna Matrices Test representing intelligence, the tests Alertness and…
Silventoinen, K; Posthuma, D; van Beijsterveldt, T; Bartels, M; Boomsma, D I
A positive association between intelligence (IQ) and height has been reported previously. It is generally assumed that this association reflects the effect of childhood environment on IQ, but there is still little research supporting directly this hypothesis. We studied the association between height and IQ in 209 Dutch twin pairs at the ages of 5, 7, 10 and 12 years, 208 twin pairs at 16 and 18 years of age and 567 twin pairs and their siblings in adulthood. The heritability of height was high in all cohorts and across all ages (a2 = 0.93 - 0.96). In adulthood, heritability was also high for full-scale IQ (FSIQ: a2 = 0.83-0.84) and somewhat lower for verbal IQ (VIQ: a2 = 0.66-0.84). In early childhood, the heritability was lower, and common environmental factors had a substantial effect on FSIQ and VIQ. A positive association of height and IQ was found in early childhood and adolescence. In adulthood, a correlation was found between height and FSIQ in young adulthood and between height and VIQ in middle age. All correlations could be ascribed to genetic factors influencing both height and IQ. Thus, these results show that the association between height and IQ should not be directly regarded as evidence for childhood living conditions affecting IQ, but the effect of genetic factors affecting independently or interacting with environmental factors should be considered as well.
Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Lazar, Sara W.
Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation. PMID:24795629
Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H; Dickerson, Bradford C; Gray, Jeremy R; Lazar, Sara W
Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation.
Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.
Gold, D P; Andres, D; Etezadi, J; Arbuckle, T; Schwartzman, A; Chaikelson, J
This study examined the effects of abilities as a young adult, an engaged lifestyle, personality, age, and health on continuity and change in intellectual abilities from early to late adulthood. A battery of measures, including a verbal and nonverbal intelligence test, was given to 326 Canadian army veterans. Archival data provided World War Two enlistment scores on the same intelligence test for this sample: Results indicated relative stability of intellectual scores across 40 years, with increases in vocabulary and decreases in arithmetic, verbal analogies, and nonverbal skills. Young adult intelligence was the most important determinant of older adult performance. Predictors for verbal intelligence were consistent with an engagement model of intellectual maintenance but also indicated the importance of introversion-extraversion and age. Nonverbal intelligence in late life was predicted by young adult nonverbal scores, age, health, and introversion-extraversion.
Lee, Hon Wah; Lo, Yu-Hui; Li, Kuan-Hui; Sung, Wen-Shin; Juan, Chi-Hung
Building on the theoretical framework that intellectual behavior relies on one's ability to process both task-relevant and task-irrelevant information, this study aimed to empirically investigate the association of response inhibition with intelligence in preschool children's development. In a sample of 152 typically developing children aged between 3.6 and 6.6 years, we found evidence that suggests that inhibitory control is linked to age-related differences in intelligence. Stop-signal inhibition improved at a rate similar to the age-related changes in Verbal IQ. Components of variance analyses revealed that stop-signal reaction time predicted a larger proportion of the age-related variance in children's verbal intelligence than non-age-related variance. Results are discussed with respect to possible explanations for this intriguing relationship between response inhibition and the verbal aspects of intelligence. PMID:26113838
Glasgow, Jacqueline N.
Describes a project in which students in a college survey class on young adult literature were paired with students in a high school English class in a "buddy journal" project. Shows examples of this writing and of the assignments which used Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences to offer students multiple paths for responding to…
Kahlaoui, Karima; Di Sante, Gabriele; Barbeau, Joannie; Maheux, Manon; Lesage, Frederic; Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves
Healthy aging is characterized by a number of changes on brain structure and function. Several neuroimaging studies have shown an age-related reduction in hemispheric asymmetry on various cognitive tasks, a phenomenon captured by Cabeza (2002) in the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Although this phenomenon is…
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A.; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the…
Cox, Simon R; Bastin, Mark E; Ferguson, Karen J; Allerhand, Mike; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susanna Muñoz; Starr, John M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J; MacPherson, Sarah E
Functional neuroimaging studies report increased right prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement during verbal memory tasks amongst low-scoring older individuals, compared to younger controls and their higher-scoring contemporaries. Some propose that this reflects inefficient use of neural resources through failure of the left PFC to inhibit non-task-related right PFC activity, via the anterior corpus callosum (CC). For others, it indicates partial compensation - that is, the right PFC cannot completely supplement the failing neural network, but contributes positively to performance. We propose that combining structural and diffusion brain MRI can be used to test predictions from these theories which have arisen from fMRI studies. We test these hypotheses in immediate and delayed verbal memory ability amongst 90 healthy older adults of mean age 73 years. Right hippocampus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium made unique contributions to verbal memory ability in the whole group. There was no significant effect of anterior callosal white matter integrity on performance. Rather, segmented linear regression indicated that right DLPFC volume was a significantly stronger positive predictor of verbal memory for lower-scorers than higher-scorers, supporting a compensatory explanation for the differential involvement of the right frontal lobe in verbal memory tasks in older age.
Bain, Sherry K.; Jaspers, Kathryn E.
This article presents a review of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004b), which is designed to provide a brief, individualized format for measuring verbal and nonverbal intelligence in children and adults from the ages of 4 years, 0 months through 90 years, 11 months. The test consists of only…
Shorr, David N.; And Others
Discrepancies between the mental age (MA) scores and the mean performance of chronological age (CA) groups in the latest revision of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale are noted. A table is presented for converting published Stanford-Binet MA scores into MA scores that are congruent with the above definition. (Author)
Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L
Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.
Nikolova, Simona; Stark, Shauna M; Stark, Craig E L
The hippocampus is a critical site for alterations that are responsible for age-related changes in memory. Here, we present a relatively novel approach of examining the relationship between memory performance and glutamate-glutamine levels using short echo time magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between Glx (a composite of glutamate and glutamine) levels in the hippocampus, performance on a word-recall task, and resting-state functional connectivity. While there was no overall difference in Glx intensity between young and aging adults, we identified a positive correlation between delayed word-list recall and Glx, bilaterally in older adults, but not in young adults. Collapsed across age, we also discovered a negative relationship between Glx intensity and resting-state functional connectivity between the anterior hippocampus and regions in the subcallosal gyrus. These findings demonstrate the possible utility of Glx in identifying age-related changes in the brain and behavior and provide encouragement that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be useful in predicting age-related decline before any physical abnormalities are present.
Tillman, Carin M.; Nyberg, Lilianne; Bohlin, Gunilla
This study investigated, in children aged 6-13 years, how different components of the working memory (WM) system (short-term storage and executive processes), within both verbal and visuospatial domains, relate to fluid intelligence. We also examined the degree of domain-specificity of the WM components as well as the differentiation of storage…
van Tuijl, Cathy; Leseman, Paul P. M.
The current longitudinal study examined the development of general cognitive abilities of 4-6-year-old children of low-income, ethnic-minority families in preschool over two and a half years by determining the changes in general, and in verbal and fluid cognitive abilities, relative to age norms, using an intelligence test. The results revealed…
Baltes, P B; Dittmann-Kohli, F; Kliegl, R
Fluid intelligence belongs to that cluster of intellectual abilities evincing aging loss. To examine further the range of intellectual reserve available to aging individuals and the question of replicability in a new cultural and laboratory setting, 204 healthy older adults (mean age = 72 years; range = 60-86) participated in a short-term longitudinal training study. For experimental subjects, 10 sessions consisted of cognitive training involving two subability tests (Figural Relations, Induction) of fluid intelligence. The pattern of outcomes replicates and expands on earlier studies. Older adults have the reserve to evince substantial increases in levels of performance in fluid intelligence tests. Transfer of training, however, is narrow in scope. Training also increases accuracy of performance and the ability to solve more difficult test items. Difficulty level was estimated in a separate study, with a comparable sample of N = 112 elderly adults. Future research is suggested to examine whether intellectual reserve extends to near-maximum levels of performance.
Burman, Douglas D.; Minas, Taylor; Bolger, Donald J.; Booth, James R.
Previous studies have shown that the "strength" of connectivity between regions can vary depending upon the cognitive demands of a task. In this study, the "location" of task-dependent connectivity from the primary visual cortex (V1) was examined in 43 children (ages 9-15) performing visual tasks; connectivity maxima were identified for a visual…
Lamm, O.; Epstein, R.
Examined digit and word dichotic listening in children in kindergarten and again one year later. Found that in the second digit test, between-ears performance difference decreased; overall performance increased. Between-ear differences across the two word tests were not significant, but overall performance improved over time. Age changes in the…
Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Cooper, Cyrus; Batty, G David
Psychological factors are thought to play a part in the aetiology of chronic widespread pain. We investigated the relationship between intelligence in childhood and risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood in 6902 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 British Birth Cohort). Participants took a test of general cognitive ability at age 11 years; and chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, was assessed at age 45 years. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using log-binomial regression, adjusting for sex and potential confounding or mediating factors. Risk of chronic widespread pain, defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, rose in a stepwise fashion as intelligence fell (P for linear trend <0.0001). In sex-adjusted analyses, for an SD lower intelligence quotient, the RR of chronic widespread pain was 1.26 (95% CI 1.17-1.35). In multivariate backwards stepwise regression, lower childhood intelligence remained as an independent predictor of chronic widespread pain (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), along with social class, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, and psychological distress. Part of the effect of lower childhood intelligence on risk of chronic widespread pain in midlife was significantly mediated through greater body mass index and more disadvantaged socioeconomic position. Men and women with higher intelligence in childhood are less likely as adults to report chronic widespread pain.
Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis
Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.
Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.
Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467
Kievit, Rogier A; Davis, Simon W; Mitchell, Daniel J; Taylor, Jason R; Duncan, John; Henson, Richard N A
Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing.
Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk
Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.
Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Chicherio, Christian; van der Linden, Bernadette W A; Sauter, Julia; Kliegel, Matthias
We investigated whether the relation of educational attainment and cognitive level of job to performance in verbal ability and processing speed in old age was mediated via the number of chronic diseases. A total of 2,812 older adults participated. Psychometric tests on verbal ability and processing speed were administered. Individuals were interviewed regarding their education, midlife occupation, and chronic diseases in old age. Higher educational attainment and higher cognitive level of job were correlated with better performance in verbal ability and processing speed (.15 ≤ r ≤ .33, ps < .001). 1.4 to 7.3% of these relations was mediated via the number of chronic diseases (β = .01, ps < .026). In conclusion, individuals with higher educational attainment and higher cognitive level of job may possibly suffer from fewer chronic diseases later in life. Possibly, this may finally be related to better performance in verbal ability and processing speed in those individuals in old age.
Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert; Gygi, Brian
How age and hearing loss affect the perception of interrupted speech may vary based on both the physical properties of preserved or obliterated speech fragments and individual listener characteristics. To investigate perceptual processes and interruption parameters influencing intelligibility across interruption rates, participants of different age and hearing status heard sentences interrupted by silence at either a single primary rate (0.5-8 Hz; 25%, 50%, 75% duty cycle) or at an additional concurrent secondary rate (24 Hz; 50% duty cycle). Although age and hearing loss significantly affected intelligibility, the ability to integrate sub-phonemic speech fragments produced by the fast secondary rate was similar in all listener groups. Age and hearing loss interacted with rate with smallest group differences observed at the lowest and highest interruption rates of 0.5 and 24 Hz. Furthermore, intelligibility of dual-rate gated sentences was higher than single-rate gated sentences with the same proportion of retained speech. Correlations of intelligibility of interrupted speech to pure-tone thresholds, age, or measures of working memory and auditory spectro-temporal pattern discrimination were generally low-to-moderate and mostly nonsignificant. These findings demonstrate rate-dependent effects of age and hearing loss on the perception of interrupted speech, suggesting complex interactions of perceptual processes across different time scales.
Sternberg, Robert J
Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.
Sternberg, Robert J.
Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301
THE RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AREA OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR ARE CONSIDERED IN TERMS OF THREE MAJOR THEMATIC LINES: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.
Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.
While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.
Plemons, J K; Willis, S L; Baltes, P B
The aim of this study was to examine to what degree fluid intelligence can be modified in aged subjects. The effectiveness of a cognitive training program designed to enhance one primary component of fluid intelligence, Figural Relations, was assessed by comparing the posttraining performances of 15 experimental and 15 control subjects (mean age: 69; age range 59-85) using a transfer paradigm and three posttraining assessments conducted approximately 1 week, 1 mo, and 6 mo following training. The post-training performance of the two groups was compared on three near (fluid intelligence) and one far (crystallized intelligence) transfer measures. A hierarchical pattern was predicted with the magnitude of training effects ordering themselves in descending order from near to far transfer measures. The training program was successful in enhancing performance on the fluid-nearest measure on all three posttests and for the next fluid-near measure on the first posttest. In addition, significant retest effects resulted which, however, were neither task-specific nor hierarchically ordered, but general and therefore indicative of ability-extraneous factors, such as test sophistication. The findings contribute to a position implying that intellectual performance in old age is more modifiable through short-term behavioral intervention than traditionally assumed.
Mjagkij, Nina; Cantu, D. Antonio
Describes a lesson on the Gilded Age that focuses on eight themes (urbanization, the rise of Jim Crow, populism, politics, immigration, Westward expansion, industrialization, and imperialism) and also incorporates Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences model in order to provide students with various types of learning activities. Gives a list of…
Tamez, Elaine; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra
According to the cognitive cascade hypothesis, age-related slowing results in decreased working memory, which in turn affects higher-order cognition. Because recent studies show complex associative learning correlates highly with fluid intelligence, the present study examined the role of complex associative learning in cognitive cascade models of…
Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike
The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed old participants in this learning test. However,…
The increasing pressure on Health Care Organizations (HCOs) to ensure efficiency and cost-effectiveness, balancing quality of care and cost containment, will drive them towards a more effective management of medical knowledge derived from research findings. The relation between science and health services has until recently been too casual. The primary job of medical research has been to understand the mechanisms of disease and produce new treatments, not to worry about the effectiveness of the new treatments or their implementation. As a result many new treatments have taken years to become part of routine practice, ineffective treatments have been widely used, and medicine has been opinion rather than evidence based. This results in suboptimal care for patients. Knowledge management technology may provide effective approaches in speeding up the diffusion of innovative medical procedures whose clinical effectiveness have been proved: the most interesting one is represented by computer-based utilization of evidence-based clinical guidelines. As researchers in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (AIM), we are committed to foster the strategic transition from opinion to evidence-based decision making. Reviews of the effectiveness of various methods of guideline dissemination show that the most predictable impact is achieved when the guideline is made accessible through computer-based and patient specific reminders that are integrated into the clinician's workflow. However, the traditional single doctor-patient relationship is being replaced by one in which the patient is managed by a team of health care professionals, each specializing in one aspect of care. Such shared care depends critically on the ability to share patient-specific information and medical knowledge easily among them. Strategically there is a need to take a more clinical process view of health care delivery and to identify the appropriate organizational and information infrastructures to support
Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Faron-Lasyk, Aneta; Borecki, Lukasz
It is unclear why some people behave altruistically and others do not. This study seeks to determine what psychological features could help predict altruistic behavior. We addressed the issue by examining distinct dimensions of temperament and emotional intelligence and their associations with the level of proaltruistic aptitude in two distant age-groups, young (20-29 years) and senior (60-79 years) persons. The study was one of a self-reported psychometric survey. The major findings were that emotional intelligence, rather than temperament, is strongly associated with the expression of altruistic behavior in both young and senior subjects, despite a general decrease in the characteristics of emotional intelligence in advanced age. We also failed to substantiate the presence of an appreciable difference in the level of declared altruism between the senior and young subjects. High emotional intelligence, often underling social engagement and bonding, seems thus a good predictor of altruistic aptitude to be displayed by a person. The independence of this association of age-changes in emotional agility is suggestive of causal relationship. The study is relevant for an understanding of the enigmatic origins of important social behaviors like altruism.
Menon, Chloe V.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Mauer, Cortney B.; O'Bryant, Sid E.
Limited research is available regarding the impact of neuropsychological functioning on health risk behaviors in rural-dwelling elderly populations. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between estimated premorbid verbal IQ (AMNART), executive functioning impairment (EXIT25), and health risk behaviors including alcohol use (AUDIT), smoking, compliance with recommended cancer screenings, and obesity (BMI). The total sample included 456 English-speaking adults and older adults of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic origin seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Regression analyses revealed significant independent effects of AMNART and EXIT25 on most health risk behaviors, and supported the hypothesized mediating role of EXIT25 on the relationships between AMNART and smoking, cancer screenings, and BMI in both cognitively impaired and healthy subgroups. This study clarifies the relationships between executive functioning, premorbid IQ, and health risk behaviors in diverse groups, and confirms that premorbid IQ represents an important determinant of health behaviors and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:23192834
Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Plomin, Robert
Evidence from twin studies points to substantial environmental influences on intelligence, but the specifics of this influence are unclear. This study examined one developmental process that potentially causes intelligence differences: learning to read. In 1,890 twin pairs tested at 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 years, a cross-lagged monozygotic-differences design was used to test for associations of earlier within-pair reading ability differences with subsequent intelligence differences. The results showed several such associations, which were not explained by differences in reading exposure and were not restricted to verbal cognitive domains. The study highlights the potentially important influence of reading ability, driven by the nonshared environment, on intellectual development and raises theoretical questions about the mechanism of this influence. PMID:25056688
Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.
James, Lori E.; Abrams, Lise; Tyler, Lorraine K.
Objective: We tested the claim that age-related increases in knowledge interfere with word retrieval, leading to word finding failures. We did this by relating a measure of crystallized intelligence to tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states and picture naming accuracy. Method: Participants were from a large (N = 708), cross-sectional (aged 18–88 years), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience cohort (Cam-CAN; www.cam-can.com). They completed (a) the Spot-the-Word Test (STW), a measure of crystallized intelligence in which participants circled the real word in word/nonword pairs, (b) a TOT-inducing task, and (c) a picture naming task. Results: Age and STW independently predicted TOTs, with higher TOTs for older adults and for participants with lower STW scores. Tests of a moderator model examining interactions between STW and age indicated that STW was a significant negative predictor of TOTs in younger adults, but with increasing age, the effect size gradually approached zero. Results using picture naming accuracy replicated these findings. Discussion: These results do not support the hypothesis that lifelong knowledge acquisition leads to interference that causes an age-related increase in TOTs. Instead, crystallized intelligence supports successful word retrieval, although this relationship weakens across adulthood. PMID:27371482
Cheng, Zi-Juan; Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Jian-Bing; Kong, Chit-Kwong
Using structural equation modeling (SEM), researchers examined whether there was a general dominating factor that governed students' implicit theories of intelligence, morality, personality, creativity, and social intelligence. The possible age-related changes of students' implicit theories were also studied. In all, 1,650 elementary and junior…
Brouwer, Rachel M; van Soelen, Inge L C; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Schnack, Hugo G; Ehli, Erik A; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I
Cognitive abilities are related to (changes in) brain structure during adolescence and adulthood. Previous studies suggest that associations between cortical thickness and intelligence may be different at different ages. As both intelligence and cortical thickness are heritable traits, the question arises whether the association between cortical thickness development and intelligence is due to genes influencing both traits. We study this association in a longitudinal sample of young twins. Intelligence was assessed by standard IQ tests at age 9 in 224 twins, 190 of whom also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three years later at age 12, 177/125 twins returned for a follow-up measurement of intelligence/MRI scanning, respectively. We investigated whether cortical thickness was associated with intelligence and if so, whether this association was driven by genes. At age 9, there were no associations between cortical thickness and intelligence. At age 12, a negative relationship emerged. This association was mainly driven by verbal intelligence, and manifested itself most prominently in the left hemisphere. Cortical thickness and intelligence were explained by the same genes. As a post hoc analysis, we tested whether a specific allele (rs6265; Val66Met in the BDNF gene) contributed to this association. Met carriers showed lower intelligence and a thicker cortex, but only the association between the BDNF genotype and cortical thickness in the left superior parietal gyrus reached significance. In conclusion, it seems that brain areas contributing to (verbal) intellectual performance are specializing under the influence of genes around the onset of puberty.
Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica
Background: Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. Aims: To examine the effects of…
Fairgray, Elizabeth; Purdy, Suzanne C.; Smart, Jennifer L.
With modern improvements to hearing aids and cochlear implant (CI) technology, and consequently improved access to speech, there has been greater emphasis on listening-based therapies for children with hearing loss, such as auditory-verbal therapy (AVT). Speech and language, speech perception in noise, and reading were evaluated before and after…
Tierney, Mary C.; And Others
Thirty-eight elderly control subjects performed better than did 18 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), 33 with severe AD, and 12 with Parkinson's dementia on all measures of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results indicate that the test is useful in distinguishing AD from Parkinson's dementia. (SLD)
Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu
As the elderly population has been rapidly expanding and the core tax-paying population has been shrinking, the need for adequate elderly health and housing services continues to grow while the resources to provide such services are becoming increasingly scarce. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the delivery of healthcare services through the use of modern technology is a pressing issue. The seamless integration of such enabling technologies as ontology, intelligent agents, web services, and cloud computing is transforming healthcare from hospital-based treatments to home-based self-care and preventive care. A ubiquitous healthcare platform based on this technological integration, which synergizes service providers with patients’ needs to be developed to provide personalized healthcare services at the right time, in the right place, and the right manner. This paper presents the development and overall architecture of IAServ (the Intelligent Aging-in-place Home care Web Services Platform) to provide personalized healthcare service ubiquitously in a cloud computing setting to support the most desirable and cost-efficient method of care for the aged-aging in place. The IAServ is expected to offer intelligent, pervasive, accurate and contextually-aware personal care services. Architecturally the implemented IAServ leverages web services and cloud computing to provide economic, scalable, and robust healthcare services over the Internet. PMID:24225647
Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu
As the elderly population has been rapidly expanding and the core tax-paying population has been shrinking, the need for adequate elderly health and housing services continues to grow while the resources to provide such services are becoming increasingly scarce. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the delivery of healthcare services through the use of modern technology is a pressing issue. The seamless integration of such enabling technologies as ontology, intelligent agents, web services, and cloud computing is transforming healthcare from hospital-based treatments to home-based self-care and preventive care. A ubiquitous healthcare platform based on this technological integration, which synergizes service providers with patients' needs to be developed to provide personalized healthcare services at the right time, in the right place, and the right manner. This paper presents the development and overall architecture of IAServ (the Intelligent Aging-in-place Home care Web Services Platform) to provide personalized healthcare service ubiquitously in a cloud computing setting to support the most desirable and cost-efficient method of care for the aged-aging in place. The IAServ is expected to offer intelligent, pervasive, accurate and contextually-aware personal care services. Architecturally the implemented IAServ leverages web services and cloud computing to provide economic, scalable, and robust healthcare services over the Internet.
Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl
It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922
Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica
Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…
Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen; Hill, John
Experienced teachers have long asserted that children blind from retinoblastoma (Rb), a rare cancer of the eye, are of above average intelligence. To test this hypothesis, standardized verbal intelligence tests were administered to a sample of 85 children and adults, all diagnosed with the early infancy form of this condition. For 42 of the Rb…
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas
Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026
Background Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. However, the reason of the differential age effect on cognitive control efficiency is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence and processing speed on the selective age-related decline in proactive control. Eighty young and 80 healthy older adults were included in this study. The participants were submitted to a working memory recognition paradigm, assessing proactive and reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs and hierarchical linear regressions indicated that the ability to appropriately use cognitive control processes during aging seems to be at least partially affected by the amount of available cognitive resources (assessed by fluid intelligence and processing speed abilities). Conclusions This study highlights the potential role of cognitive resources on the selective age-related decline in proactive control, suggesting the importance of a more exhaustive approach considering the confounding variables during cognitive control assessment. PMID:24401034
Ferguson, Sarah Hargus
It is well known that, for listeners with normal hearing, speech produced by non-native speakers of the listener's first language is less intelligible than speech produced by native speakers. Intelligibility is well correlated with listener's ratings of talker comprehensibility and accentedness, which have been shown to be related to several talker factors, including age of second language acquisition and level of similarity between the talker's native and second language phoneme inventories. Relatively few studies have focused on factors extrinsic to the talker. The current project explored the effects of listener and environmental factors on the intelligibility of foreign-accented speech. Specifically, monosyllabic English words previously recorded from two talkers, one a native speaker of American English and the other a native speaker of Spanish, were presented to three groups of listeners (young listeners with normal hearing, elderly listeners with normal hearing, and elderly listeners with hearing impairment; n=20 each) in three different listening conditions (undistorted words in quiet, undistorted words in 12-talker babble, and filtered words in quiet). Data analysis will focus on interactions between talker accent, listener age, listener hearing status, and listening condition. [Project supported by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association AARC Award.
Zayat, Maya; Kalb, Luther; Wodka, Ericka L.
Performance patterns on verbal subtests from the WISC-IV were compared between a clinically-referred sample of children with either autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ASD demonstrated a statistically significant stepwise pattern where performance on Similarities was best, followed by…
de Bie, H M A; Oostrom, K J; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as short stature, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. In addition, SGA children have decreased levels of intelligence and cognition, although the effects are mostly subtle. The overall outcome of each child is the result of a complex interaction between intrauterine and extrauterine factors. Animal and human studies show structural alterations in the brains of individuals with IUGR/SGA. The presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in the brain implies that the brain is also a target for GH. Exogenous GH theoretically has the ability to act on the brain. This is exemplified by the effects of GH on cognition in GH-deficient adults. In SGA children, data on the effect of exogenous GH on intelligence and cognition are scant and contradictory.
Daly, D A; Kimbarow, M L
This study assessed the effects of the verbally presented stimuli wrong, right, and tree on the frequency of disfluencies during oral reading by 18 school-aged stutterers and 18 matched nonstutterers. No differences were found between the three stimulus words' effect on the disfluency rate of either subject group. Because decreases in the disfluency rates of stutterers were observed during the presentation of all three stimulus words, the data failed to support the operant model. A discussion of theoretical and experimental implications is given.
Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.
Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Pearson, Rebecca M; Emmett, Pauline; Heron, Jon; Smith, Andrew D A C; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto
Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee." The offspring's IQ at 8 years of age was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Models, using variables correlated to IQ data, were performed to impute missing values. Linear regression models were employed to investigate associations between the maternal clusters and IQ in childhood. Children of women who were classified in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster during pregnancy had lower average verbal (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -3.05; p < .001), performance (β = -1.26; p = .011 and β = -1.75; p < .001), and full-scale IQ (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -2.79; p < .001) at 8 years of age when compared to children of mothers in the fruit and vegetables cluster in imputed models of IQ and all confounders, after adjustment for a wide range of known confounders including maternal education. The pregnant women who were classified in the fruit and vegetables cluster had offspring with higher average IQ compared with offspring of mothers in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster.
Rubin, Kenneth H.; And Others
Examines the relationship between performance on two measures of fluid intelligence, one measure of crystallized intelligence, and three Piagetian measures of intelligence. Subjects were 102 first- and second-grade students. (BD)
Nijman, Henk; Merckelbach, Harald; Cima, Maaike
Previous studies have suggested that offenders have lowered verbal intelligence compared to their performance intelligence. This phenomenon has been linked traditionally to childhood risk factors (e.g. deficient education, abuse and neglect). Substantial discrepancies between performance intelligence quotients (PIQ) and verbal intelligence…
Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes
Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia
Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
This study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in middle-aged women. 99 middle-aged Spanish women, who studied in two adult schools, volunteered to participate. 49 were premenopausal and 45 were postmenopausal. These women completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and Health Survey SF-36. Scores were analyzed according to social, physical, and mental health, menopausal status, and scores on perceived emotional intelligence. Then, the data regarding the mental and physical health of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women were compared after controlling for age. No associations between menopausal status and health-related quality of life were found. Perceived skill at mood repair was significantly associated with scores on health-related quality of life in these middle-aged women. These findings provide empirical evidence that aspects of perceived emotional intelligence may account for the health-related quality of life in midlife including social, physical, and psychological symptoms.
Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel
Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was…
Allen, Jennifer L; Briskman, Jacqueline; Humayun, Sajid; Dadds, Mark R; Scott, Stephen
Clinical theory predicts that individuals high in psychopathic traits possess average or above average intelligence; however findings in adult and child samples have been mixed. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the relationship between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the three dimensions of psychopathy (callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissism, impulsivity); and (2) whether these dimensions moderate the association between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the severity of antisocial behavior. Participants were 361 adolescents aged 9-18 years (68% boys) and their parents, drawn from four samples with different levels of risk for antisocial behavior. Families were disadvantaged and 25% were from an ethnic minority. Verbal intelligence was unrelated to parent-reported CU traits, narcissism or impulsivity after controlling for gender, sociodemographic disadvantage, sample, antisocial behavior and hyperactivity. Narcissism, but not CU traits or impulsivity, was significantly related to lower nonverbal IQ. None of the three psychopathic trait dimensions moderated the relationship between verbal or nonverbal IQ and antisocial behavior. CU traits, narcissism, hyperactivity and inclusion in the very high or high risk samples were significantly related to more severe antisocial behavior. Results contradict the widely held view that psychopathic traits are associated with better than average verbal or nonverbal intelligence.
Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte
A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197
Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile
Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner
Kaufman, Alan S; Kaufman, James C; Liu, Xin; Johnson, Cheryl K
Educational attainment and gender differences on fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and academic skills in reading, math, and writing were analyzed for stratified adult samples ranging in age from 22 to 90 years. The data sources were the adult portions of the standardization samples of the second editions of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (N = 570) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Brief Form (N = 555). Five univariate analysis of covariance were conducted with age as the covariate. Correlational analysis supplemented the covariate analyses to better understand the relationship of the five variables to education. All variables related significantly and substantially to years of formal schooling, an important finding in view of the key nature of this background variable for conducting neuropsychological assessments, as elaborated by Heaton and his colleagues. Surprisingly, Gf related just as strongly to education as did the school-related Gc. Among academic skill areas, math correlated higher with years of formal schooling than did either reading or writing. Women significantly outperformed men on the writing test and the reverse was true for the math test; other gender differences were not significant. These analyses fill a gap in the literature regarding the nature of gender and education differences in academic skills for heterogeneous samples of normal adults between young adulthood and old age and have practical implications for neuropsychological assessment.
Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio
We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.
Sudarshan, Navaneetham J; Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G
Assessment of measurement invariance across populations is essential for meaningful comparison of test scores, and is especially relevant where repeated measurements are required for educational assessment or clinical diagnosis. Establishing measurement invariance legitimizes the assumption that test scores reflect the same psychological trait in different populations or across different occasions. Examination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) U.S. standardization samples revealed that a first-order 5-factor measurement model was best fitting across 9 age groups from 16 years to 69 years. Strong metric invariance was found for 3 of 5 factors and partial intercept invariance for the remaining 2. Pairwise comparisons of adjacent age groups supported the inference that cognitive-trait group differences are manifested by group differences in the test scores. In educational and clinical settings these findings provide theoretical and empirical support to interpret changes in the index or subtest scores as reflecting changes in the corresponding cognitive abilities. Further, where clinically relevant, the subtest score composites can be used to compare changes in respective cognitive abilities. The model was supported in the Canadian standardization data with pooled age groups but the sample sizes were not adequate for detailed examination of separate age groups in the Canadian sample. (PsycINFO Database Record
We traced spatial, verbal and musical abilities through a seven-year period of adolescence. When we started our study, 60 boys had reached a mean age of 11.72, 60 girls were 11.52 on average. Menarche and mutation served as markers for maturation. We found that early, mid, and late maturers differed on spatial orientation and on tactile-visual discrimination as measured with the Witelson task. No differences between the maturational groups emerged on verbal fluency and on Wing's Standardized Tests of Musical Intelligence. At some stages, sex differences on spatial, verbal, and musical tests emerged, and disappeared at others. The sex differences in performance levels were not associated with a sex-specific relationship between maturation rate and performance levels. We found indications of the usefulness of sex hormone measurement in relation to cognitive and musical development in adolescence.
Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Stewart, Marlene C. W.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Murray, Gordon D.; Batty, G. David; Price, Jacqueline F.
The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and…
Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia
This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…
Washburn, L; Nixon, P; Snively, B; Tennyson, A; O'Shea, T M
Rates of weight gain in infancy and early childhood can influence later neurocognitive, metabolic and cardiovascular health. We studied the relationship of weight gain during infancy and early childhood to intelligence quotient (IQ), blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) at age 9 in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). Sixty-five children born prematurely with VLBW were followed longitudinally and at 9 years IQ, BP and BMI were measured. The mean weight z-scores at birth, neonatal intensive care discharge, 1 year corrected for prematurity, 5 and 9 years were -0.17, -2.09, -1.3, -0.68 and 0.06, respectively. Weight gain during infancy (discharge to 1 year corrected for prematurity) and early childhood (1 year corrected age to 5 years) was expressed as rate of change in weight, rate of change in weight z-score and interval change in weight z-score. In multiple regression analyses that adjusted for race, gender, maternal education, antenatal steroids, birth weight z-score, major intracranial lesions on ultrasound and chronic lung disease, rates of weight gain in infancy and early childhood were predictive of BMI z-score at 9 years, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals); 0.19 (0.02, 0.36) and 0.37 (0.11, 0.63), respectively, expressed as change in BMI z-score per 10 g/week weight increase. Rates of weight gain were not predictive of systolic BP z-score, Verbal IQ or Performance IQ. In VLBW infants, more rapid weight gain during infancy, and especially early childhood, is associated with higher BMI at school age.
Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Isingrini, Michel
Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was provided to recall the words. An individual index of loss of performance when the number of cues was decreased was then calculated. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the executive functions measure (perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) was a better candidate than the fluid intelligence measure (Cattell's culture fair test) to account for the age-related variance of the size of performance loss. These findings suggest that age differences in implementing strategic retrieval may be mainly due to a decline in executive functions.
Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine
Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.
Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Quiroga Estévez, M Angeles; Escribano Barreno, Cristina; Delgado Prieto, Pedro
Assortative mating is the mating of pairs that are more similar in some trait than would be expected from random mating. It takes place when sexually reproducing organisms tend to mate with individuals that are like themselves in some respect (positive assortative mating) or dissimilar (negative assortative mating). The present study measures verbal and nonverbal intelligence, along with several temperamental traits, testing the similarity, complementarity, social homogamy, and convergence hypotheses. The role of marital satisfaction was also analyzed. The sample comprised 357 adults (age range 19-69), who completed verbal aptitude, inductive reasoning, and temperament tests. The findings show that couples are similar in almost all the measured traits, even after controlling for age and educational level. Differences were observed in the couples' degree of similarity depending on the duration of their relationship. Further, only similarity in verbal intelligence for males and in impulsivity for females was associated with marital satisfaction in long-term couples.
Schlinger, Henry D.
As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…
Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth
Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.
Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393
Ritchie, Stuart J.; Gow, Alan J.; Deary, Ian J.
A well-replicated finding in the psychological literature is the negative correlation between religiosity and intelligence. However, several studies also conclude that one form of religiosity, church attendance, is protective against later-life cognitive decline. No effects of religious belief per se on cognitive decline have been found, potentially due to the restricted measures of belief used in previous studies. Here, we examined the associations between religiosity, intelligence, and cognitive change in a cohort of individuals (initial n = 550) with high-quality measures of religious belief taken at age 83 and multiple cognitive measures taken in childhood and at four waves between age 79 and 90. We found that religious belief, but not attendance, was negatively related to intelligence. The effect size was smaller than in previous studies of younger participants. Longitudinal analyses showed no effect of either religious belief or attendance on cognitive change either from childhood to old age, or across the ninth decade of life. We discuss differences between our cohort and those in previous studies – including in age and location – that may have led to our non-replication of the association between religious attendance and cognitive decline. PMID:25278639
Passow, Susanne; Müller, Maike; Westerhausen, René; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Wartenburger, Isabell; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen
Multitalker situations confront listeners with a plethora of competing auditory inputs, and hence require selective attention to relevant information, especially when the perceptual saliency of distracting inputs is high. This study augmented the classical forced-attention dichotic listening paradigm by adding an interaural intensity manipulation to investigate developmental differences in the interplay between perceptual saliency and attentional control during auditory processing between early and middle childhood. We found that older children were able to flexibly focus on instructed auditory inputs from either the right or the left ear, overcoming the effects of perceptual saliency. In contrast, younger children implemented their attentional focus less efficiently. Direct comparisons of the present data with data from a recently published study of younger and older adults from our group suggest that younger children and older adults show similar levels of performance. Critically, follow-up comparisons revealed that younger children's performance restrictions reflect difficulties in attentional control only, whereas older adults' performance deficits also reflect an exaggerated reliance on perceptual saliency. We conclude that auditory attentional control improves considerably from middle to late childhood and that auditory attention deficits in healthy aging cannot be reduced to a simple reversal of child developmental improvements.
Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.
BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963
Venables, Peter H; Raine, Adrian
Previous work has shown that malnutrition has deleterious effects on both IQ and aspects of temperament. It is hypothesized that while malnutrition bears a direct relation to IQ, aspects of temperament are also involved in a mediating role so that they produce indirect associations between malnutrition and IQ. The study examines the association of 3 indices of malnutrition-stunting, anemia and wasting-to Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) and temperament in 1,376 3-year-old and 11-year-old children in Mauritius. Two dimensions of temperament were extracted from ratings of behavior and were labeled as Uninhibited (UI) and Task Orientation (TO). At age 3 stunting had direct relations to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ and also indirect relations via the mediating effect of temperament (UI but not TO). In the case of anemia there were no direct relations to VIQ or PIQ but both temperament meditators were involved in indirect relations. For wasting, indirect but not direct relations were observed. When age 11 cognitive performance was examined, there were direct relations to stunting and anemia and indirect relations via UI, but not TO. The relations between malnutrition and IQ were graded and linear showing that it is not only when malnutrition is defined by its severest levels that it has an effect on cognitive performance. It is suggested that malnutrition affects those brain structures and functions that are involved in both cognitive behavior and temperament.
Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G
This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.
Van der Ven, Ad H. G. S.
The dichotomous Rasch model was applied to verbal subtest scores on the Intelligence Structure Test Battery for 905 12- to 15-year-old secondary school students in the Netherlands. Results suggest that, if any factor is used to increase difficulty of items, that factor should be used on all items. (SLD)
James-Weagraff, Pat; Donaldson, Diane
This paper briefly discusses: violence as a context for verbal abuse; the legacy of student discipline in schools; a model indicating that verbal abuse is learned; data showing teachers do verbally abuse students; and a variety of ways to deal with this problem. Factors inducing teachers to exhibit aggressive behavior are identified and include:…
de Almeida Brites, José; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, Victoria; García, Ricardo
The aim of this study was to compare the verbal functions and language skills of male psychopathic individuals (in prison and outside) with non-psychopaths. The purpose was therefore to analyze phonological processing, reading and writing skills, the meaning of words and images, and the understanding of sentences. Ninety individuals with an average age of 38.19 (SD = 7.67) voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected in different settings: prisons, a private charitable organization, and private clinics and health centers. All participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Revised and the Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia, to assess psychopathy traits and language skills, respectively. Participants were allocated into four different groups: incarcerated psychopathic offenders (n = 13), non-incarcerated psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 13), incarcerated non-psychopathic offenders (n = 25), and non-psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 39). The results showed that the verbal functions and language skills between psychopaths and non-psychopaths are very similar, showing a common profile. The data presented indicate the need for more specific work opportunities for both groups within the correctional setting, with the use of appropriate language and individualized programs as necessary.
Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia
This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children's stories scored higher than deaf children's at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children's oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children's ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production.
Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia
This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319
Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra
The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…
Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Kalluri, Sridhar; Blanco, José L.
The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, temporal processing deficits, and age on the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to understand speech in noisy backgrounds. Sixty-eight listeners took part in the study. They were provided with linear, frequency-specific amplification to compensate for their audiometric losses, and intelligibility was assessed for speech-shaped noise (SSN) and a time-reversed two-talker masker (R2TM). Behavioral estimates of cochlear gain loss and residual compression were available from a previous study and were used as indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction. Temporal processing abilities were assessed using frequency modulation detection thresholds. Age, audiometric thresholds, and the difference between audiometric threshold and cochlear gain loss were also included in the analyses. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relative importance of the various factors for intelligibility. Results showed that (a) cochlear gain loss was unrelated to intelligibility, (b) residual cochlear compression was related to intelligibility in SSN but not in a R2TM, (c) temporal processing was strongly related to intelligibility in a R2TM and much less so in SSN, and (d) age per se impaired intelligibility. In summary, all factors affected intelligibility, but their relative importance varied across maskers. PMID:27604779
Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.
Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…
Reynolds, Matthew R; Turek, Joshua J
Intelligence and general academic achievement have a well-established relation, but the interrelated development of the two constructs over time is less well-known. In this study, the dynamic developmental relation between verbal comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and reading comprehension was examined by applying bivariate dual change score models (McArdle, 2009) to longitudinal data collected from children aged 9 through 15 who were part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). A unidirectional dynamic link was found in which higher levels of prior Gc led to increased positive change in reading comprehension scores. This unidirectional link was not altered by including intelligence measured at 24-months, SES, sex, basic reading, and reading volume as time-invariant covariates. Gc is a leading indicator of reading comprehension and should be considered when developing and monitoring long-term reading comprehension interventions for children.
Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.
An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.
Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo
Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record
Welte, J W; Wieczorek, W F
Research has demonstrated a relationship between alcohol and violent behavior, but proof of a causal connection remains elusive. A recent review concluded that the key task that remained was to identify sub-groups of the population for which alcohol promotes violence. Because alcohol might induce violence by causing cognitive disruption (e.g., misunderstood communication), less intelligent persons could be vulnerable because they start out closer to the lower limit of comprehension. Our objective is to investigate the effect of lower intelligence on the alcohol/violence relationship. This analysis uses data from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men to investigate this hypothesis. Males, 16 to 19 years of age (N = 596), were selected from Buffalo, NY, by random digit dialing. High-risk males were oversampled. Two interviews were conducted 18 months apart, including drinking, criminal offenses, and psychological traits. Verbal intelligence was measured by the Ammons Quick Test and visual-motor intelligence by the Trail Making Test. An analysis of covariance was conducted with wave 2 average alcohol consumption and both measures of intelligence as independent variables, violent offending as the dependent variable, and race, wave 1 alcohol and wave 1 violence as covariates. Results show a positive main effect of wave 2 alcohol consumption, but also interactions with both verbal and visual-motor intelligence. These interactions indicate that the prevalence of violence increases significantly at low intelligence and high alcohol consumption levels. A parallel analysis with nonviolent offending as the dependent variable failed to find significant interactions. The combination of heavy drinking and lower intelligence is associated with a synergistic surge of violent behavior.
helping to articulate arguments for this thesis and for keeping me afloat with your laughter and love. You patiently listened, kindly corrected, and...immeasurable sacrifices so that I may have this opportunity and that we may walk this path together. I pray that I may one day live up to the honor of...regardless of their HUMINT skills, law enforcement agencies do not run intelligence sources longer than needed to make an arrest. This method equates
Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.
In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…
Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne
Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…
Okech, Allan P.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in
D'Antuono, Giovanni; La Torre, Francesca Romana; Marin, Dario; Antonucci, Gabriella; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia
We investigated the relationship between verbal and visuo-spatial measures of working memory, inhibition, fluid intelligence and the performance on the Tower of London (ToL) task in a large sample of 830 healthy participants aged between 18 and 71 years. We found that fluid intelligence and visuo-spatial working memory accounted for a significant variance in the ToL task, while performances on verbal working memory and on the Stroop Test were not predictive for performance on the ToL. The present results confirm that fluid intelligence has a fundamental role on planning tests, but also show that visuo-spatial working memory plays a crucial role in ToL performance.
Kingma, J.; Koops, W.
A study conducted with kindergarten and elementary school children showed that Piagetian tasks which measured seriation, conservation, and multiple classification were equal or superior to traditional intelligence tests in predicting number language, number line comprehension, and verbal arithmetic. (GC)
Lueger, Robert J.; And Others
Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…
Schlinger, Henry D
As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508
Lee, Hoyee Flora; Gorsuch, Richard L.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Patterson, Colleen A.
Adult cognitive age differences in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Canadian normative data were curvilinear for most scales and for the Verbal Comprehension (VC), Perceptual Organization (PO), and Working Memory (WM) factors. These showed stable or increasing scores in early adulthood followed by decreasing scores, necessitating a…
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina
Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…
Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A
Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Rimpelä, Arja
The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression, especially at age 10, but only among boys. The moderating role of social intelligence was substantiated among older boys: game violence was associated with indirect aggression among those with high level of social intelligence. Further, as hypothesized, digital game playing was associated with direct aggression especially when parent-child communication was poor, but only among boys. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual and situational factors as moderators of the link between game violence and aggression.
Cox, Simon R.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Nissan, Jack; Royle, Natalie A.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.
Both general fluid intelligence (gf) and performance on some ‘frontal tests’ of cognition decline with age. Both types of ability are at least partially dependent on the integrity of the frontal lobes, which also deteriorate with age. Overlap between these two methods of assessing complex cognition in older age remains unclear. Such overlap could be investigated using inter-test correlations alone, as in previous studies, but this would be enhanced by ascertaining whether frontal test performance and gf share neurobiological variance. To this end, we examined relationships between gf and 6 frontal tests (Tower, Self-Ordered Pointing, Simon, Moral Dilemmas, Reversal Learning and Faux Pas tests) in 90 healthy males, aged ~ 73 years. We interpreted their correlational structure using principal component analysis, and in relation to MRI-derived regional frontal lobe volumes (relative to maximal healthy brain size). gf correlated significantly and positively (.24 ≤ r ≤ .53) with the majority of frontal test scores. Some frontal test scores also exhibited shared variance after controlling for gf. Principal component analysis of test scores identified units of gf-common and gf-independent variance. The former was associated with variance in the left dorsolateral (DL) and anterior cingulate (AC) regions, and the latter with variance in the right DL and AC regions. Thus, we identify two biologically-meaningful components of variance in complex cognitive performance in older age and suggest that age-related changes to DL and AC have the greatest cognitive impact. PMID:25278641
Hoggard, Franklin R.
Suggests a method for solving verbal problems in chemistry using a linguistic algorithm that is partly adapted from two artificial intelligence languages. Provides examples of problems solved using the mental concepts of translation, rotation, mirror image symmetry, superpositioning, disjoininng, and conjoining. (TW)
A common complaint of older listeners is that they can hear speech, yet cannot understand it, especially when listening to speech in a background noise. When target and competing speech signals are concurrently presented, a difference in the fundamental frequency (ΔF0) between competing speech signals, which determines the pitch of voice, can be an important and commonly occurring cue to facilitate the separation of the target message from the interfering message, consequently improving intelligibility of the target message. To address the question of whether the older listeners have reduced ability to use ΔF0 and how the age-related deficits in the processing of ΔF0 are theoretically explained, this paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this article summarizes how the speech-communication difficulties that older listeners have are theoretically explained. In the second part, literatures on the perceptual benefits from ΔF0 and the age-related deficits on the use of ΔF0 are reviewed. As a final part, three theoretical models explaining the general processing of ΔF0 are compared to discuss which better explains the age-related deficits in the processing of ΔF0. PMID:24653895
Henderson, Ross D.; Allerhand, Michael; Patton, Niall; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
The extent to which visual function, measured as near and distant visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, is correlated with concurrently measured cognitive function and prior intellectual ability was investigated in a narrow age range group known as the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 (LBC1921). Participants were aged approximately 83 years at the…
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Rimpela, Arja
The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression,…
Oral, I.; Dogan, O.
The aim of this study is to find out the effect of the course materials based on Multiple Intelligence Theory upon the intelligence groups' learning process. In conclusion, the results proved that the materials prepared according to Multiple Intelligence Theory have a considerable effect on the students' learning process. This effect was particularly seen on the student groups of the musical-rhythmic, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal-social and naturalist intelligence.
Baltes, P B; Sowarka, D; Kliegl, R
Cognitive research on the plasticity of fluid intelligence has demonstrated that older adults benefit markedly from guided practice in cognitive skills and problem-solving strategies. We examined to what degree older adults are capable by themselves of achieving similar practice gains, focusing on the fluid ability of figural relations. A sample of 72 healthy older adults was assigned randomly to three conditions: control, tutor-guided training, self-guided training. Training time and training materials were held constant for the two training conditions. Posttraining performances were analyzed using a transfer of training paradigm in terms of three indicators: correct responses, accuracy, and level of item difficulty. The training programs were effective and produced a significant but narrow band of within-ability transfer. However, there was no difference between the two training groups. Older adults were shown to be capable of producing gains by themselves that were comparable to those obtained following tutor-guided training in the nature of test-relevant cognitive skills.
Tymchuk, Alexander J.
Effects of verbal concept formation training and stimulus enhancement on verbal abstracting were studied in 48 delinquent, mentally retarded, adolescent boys (age range 15 to 18 years) who resided in a state institution. Two two-word similarities tests were used to measure verbal abstraction in the pretest session. The first condition of stimulus…
Presents suggestions for helping students learn to read and appreciate literature by tapping into their multiple intelligences (spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, mathematical-logical, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, and intrapersonal). The paper describes the eight intelligences. A teacher reproducible sheet presents a multiple intelligences…
Neto, Félix; Furnham, Adrian
In this study, 148 Portuguese adults (M = 45.4 years) rated themselves and their children on overall IQ and on H. Gardner (1999) 10 intelligence subtypes. Men's self-estimates were not significantly higher than women's on any of the 11 estimates. The results were in line with previous studies, in that both sexes rated the overall intelligence of their first male children higher than the first female children. Higher parental IQ self-estimates correspond with higher IQ estimates for children. Globally parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters. In particular, parents rated their son's spiritual intelligence higher than those of their daughters. Children's age and sex, and parents' age and sex were all non-significant predictors of the overall "g" score estimates of the first two children. Participants thought verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence were the best indicators of the overall intelligence for self and children. There were no sex differences in experience of, or attitudes towards, intelligence testing. Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self-estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach.
Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.
Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…
Pardeller, Silvia; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex
In order to expand on previous research, this cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive abilities in healthy adults with a special focus on potential sex differences. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), whereas cognitive abilities were investigated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), which measures key aspects of cognitive functioning, i.e. verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. 137 subjects (65% female) with a mean age of 38.7 ± 11.8 years were included into the study. While males and females were comparable with regard to EI, men achieved significantly higher BACS composite scores and outperformed women in the BACS subscales motor speed, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Verbal fluency significantly predicted EI, whereas the MSCEIT subscale understanding emotions significantly predicted the BACS composite score. Our findings support previous research and emphasize the relevance of considering cognitive abilities when assessing ability EI in healthy individuals.
Robinson, John A.; Kingsley, M. Elizabeth
Investigated were age and ability differences in the organization of recall information of 56 second and fourth graders (14 Ss of average and superior ability in each grade). Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)
McGee, Shanna; Brown, Coke
Examined the pattern of verbal subscale scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised given to college students (N=129) and elementary students (N=383). Results showed a triangle pattern (Comprehension scores higher than both Vocabulary and Information) that begins to appear at the…
Lass, Norman J.; And Others
Investigates the effectiveness of non-speech auditory stimuli in eliciting transformations analogous to those reported for speech stimuli to determine if a non-verbal analogue to the verbal transformation effect exists. (DD)
Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu
This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…
Furnham, Adrian; Reeves, Emma; Budhani, Salima
In this study, 156 participants, predominantly White British adults (M age = 44.3 years) rated themselves on overall IQ and on H. Gardner's (1983) 7 intelligence subtypes. Parents (n = 120) also estimated the intelligence of their children. Men's self-estimates were significantly higher than women's (110.15 vs. 104.84). Participants thought their verbal, mathematical, and spatial intelligence scores were the best indicators of their own overall intelligence. Parents estimated that their sons had significantly higher IQs than their daughters (115.21 vs. 107.49). Self-estimates and estimates of children's multiple intelligences were higher for men and sons, significantly so for logical-mathematical and spatial intelligence. Parents rated 2nd-born daughters as having significantly higher verbal and musical intelligence than their male counterparts. Higher parental IQ self-estimates corresponded with higher IQ estimates for children. Results for 1st-born children were clearest and showed the most significant differences. The findings are interpreted in terms of sociocultural and familial influences and the possibility of actual sex differences in particular abilities.
Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.
To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.
Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.; Plomin, Robert
Evidence from twin studies points to substantial environmental influences on intelligence, but the specifics of this influence are unclear. This study examined one developmental process that potentially causes intelligence differences: learning to read. In 1,890 twin pairs tested at 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 years, a cross-lagged…
Davis, Andrew S; Finch, W Holmes; Drapeau, Christopher; Nogin, Margarita; E Moss, Lauren; Moore, Brittney
The estimation of premorbid general intellectual functioning using word reading tests has a rich history of validation and is a common assessment practice for neuropsychologists. What is less well-researched is the approach used to estimate premorbid functioning of non-intellectual domains, such as executive functions, including verbal fluency. The current study evaluated this relationship with 41 adult college students who completed the Word Reading subtest of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) and the Verbal Fluency test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Path analysis indicated that only Letter Fluency (a measure of phonemic fluency) was statistically significantly related to Word Reading and the relationship was somewhat weak. The relationship between Category Fluency (a measure of semantic fluency) and Category Switching (a measure of verbal fluency cognitive set-shifting) to Word Reading was nonsignificant. Participants also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), and as expected a strong relationship was found between Word Reading and the Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ). Results of this study strongly suggest that caution be exercised when extrapolating an estimate of premorbid verbal fluency abilities from measures of word reading.
In the last decade there has been a growing interest among developmental psychologists to investigate whether the cognitive performance of older adults can be improved by means of training programs. A number of cognitive training studies involving aging sensitive abilities of fluid intelligence have been performed with healthy older adults (Willis et al. 1981; Baltes et al., 1984/1986). In this paper we reanalyse data from Baltes et al. (1986) concerning the ADEPT Induction, ADEPT Figural Relations, Induction Standard and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices Tests. In contrast to the above study, where the data analysis was based on a MANOVA approach, usually carried out when experimental data were gathered, this discussion implements an approach to change measurement for which the structural equation of different aspects of change in means as manifested in the moment matrices. The results here confirm these by Baltes et al. (1986), and suggest conclusions concerning change in means over time in the experimental and control groups, which are not implied by their study.
Hinde, R. A., Ed.
This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…
Suggests strategies center directors can use to improve teachers' verbal interactions with children. Directors can help teachers (1) understand child growth and development; (2) understand that what they say matters; (3) hear themselves talking to children; and (4) develop their observation skills. Directors can also share good models with…
Lam, Choi Ling Coriolanus
One of the major acoustical concerns in classrooms is the establishment of effective verbal communication between teachers and students. Non-optimal acoustical conditions, resulting in reduced verbal communication, can cause two main problems. First, they can lead to reduce learning efficiency. Second, they can also cause fatigue, stress, vocal strain and health problems, such as headaches and sore throats, among teachers who are forced to compensate for poor acoustical conditions by raising their voices. Besides, inadequate acoustical conditions can induce the usage of public address system. Improper usage of such amplifiers or loudspeakers can lead to impairment of students' hearing systems. The social costs of poor classroom acoustics will be large to impair the learning of children. This invisible problem has far reaching implications for learning, but is easily solved. Many researches have been carried out that they have accurately and concisely summarized the research findings on classrooms acoustics. Though, there is still a number of challenging questions remaining unanswered. Most objective indices for speech intelligibility are essentially based on studies of western languages. Even several studies of tonal languages as Mandarin have been conducted, there is much less on Cantonese. In this research, measurements have been done in unoccupied rooms to investigate the acoustical parameters and characteristics of the classrooms. The speech intelligibility tests, which based on English, Mandarin and Cantonese, and the survey were carried out on students aged from 5 years old to 22 years old. It aims to investigate the differences in intelligibility between English, Mandarin and Cantonese of the classrooms in Hong Kong. The significance on speech transmission index (STI) related to Phonetically Balanced (PB) word scores will further be developed. Together with developed empirical relationship between the speech intelligibility in classrooms with the variations
Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.
This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.
Richman, Lynn C.
The study examined patterns of cognitive ability in 57 cleft lip and palate children (ages 7 to 9) with verbal deficit, but without general intellectual retardation to evaluate whether the verbal disability displayed by these children was related primarily to a specific verbal expression deficit or a more general symbolic mediation problem.…
Lombard, Avima; Stern, Carolyn
To determine the effect of verbalization on the acquisition of manipulative skills in young children, a puzzle-assembly experiment was designed. Each of 65 Head Start children between the ages of 47 and 58 months was randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups: practice with verbalization (PV); practice with no verbalization (PNV);…
Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa Collins
Verbal play, or the playful manipulation of elements of language, is a pervasive component of social interaction, serving important interpersonal functions. We analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of ten healthy younger pairs and ten healthy older pairs as they completed a collaborative referencing task. A total of 1,893 verbal play episodes were coded. While there were no group differences in verbal play frequency, age-related differences in the quality and function of these episodes emerged. While older participants engaged in more complex, extended, and reciprocal episodes that supported the social nature of communicative interactions (e.g., teasing), younger participants were more likely to engage in verbal play episodes for the purpose of successful task completion. Despite these age-related variations in the deployment of verbal play, verbal play is a robust interactional discourse resource in healthy aging, highlighting an element of human cognition that does not appear to decline with age. PMID:25485072
Whiteside, Douglas M; Kealey, Tammy; Semla, Matthew; Luu, Hien; Rice, Linda; Basso, Michael R; Roper, Brad
Measures of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency, such as FAS and Animal Fluency (Benton, Hamsher, & Sivan, 1989), are often thought to be measures of executive functioning (EF). However, some studies (Henry & Crawford, 2004a , 2004b , 2004c ) have noted there is also a language component to these tasks. The current exploratory factor-analytic study examined the underlying cognitive structure of verbal fluency. Participants were administered language and EF measures, including the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (FAS version), Animal Fluency, Boston Naming Test (BNT), Vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST, perseverative responses), and Trail-Making Test-Part B (TMT-B). A 2-factor solution was found with the 1st factor, language, having significant loadings for BNT and Vocabulary, while the second factor was labeled EF because of significant loading from the WCST and TMT-B. Surprisingly, FAS and Animal Fluency loaded exclusively on to the language factor and not EF. The current results do not exclude EF as a determinant of verbal fluency, but they do suggest that language processing is the critical component for this task, even without significant aphasic symptoms. Thus, the results indicated that both letter (phonemic) and category (semantic) fluency are related to language, but the relationship to EF is not supported by the results.
Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others
Examines the influence of verbalization on children's tendencies to postpone immediate gratification in terms of increased delayed reward. Subjects were 46 preschoolers ranging in age from 36 to 72 months. (MP)
Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira
Studies on creativity in participants with autism generally show impoverished performance as well as deficient comprehension of metaphoric language. However, very little is known about the ability to generate metaphors in this population. The present study examines verbal creativity in adults with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) through tasks that rely on novel metaphoric language. Seventeen adults with ASD (mean age = 21.06) and 17 typically developing peers (mean age = 22.71) participated in the study. A multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of conventional and novel metaphors was used to test comprehension, and a sentence completion questionnaire was used to test generation of creative language. Results show similar performance in comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors in both groups, whereas adults with ASD generated more creative metaphors relative to the control group. Scores on tests of vocabulary and naming contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, while scores on tests of mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor comprehension. In addition, scores on a test of non-verbal intelligence contributed to the prediction of metaphor generation. The study points to unique verbal creativity in ASD. PMID:25157225
Martin, R B; Moltmann, M L
Investigated the effects of verbal reinforcement paradigms on hospitalized schizophrenics and staff. Positive reinforcement that involved good was found to be relatively ineffective for all groups; furthermore, associating good with the termination of a white noise did not increase its effectiveness for schizophrenics. Verbal punishment was more effective than verbal positive reinforcement for staff, but for schizophrenics only when explicit problem-solving instructions were given. The results suggest that the reduction of deficit is not more likely via verbal punishment; if anything, deficit is increased because of increased staff performance under verbal punishment.
Mickelson, Norma I.
This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…
Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo
We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men.
Rastatter, Michael P.; Lawson-Brill, Cindy
Effects of advanced aging on hemispheric organization for linguistic processing was investigated with 24 geriatric subjects. Findings indicated that only the left hemisphere was used in language processing, suggesting that right hemispheric language processing ability is inhibited in the elderly. (Author/DB)
Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Grant, Igor
The profile of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has classically been characterized as “subcortical”, but questions have arisen as to whether aging with HIV in the antiretroviral therapy era has subtlety shifted the expression of HAND into a more “cortical” disorder (e.g., decay of semantic memory stores). We evaluated this hypothesis by examining semantic fluency and its component processes (i.e., clustering and switching) in 257 individuals across four groups stratified by age (<40 and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus. Jonckheere-Terpstra tests revealed significant monotonic trends for the combined effects of HIV and aging on overall semantic (and letter) fluency and switching, but not cluster size, with greatest deficits evident in the older adults with HIV infection. Within the older HIV-infected cohort, poorer switching was uniquely associated with self-reported declines in instrumental activities of daily living and deficits in learning and executive functions, but not semantic memory. Results suggest that HIV infection and aging may confer adverse additive effects on the executive components of semantic fluency (i.e., switching), rather than a degradation of semantic memory stores (i.e., cluster size), which is a profile that is most consistent with combined frontostriatal neuropathological burden of these two conditions. PMID:22292479
Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR) in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008). Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs. PMID:20573233
Marr, M Jackson
"Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.
Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun
Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally
Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Sullivan, Katherine; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Estes, Annette; Bernier, Raphael
Executive function and play skills develop in early childhood and are linked to cognitive and language ability. The present study examined these abilities longitudinally in two groups with autism spectrum disorder-a group with higher initial language (n = 30) and a group with lower initial language ability (n = 36). Among the lower language group, concurrent nonverbal cognitive ability contributed most to individual differences in executive function and play skills. For the higher language group, executive function during preschool significantly predicted play ability at age 6 over and above intelligence, but early play did not predict later executive function. These results suggested that factors related to the development of play and executive function differ for subgroups of children with different language abilities and that early executive function skills may be critical in order for verbal children with autism to develop play. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1274-1284. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baum, Katherine T; Shear, Paula K; Howe, Steven R; Bishop, Somer L
In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing populations. However, they have not been compared in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whose core symptoms can make testing challenging, potentially compromising test reliability. We used a within-subjects research design to evaluate the convergent validity between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., and Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., in 40 youth (ages 10-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder. Corresponding intelligence scores were highly correlated (r = 0.78 to 0.88), but full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores (t(38) = -2.27, p = 0.03, d = -0.16) and verbal IQ scores (t(36) = 2.23, p = 0.03; d = 0.19) differed between the two tests. Most participants obtained higher full-scale IQ scores on the Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., compared to Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., with 14% scoring more than one standard deviation higher. In contrast, verbal indices were higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., Verbal-nonverbal discrepancy classifications were only consistent for 60% of the sample. Comparisons of IQ test scores in autism spectrum disorder and other special groups are important, as it cannot necessarily be assumed that convergent validity findings in typically developing children and adolescents hold true across all pediatric populations.
Rommelse, Nanda; Langerak, Ilse; van der Meer, Jolanda; de Bruijn, Yvette; Staal, Wouter; Oerlemans, Anoek; Buitelaar, Jan
Background The intelligence of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) varies considerably. The pattern of cognitive deficits associated with ASD may differ depending on intelligence. We aimed to study the absolute and relative severity of cognitive deficits in participants with ASD in relation to IQ. Methods A total of 274 children (M age = 12.1, 68.6% boys) participated: 30 ASD and 22 controls in the below average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) group (IQ<85), 57 ASD and 54 controls in the average IQ group (85
Furnham, Adrian; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Keser, Askin; Swami, Viren
This study is part of a programmatic research effort into the determinants of self-assessed abilities. It examined cross-cultural differences in beliefs about intelligence and self- and other-estimated intelligence in two countries at extreme ends of the European continent. In all, 172 British and 272 Turkish students completed a three-part questionnaire where they estimated their parents', partners' and own multiple intelligences (Gardner (10) and Sternberg (3)). They also completed a measure of the 'big five' personality scales and rated six questions about intelligence. The British sample had more experience with IQ tests than the Turks. The majority of participants in both groups did not believe in sex differences in intelligence but did think there were race differences. They also believed that intelligence was primarily inherited. Participants rated their social and emotional intelligence highly (around one standard deviation above the norm). Results suggested that there were more cultural than sex differences in all the ratings, with various interactions mainly due to the British sample differentiating more between the sexes than the Turks. Males rated their overall, verbal, logical, spatial, creative and practical intelligence higher than females. Turks rated their musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence as well as existential, naturalistic, emotional, creative, and practical intelligence higher than the British. There was evidence of participants rating their fathers' intelligence on most factors higher than their mothers'. Factor analysis of the ten Gardner intelligences yield two clear factors: cognitive and social intelligence. The first factor was impacted by sex but not culture; it was the other way round for the second factor. Regressions showed that five factors predicted overall estimates: sex (male), age (older), test experience (has done tests), extraversion (strong) and openness (strong). Results are discussed in
Barkana, Duygun Erol
This article presents an intelligent control architecture that is used to monitor the task and safety issues to provide assessment of the progress and to alter the task parameters. Additionally, a verbal feedback recognition system is integrated inside the intelligent control architecture to incorporate patients' and therapists' feedback to make necessary modifications to impart effective therapy during the execution of the task in an automated manner. Hybrid system modelling technique is used to design the intelligent control architecture. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the intelligent control architecture.
Penttilä, Jani; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Ilonen, Tuula; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo
The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years). The cognitive tests included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 5-HT1A receptor binding was measured with PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which was quantified with the gold standard method based on kinetic modeling using arterial blood samples. We found that global 5-HT1A receptor binding was positively correlated with measures of verbal memory, such that subjects who had higher receptor binding tended to have better verbal memory than subjects who had lower receptor binding. Regional analyses suggested significant correlations in multiple neocortical brain regions and the raphe nuclei. We did not find significant correlations between 5-HT1A receptor binding and executive functions as measured with WCST. We conclude that neocortical as well as raphe 5-HT1A receptors are involved in verbal memory function in man.
Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.
Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077
Aguirre, Fabian; Sergi, Mark J; Levy, Cynthia A
The present study is the first to examine emotional intelligence in persons with schizotypy. Over 2100 undergraduates were screened for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Version. Forty participants identified as persons with high schizotypy and 56 participants identified as persons with low schizotypy completed assessments of emotional intelligence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report), verbal episodic (secondary) memory (California Verbal Learning Test), and executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Persons high in schizotypy were impaired in overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions. Persons high in schizotypy were also impaired in three aspects of social functioning: peer relationships, family relationships, and academic functioning. Group differences in verbal episodic (secondary) memory and executive functioning were not observed. For persons with high schizotypy, overall emotional intelligence and two aspects of emotional intelligence, the ability to perceive emotions and the ability to manage emotions, were associated with peer relationship functioning. Overall emotional intelligence was associated with verbal episodic (secondary) memory, but not executive functioning, in persons with high schizotypy. The current findings suggest that emotional intelligence is impaired in persons with schizotypy and that these impairments affect their social functioning.
Haavisto, Marja-Leena; Lehto, Juhani E.
Fluid/spatial intelligence, crystallized intelligence and their relationships to verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) were studied. A total of 120 Finnish Air Force recruits participated in this study. Fluid/spatial intelligence was assessed using four different tasks, while crystallized intelligence was defined with the help of test scores…
Willoughby, Karen A; Sheard, Erin D; Nash, Kelly; Rovet, Joanne
Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) show deficits in verbal learning and spatial memory, as well as abnormal hippocampal development. The relationship between their memory and neuroanatomic impairments, however, has not been directly explored. Given that the hippocampus is integral for the synthesis and retrieval of learned information and is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, we assessed whether reduced learning and recall abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are associated with abnormal hippocampal volumes. Nineteen children with FASDs and 18 typically developing controls aged 9 to 15 years were assessed for verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images were analyzed for total intracranial volume and for right and left hippocampal volumes. Results revealed smaller left hippocampi and poorer verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall performance in children with FASDs than controls, as well as positive correlations between selective memory indices and hippocampal volumes only in the FASD group. Additionally, hippocampal volumes increased significantly with age in controls only, suggesting that PAE may be associated with long-term abnormalities in hippocampal development that may contribute to impaired verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall.
Pinkoski-Ball, Carrie L.; Reichle, Joe; Munson, Benjamin
Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of repeated exposure to novel and repeated spoken words in typical environments on the intelligibility of 2 synthesized voices and human recorded speech in preschools. Method: Eighteen preschoolers listened to and repeated single words presented in human-recorded speech, DECtalk Paul, and AT&T Voice…
Parkinson, Michael G.
Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…
Analyzed the development of past tense verbal morphology in Spanish second language acquisition among native English speakers divided into three levels of proficiency. Analysis shows that learners may use a default marker of past tense during the beginning stages of development of verbal morphology, but the choice of the default may be dependent…
Mervis, Carolyn B; Kistler, Doris J; John, Angela E; Morris, Colleen A
Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004 ) 4-7 times over a mean of 5.06 years. Mean age at first assessment was 7.44 years (range = 4.00-13.97 years). On average, KBIT-2 Composite IQ, Verbal SS, and Nonverbal SS were stable from 4 to 17 years, although there were significant individual differences in intercept (Composite IQ, Verbal SS, Nonverbal SS) and slope (Composite IQ, Nonverbal SS). Maternal education was significantly related to Verbal SS intercept. No significant sex differences were found. Implications for studies of genotype/phenotype correlations in WS are discussed.
Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth.
Eberle, Scott G.
Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…
Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.
Purpose: This study examined the potential roles of phonological sensitivity and processing speed in age-related declines of verbal working memory. Method: Twenty younger and 25 older adults with age-normal hearing participated. Two measures of verbal working memory were collected: digit span and serial recall of words. Processing speed was…
Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; Haier, Richard; Waber, Deborah P; Lepage, Claude; Ganjavi, Hooman; Jung, Rex; Evans, Alan C
Prevailing psychometric theories of intelligence posit that individual differences in cognitive performance are attributable to three main sources of variance: the general factor of intelligence (g), cognitive ability domains, and specific test requirements and idiosyncrasies. Cortical thickness has been previously associated with g. In the present study, we systematically analyzed associations between cortical thickness and cognitive performance with and without adjusting for the effects of g in a representative sample of children and adolescents (N=207, Mean age=11.8; SD=3.5; Range=6 to 18.3 years). Seven cognitive tests were included in a measurement model that identified three first-order factors (representing cognitive ability domains) and one second-order factor representing g. Residuals of the cognitive ability domain scores were computed to represent g-independent variance for the three domains and seven tests. Cognitive domain and individual test scores as well as residualized scores were regressed against cortical thickness, adjusting for age, gender and a proxy measure of brain volume. g and cognitive domain scores were positively correlated with cortical thickness in very similar areas across the brain. Adjusting for the effects of g eliminated associations of domain and test scores with cortical thickness. Within a psychometric framework, cortical thickness correlates of cognitive performance on complex tasks are well captured by g in this demographically representative sample.
McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C
Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed.
Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Haier, Richard; Waber, Deborah P.; Lepage, Claude; Ganjavi, Hooman; Jung, Rex; Evans, Alan C.
Prevailing psychometric theories of intelligence posit that individual differences in cognitive performance are attributable to three main sources of variance: the general factor of intelligence (g), cognitive ability domains, and specific test requirements and idiosyncrasies. Cortical thickness has been previously associated with g. In the present study, we systematically analyzed associations between cortical thickness and cognitive performance with and without adjusting for the effects of g in a representative sample of children and adolescents (N = 207, Mean age = 11.8; SD = 3.5; Range = 6 to 18.3 years). Seven cognitive tests were included in a measurement model that identified three first-order factors (representing cognitive ability domains) and one second-order factor representing g. Residuals of the cognitive ability domain scores were computed to represent g-independent variance for the three domains and seven tests. Cognitive domain and individual test scores as well as residualized scores were regressed against cortical thickness, adjusting for age, gender and a proxy measure of brain volume. g and cognitive domain scores were positively correlated with cortical thickness in very similar areas across the brain. Adjusting for the effects of g eliminated associations of domain and test scores with cortical thickness. Within a psychometric framework, cortical thickness correlates of cognitive performance on complex tasks are well captured by g in this demographically representative sample. PMID:21241809
This book goes through the eight intelligences (verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual, bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist), showing teachers new ways to create their own lessons using these intelligences. It also describes how to use technology to enhance each of the intelligences. The book…
260 participants rated themselves on 12 items that made up the three types of intelligence as noted by Sternberg, et al. in 1981. There were sex differences on two of the three standardized scores with men rating themselves higher than women on practical and verbal intelligence. This confirms previous studies of sex differences in the ratings of over-all (g) and multiple intelligences.
Lambrecht, Lena; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk
The recognition of nonverbal emotional signals and the integration of multimodal emotional information are essential for successful social communication among humans of any age. Whereas prior studies of age dependency in the recognition of emotion often focused on either the prosodic or the facial aspect of nonverbal signals, our purpose was to create a more naturalistic setting by presenting dynamic stimuli under three experimental conditions: auditory, visual, and audiovisual. Eighty-four healthy participants (women = 44, men = 40; age range 20-70 years) were tested for their abilities to recognize emotions either mono- or bimodally on the basis of emotional (happy, alluring, angry, disgusted) and neutral nonverbal stimuli from voice and face. Additionally, we assessed visual and auditory acuity, working memory, verbal intelligence, and emotional intelligence to explore potential explanatory effects of these population parameters on the relationship between age and emotion recognition. Applying unbiased hit rates as performance measure, we analyzed data with linear regression analyses, t tests, and with mediation analyses. We found a linear, age-related decrease in emotion recognition independent of stimulus modality and emotional category. In contrast, the improvement in recognition rates associated with audiovisual integration of bimodal stimuli seems to be maintained over the life span. The reduction in emotion recognition ability at an older age could not be sufficiently explained by age-related decreases in hearing, vision, working memory, and verbal intelligence. These findings suggest alterations in social perception at a level of complexity beyond basic perceptional and cognitive abilities.
Nesher, Perla; Teubal, Eva
Two experiments on the translation of verbal expressions into mathematical expressions are described. The author concludes that the usual way of training students to solve arithmetic word problems is inadequate. (SD)
Berlin, Lisa J; Ispa, Jean M; Fine, Mark A; Malone, Patrick S; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu
This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages. Cross-lagged path analyses indicated that spanking (but not verbal punishment) at age 1 predicted child aggressive behavior problems at age 2 and lower Bayley mental development scores at age 3. Neither child aggressive behavior problems nor Bayley scores predicted later spanking or verbal punishment. In some instances, maternal race/ethnicity and/or emotional responsiveness moderated the effects of spanking and verbal punishment on child outcomes.
Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M; Carreras, María R; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R
In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of social intelligence on peer acceptance, as well as several other effects that were moderated by gender: a significant and positive effect of verbal ability on social acceptance was found for boys; appearance-reality distinction was found to have a positive effect on social acceptance in the case of girls; and although empathy had a significant positive effect on social acceptance for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced among boys. Our results suggest that abilities promoting peer acceptance are different for boys and girls.
Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida
The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.
Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H
In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.
Choi, Kate H; Hsin, Amy; McLanahan, Sara S
Using longitudinal cohort studies from Australia and the United States, we assess the pervasiveness of the Asian academic advantage by documenting White-Asian differences in verbal development from early to middle childhood. In the United States, Asian children begin school with higher verbal scores than Whites, but their advantage erodes over time. The initial verbal advantage of Asian American children is partly due to their parent's socioeconomic advantage and would have been larger had it not been for their mother's English deficiency. In Australia, Asian children have lower verbal scores than Whites at age 4, but their scores grow a faster rate and converge towards those of Whites by age 8. The initial verbal disadvantage of Asian Australian children is partly due to their mother's English deficiency and would have been larger had it not been for their Asian parent's educational advantage. Asian Australian children's verbal scores grow at a faster pace, in part, because of their parent's educational advantage.
Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Parental education and maternal intelligence are well-known predictors of child IQ. However, the literature regarding other factors that may contribute to individual differences in IQ is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a number of variables whose predictive status remain unclarified, in a sample of basically healthy children with a low rate of pre- and postnatal complications. 1,782 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort (2003–2007) were assessed with a short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised. Information on parental characteristics, pregnancy and birth factors, postnatal influences, and postnatal growth was collected during pregnancy and at follow-up. A model including study design variables and child’s sex explained 7% of the variance in IQ, while parental education and maternal IQ increased the explained variance to 24%. Other predictors were parity, maternal BMI, birth weight, breastfeeding, and the child’s head circumference and height at follow-up. These variables, however, only increased the explained variance to 29%. The results suggest that parental education and maternal IQ are major predictors of IQ and should be included routinely in studies of cognitive development. Obstetrical and postnatal factors also predict IQ, but their contribution may be of comparatively limited magnitude. PMID:24236109
Hubble, L.M.; Groff, M. G.
This study examined the hypothesis that the Wechsler Verbal/Performance Intelligence quotient discrepancy would be larger or more frequent for persons classified as exhibiting a psychopathic delinquent adjustment than for persons classified as either neurotic or subculturally delinquent. (Author/PN)
Hubble, L. M.; Groff, M.
A field study is reported in which the discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal skills among 150 adjudicated male delinquents was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, and evaluated with regard to three interpretations of the observed differences. (Author/GK)
DeWolfe, Alan S.
Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other.…
Herring, Sheldon; Reitan, Ralph M.
Investigated whether men and women produced similar Verbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Performance IQ patterns following unilateral cerebral lesions. No consistent evidence of Sex X Lesioned Hemisphere interactions was found. Differences in the lateralization effects between men and women were not reflected in direction or pattern but only in…
Cerruti, Carlo; Schlaug, Gottfried
The remote associates test (RAT) is a complex verbal task with associations to both creative thought and general intelligence. RAT problems require not only lateral associations and the internal production of many words but a convergent focus on a single answer. Complex problem-solving of this sort may thus require both substantial verbal…
Erickson, Roger L.; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.
The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders’ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663
Bowie, C R; Harvey, P D; Moriarty, P J; Parrella, M; White, L; Davis, K L
Deficits in verbal fluency are common in schizophrenia and may provide keys to some of the abnormalities in the semantic system in schizophrenia. While a number of studies have outlined the severity and implications of verbal fluency deficits in younger schizophrenia patients, these findings have not yet been extended to older patients with schizophrenia. In this study, 392 older (age >/= 50) patients with schizophrenia were administered phonological and semantic (i.e., category) fluency examinations, as well as tests of learning, memory, language, and praxic skills, and rated for clinical symptoms and functional status. When compared to normative standards, 82% of the patients were impaired in semantic fluency and 83% were impaired in phonological fluency. Both semantic and phonological fluency impairment were significantly correlated with other cognitive variables, total scores on the functional status measure, and with the social and self-care subscales. Scores were uncorrelated with the severity of psychosis, but were correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Furthermore, the severity of poverty of speech (a clinical measure of verbal underproductivity) was moderate in magnitude and failed to enter as a predictor of verbal fluency, indicating that impaired fluency scores are not simply an artifact of general underproductivity or mutism. The findings support conclusions from studies with younger schizophrenia patients that suggest that verbal fluency impairment is a consequence of a disorganized semantic system. Verbal fluency impairment remains common and functionally relevant in schizophrenia patients in late life.
Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve
The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.
Soysal, A Sebnem; Gucuyener, Kivilcim; Ergenekon, Ebru; Turan, Özden; Koc, Esin; Turkyılmaz, Canan; Önal, Esra; Atalay, Yıldız
The aim of this study was to see whether the scores of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener of 45 high-risk preterm infants (gestational age 26-37 wk) between the ages of 3 and 24 months predicted neurodevelopmental status at 7 to 10 years of age. Neurodevelopmental status of 45/122 preterm infants, grouped according to their gestational ages of 26 to 29, 30 to 32, and 33 to 37 weeks, were previously evaluated by Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener. The scores were categorized as low or high-moderate. Verbal and performance scores of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) of those patients were assessed between 7 and 10 years. The patients with high-moderate-risk scores of Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener at all times, regardless of their gestational age, had lower performance, verbal, and total scores of WISC-R than those of who had low Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener risk scores. High-moderate risk score of Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener at 7 to 10, and 16 to 20 months, of all patients especially showed good prediction for identifying lower verbal and performance scales. For 7 to 10 months, verbal scale: positive predictive value = 92.3%, negative predictive value = 44.4%, sensitivity = 70.58%, and specificity = 80%; performance scale: positive predictive value = 100%, negative predictive value = 30%, sensitivity = 68.18%, and specificity = 100%. For 16 to 20 months, verbal scale: positive predictive value = 90%, negative predictive value = 37.5%, sensitivity = 64.3%, and specificity = 80%; performance scale: positive predictive value = 90%, negative predictive value = 12.5%, sensitivity = 56.3%, and specificity = 50%. Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener shows good prediction of later verbal and performance scores of Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised for Children as early as 7 to 10 months, which gives us the opportunity to start early intervention.
Dhami, Mandeep K; Mandel, David R; Mellers, Barbara A; Tetlock, Philip E
Intelligence analysis plays a vital role in policy decision making. Key functions of intelligence analysis include accurately forecasting significant events, appropriately characterizing the uncertainties inherent in such forecasts, and effectively communicating those probabilistic forecasts to stakeholders. We review decision research on probabilistic forecasting and uncertainty communication, drawing attention to findings that could be used to reform intelligence processes and contribute to more effective intelligence oversight. We recommend that the intelligence community (IC) regularly and quantitatively monitor its forecasting accuracy to better understand how well it is achieving its functions. We also recommend that the IC use decision science to improve these functions (namely, forecasting and communication of intelligence estimates made under conditions of uncertainty). In the case of forecasting, decision research offers suggestions for improvement that involve interventions on data (e.g., transforming forecasts to debias them) and behavior (e.g., via selection, training, and effective team structuring). In the case of uncertainty communication, the literature suggests that current intelligence procedures, which emphasize the use of verbal probabilities, are ineffective. The IC should, therefore, leverage research that points to ways in which verbal probability use may be improved as well as exploring the use of numerical probabilities wherever feasible.
Hassler, M; Gupta, D; Wollmann, H
Testosterone, estradiol, and ACTH were determined in blood serum of 26 healthy males aged 19.16 and of 25 healthy females aged 18.77 years on average, and results were correlated with test scores of three spatial tests, a verbal fluency measure, and a test measuring general musical ability. In addition, hemispheric lateralization for verbal material and handedness was assessed. While testosterone and estradiol alone were not significantly related to any of the cognitive or musical tests, testosterone/estradiol ratio was significantly negatively correlated with spatial tests, and ACTH was significantly positively correlated with spatial and musical tests. Correlations were stronger in females than in males. The laterality index was significantly negatively correlated with testosterone in males indicating that right hemisphere involvement in verbal processing was associated with high testosterone levels.
Juhasz, Barbara J.; Chambers, Destinee; Shesler, Leah W.; Haber, Alix; Kurtz, Matthew M.
Standardized lexical analysis of verbal output has not been applied to verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenia. Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on both a letter (n=139) and semantic (n=137) fluency task was investigated. The lexical characteristics (word frequency, age-of-acquisition, word length, and semantic typicality) of words produced were evaluated and compared to those produced by a healthy control group matched on age, gender, and WAIS-III vocabulary scores (n=20). Overall, individuals with schizophrenia produced fewer words than healthy controls, replicating past research (see Bokat and Goldberg, 2003). Words produced in the semantic fluency task by individuals with schizophrenia were, on average, earlier acquired and more typical of the category. In contrast, no differences in lexical characteristics emerged in the letter fluency task. The results are informative regarding how individuals with schizophrenia access their mental lexicons during the verbal fluency task. PMID:22809852
Waltz, David L.
Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…
Information Technology Quarterly, 1985
This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…
Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…
Thornburg, David D.
Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…
Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.
Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…
Amato, John, Jr.; Barrow, Meryl; Domingo, Robert
This preliminary study assessed differences in symbolic play behavior among 20 verbal and nonverbal children with autism, ages 2.5 to 3.6 years. Results indicated significant differences in symbolic play behavior with the verbal group demonstrating a higher order level of performance. Results underscore the importance of not considering all young…
Anderson, Deborah K.; Lord, Catherine; Risi, Susan; DiLavore, Pamela S.; Shulman, Cory; Thurm, Audrey; Welch, Kathleen; Pickles, Andrew
Verbal skills were assessed at approximately ages 2, 3, 5, and 9 years for 206 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism (n = 98), pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 58), or nonspectrum developmental disabilities (n = 50). Growth curve analyses were used to analyze verbal skills trajectories over time.…
Eliasson, Miriam A.; Isaksson, Kerstin; Laflamme, Lucie
Verbal abuse has been identified as a common element in the life of children in school. This paper explores how this discursive practice is used in the construction of masculinities and femininities among children aged 14-15 through observations and interviews in classes in two schools in Stockholm. Verbal abuse, often with sexual content,…
Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine
In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…
Mwamburi, Mkaya; Qiu, Wei Qiao
Premorbid intelligence does not decline through life even at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, other cognitive measures such as Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) decline with aging and severely with dementia. In this study, we examine the associations of premorbid intelligence vs. current cognition with body mass index (BMI), insulin and diabetes in elderly adults. Using a cross-sectional, population-based study, we assessed BMI, plasma insulin and the evidence of diabetes in homebound elders. The North American Adult Reading Test (NAART) and MMSE were conducted. Associations were assessed by T-test, linear correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Subjects were divided into four subgroups: 1) BMI <25; 2) 25 < BMI <30; 3) 30 < BMI <35 and 4) BMI >35. Lower verbal IQ, assessed by NAART, was associated with higher BMI (β=−0.28; P<0.01), elevated insulin (β= −0.02, P=0.02), and diabetes (β=− 3.18, P<0.01). Multivariate regression analyses showed that all three clinical conditions – obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and diabetes – were associated with lower premorbid intelligence assessed by verbal IQ, but only diabetes was associated with current cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. These relationships persisted after adjustment for education. Premorbid intelligence is associated with diabetes precursors – obesity and high insulin – and diabetes itself, but cognitive impairment is related to diabetes only. Understanding the mechanisms that link verbal IQ to diabetes precursors might suggest targeted interventions for the prevention of diabetes and cognitive decline caused by diabetes. PMID:27642517
Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.
Recent research has shown that by 30 months of age, children can successfully update their representation of an absent object's location on the basis of new verbal information, whereas 23-month-olds often return to the object's prior location. The current results show that this updating failure persisted even when (a) toddlers received visual and…
Sanz, Cristina; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lado, Beatriz; Bowden, Harriet Wood; Stafford, Catherine A.
The article summarizes results from two experimental studies on reactivity. In the first experiment, 24 college-age participants received a computerized treatment that delivered a grammar lesson, practice, and feedback on assignment of semantic functions in Latin. Verbalizations did not induce reactivity on accuracy, but they slowed down posttest…
Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda
Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…
Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.
The present study was conducted to determine if overt self-verbalization by the child during the waiting period would influence his delay maintenance behavior when the delayed reward was present. Subjects were 60 preschool girls in the age range of 33-72 months. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to each of four experimental conditions: (1)…
BRETHOWER, DALE M.
THE STUDY INVESTIGATED SOME OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN A CHILD'S VERBAL BEHAVIOR AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS NECESSARY IN ACQUIRING LANGUAGE. TWO TRAINABLE RETARDATES (FROM A GROUP OF SIX, AGED 3-6 TO 5) WITH A FUNCTIONAL VOCABULARY OF NO MORE THAN TWO OR THREE WORDS WERE SEEN INDIVIDUALLY IN 20- TO 30-MINUTE SESSIONS TWICE A WEEK DURING A 4-MONTH…
Polychroni, Fotini; Economou, Alexandra; Printezi, Anna; Koutlidi, Ifigeneia
The present study examined the verbal learning performance and the semantic organization used by Greek reading-disabled readers as compared to a control group using a list-learning task. The sample consisted of 45 elementary school children with reading difficulties and 45 comparison children matched for age and gender. Tests of reading ability,…
Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh
The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…
Knapp, T J
The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary.
Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam
Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229
Knapp, Terry J.
The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049
Bezrukikh, M M; Loginova, E S
Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures.
Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph
We address a series of criticisms, raised by Woodley (2011), of our paper "Cognitive ability, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation: A five-year longitudinal study amongst adolescents" (Heaven, Ciarrochi, & Leeson, 2011). We argue that, while Woodley (2011) presents some interesting points, his criticisms do not alter our…
Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Salovey, Peter
This study examined the reliability of the Spanish version of the MSCEIT, with a sample of 946 college and high school students (426 males, 520 females) ranging from 16 to 58 years old. After the translation and back-translation process, the objectives of this study were: 1) to examine the reliability of the Spanish version of the MSCEIT v.2.0 at the total scale, area, branch and subscale levels; 2) to analyze the correlations between the methods of scoring in the Spanish version of the MSCEIT v.2.0 at the total scale, area, branch and subscale levels; 3) to examine possible gender differences on MSCEIT scores; and 4) to examine the relationship between age and MSCEIT scores. These analyses revealed good reliability and internal consistency for the Spanish version of the MSCEIT; a high level of convergence between scoring methods; and higher scores obtained by women on overall scale and branches scores than scores obtained by men. A positive correlation between the scores on MSCEIT and age was found. Finally, these results are discussed in light of the limitations of the present study, the implications of the use of this new instrument, and the need for future research on emotional intelligence.
Tait, P E
Through a cerebral hemispheric specialization model, I speculated that the reported discrepancy between visually impaired children's competency in language development and lags in cognition may be explained by the use of visual-spatial measurements of cognition. The performance of 51 visually impaired and 51 sighted children, ages 7 to 15 years, on a task of joke comprehension and conservation of weight scores was analyzed. I hypothesized that the ability to comprehend verbal humor would reflect the function of the left hemisphere of the brain and the ability to perform a Piagetian visual-spatial task would reflect the function of the right hemisphere. The findings indicate that although age and IQ contributed significantly to predicting joke comprehension, the ability to conserve did not have a unique contribution. In conclusion, I suggest that the cerebral hemispheric specialization model be considered when investigating language and cognition of visually impaired children.
Butcher, Phillipa R.; van Braeckel, Koen; Bouma, Anke; Einspieler, Christa; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.
Background: The quality of very preterm infants' spontaneous movements at 11 to 16 weeks post-term age is a powerful predictor of their later neurological status. This study investigated whether early spontaneous movements also have predictive value for the intellectual and behavioural problems that children born very preterm often experience.…
Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.
This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015
The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…
Vissing, Y M; Straus, M A; Gelles, R J; Harrop, J W
Analyses of data on a nationally representative sample of 3,346 American parents with a child under 18 living at home found that 63% reported one or more instances of verbal aggression, such as swearing and insulting the child. Children who experienced frequent verbal aggression from parents (as measured by the Conflict Tactic Scales) exhibited higher rates of physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems than other children. This relationship is robust since it applies to preschool-, elementary school-, and high school-age children, to both boys and girls, and to children who were also physically punished as well as those who were not. Children who experienced both verbal aggression and severe physical violence exhibited the highest rates of aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems.
Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. )
Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).
Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Kannan, Kumaraswami
Participants were 230 adult Malaysians who estimated their own, their parents', and their partners' overall IQs and 10 multiple intelligences. In accordance with both the previous literature and the authors' hypotheses, men rated themselves higher than did women on overall, verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligences. There were fewer gender differences in ratings of parents and in those of partners. Participants believed that they were more intelligent than both parents (but not their partners) and that their fathers were more intelligent than their mothers. Regressions indicated that participants believed that verbal intelligence and--to a lesser extent--logical-mathematical intelligence were the main predictors of overall intelligence. The authors discussed results in terms of the extant cross-cultural literature in the field.
Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R
Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior.
Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.
Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454
Ando, J; Ono, Y; Wright, M J
Working memory (WM) encompasses both short-term memory (storage) and executive functions that play an essential role in all forms of cognition. In this study, the genetic structure of storage and executive functions engaged in both a spatial and verbal WM span task is investigated using a twin sample. The sample consists of 143 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) Japanese twin pairs, ages 16 to 29 years. In 155 (87 MZ, 62 DZ) of these pairs, cognitive ability scores from the Kyodai Japanese IQ test are also obtained. The phenotypic relationship between WM and cognitive ability is confirmed (r = 0.26-0.44). Individual differences in WM storage and executive functions are found to be significantly influenced by genes, with heritability estimates all moderately high (43%-49%), and estimates for cognitive ability comparable to previous studies (65%). A large part of the genetic variance in storage and executive functions in both spatial and verbal modalities is due to a common genetic factor that accounts for 11% to 43% of the variance. In the reduced sample, this common genetic factor accounts for 64% and 26% of the variance in spatial and verbal cognitive ability, respectively. Additional genetic variance in WM (7%-30%) is due to modality specific factors (spatial and verbal) and a storage specific factor that may be particularly important for the verbal modality. None of the variance in cognitive ability is accounted for by the modality and storage genetic factors, suggesting these may be specific to WM.
Price, Jenessa S.; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M.
Objective Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Method Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18–35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0–2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Results Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Conclusion Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed. PMID:25545890
Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper
This study presents Danish data for Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Education and estimated verbal intelligence (DART score) had a significant impact on the RAVLT trial 1-5 score but not on other RAVLT measures. The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States.
Fouty, H Edward; Smith, Cassandra R; Briceno, Karen Y; Brown, Katelyn D; Guzman, Daniel; Ailes, Erica L; DeVries, Christopher T; Diluccia, Christina M; McLarnan, Kristy M; Betancourt, Stephanie C; Catoe, Whitney L
The Cognistat is a widely used neurobehavioral screening instrument that addresses functioning across multiple domains. Unlike many popular neuropsychological tests, the Cognistat does not currently assess learning efficiency for verbal material. The purpose of this study was to develop a screening method for assessing verbal learning efficiency with the Cognistat, investigate the effects of two demographic variables (age and gender) on performance, and to establish cutoff scores for impairment. Participants were 253 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 96 years. Participants were classified into two age groups: 18-64 years and 65 + years. The data revealed a significant age and gender performance difference. Implications for the present findings and for future research are presented.
Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling
Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood.
Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ainsworth, Keela C; Brown, Tyler C
In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.
Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.
Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…
Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others
Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…
Cochran, Gregory; Hardy, Jason; Harpending, Henry
This paper elaborates the hypothesis that the unique demography and sociology of Ashkenazim in medieval Europe selected for intelligence. Ashkenazi literacy, economic specialization, and closure to inward gene flow led to a social environment in which there was high fitness payoff to intelligence, specifically verbal and mathematical intelligence but not spatial ability. As with any regime of strong directional selection on a quantitative trait, genetic variants that were otherwise fitness reducing rose in frequency. In particular we propose that the well-known clusters of Ashkenazi genetic diseases, the sphingolipid cluster and the DNA repair cluster in particular, increase intelligence in heterozygotes. Other Ashkenazi disorders are known to increase intelligence. Although these disorders have been attributed to a bottleneck in Ashkenazi history and consequent genetic drift, there is no evidence of any bottleneck. Gene frequencies at a large number of autosomal loci show that if there was a bottleneck then subsequent gene flow from Europeans must have been very large, obliterating the effects of any bottleneck. The clustering of the disorders in only a few pathways and the presence at elevated frequency of more than one deleterious allele at many of them could not have been produced by drift. Instead these are signatures of strong and recent natural selection.
PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms.
Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of children with ASD (N=63) and on the whether the abbreviated battery is representative of the full scale. A high percentage of the children had significantly stronger nonverbal (vs. verbal) skills. This pattern was not related to Full Scale IQ, age or diagnostic subgroup. IQs derived from the abbreviated battery accounted for a large proportion of the variance in FSIQ relative to comparable abbreviated batteries. However, caution is warranted when using the abbreviated battery, as it misrepresents actual ability in a small percentage of cases.
Johansson, Peter; Kerr, Margaret
Empirical studies using the PCL-R (Hare, 2003) have shown no intelligence differences between psychopaths and nonpsychopaths. However, Cleckley (1976) argued that psychopaths often show superior intelligence. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the correlation between intelligence and severity of criminal development is the opposite in psychopaths than in nonpsychopathic criminals using a sample of 370 men sentenced for violent (nonsexual) crimes. That pattern would provide a way of explaining the discrepancy between Cleckley's view and later empirical work. The results showed that for nonpsychopaths, higher total IQ and particularly verbal intelligence meant a later start in violent crime. For those diagnosed as psychopaths, however, this association was reversed.
Rovet, J.; Bailey, J.; Netley, C.
Forty-seven children (35 male, 12 female) identified as having a supernumerary X chromosome by neonatal screening were studied psychologically from childhood to late adolescence. This paper compares their findings relative to sibling controls on tests of intelligence and achievement collected over a 14-year period. Children with a supernumerary X chromosome were found to score consistently below controls on Verbal IQ and subtests comprising the Verbal Comprehension factor but they did not differ on Performance IQ, which was in the normal range. At all ages, they showed poorer reading and arithmetic achievement; relative risk for reading and arithmetic impairment was 2.6 and 2.6 in males and 1.1 and 1.7 in females. Males with an extra X chromosome were more likely to receive special education than females, who more often failed a grade. Academic achievement was not affected in aneuploid children with higher levels of intelligence. Overall, these results suggest milder impairment than previously reported, particularly among trisomy X females. 49 refs., 5 tabs.
Portocarrero, José S; Burright, Richard G; Donovick, Peter J
We assessed the English vocabulary and verbal fluency of college students who were either bilinguals who were born abroad and spoke English or monolingual speakers of English. We examined the relationship between age of arrival to the U.S. of bilinguals and their English vocabulary. The bilinguals' performance on English vocabulary was in the average range. However, despite arriving to the U.S. at a relatively young age, and having sufficient command of English to attend a competitive university, the bilinguals had lower receptive and expressive English vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Age of arrival was moderately correlated with English vocabulary scores. The younger the bilingual students were when they arrived to the U.S., the better their English vocabulary. Both groups had similar performance on phonetic fluency. However, the bilingual group performed significantly lower in semantic fluency. This pattern of performance in verbal fluency is consistent with that found in previous studies.
Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G; Daneman, Meredyth
The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers' attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants' verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.
Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth
The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437
Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…
Ettinger, B; Telerand, A; Kronenberg, Y; Gaoni, B
"Verbal hallucinations" are sentences that psychotic patients may say repeatedly throughout a conversation which are out of context or unconnected to the topic of conversation. These hallucinations are not the outcome of a remembrance of an experience or an event and do not bring about any emotional relief or catharsis, but they supply valuable information. They resemble Jacques Lacan's description of the psychotic mechanism "Forclusion." This mechanism relates to experiences that did not undergo the process of primary symbolization through language, and experiences where words were attached but were not bound to the language structure. The result being that these experiences did not enter into the unconscious discourse of the subject. This information can reappear as verbal hallucinations in the psychotic patient. In such cases, the therapist, with the assistance of the patient's family, must investigate the meaning of the verbal hallucinations through research into the patient's and family's history in the phase prior to language development. When such a connection is discovered, the therapist must then bridge the hallucinations with the events unknown to the patient but contained in his subconscious. The therapist's role in such cases resembles that of a parent with a child: To translate the subject's experience through language from the physical schema to the body image and symbolic plane and in so doing, give meaning to meaninglessness. In our paper three short clinical cases are presented.
Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Nansel, Tonja R.
Purpose Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, parental support and friends were examined. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally-representative sample of grades 6 to 10 (N = 7182). The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with socio-demographic variables, parental support and number of friends as predictors. Results Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, while girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, while girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal and relational forms, but was not associated with cyber bullying. Conclusions Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying has a distinct nature from traditional bullying. PMID:19766941
Bumen, Nilay T.
Multiple-intelligence (MI) theory was developed by Dr. Howard Gardner, and it defines intelligence through a spectrum of content areas, including verbal-linguistic, mathematical-logical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, and naturalistic. The application of MI theory has been found to lead to…
Yuen, Mantak; Furnham, Adrian
A total of 378 Hong Kong adolescents estimated their own and their parents' IQ score on each of Gardner's 10 multiple intelligences: verbal (linguistic), logical (mathematical), spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, spiritual and naturalistic. They answered three simple questions concerning intelligence and…
Beachner, Lynne; Pickett, Anola
This book offers teachers a toolbox for discovering the innate strengths and talents and the unique learning styles of each student. Drawing from Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences, the book offers more than a dozen activities specifically tailored to each of the eight multiple intelligences: verbal/linguistic, mathematical/logical,…
Seddon, G. M.
A sample of 741 students worked through a self-instructional chemistry program after completing tests of extraversion, neuroticism, verbal intelligence, non-verbal intelligence and background knowledge in chemistry. Results showed none of the interactions involving neuroticism was significant, and indicated that the significant interaction…
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia
Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.
Morash, Valerie S; McKerracher, Amanda
The most common and advocated assessment approach when a child cannot access visual materials is to use the verbal subscales of a test the psychologist already has and is familiar with. However, previous research indicates that children with visual impairments experience atypical verbal development. This raises the question of whether verbal subscale scores retain their reliability and interpretation validity when given to children with visual impairments. To answer this question, we administered a vocabulary subscale from a common intelligence test along with several nonverbal subscales to 15 early-blind adolescents (onset of ≤2 years). Reliability of only the vocabulary test scores was insufficient for high-stakes testing. This finding points to the broader issue of difficulties in assessing populations of exceptional children who experience atypical development trajectories, possibly making their assessment with common tests inappropriate. (PsycINFO Database Record
Presotto, Monia; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Shumacher Shuh, Artur Francisco; Rieder, Carlos R. M.
Objective. To assess the presence of nonverbal and verbal apraxia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze the correlation between these conditions and patient age, education, duration of disease, and PD stage, as well as evaluate the correlation between the two types of apraxia and the frequency and types of verbal apraxic errors made by patients in the sample. Method. This was an observational prevalence study. The sample comprised 45 patients with PD seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using the Speech Apraxia Assessment Protocol and PD stages were classified according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results. The rate of nonverbal apraxia and verbal apraxia in the present sample was 24.4%. Verbal apraxia was significantly correlated with education (p ≤ 0.05). The most frequent types of verbal apraxic errors were omissions (70.8%). The analysis of manner and place of articulation showed that most errors occurred during the production of trill (57.7%) and dentoalveolar (92%) phonemes, consecutively. Conclusion. Patients with PD presented nonverbal and verbal apraxia and made several verbal apraxic errors. Verbal apraxia was correlated with education levels. PMID:26543663
Lucas-Jiménez, Olaia; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia; Peña, Javier; Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Alberto; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa
Background: While significant progress has been made to determine the functional role of specific gray matter areas underlying verbal memory in Parkinson’s disease (PD), very little is known about the relationship between these regions and their underlying white matter structures. Objective: The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate verbal memory, fractional anisotropy and brain activation differences between PD patients and healthy controls (HC), (2) to explore the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional correlates of verbal memory in PD, and (3) to investigate the relationship between these neuroanatomical and neurofunctional verbal memory correlates in PD. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a verbal memory paradigm and diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), were acquired in 37 PD patients and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched HC. Results: PD patients showed verbal recognition memory impairment, lower fractional anisotropy in the anterior cingulate tract, and lower brain activation in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC. Brain activation in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex correlated significantly with verbal recognition memory impairment in PD patients. In addition, a relationship between brain activation in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex and fractional anisotropy of the uncinate fasciculus was found in PD. Conclusions: These results reveal that deficits in verbal memory in PD are accompanied by functional brain activation changes, but also have specific structural correlates related to white matter microstructural integrity. PMID:27070003
Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM.
Rosner, M; Belkin, M
We conducted a nationwide study of the relationship among refractive error, intelligence scores, and years of schooling in 157,748 males aged 17 to 19 years. We found a strong association of myopia with both intelligence and years of school attendance. The prevalence of myopia was found to be significantly higher in the more intelligent and more educated groups. By fitting models of logistic regressions, we worked out a formula expressing the relationship among the rate of myopia, years of schooling, and intelligence level. We found that years of schooling and intelligence weigh equally in the relationship with myopia.
Shiliang Chang; Waid, Erin; Martinec, Danny V; Bin Zheng; Swanstrom, Lee L
The impact of verbal communication on laparoscopic team performance was examined. A total of 24 dyad teams, comprised of residents, medical students, and office staff, underwent 2 team tasks using a previously validated bench model. Twelve teams (feedback groups) received instant verbal instruction and feedback on their performance from an instructor which was compared with 12 teams (control groups) with minimal or no verbal feedback. Their performances were both video and audio taped for analysis. Surgical backgrounds were similar between feedback and control groups. Teams with more verbal feedback achieved significantly better task performance (P = .002) compared with the control group with less feedback. Impact of verbal feedback was more pronounced for tasks requiring team cooperation (aiming and navigation) than tasks depending on individual skills (knotting). Verbal communication, especially the instructions and feedback from an experienced instructor, improved team efficiency and performance.
Clearman, Jack; Klinger, Vojtěch; Szűcs, Dénes
Working memory allows complex information to be remembered and manipulated over short periods of time. Correlations between working memory and mathematics achievement have been shown across the lifespan. However, only a few studies have examined the potentially distinct contributions of domain-specific visuospatial and verbal working memory resources in mental arithmetic computation. Here we aimed to fill this gap in a series of six experiments pairing addition and subtraction tasks with verbal and visuospatial working memory and interference tasks. In general, we found higher levels of interference between mental arithmetic and visuospatial working memory tasks than between mental arithmetic and verbal working memory tasks. Additionally, we found that interference that matched the working memory domain of the task (e.g., verbal task with verbal interference) lowered working memory performance more than mismatched interference (verbal task with visuospatial interference). Findings suggest that mental arithmetic relies on domain-specific working memory resources.
Obeso, Ignacio; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Álvarez, Lázaro; Jahanshahi, Marjan
Changes of cognitive function in PD have been extensively documented and defined as a ‘frontal’ type executive dysfunction. One of the main components of this executive dysfunction is the impairment of verbal fluency. The aim of the present study was to assess semantic and phonemic fluency in a large sample of PD patients and to investigate the effect of clinical and sociodemographic variables on verbal fluency in this patient group. Three hundred patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who were consecutive referrals to our clinic and 50 age and education matched healthy controls completed the phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks. Both phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were significantly impaired in PD patients relative to matched controls. Stage of illness, presence of depression, education and age influenced verbal fluency measures. Regression analyses established that global measures of cognitive ability (MMSE) and executive function (FAB) and side of onset of motor symptoms predicted 36–37% of variance of phonemic or semantic verbal fluency measures. Thus, future studies aimed at assessing cognitive functioning in PD patients treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) should adequately take into account several factors (stage of illness, depression, executive functioning) which may potentially influence performance on verbal fluency tasks. PMID:22530265
Boucher, Olivier; Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Rouleau, Isabelle
The advantage of selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) over anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains controversial. Because ATL is more extensive and involves the lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe, it may be predicted that its impact on memory is more important than SAH, which involves resection of medial temporal structures only. However, several studies do not support this assumption. Possible explanations include task-specific factors such as the extent of semantic and syntactic information to be memorized and failure to control for main confounders. We compared preoperative vs. postoperative memory performance in 13 patients with SAH with 26 patients who underwent ATL matched on side of surgery, IQ, age at seizure onset, and age at surgery. Memory function was assessed using the Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales - 3rd edition (LM-WMS), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed opposite effects of SAH and ATL on the two verbal learning memory tests. On the immediate recall trial of the LM-WMS, performance deteriorated after ATL in comparison with that after SAH. By contrast, on the delayed recognition trial of the RAVLT, performance deteriorated after SAH compared with that after ATL. However, additional analyses revealed that the latter finding was only observed when surgery was conducted in the right hemisphere. No interaction effects were found on other memory outcomes. The results are congruent with the view that tasks involving rich semantic content and syntactical structure are more sensitive to the effects of lateral temporal cortex resection as compared with mesiotemporal resection. The findings highlight the importance of task selection in the assessment of memory in patients undergoing TLE surgery.
Bekiari, Alexandra; Digelidis, Nikolaos; Sakelariou, Kimon
This study examined verbal aggressiveness of coaches as perceived by their athletes, 108 senior athletes (57 boys and 51 girls) ages 15-19 years. Participants were basketball players (56 athletes) and volleyball players (52 athletes) who completed questionnaires. The scale of verbal aggressiveness showed high internal consistency. A two-way analysis of variance, conducted using sex and sport as independent variables to examine interactions, yielded significant differences between adolescent volleyball and basketball athletes. Volleyball athletes had lower scores on the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale than basketball players. Research with larger samples and other sports is recommended.
Sajjadi-Bafghi, Seyed Hossein
The relations of sex and grade with verbal originality of 407 boys and 479 girls (M age= 12.7 yr., SD=.9) in Iranian middle schools (Grades 6 through 8) were investigated. The Sounds and Images test, one of the components of Thinking Creatively with Sounds and Words, was administered to measure verbal originality. Analysis showed boys scored significantly higher than girls on verbal originality and Grade 6 children scored significantly higher than Grade 7 children. The results were discussed in terms of sociocultural factors.
de Picciotto, J; Friedland, D
This study investigated verbal fluency abilities in 30 healthy elderly English-Afrikaans bilingual speakers, and 6 bilingual subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Three 1-min semantic verbal fluency tasks (animals) were obtained in the bilingual mode, Afrikaans and English. Results were analysed in terms of total correct, and semantic clusters. There was no significant difference between monolingual and bilingual performance. Some healthy bilingual subjects used code switching as a strategy but with no direct increase in the number of exemplars generated, and there was no relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores. In comparison, subjects with Alzheimer's disease did not make use of code switching strategies, and there was some relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores.
This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…
Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.
Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…
Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by…
Alesi, Marianna; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria
One of the most significant current discussions has led to the hypothesis that domain-specific training programs alone are not enough to improve reading achievement or working memory abilities. Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence may be assumed to be an important prognostic factor to overcome domain-specific deficits. Specifically, incremental students tend to be more oriented toward change and autonomy and are able to adopt more efficacious strategies. This study aims at examining the effect of personal conceptions of intelligence to strengthen the efficacy of a multidimensional intervention program in order to improve decoding abilities and working memory. Participants included two children (M age = 10 years) with developmental dyslexia and different conceptions of intelligence. The children were tested on a whole battery of reading and spelling tests commonly used in the assessment of reading disabilities in Italy. Afterwards, they were given a multimedia test to measure motivational factors such as conceptions of intelligence and achievement goals. The children took part in the T.I.R.D. Multimedia Training for the Rehabilitation of Dyslexia (Rappo and Pepi, 2010) reinforced by specific units to improve verbal working memory for 3 months. This training consisted of specific tasks to rehabilitate both visual and phonological strategies (sound blending, word segmentation, alliteration test and rhyme test, letter recognition, digraph recognition, trigraph recognition, and word recognition as samples of visual tasks) and verbal working memory (rapid words and non-words recognition). Posttest evaluations showed that the child holding the incremental theory of intelligence improved more than the child holding a static representation. On the whole this study highlights the importance of treatment programs in which both specificity of deficits and motivational factors are both taken into account. There is a need to plan multifaceted intervention
Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias
Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity.
Park, Dong Choon
Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904
Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Rouw, Romke; Meeter, Martijn
Over 100,000 verbal and visuospatial immediate and delayed memory tests were presented via the Internet to over 28,000 participants in the age range of 11 to 80. Structural equation modeling pointed to the verbal versus visuospatial dimension as an important factor in individual differences, but not the immediate versus delayed dimension. We found a linear decrease of 1% to 3% per year in overall memory performance past the age of 25. For visuospatial tests, this decrease started at age 18 and was twice as fast as the decrease of verbal memory. There were strong effects of education, with the highest educated group sometimes scoring one full standard deviation above the lowest educated group. Gender effects were small but as expected: women outperformed men on the verbal memory tasks; men outperformed women on the visuospatial tasks. We also found evidence of increasing proneness to false memory with age. Memory for recent news events did not show a decrease with age.
Whitaker, Bruce L.
Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)
Woolley, Jacqueline D.
Verbal and behavioral measures of children's knowledge are frequently dissociated. These situations represent a largely untapped but important resource for furthering an understanding of human cognition. In this paper, verbal-behavioral dissociations in children are discussed and analyzed, drawing from a wide range of domains. The article explores…
Buddenhagen, Ronald G.
Behavior modification as an attack upon the problem of mutism in mongoloid children establishes the basis of the text. Case histories of four children in a state institution present the specific strategy of speech therapy using verbal conditioning. Imitation and attending behavior, verbal chaining, phonetic theory, social reinforcement,…
Mork, Gordon M. A.
The Verbal Reaction Behavior Log (VRBL) is an instrument used for identification of teacher and pupil verbal behavior. The purposes for its use are (a) an increase in pupil-teacher interaction, (b) an enhancement of indirect and pupil-centered instruction, (c) focus of attention on the logic of classroom discourse, and (d) increased use of…
Feldman, Robert S.; And Others
Sixty-three third and sixth graders in an experimental teaching session provided either genuine or dissembled (disguised) verbal praise to a student (confederate). Trained coders and naive observers analyzed nonverbal behavior. As hypothesized, nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, body movement, and pausing indicated verbal deception.…
Fryling, Mitch J.
Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of…
Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…
Frank, Michael C.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward
Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Piraha (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching…
Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh
A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…
Sundberg, Mark L.
The importance of the intraverbal relation is missed in most theories of language. Skinner (1957) attributes this to traditional semantic theories of meaning that focus on the nonverbal referents of words and neglect verbal stimuli as separate sources of control for linguistic behavior. An analysis of verbal stimulus control is presented, along…
Moyer, John C.; And Others
Students in grades three to seven were given tests on which problems were presented in either verbal or telegraphic format. Only in grade six was a significant difference found, favoring the verbal format. Problems with conventional syntax appeared to be easier to interpret than those with bare bones syntax. (MNS)
Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.
Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…
Lambeth, Cathryn Colley
The current study investigated variability in student performance on a concurrent verbalization measure based on a grade-level sample math word problem and sought to determine to what extent the variability in verbalization scores is related to scores on a reliable measure of reading (DIBELS Next) and math (easyCBM) and to student factors (e.g.…
Schadt, Courtney R; Cox, Katie L; Tramontana, Michael G; Byrne, Daniel W; Davis, Thomas L; Fang, John Y; Konrad, Peter E; Padaliya, Bhavna; Mutter, Robert W; Gill, Chandler E; Richardson, Caralee R; Charles, P David
The goal of this study is to examine the association of depression with intelligence and education in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN-DBS). The literature has been contradictory concerning depression in Parkinson's disease patients. Some studies have shown less depression in Parkinson's disease patients with more education not treated with STN-DBS. Other recently published studies indicate that STN-DBS improves the depression associated with Parkinson's disease. No studies have examined the correlation of these factors with depression in Parkinson's disease patients treated with STN-DBS. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) pre- and postoperatively to 21 Parkinson's disease patients (seven women, 14 men, ages 49-75) who underwent STN-DBS. The postoperative scores of the lower 50th percentile (n=8) of the Verbal Comprehensive Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) decreased significantly (P=0.036), while the upper 50th percentile (n=13) remained nearly constant (P=0.802). Furthermore, as the education increased from highschool to graduate level, patients demonstrated less improvement in depressive symptoms postoperatively. These findings suggest that Parkinson's disease patients with lower intelligence test scores and less education benefit more with regards to depressive symptomatology after STN-DBS than patients with higher scores and education.
Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio
The content of the thought is expressed by words articulated correctly according to grammar and syntax. The meanings are conveyed through words but also through the way they are used, the manner of communication. The real reason of communication is the intention, the purpose, often implicit, which determines the source of a speech. It is possible to identify a direct aim (the purpose of communicating) and an indirect objective (the role intention), understood as keeping a role between the speaker and the listener. The role is also indicated by the non-verbal or paraverbal component of the message, that is the tone of voice, the emphasis and the posture of the communicator. In the multitude of possible relationship (affective, social, business, political, religious), frequently bounded together, we can recognize three categories of relations: symmetrical, reciprocal and complementary.
Habeck, Christian; Rakitin, Brian; Steffener, Jason; Stern, Yaakov
We performed a delayed-item-recognition task to investigate the neural substrates of non-verbal visual working memory with event-related fMRI (‘Shape task’). 25 young subjects (mean age: 24.0 years; STD=3.8 years) were instructed to study a list of either 1,2 or 3 unnamable nonsense line drawings for 3 seconds (‘stimulus phase’ or STIM). Subsequently, the screen went blank for 7 seconds (‘retention phase’ or RET), and then displayed a probe stimulus for 3 seconds in which subject indicated with a differential button press whether the probe was contained in the studied shape-array or not (‘probe phase’ or PROBE). Ordinal Trend Canonical Variates Analysis (Habeck et al., 2005a) was performed to identify spatial covariance patterns that showed a monotonic increase in expression with memory load during all task phases. Reliable load-related patterns were identified in the stimulus and retention phase (p<0.01), while no significant pattern could be discerned during the probe phase. Spatial covariance patterns that were obtained from an earlier version of this task (Habeck et al., 2005b) using 1, 3, or 6 letters (‘Letter task’) were also prospectively applied to their corresponding task phases in the current non-verbal task version. Interestingly, subject expression of covariance patterns from both verbal and non-verbal retention phases correlated positively in the non-verbal task for all memory loads (p<0.0001). Both patterns also involved similar frontoparietal brain regions that were increasing in activity with memory load, and mediofrontal and temporal regions that were decreasing. Mean subject expression of both patterns across memory load during retention also correlated positively with recognition accuracy (dL) in the Shape task (p<0.005). These findings point to similarities in the neural substrates of verbal and non-verbal rehearsal processes. Encoding processes, on the other hand, are critically dependent on the to-be-remembered material
KHOSRAVI FARD, Elham; L. KEELOR, Jennifer; Akbarzadeh BAGHEBAN, Alireza; W. KEITH, Robert
Objective In this study, different kinds of memory were evaluated using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT) test and were compared between two groups of typical and gifted students using Digit Span test. Finally, we determined if working memory interfered with scores in different Rey stages or not. Material & Methods This study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran in 2013. Scores on RAVLT were compared with WISC- R digit span results in a sample of 148 male students aged 12-14 yr old divided into two groups including 75 students in typical school (IQ ranging between 90 and 110) and 73 gifted students (IQs ranging between 110 and 130). Results Gifted students obtained higher scores than typical students in both Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) and all 9 stages of RAVLT comparing with typical students (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different ages (P> 0.05). The 14 yr old students in both groups had the highest score. There was a high correlation between FDS and the first stage of RAVLT as well as high correlation between BDS and seventh stage of RAVLT. Conclusion Intelligence has effect on better score of memory and gifted subjects had better scores in memory tests, although the intelligence effect in learning was quantitative rather than qualitative. RAVLT is a comprehensive test, which evaluates short-term memory, working memory and long-term memory and besides Digit span test provides precious information about memory and learning of subjects in order to program different student’s educational schedules. PMID:27247581
Chapman, Benjamin; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Background IQ is thought to explain social gradients in mortality. IQ scores are based roughly equally on Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ tests. VIQ tests, however, are suspected to confound true verbal ability with socioeconomic status (SES), raising the possibility that associations between SES and IQ scores might be overestimated. We examined, first, whether two of the most common types of VIQ tests exhibited differential item functioning (DIF) favouring persons of higher SES and/or majority race/ethnicity. Second, we assessed what impact, if any, this had on estimates of the extent to which VIQ explains social gradients in mortality. Methods Data from the General Social Survey-National Death Index cohort, a US population representative dataset, was used. Item response theory models queried social-factor DIF on the Thorndike Verbal Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Revised Similarities test. Cox models examined mortality associations among SES and VIQ scores corrected and uncorrected for DIF. Results When uncorrected for DIF, VIQ was correlated with income, education, occupational prestige and race, with correlation coefficients ranging between |0.12| and |0.43|. After correcting for DIF, correlations ranged from |0.06| to |0.16|. Uncorrected VIQ scores explained 11–40% of the Relative Index of Inequalities in mortality for social factors, while DIF-corrected scores explained 2–29%. Conclusions Two of the common forms of VIQ tests appear confound verbal intelligence with SES. Since these tests appear in most IQ batteries, circumspection may be warranted in estimating the amount of social inequalities in mortality attributable to IQ. PMID:24729404
Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Marshall Space Flight Center, Ultrafast, Inc. developed the world's first, high-temperature resistant, "intelligent" fastener. NASA needed a critical-fastening appraisal and validation of spacecraft segments that are coupled together in space. The intelligent-bolt technology deletes the self-defeating procedure of having to untighten the fastener, and thus upset the joint, during inspection and maintenance. The Ultrafast solution yielded an innovation that is likely to revolutionize manufacturing assembly, particularly the automobile industry. Other areas of application range from aircraft, computers and fork-lifts to offshore platforms, buildings, and bridges.
Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Semb, Patricia A.
This study investigated whether illustrations facilitate story recall in preschoolers (N = 58) 46 to 63 months of age. Each child was exposed to either a verbal story narrative with illustrations (Verbal and Picture condition), the narrative alone (Verbal Only condition), the narrative with uninformative illustrations (Verbal and Irrelevant…
Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Witta, E. Lea
In the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), the manual reports several confirmatory factor analyses in support of the instrument's latent factor structure. In practice, examiners frequently compare an examinee's score from a current administration of the WAIS-III with the results from a previous test…
Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.
Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…
Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk
Emotional communication uses verbal and nonverbal means. In case of conflicting signals, nonverbal information is assumed to have a stronger impact. It is unclear, however, whether perceptual nonverbal dominance varies between individuals and whether it is linked to emotional intelligence. Using audiovisual stimulus material comprising verbal and nonverbal emotional cues that were varied independently, perceptual nonverbal dominance profiles and their relations to emotional intelligence were examined. Nonverbal dominance was found in every participant, ranging from 55 to 100%. Moreover, emotional intelligence, particularly the ability to understand emotions, correlated positively with nonverbal dominance. Furthermore, higher overall emotional intelligence as well as a higher ability to understand emotions were linked to smaller reaction time differences between emotionally incongruent and congruent stimuli. The association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence, and more specifically the ability to understand emotions, might reflect an adaptive process driven by the experience of higher authenticity in nonverbal cues.
Steinmayr, Ricarda; Beauducel, Andre; Spinath, Birgit
Recently, different methodological approaches have been discussed as an explanation for inconsistencies in studies investigating sex differences in different intelligences. The present study investigates sex differences in manifest sum scores, factor score estimates, and latent verbal, numerical, figural intelligence, as well as fluid and…
Rahbari, Noriyeh; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence were examined concurrently and longitudinally in 126 preschool children. EF was assessed using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Children's intelligence was assessed using the Verbal and Performance subtests from…
After a brief review of the literature the research proposal focuses on the comparative effectiveness of non-verbal positive reinforcement vs. verbal negative reinforcement in the reduction of self-inflicted injury on 23 elementary age autistic children. In the two phase study each child would be paired by age, sex, length of time in school,…
Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The aim of this research was to explore the influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on aggression dimensions (Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Hostility, and Anger) above and beyond the effects of gender, age, and personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience), as well as the moderating role of PEI on the relationship between personality and aggressive behavior, among young adults. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Big-Five Inventory, and the Aggression Questionnaire were administered to a 313 Spanish community sample, comprised of both males (39.0%) and females (61.0%), ranging from 14 to 69 years old (X = 24.74; SD = 9.27). Controlling the effects of age, gender, and personality, PEI dimensions (Attention, Clarity and Repair) accounted for 3% of the variance (p < .05) in Verbal Aggression and Hostility. Interaction analysis showed that all PEI subscales moderated the relationship between four out of the Big-Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and the aggression dimensions. Particularly, the interaction between Attention and Extraversion and between Clarity and Neuroticism were significant predictors of Total Aggression (b = .67, t(313) = 2.35, p < .05; b = -.71, t(313) = -2.50, p < .05). The results show evidence of the predictive and incremental validity of PEI dimensions on aggressive behavior among young adults and of the moderating role of PEI on the personality-aggression relationship.
Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim
This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…
de Araujo, Narahyana Bom; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson
OBJECTIVE: To compare verbal fluency among Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression and to assess the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the disease severity. METHODS: Patients from an outpatient university center with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or major depression were studied. Severity was staged using the Hoehn & Yahr scale, the Hamilton Depression scale and the Clinical Dementia Rating for Parkinson's disease, major depression, and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. All subjects were tested with the Mini-Mental State Examination, the digit span test, and the verbal fluency test (animals). We fit four types of regression models for the count variable: Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero-inflated Poisson model, and zero-inflated negative binomial model. RESULTS: The mean digit span and verbal fluency scores were lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 34) than in patients with major depression (n = 52) or Parkinson's disease (n = 17) (p<0.001). The average number of words listed was much lower for Alzheimer's disease patients (7.2 words) compared to the patients presenting with major depression (14.6 words) or Parkinson's disease (15.7 words) (KW test = 32.4; p<0.01). Major depression and Parkinson's disease groups listed 44% (ROM = 1.44) and 48% (ROM = 1.48) more words, respectively, compared to those patients with Alzheimer's disease; these results were independent of age, education, disease severity and attention. Independently of diagnosis, age, and education, severe disease showed a 26% (ROM = 0.74) reduction in the number of words listed when compared to mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal fluency provides a better characterization of Alzheimer's disease, major depression, and Parkinson's disease, even at later stages. PMID:21655757
Königs, M; Engenhorst, P J; Oosterlaan, J
Worldwide, 54-60 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify intelligence impairments after TBI and to determine the value of age and injury severity in the prognosis of TBI. An electronic database search identified 81 relevant peer-reviewed articles encompassing 3890 patients. Full-scale IQ (FSIQ), performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ) impairments were quantified (Cohen's d) for patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI in the subacute phase of recovery and the chronic phase. Meta-regressions explored prognostic values of age and injury severity measures for intelligence impairments. The results showed that, in the subacute phase, FSIQ impairments were absent for patients with mild TBI, medium-sized for patients with moderate TBI (d = -0.61, P < 0.001) and large for patients with severe TBI (d = -1.09, P < 0.001). In the chronic phase, FSIQ impairments were small for patients with mild or moderate TBI (d = -0.37 and -0.19, P ≤ 0.008) and large for patients with severe TBI (d = -0.80, P < 0.001). Adults with mild TBI had larger PIQ and VIQ impairments in the chronic phase than children (both Q ≥ 5.21, P ≤ 0.02), whilst children with severe TBI had larger FSIQ and VIQ impairments than adults (both Q ≥ 4.40, P ≤ 0.04). Glasgow Coma Scale score, duration of loss of consciousness and post-traumatic amnesia duration moderately to strongly predicted FSIQ, PIQ and VIQ impairments (0.41 ≤ r ≤ 0.82, P ≤ 0.02), but no differences in predictive value were observed. In conclusion, TBI causes persisting intelligence impairments, where children may have better recovery from mild TBI and poorer recovery from severe TBI than adults. Injury severity measures predict intelligence impairments and do not outperform one another.
Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B
Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.
Furnham, Adrian; Shagabutdinova, Ksenia
This was a crosscultural study that focused on sex differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences (including 10 that were specified by Gardner, 1999 and three by Sternberg, 1988) as well as in an overall general intelligence estimate. It was one of a programmatic series of studies done in over 30 countries that has demonstrated the female "humility" and male "hubris" effect in self-estimated and other-estimated intelligence. Two hundred and thirty Russian university students estimated their own and their parents' overall intelligence and "multiple intelligences." Results revealed no sex difference in estimates of overall intelligence for both self and parents, but men rated themselves higher on spatial intelligence. This contradicted many previous findings in the area which have shown that men rate their own overall intelligence and mathematical intelligence significantly higher than do women. Regressions indicated that estimates of verbal, logical, and spatial intelligences were the best predictors of estimates of overall intelligence, which is a consistent finding over many studies. Regressions also showed that participants' openness to experience and self-respect were good predictors of intelligence estimates. A comparison with a British sample showed that Russians gave higher mother estimates, and were less likely to believe that IQ tests measure intelligence. Results were discussed in relation to the influence of gender role stereotypes on lay conception of intelligence across cultures.
Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.
Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation. PMID:28358852
Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W Y
Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.
Clewett, David V; Lee, Tae-Ho; Greening, Steven; Ponzio, Allison; Margalit, Eshed; Mather, Mara
Leading a mentally stimulating life may build up a reserve of neural and mental resources that preserve cognitive abilities in late life. Recent autopsy evidence links neuronal density in the locus coeruleus (LC), the brain's main source of norepinephrine, to slower cognitive decline before death, inspiring the idea that the noradrenergic system is a key component of reserve (Robertson, I. H. 2013. A noradrenergic theory of cognitive reserve: implications for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging. 34, 298-308). Here, we tested this hypothesis using neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to visualize and measure LC signal intensity in healthy younger and older adults. Established proxies of reserve, including education, occupational attainment, and verbal intelligence, were linearly correlated with LC signal intensity in both age groups. Results indicated that LC signal intensity was significantly higher in older than younger adults and significantly lower in women than in men. Consistent with the LC-reserve hypothesis, both verbal intelligence and a composite reserve score were positively associated with LC signal intensity in older adults. LC signal intensity was also more strongly associated with attentional shifting ability in older adults with lower cognitive reserve. Together these findings link in vivo estimates of LC neuromelanin signal intensity to cognitive reserve in normal aging.
Grossman, J B; Klin, A; Carter, A S; Volkmar, F R
Thirteen children and adolescents with diagnoses of Asperger syndrome (AS) were matched with 13 nonautistic control children on chronological age and verbal IQ. They were tested on their ability to recognize simple facial emotions, as well as facial emotions paired with matching, mismatching, or irrelevant verbal labels. There were no differences between the groups at recognizing simple emotions but the Asperger group performed significantly worse than the control group at recognizing emotions when faces were paired with mismatching words (but not with matching or irrelevant words). The results suggest that there are qualitative differences from nonclinical populations in how children with AS process facial expressions. When presented with a more demanding affective processing task, individuals with AS showed a bias towards visual-verbal over visual-affective information (i.e., words over faces). Thus, children with AS may be utilizing compensatory strategies, such as verbal mediation, to process facial expressions of emotion.
Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor
The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094
Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…
To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…
Research has shown that differences among ordinary people in intelligence and personality depend equally on individual genetic variability and on differences in the environments that siblings experience within the same family, not differences in the neighborhood, school, and community environments. As of yet, there are no adequate theories to…
Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.
Schiaratura, Loris Tamara
This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.
Pexman, Penny M.; Glenwright, Melanie; Krol, Andrea; James, Tammy
Around 5 or 6 years of age, children begin to recognize that speakers who make ironic remarks do not believe what they literally say, but children of the same age do not show appreciation for the humor function of irony (Dews et al., 1996; Harris & Pexman, 2003). We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's interpretations of verbal irony and…
Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A.
The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA…
Yau, Po Lai; Kluger, Alan; Borod, Joan C.; Convit, Antonio
Background Verbal memory impairment is well documented in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but to date, the neural substrates remain unclear. The present study evaluated verbal memory and ascertained the degree of frontal and temporal lobe involvement in the anticipated verbal memory impairment among adults with T2DM. Methods Forty-six late middle-aged and elderly adults with T2DM and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched adults without T2DM underwent medical evaluation, verbal memory assessment, and brain MRI evaluations. Results As anticipated, participants with T2DM had clear verbal memory impairments. Consistent with prior reports, we found volume reductions restricted to the hippocampus. Our diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed that participants with T2DM had extensive cerebral gray and white matter microstructural abnormalities predominantly in the left hemisphere, with a larger concentration present in the temporal lobe. In contrast, we uncovered mostly non-specific microstructural abnormalities in the absence of tissue loss in the frontal lobe. Of great importance, we present the first evidence among participants with T2DM linking verbal memory impairment and compromised microstructural integrity of the left parahippocampal gyrus, a key memory-relevant structure. Conclusions Our results suggest that the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus may be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of T2DM. The parahippocampal gyrus in particular may play a crucial role in the verbal memory impairments frequently reported in T2DM. Future studies should employ methods such as resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging tractography to better characterize network connectivity, which may help further characterize the verbal memory impairment frequently reported in T2DM. PMID:24417611
Yang, Zhen; Jutagir, Devika R.; Koyama, Maki; Craddock, R. Cameron; Yan, Chao-Gan; Shehzad, Zarrar; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P.
Working memory (WM) is central to the acquisition of knowledge and skills throughout childhood and adolescence. While numerous behavioral and task-based fMRI studies have examined WM development, few have used resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). Here, we present a systematic R-fMRI examination of age-related differences in the neural indices of verbal WM performance in a cross-sectional pediatric sample (ages: 7–17; n=68), using data-driven approaches. Verbal WM capacity was measured with the digit span task, a commonly used educational and clinical assessment. We found distinct neural indices of digit span forward (DSF) and backward (DSB) performance, reflecting their unique neuropsychological demands. Regardless of age, DSB performance was related to intrinsic properties of brain areas previously implicated in attention and cognitive control, while DSF performance was related to areas less commonly implicated in verbal WM storage (precuneus, lateral visual areas). From a developmental perspective, DSF exhibited more robust age-related differences in brain-behavior relationships than DSB, and implicated a broader range of networks (ventral attention, default, somatomotor, limbic networks) - including a number of regions not commonly associated with verbal WM (angular gyrus, subcallosum). These results highlight the importance of examining the neurodevelopment of verbal WM and of considering regions beyond the “usual suspects”. PMID:26299314
Planinsec, Jurij; Pisot, Rado
This study investigated the relationship between motor coordination and intelligence level in adolescents. The sample was comprised of 550 adolescents from Slovenia, aged 13.1 years (SD = 0.87), who attended elementary schools. For assessment of motor coordination a battery of eight tests were used. Assessment of intelligence was carried out with…
Koch, Iring; Kunde, Wilfried
Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect on the screen. In different groups, the response-effect was a colored color word (e.g., blue in blue), a white color word, or a colored nonword (Xs in blue). In different blocks, the predictable effects were either incompatible (e.g., response "blue" --> effect: green) or compatible with the response. We found faster responses with compatible than with incompatible R-E mappings. The compatibility effect was strongest with colored words, intermediate with white words, and smallest with colored nonwords. We conclude that effect anticipation influences response selection on both a perceptual level (related to the word's color) and a conceptual level (related to the word's meaning).
Walters, J.C.; Reno, H.W.
When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.
Deary, Ian J
A survey is made of intelligence research in the 125 years of The American Journal of Psychology. There are some major articles of note on intelligence, especially Spearman's (1904a) article that discovered general cognitive ability (g). There are some themes within intelligence on which articles appeared over the years, such as processing speed, age, and group differences. Intelligence has not been a major theme of the journal, nor has a differential approach to psychology more generally. There are periods of time--especially the 1970s--during which almost no articles appeared on intelligence. The key articles and themes on intelligence differences are discussed in detail.
Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence
Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377
Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N
Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p <.01) in the fourth step, while entitlement to pleasure dropped out of the model (p >.05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors.
Khwaileh, Fadwa A.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.
This study examined the intelligibility of speech produced by 17 children (aged 4-11 years) with cochlear implants. Stimulus items included sentences from the Beginners' Intelligibility Test (BIT) and words from the Children Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM). Naive listeners responded by writing sentences heard or with two types of responses…
Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.
The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…
Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949
increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition
Mitchell, Gordon R.
The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…
Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A
Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not.
Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)
Ewing, Christopher B.; Magee, Sandy K.; Ellis, Janet
This study describes procedures and outcomes in a functional analysis of problem behavior of 2 public school students. For a 13-year-old honors student, bizarre tacts (labeled as psychotic speech by school staff) were maintained by attention. For a 15-year-old with autism, the functional analysis revealed that perseverative mands for toileting were controlled by attention; mands for edible items were controlled by access to any food item; and mands for nonedible items were maintained by access to the specific item manded. The “problematic” aspects of the verbal behavior differed—the bizarre speech was problematic based on its content, but the perseverative verbalizations resulted in high response cost for classroom staff. Research in the area of problematic verbal behavior is sparse and warrants further attention from behavior analysts who work in public school settings. This research demonstrates the applicability and relevance of functionally analyzing problematic verbal behavior in public school settings. PMID:22477228
Wu, T.Q.; Miller, Z.A.; Adhimoolam, B.; Zackey, D.C.; Khan, B.K.; Ketelle, R.; Miller, B.L.
Background Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Methods Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural MRI. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. Results All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). Conclusions New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may associate with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices. PMID:24329034
Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih
Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558
Wu, Teresa Q; Miller, Zachary A; Adhimoolam, Babu; Zackey, Diana D; Khan, Baber K; Ketelle, Robin; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L
Emergence of visual and musical creativity in the setting of neurologic disease has been reported in patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), also called semantic dementia (SD). It is hypothesized that loss of left anterior frontotemporal function facilitates activity of the right posterior hemispheric structures, leading to de novo creativity observed in visual artistic representation. We describe creativity in the verbal domain, for the first time, in three patients with svPPA. Clinical presentations are carefully described in three svPPA patients exhibiting verbal creativity, including neuropsychology, neurologic exam, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to quantify brain atrophy patterns in these patients against age-matched healthy controls. All three patients displayed new-onset creative writing behavior and produced extensive original work during the course of disease. Patient A developed interest in wordplay and generated a large volume of poetry. Patient B became fascinated with rhyming and punning. Patient C wrote and published a lifestyle guidebook. An overlap of their structural MR scans showed uniform sparing in the lateral portions of the language-dominant temporal lobe (superior and middle gyri) and atrophy in the medial temporal cortex (amygdala, limbic cortex). New-onset creativity in svPPA may represent a paradoxical functional facilitation. A similar drive for production is found in visually artistic and verbally creative patients. Mirroring the imaging findings in visually artistic patients, verbal preoccupation and creativity may be associated with medial atrophy in the language-dominant temporal lobe, but sparing of lateral dominant temporal and non-dominant posterior cortices.
Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John
It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.
Keller, Heidi; Otto, Hiltrud; Lamm, Bettina; Yovsi, Relindis D; Kärtner, Joscha
Early dialogues between parent and child constitute an important factor for the acquisition of culture and hence verbal interaction is considered to be a universal parenting system. Parenting strategies and socialization practices are strongly influenced by the cultural conception of the self, prototypically defined as the model of independence and interdependence. Our study focuses on the temporal organization of spontaneous verbal/vocal behavior of 20 German middle-class and 28 Cameroonian Nso mother-infant dyads. The infants and their mothers were observed weekly in a 5 min free-play interaction scene from 0 to 3 months of age. We hypothesized to find different amounts of vocalization time, synchronous vocalizations, and contingent maternal responses in the verbal/vocal patterns of the two samples. The findings indicate cross-cultural differences in the temporal structure of verbal/vocal interactions already during the first three months of life, reflecting underlying differences in the culture-specific modes of verbal interaction.
Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Zilkha, Susan
In the present study, 151 British and 151 French participants estimated their own, their parents' and their partner's overall intelligence and 13 'multiple intelligences.' In accordance with previous studies, men rated themselves as higher on almost all measures of intelligence, but there were few cross-national differences. There were also important sex differences in ratings of parental and partner intelligence. Participants generally believed they were more intelligent than their parents but not their partners. Regressions indicated that participants believed verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligence to be the main predictors of intelligence. Regressions also showed that participants' Big Five personality scores (in particular, Extraversion and Openness), but not values or beliefs about intelligence and intelligences tests, were good predictors of intelligence. Results were discussed in terms of the influence of gender-role stereotypes.
Laughlin, Kevin; Foley, Andi
The "Intelligences That Plants Can Pass On" is an activity that involves several of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and was designed for demonstrating the practical use of Multiple Intelligences in delivering education programs to all ages of learners. Instructions are provided for how to implement this activity, and the activity is linked to…
reasoning, rote memory , and the like.” Standardized tests also fall short in terms of assessing other important aspects of intelligence such as creativity...ipEngine made by BrightStar Engineering. Then in 2004 we further evolved to a Compulab 686 CORE with 128 megabytes of memory running at 266 mHz...driver runs in a continuous loop, timing sonar echoes on each pass, storing the resulting range values in memory for on-demand access by other
Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda
Background: Development of verbal skills during early childhood and school age years is consequential for children’s educational achievement and adult outcomes. We examine ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles and assess the contribution of family process and family resource factors to observed differences. Methods: Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study and the latent profile analysis, we estimate longitudinal latent verbal profiles using verbal skills measured 4 times from age 3–11 years. We investigate the odds of verbal profiles by ethnicity (reported in infancy), and the extent observed differences are mediated by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial environment (measured at age 3). Results: Indian children were twice as likely (OR = 2.14, CI: 1.37–3.33) to be in the high achieving profile, compared to White children. Socioeconomic markers attenuated this advantage to nonsignificance. Pakistani and Bangladeshi children were significantly more likely to be in the low performing group (OR = 2.23, CI: 1.61–3.11; OR = 3.37, CI: 2.20–5.17, respectively). Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors had the strongest mediating influence on the association between lower achieving profiles and Pakistani children, whereas for Bangladeshi children, there was mediation by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: Family process and resource factors explain ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles. Family resources explain verbal advantages for Indian children, whereas a range of home environment and socioeconomic factors explain disparities for Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Future policy initiatives focused on reducing ethnic disparities in children’s development should consider supporting and enhancing family resources and processes. PMID:27999155
Reed, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E
Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.
NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.
Gallistel, C R; Gelman, R
We describe the preverbal system of counting and arithmetic reasoning revealed by experiments on numerical representations in animals. In this system, numerosities are represented by magnitudes, which are rapidly but inaccurately generated by the Meck and Church (1983) preverbal counting mechanism. We suggest the following. (1) The preverbal counting mechanism is the source of the implicit principles that guide the acquisition of verbal counting. (2) The preverbal system of arithmetic computation provides the framework for the assimilation of the verbal system. (3) Learning to count involves, in part, learning a mapping from the preverbal numerical magnitudes to the verbal and written number symbols and the inverse mappings from these symbols to the preverbal magnitudes. (4) Subitizing is the use of the preverbal counting process and the mapping from the resulting magnitudes to number words in order to generate rapidly the number words for small numerosities. (5) The retrieval of the number facts, which plays a central role in verbal computation, is mediated via the inverse mappings from verbal and written numbers to the preverbal magnitudes and the use of these magnitudes to find the appropriate cells in tabular arrangements of the answers. (6) This model of the fact retrieval process accounts for the salient features of the reaction time differences and error patterns revealed by experiments on mental arithmetic. (7) The application of verbal and written computational algorithms goes on in parallel with, and is to some extent guided by, preverbal computations, both in the child and in the adult.
This paper reports on a study which was performed to replicate and extend the findings of Hendrix with regard to verbalization and discovery learning. College algebra classes were randomly assigned to three verbalization conditions: (1) no student verbalization of generalizations required, (2) students make written verbalization of generalization,…
Partin, Harold Wayne
This study was performed as an effort to replicate and extend the findings of Hendrix with regard to verbalization and discovery learning. College algebra classes were randomly assigned to three verbalization conditions: (1) no student verbalization of generalizations required, (2) students make written verbalization of generalization, and (3)…
Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa
Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter "k," "f," verbs, "animals," "vehicles," "joy," and "fear." The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.
Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)
Ojeda, Natalia; Sánchez, Pedro; Peña, Javier; Elizagárate, Edorta; Yoller, Ana B; Larumbe, Juan; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Casais, Leonardo; Ezcurra, Jesús
Verbal fluency is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, but the association with other cognitive domains remains unclear. Forty-seven patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and 47 controls matched by age, gender, years of education, and vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) were assessed in terms of sociodemographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. Healthy controls performed significantly better than patients with schizophrenia in all cognitive measures. However, the way these cognitive domains were related differed across groups. Semantic fluency (SF) and phonological fluency (PF) were predicted by working memory (WM) in patients with schizophrenia, whereas the predictor in the healthy controls was processing speed (PS). Moreover, after dividing the sample of patients according to their performance on fluency tests, we found that a worse performance on SF or PF was predicted by WM. However, for patients with a better performance on fluency, the pattern was similar to that of healthy controls. Cognition may show a different pattern of interaction in schizophrenia, with less impaired patients showing a closer pattern to healthy controls. Therefore, we suggest that, depending on the severity of cognitive deficits, performance on neuropsychological tests may not reflect the same underlying mechanisms.
Clewett, David V.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Greening, Steven; Ponzio, Allison; Margalit, Eshed; Mather, Mara
Leading a mentally stimulating life may build up a reserve of neural and mental resources that preserve cognitive abilities in late life. Recent autopsy evidence links neuronal density in the locus coeruleus (LC), the brain's main source of norepinephrine, to slower cognitive decline before death, inspiring the idea that the noradrenergic system is a key component of reserve. Here, we tested this hypothesis using neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to visualize and measure LC signal intensity in healthy younger and older adults. Established proxies of reserve, including education, occupational attainment, and verbal intelligence, were linearly correlated with LC signal intensity in both age groups. Results indicated that LC signal intensity was significantly higher in older than younger adults and significantly lower in women than in men. Consistent with the LC-reserve hypothesis, both verbal intelligence and a composite reserve score were positively associated with LC signal intensity in older adults. LC signal intensity was also more strongly associated with attentional shifting ability in older adults with lower cognitive reserve. Together these findings link in vivo estimates of LC neuromelanin signal intensity to cognitive reserve in normal aging. PMID:26521135
Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.
Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce
We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.
Hohenstein, Jill; Akhtar, Nameera
Previous research has examined children's ability to add inflections to nonsense words. The current experiments were designed to determine whether children, ranging in age from 1;9 to 2;10 (N = 34), could demonstrate productivity by dropping verbal inflections. In Experiment 1, children added -ed and -ing to novel stems, and dropped them from novel inflected forms and did so largely appropriately. In Experiment 2, they dropped -ing from verbs, but not from nouns, suggesting that when young children drop inflections they tend to do so appropriately, and not simply for ease of pronunciation.
Dang, Cai-Ping; Braeken, Johan; Colom, Roberto; Ferrer, Emilio; Liu, Chang
Domain-specific contributions of working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and executive functioning (EF) to individual differences in intelligence were analysed using a latent variable approach. A sample of 345 participants completed a battery of 24 tests tapping the constructs of interests as comprehensively as possible. Visuospatial and verbal STM and WM tasks were administered along with three subcomponents of EF, namely inhibition, planning, and shifting. Intelligence was assessed by non-verbal/abstract/fluid intelligence (Gf) and verbal/crystallised intelligence (Gc) standardised tests. Structural equation modelling results show that EF is the main predictor of Gf, whereas verbal STM is the main predictor of Gc. Storage and processing providing different contributions to the prediction of Gf and Gc supports the view that both short-term storage and executive functioning account for the relationship between WM and intelligence. This main conclusion stresses the importance of acknowledging core cognitive constructs as being hierarchical systems with general and domain-specific mechanisms.
Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A
Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Hearing sensitivity, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, can only partly explain these results, and cognition has emerged as another key concept. Although cognition relates to speech perception, the exact nature of the relationship remains to be fully understood. This study investigates how different aspects of cognition, particularly working memory and attention, relate to speech intelligibility for various tests. Perceptual accuracy of speech perception represents just one aspect of functioning in a listening environment. Activity and participation limits imposed by hearing loss, in addition to the demands of a listening environment, are also important and may be better captured by self-report questionnaires. Understanding how speech perception relates to self-reported aspects of listening forms the second focus of the study. Forty-four listeners aged between 50 and 74 years with mild sensorineural hearing loss were tested on speech perception tests differing in complexity from low (phoneme discrimination in quiet), to medium (digit triplet perception in speech-shaped noise) to high (sentence perception in modulated noise); cognitive tests of attention, memory, and non-verbal intelligence quotient; and self-report questionnaires of general health-related and hearing-specific quality of life. Hearing sensitivity and cognition related to intelligibility differently depending on the speech test: neither was important for phoneme discrimination, hearing sensitivity alone was important for digit triplet perception, and hearing and cognition together played a role in sentence perception. Self-reported aspects of auditory functioning were correlated with speech intelligibility to different degrees, with digit triplets in noise showing the richest pattern. The results suggest that intelligibility tests can vary in their auditory and cognitive demands and their sensitivity to the challenges that
Dolezalová, V; Mottlová, D
The objective of the investigation to confirm the authors experience and data from the literature that refractory myopia is as a rule associated with a higher of intelligence. In the first part one of the authors evaluated a group of 14-year-old myopic children with hypermetropia children of the same age. For evaluation she used the intelligence quotient (IQ) and assessment by teachers before the children left elementary school. The results are clearly in flavour of the myopia children. In the second part the authors evaluated the intelligence of 15-18-year-old myopic secondary school pupils as compared with their classmates. Assuring that myopia is usually associated with higher intelligence and makes thus more profound education possible, they compared the students with apprentires trained to be cooks and waiters. The myopic students won again. Arong students there were 36.8% myopic, among appretices only 8%. The mean progress of students is 1.99, of apprentices only 2.68%. The myopic students have a general better progress and better marks in mathematics than their classmates without refractory defects (1.86:2.07 and 2.14:2.39). Based on the results of the investigation the authors assume that they were able to confirm data in the literature that myopic students are on average more intelligent that their poors of the same age.
Anderson, Deborah K; Lord, Catherine; Risi, Susan; DiLavore, Pamela S; Shulman, Cory; Thurm, Audrey; Welch, Kathleen; Pickles, Andrew
Verbal skills were assessed at approximately ages 2, 3, 5, and 9 years for 206 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism (n = 98), pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 58), or nonspectrum developmental disabilities (n = 50). Growth curve analyses were used to analyze verbal skills trajectories over time. Nonverbal IQ and joint attention emerged as strong positive predictors of verbal outcome. The gap between the autism and other 2 groups widened with time as the latter improved at a higher rate. However, there was considerable variability within diagnostic groups. Children with autism most at risk for more serious language impairments later in life can be identified with considerable accuracy at a very young age, while improvement can range from minimal to dramatic.
Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje
Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…
Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.
This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…
Carr, James E.; Nosik, Melissa R.; Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren
This annotated bibliography summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior," the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Seventeen such articles were published in 2014 and are annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.
Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren A.
An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior" in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.
Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…
The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…
Caudle, Lori A.; Jung, Min-Jung; Fouts, Hillary N.; Wallace, Heather S.
Observations of preservice teachers often lack information about specific strategies they use when guiding children's behavior. This study investigated how preservice teachers used verbal and non-verbal behavior modification techniques within structured and transition classroom contexts. Using an on-the-mark 20- second observe and 10-second record…
Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren A
An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.
Carr, James E; Nosik, Melissa R; Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren
This annotated bibliography summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Seventeen such articles were published in 2014 and are annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.
Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by the language production architecture, in which positional, lexical, and phonological similarity constraints are highly similar to those identified in the WM literature. These behavioral similarities are paralleled in computational modeling of serial ordering in both fields. The role of long-term learning in serial ordering performance is emphasized, in contrast to some models of verbal WM. Classic WM findings are discussed in terms of the language production architecture. The integration of principles from both fields illuminates the maintenance and ordering mechanisms for verbal information. PMID:19210053
Karbach, Julia; Kray, Jutta
Age-related changes in the use of verbal processes for the efficient switching between tasks were investigated in 5-year-old children (N = 32, M age = 5.9 years) and 9-year-old children (N = 32, M age = 9.4 years). Task switching was assessed by means of a cued switching paradigm to examine two switching components: (a) to maintain and select and…
Feng, Hui-Wei; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xue-Mei; Fan, Xian-Liang; Tian, Yu-Dong; Jia, Tao
Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and quality of life (QoL) of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy. Method. A total of 35 OSAHS children (21 males and 14 females with a mean age of 6.81 ± 1.08 years) were included in this study for analyzing the levels of thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and QoL. There were 22 children underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy with bilateral tonsillectomy (BT), while the other 13 children who underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy without bilateral tonsillectomy without BT. Results. Our results revealed no significant difference in serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in OSAHS children before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy (all P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) (92.45 ± 5.88 versus 106.23 ± 7.39, P < 0.001), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) (94.17 ± 15.01 versus 103.91 ± 9.74, P = 0.006), and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) (94.12 ± 11.04 versus 104.31 ± 10.05, P = 0.001), attention (98.48 ± 8.74 versus 106.87 ± 8.58, P < 0.001), and total OSA-18 scores (87.62 ± 17.15 versus 46.61 ± 10.15, P < 0.001) between before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy in OSAHS children. Conclusion. Our findings provided evidence that the intelligence, attention, and QoL of OSAHS children may be significantly improved after endoscopic adenoidectomy.
Mellet, E; Jobard, G; Zago, L; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N
The relationship between manual laterality and cognitive skills remains highly controversial. Some studies have reported that strongly lateralised participants had higher cognitive performance in verbal and visuo-spatial domains compared to non-lateralised participants; however, others found the opposite. Moreover, some have suggested that familial sinistrality and sex might interact with individual laterality factors to alter cognitive skills. The present study addressed these issues in 237 right-handed and 199 left-handed individuals. Performance tests covered various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. A principal component analysis yielded two verbal and one spatial factor scores. Participant laterality assessments included handedness, manual preference strength, asymmetry of motor performance, and familial sinistrality. Age, sex, education level, and brain volume were also considered. No effect of handedness was found, but the mean factor scores in verbal and spatial domains increased with right asymmetry in motor performance. Performance was reduced in participants with a familial history of left-handedness combined with a non-maximal preference strength in the dominant hand. These results elucidated some discrepancies among previous findings in laterality factors and cognitive skills. Laterality factors had small effects compared to the adverse effects of age for spatial cognition and verbal memory, the positive effects of education for all three domains, and the effect of sex for spatial cognition.
Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia
Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. PMID:27080219
Bormann, Tobias; Seyboth, Margret; Umarova, Roza; Weiller, Cornelius
Studies on verbal learning in patients with impaired verbal short-term memory (vSTM) have revealed dissociations among types of verbal information. Patients with impaired vSTM are able to learn lists of known words but fail to acquire new word forms. This suggests that vSTM is involved in new word learning. The present study assessed both new word learning and the learning of digit sequences in two patients with impaired vSTM. In two experiments, participants were required to learn people's names, ages and professions, or their four digit 'phone numbers'. The STM patients were impaired on learning unknown family names and phone numbers, but managed to acquire other verbal information. In contrast, a patient with a severe verbal episodic memory impairment was impaired across information types. These results indicate verbal STM involvement in the learning of digit sequences.
Ensor, Rosie; Spencer, Debra; Hughes, Claire
Early individual differences in prosocial behaviors are pivotal for children's peer relationships. To investigate the interplay among verbal ability, emotion understanding, and mother-child mutuality as predictors of prosocial behaviors, we observed 102 children at the ages of two, three, and four. All time points included verbal ability and…
This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…
Major, Jason T.; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.
Three prominent theories of intelligence, the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC), extended fluid-crystallized (Gf-Gc) and verbal-perceptual-image rotation (VPR) theories, provide differing descriptions of the structure of intelligence (McGrew, 2009; Horn & Blankson, 2005; Johnson & Bouchard, 2005b). To compare these theories, models representing them were…
While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.
Armentrout, J A
WAIS subtest standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. The number of Bender designs recalled was associated significantly with intellectual measures, with the strength of association somewhat stronger with nonverbal than with verbal scores. Bender recall scores were correlated more highly with Perceptual Organization DQs than with Memory-Freedom from Distractibility DQs, but that difference only approached significance. Despite the relationships between Bender recall scores and intelligence scores, the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.
Gilhooly, K J; Fioratou, E; Henretty, N
Two groups of participants attempted eight examples of each of four different problem types formed by combining insight versus non-insight and verbal versus spatial factors. The groups were given different verbalization instructions viz., Silent (N=40) or Direct Concurrent (N=40). There were significant differences between insight and non-insight tasks and between spatial and verbal tasks in terms of solution rates and latencies. Significant interactions between the verbal versus spatial factor and verbalization condition on solution rates and latencies reflected a greater (negative) effect of verbalizing on spatial as against verbal problems. However, no significant interactions of the insight versus non-insight factor with verbalization condition on solution rates or latencies were found. These results favoured the 'business as usual' view of insight problem solving as against the 'special process' view which predicted larger effects of verbalization for insight problems as against non-insight problems.
Schottenbauer, Michele A; Momenan, Reza; Kerick, Michael; Hommer, Daniel W
The current article examined the relationships among aging, intelligence, intracranial volume, and brain shrinkage in alcoholics and nonalcoholic controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure intracranial and cerebral volumes in 146 subjects with alcohol use disorders and 42 comparison subjects who were not alcoholic. The authors' findings show that performance on Block Design decreases as alcoholics age, and this decrease is predicted by brain shrinkage. This is consistent with a process of cumulative brain damage related to alcohol use. However, the authors' data also show that vocabulary does not decrease with age and is correlated with premorbid brain size as measured by intracranial volume, suggesting that lower verbal ability precedes heavy alcohol use and may be a risk factor for alcoholism.
Fryling, Mitch J
Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of Skinner's analysis have attempted to respond to the critiques, particularly to those regarding Skinner's definition of verbal behavior articulated by proponents of relational frame theory. Specifically, it has been suggested that talk about definitions equates to making the essentialist error. This paper provides an overview of these issues in the context of understanding the role of constructs in science more generally. It will be argued that definitions are central to scientific progress, and are not only relevant to a functional analysis, but a central prerequisite to the pursuit of such an analysis.
Fryling, Mitch J.
Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of Skinner's analysis have attempted to respond to the critiques, particularly to those regarding Skinner's definition of verbal behavior articulated by proponents of relational frame theory. Specifically, it has been suggested that talk about definitions equates to making the essentialist error. This paper provides an overview of these issues in the context of understanding the role of constructs in science more generally. It will be argued that definitions are central to scientific progress, and are not only relevant to a functional analysis, but a central prerequisite to the pursuit of such an analysis. PMID:23814375
Chen, Fu-jen; Yu, Su-lin
Examining six texts about the traumatic experience of the internment either in Canada or the United States during World War II, we focus not only on their stylistic shift from visualization to verbalization as targeted ages of readers increase, but also on the effects, both historical and personal, social and domestic, on children of their…
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Pickering, Susan J.
This study explored the structure of verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children between ages 4 and 11 years. Multiple tasks measuring 4 different memory components were used to capture the cognitive processes underlying working memory. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the processing component of working memory…
Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia
This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension…
Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon
Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…
Frost, Kyle M.; Hong, Natalie; Lord, Catherine
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have significant delays in adaptive functioning. In this study, the relationship between adaptive behavior and ASD symptomatology was investigated in minimally verbal, school-aged children with ASD (n = 333). Both the social affect (SA) and restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) domains…
Paez, Mariela M.
This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…
Overman, William; Pierce, Allison; Watterson, Lucas; Coleman, Jennifer K.
Two hundred and twenty two children (104 females), 1-8 years of age and young adults, were tested for up to 25 days on five versions of a non-verbal, non-navigational landmark task that had previously been used for monkeys. In monkeys, performance on this task is severely impaired following damage to the parietal cortex. For the basic task, the…
Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill
Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…
And Others; Worthington, R. Kirby
Thirty-two preschool children were matched by age, sex, and pretest scores on spatial concept knowledge. Four groups were (1) instruction (see and hear) only, (2) verbal repetition, (3) fine motor treatment (hand manipulation), and (4) gross motor treatment (body movement). There was no difference in performance between groups given instruction…
Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…
Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Glenwright, Melanie; Huyder, Vanessa
Incongruity between a positive statement and a negative context is a cue to verbal irony. Two studies examined whether school-age children and adults recognized that listeners require knowledge of context to detect irony. Specifically, the studies investigated whether participants could inhibit their own context knowledge to appropriately gauge…
Dib, Nancy Ellen; Sturmey, Peter
A behavioral skills training package, including verbal instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, was used to teach children correct posture, defined as keeping feet on the floor, legs parallel to each other, and the back and neck perpendicular to the floor, during flute lessons. Three typically developing girls aged 8 to 9 years…
Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.
Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…
Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee
The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…
This study considers the way children listen to classical music composed for them and the effect of age on their spontaneous invented notations and verbal responses. The musical selection is a piano piece for children by Claude Debussy:"'Jimbo's Lullaby" from "Children's Corner". Two hundred and nine children 4-9.5-years-old…
Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Spector, Hedva; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Vakil, Eli
The ability to identify six facial expressions was studied in 48 nondisabled children and 76 children with learning disabilities (LD) ages 9 through 12. Overall, the nondisabled group had better interpretive ability. Among LD children, those with verbal deficits had better ability than either those with nonverbal deficits and or those with both…
Vrij, Aldert; Akehurst, Lucy; Soukara, Stavroula; Bull, Ray
This experiment examined children's and undergraduates' verbal and nonverbal deceptive behavior, and the extent to which their truths and lies could be correctly classified by paying attention to these responses. Participants (N = 196) aged 5-6, 10-11, and 14-15, as well as university undergraduates, participated in an erasing the blackboard…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.
New findings are presented for children in grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n=33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n=31 below population mean, but above – 2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working-memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth. PMID:24249873
Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; Růžička, Evžen; Poreh, Amir
The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment.
Nakamura, Aya; Imaizumi, Satoshi
We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass) juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant's anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology.
Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa
The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…
Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.
This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…
Rifkind, Lawrence J.; Harper, Loretta F.
A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,…
Moran, Kelly A.
Humans are fragile beings easily influenced by the verbal behaviors of others. Spoken words can have a multitude of effects on an individual, and the phrases and statements teachers use in their classrooms on a daily basis have the potential to be either detrimental or inspirational. As increasing numbers of students arrive at schools from broken…